Abstract

Nearly pure near-infrared to near-infrared (NIR-to-NIR) upconversion in GdF3 host with 23% Yb3+ and 1% Tm3+ under 980 nm excitation is firstly reported. The ratio of the intensity of the emission at 807 nm to that at 478 nm can reach to 105, and the intensity of the emission at 807 nm is preserved. Moreover, the excitation and the emission at 980 and 807 nm are away from the visible region. These are beneficial to deeper tissue penetration and reduced autofluorescence. Raman spectroscopy measurements suggest the high probability of NIR emission in GdF3 host. Our results indicate that the reported multifunctional nanoparticles are promising in bio-imaging and bio-separation.

© 2010 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2009 (6)

F. Wang and X. G. Liu, “Recent advances in the chemistry of lanthanide-doped upconversion nanocrystals,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 38(4), 976–989 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. K. Shu, A. Royant, M. Z. Lin, T. A. Aguilera, V. Lev-Ram, P. A. Steinbach, and R. Y. Tsien, “Mammalian expression of infrared fluorescent proteins engineered from a bacterial phytochrome,” Science 324(5928), 804–807 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. W. Rice and C. H. Contag, “The importance of being red,” Nat. Biotechnol. 27(7), 624–625 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. T. Wong, H. L. W. Chan, and J. H. Hao, “Magnetic and luminescent properties of multifunctional GdF3:Eu3+ nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(2), 022512 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. T. Xu, J. Axelsson, and S. Andersson-Engels, “Fluorescence diffuse optical tomography using upconverting nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(25), 251107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Kumar, M. Nyk, T. Y. Ohulchanskyy, C. A. Flask, and P. N. Prasad, “Combined optical and MR bioimaging using rare earth ion doped NaYF4 nanocrystals,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(6), 853–859 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (7)

F. Wang and X. G. Liu, “Upconversion multicolor fine-tuning: visible to near-infrared emission from lanthanide-doped NaYF4 nanoparticles,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130(17), 5642–5643 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Y. Liu, G. S. Yi, H. T. Zhang, J. Ding, Y. W. Zhang, and J. M. Xue, “Monodisperse silica nanoparticles encapsulating upconversion fluorescent and superparamagnetic nanocrystals,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 6(6), 694–696 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Nyk, R. Kumar, T. Y. Ohulchanskyy, E. J. Bergey, and P. N. Prasad, “High contrast in vitro and in vivo photoluminescence bioimaging using near infrared to near infrared up-conversion in Tm3+ and Yb3+ doped fluoride nanophosphors,” Nano Lett. 8(11), 3834–3838 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. T. Xu, N. Svensson, J. Axelsson, P. Svenmarker, G. Somesfalean, G. Y. Chen, H. J. Liang, H. C. Liu, Z. G. Zhang, and S. Andersson-Engels, “Autofluorescence insensitive imaging using upconverting nanocrystals in scattering media,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(17), 171103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. F. Wang, W. P. Qin, J. S. Zhang, J. S. Zhang, Y. Wang, C. Y. Cao, L. L. Wang, G. D. Wei, P. F. Zhu, and R. J. Kim, “Synthesis, growth mechanism, and tunable upconversion luminescence of Yb3+/Tm3+-codoped YF3 nanobundles,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112(32), 12161–12167 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. X. Li, J. Yang, P. P. Yang, H. Z. Lian, and J. Lin, “Hydrothermal synthesis of lanthanide fluorides LnF3 (Ln = La to Lu) nano-/microcrystals with multiform structures and morphologies,” Chem. Mater. 20(13), 4317–4326 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. X. Li, Z. W. Quan, P. P. Yang, J. Yang, H. Z. Lian, and J. Lin, “Shape controllable synthesis and upconversion properties of NaYbF4/NaYbF4: Er3+ and YbF3/YbF3: Er3+ microstructures,” J. Mater. Chem. 18(12), 1353–1361 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

D. Q. Chen, Y. S. Wang, Y. L. Yu, and P. Huang, “Intense ultraviolet upconversion luminescence from Tm3+/Yb3+:β-YF3 nanocrystals embedded glass ceramic,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(5), 051920 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Dosev, M. Nichkova, R. K. Dumas, S. J. Gee, B. D. Hammock, K. Liu, and I. M. Kennedy, “Magnetic/luminescent core/shell particles synthesized by spray pyrolysis and their application in immunoassays with internal standard,” Nanotechnology 18(5), 055102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

Z. Q. Li and Y. Zhang, “Monodisperse silica-coated polyvinylpyrrolidone/NaYF4 nanocrystals with multicolor upconversion fluorescence emission,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 45(46), 7732–7735 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

S. Heer, K. Kompe, H. U. Gudel, and M. Haase, “Highly efficient multicolour upconversion emission in transparent colloids of lanthanide-doped NaYF4 nanocrystals,” Adv. Mater. 16(23–24), 2102–2105 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. W. Kramer, D. Biner, G. Frei, H. U. Gudel, M. P. Hehlen, and S. R. Luthi, “Hexagonal sodium yttrium fluoride based green and blue emitting upconversion phosphors,” Chem. Mater. 16(7), 1244–1251 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

W. S. Tsang, W. M. Yu, C. L. Mak, W. L. Tsui, K. H. Wong, and H. K. Hui, “Evidence of the influence of phonon density on Tm3+ upconversion luminescence in tellurite and germanate glasses,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(4), 1871–1874 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

R. Weissleder, “A clearer vision for in vivo imaging,” Nat. Biotechnol. 19(4), 316–317 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1970 (1)

T. Miyakawa and D. L. Dexter, “Cooperative and stepwise excitation of luminescence: Trivalent rare-earth ions in Yb3+-sensitized crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 1(1), 70–80 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Aguilera, T. A.

X. K. Shu, A. Royant, M. Z. Lin, T. A. Aguilera, V. Lev-Ram, P. A. Steinbach, and R. Y. Tsien, “Mammalian expression of infrared fluorescent proteins engineered from a bacterial phytochrome,” Science 324(5928), 804–807 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Andersson-Engels, S.

C. T. Xu, J. Axelsson, and S. Andersson-Engels, “Fluorescence diffuse optical tomography using upconverting nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(25), 251107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. T. Xu, N. Svensson, J. Axelsson, P. Svenmarker, G. Somesfalean, G. Y. Chen, H. J. Liang, H. C. Liu, Z. G. Zhang, and S. Andersson-Engels, “Autofluorescence insensitive imaging using upconverting nanocrystals in scattering media,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(17), 171103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Axelsson, J.

C. T. Xu, J. Axelsson, and S. Andersson-Engels, “Fluorescence diffuse optical tomography using upconverting nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(25), 251107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. T. Xu, N. Svensson, J. Axelsson, P. Svenmarker, G. Somesfalean, G. Y. Chen, H. J. Liang, H. C. Liu, Z. G. Zhang, and S. Andersson-Engels, “Autofluorescence insensitive imaging using upconverting nanocrystals in scattering media,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(17), 171103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bergey, E. J.

M. Nyk, R. Kumar, T. Y. Ohulchanskyy, E. J. Bergey, and P. N. Prasad, “High contrast in vitro and in vivo photoluminescence bioimaging using near infrared to near infrared up-conversion in Tm3+ and Yb3+ doped fluoride nanophosphors,” Nano Lett. 8(11), 3834–3838 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biner, D.

K. W. Kramer, D. Biner, G. Frei, H. U. Gudel, M. P. Hehlen, and S. R. Luthi, “Hexagonal sodium yttrium fluoride based green and blue emitting upconversion phosphors,” Chem. Mater. 16(7), 1244–1251 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cao, C. Y.

G. F. Wang, W. P. Qin, J. S. Zhang, J. S. Zhang, Y. Wang, C. Y. Cao, L. L. Wang, G. D. Wei, P. F. Zhu, and R. J. Kim, “Synthesis, growth mechanism, and tunable upconversion luminescence of Yb3+/Tm3+-codoped YF3 nanobundles,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112(32), 12161–12167 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chan, H. L. W.

H. T. Wong, H. L. W. Chan, and J. H. Hao, “Magnetic and luminescent properties of multifunctional GdF3:Eu3+ nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(2), 022512 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chen, D. Q.

D. Q. Chen, Y. S. Wang, Y. L. Yu, and P. Huang, “Intense ultraviolet upconversion luminescence from Tm3+/Yb3+:β-YF3 nanocrystals embedded glass ceramic,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(5), 051920 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, G. Y.

C. T. Xu, N. Svensson, J. Axelsson, P. Svenmarker, G. Somesfalean, G. Y. Chen, H. J. Liang, H. C. Liu, Z. G. Zhang, and S. Andersson-Engels, “Autofluorescence insensitive imaging using upconverting nanocrystals in scattering media,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(17), 171103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Contag, C. H.

B. W. Rice and C. H. Contag, “The importance of being red,” Nat. Biotechnol. 27(7), 624–625 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dexter, D. L.

T. Miyakawa and D. L. Dexter, “Cooperative and stepwise excitation of luminescence: Trivalent rare-earth ions in Yb3+-sensitized crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 1(1), 70–80 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Ding, J.

Z. Y. Liu, G. S. Yi, H. T. Zhang, J. Ding, Y. W. Zhang, and J. M. Xue, “Monodisperse silica nanoparticles encapsulating upconversion fluorescent and superparamagnetic nanocrystals,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 6(6), 694–696 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dosev, D.

D. Dosev, M. Nichkova, R. K. Dumas, S. J. Gee, B. D. Hammock, K. Liu, and I. M. Kennedy, “Magnetic/luminescent core/shell particles synthesized by spray pyrolysis and their application in immunoassays with internal standard,” Nanotechnology 18(5), 055102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dumas, R. K.

D. Dosev, M. Nichkova, R. K. Dumas, S. J. Gee, B. D. Hammock, K. Liu, and I. M. Kennedy, “Magnetic/luminescent core/shell particles synthesized by spray pyrolysis and their application in immunoassays with internal standard,” Nanotechnology 18(5), 055102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Flask, C. A.

R. Kumar, M. Nyk, T. Y. Ohulchanskyy, C. A. Flask, and P. N. Prasad, “Combined optical and MR bioimaging using rare earth ion doped NaYF4 nanocrystals,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(6), 853–859 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Frei, G.

K. W. Kramer, D. Biner, G. Frei, H. U. Gudel, M. P. Hehlen, and S. R. Luthi, “Hexagonal sodium yttrium fluoride based green and blue emitting upconversion phosphors,” Chem. Mater. 16(7), 1244–1251 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gee, S. J.

D. Dosev, M. Nichkova, R. K. Dumas, S. J. Gee, B. D. Hammock, K. Liu, and I. M. Kennedy, “Magnetic/luminescent core/shell particles synthesized by spray pyrolysis and their application in immunoassays with internal standard,” Nanotechnology 18(5), 055102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gudel, H. U.

K. W. Kramer, D. Biner, G. Frei, H. U. Gudel, M. P. Hehlen, and S. R. Luthi, “Hexagonal sodium yttrium fluoride based green and blue emitting upconversion phosphors,” Chem. Mater. 16(7), 1244–1251 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Heer, K. Kompe, H. U. Gudel, and M. Haase, “Highly efficient multicolour upconversion emission in transparent colloids of lanthanide-doped NaYF4 nanocrystals,” Adv. Mater. 16(23–24), 2102–2105 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Haase, M.

S. Heer, K. Kompe, H. U. Gudel, and M. Haase, “Highly efficient multicolour upconversion emission in transparent colloids of lanthanide-doped NaYF4 nanocrystals,” Adv. Mater. 16(23–24), 2102–2105 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hammock, B. D.

D. Dosev, M. Nichkova, R. K. Dumas, S. J. Gee, B. D. Hammock, K. Liu, and I. M. Kennedy, “Magnetic/luminescent core/shell particles synthesized by spray pyrolysis and their application in immunoassays with internal standard,” Nanotechnology 18(5), 055102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hao, J. H.

H. T. Wong, H. L. W. Chan, and J. H. Hao, “Magnetic and luminescent properties of multifunctional GdF3:Eu3+ nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(2), 022512 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Heer, S.

S. Heer, K. Kompe, H. U. Gudel, and M. Haase, “Highly efficient multicolour upconversion emission in transparent colloids of lanthanide-doped NaYF4 nanocrystals,” Adv. Mater. 16(23–24), 2102–2105 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hehlen, M. P.

K. W. Kramer, D. Biner, G. Frei, H. U. Gudel, M. P. Hehlen, and S. R. Luthi, “Hexagonal sodium yttrium fluoride based green and blue emitting upconversion phosphors,” Chem. Mater. 16(7), 1244–1251 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Huang, P.

D. Q. Chen, Y. S. Wang, Y. L. Yu, and P. Huang, “Intense ultraviolet upconversion luminescence from Tm3+/Yb3+:β-YF3 nanocrystals embedded glass ceramic,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(5), 051920 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hui, H. K.

W. S. Tsang, W. M. Yu, C. L. Mak, W. L. Tsui, K. H. Wong, and H. K. Hui, “Evidence of the influence of phonon density on Tm3+ upconversion luminescence in tellurite and germanate glasses,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(4), 1871–1874 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kennedy, I. M.

D. Dosev, M. Nichkova, R. K. Dumas, S. J. Gee, B. D. Hammock, K. Liu, and I. M. Kennedy, “Magnetic/luminescent core/shell particles synthesized by spray pyrolysis and their application in immunoassays with internal standard,” Nanotechnology 18(5), 055102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kim, R. J.

G. F. Wang, W. P. Qin, J. S. Zhang, J. S. Zhang, Y. Wang, C. Y. Cao, L. L. Wang, G. D. Wei, P. F. Zhu, and R. J. Kim, “Synthesis, growth mechanism, and tunable upconversion luminescence of Yb3+/Tm3+-codoped YF3 nanobundles,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112(32), 12161–12167 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kompe, K.

S. Heer, K. Kompe, H. U. Gudel, and M. Haase, “Highly efficient multicolour upconversion emission in transparent colloids of lanthanide-doped NaYF4 nanocrystals,” Adv. Mater. 16(23–24), 2102–2105 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kramer, K. W.

K. W. Kramer, D. Biner, G. Frei, H. U. Gudel, M. P. Hehlen, and S. R. Luthi, “Hexagonal sodium yttrium fluoride based green and blue emitting upconversion phosphors,” Chem. Mater. 16(7), 1244–1251 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kumar, R.

R. Kumar, M. Nyk, T. Y. Ohulchanskyy, C. A. Flask, and P. N. Prasad, “Combined optical and MR bioimaging using rare earth ion doped NaYF4 nanocrystals,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(6), 853–859 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Nyk, R. Kumar, T. Y. Ohulchanskyy, E. J. Bergey, and P. N. Prasad, “High contrast in vitro and in vivo photoluminescence bioimaging using near infrared to near infrared up-conversion in Tm3+ and Yb3+ doped fluoride nanophosphors,” Nano Lett. 8(11), 3834–3838 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lev-Ram, V.

X. K. Shu, A. Royant, M. Z. Lin, T. A. Aguilera, V. Lev-Ram, P. A. Steinbach, and R. Y. Tsien, “Mammalian expression of infrared fluorescent proteins engineered from a bacterial phytochrome,” Science 324(5928), 804–807 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, C. X.

C. X. Li, J. Yang, P. P. Yang, H. Z. Lian, and J. Lin, “Hydrothermal synthesis of lanthanide fluorides LnF3 (Ln = La to Lu) nano-/microcrystals with multiform structures and morphologies,” Chem. Mater. 20(13), 4317–4326 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. X. Li, Z. W. Quan, P. P. Yang, J. Yang, H. Z. Lian, and J. Lin, “Shape controllable synthesis and upconversion properties of NaYbF4/NaYbF4: Er3+ and YbF3/YbF3: Er3+ microstructures,” J. Mater. Chem. 18(12), 1353–1361 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Li, Z. Q.

Z. Q. Li and Y. Zhang, “Monodisperse silica-coated polyvinylpyrrolidone/NaYF4 nanocrystals with multicolor upconversion fluorescence emission,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 45(46), 7732–7735 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lian, H. Z.

C. X. Li, Z. W. Quan, P. P. Yang, J. Yang, H. Z. Lian, and J. Lin, “Shape controllable synthesis and upconversion properties of NaYbF4/NaYbF4: Er3+ and YbF3/YbF3: Er3+ microstructures,” J. Mater. Chem. 18(12), 1353–1361 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. X. Li, J. Yang, P. P. Yang, H. Z. Lian, and J. Lin, “Hydrothermal synthesis of lanthanide fluorides LnF3 (Ln = La to Lu) nano-/microcrystals with multiform structures and morphologies,” Chem. Mater. 20(13), 4317–4326 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Liang, H. J.

C. T. Xu, N. Svensson, J. Axelsson, P. Svenmarker, G. Somesfalean, G. Y. Chen, H. J. Liang, H. C. Liu, Z. G. Zhang, and S. Andersson-Engels, “Autofluorescence insensitive imaging using upconverting nanocrystals in scattering media,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(17), 171103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lin, J.

C. X. Li, J. Yang, P. P. Yang, H. Z. Lian, and J. Lin, “Hydrothermal synthesis of lanthanide fluorides LnF3 (Ln = La to Lu) nano-/microcrystals with multiform structures and morphologies,” Chem. Mater. 20(13), 4317–4326 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. X. Li, Z. W. Quan, P. P. Yang, J. Yang, H. Z. Lian, and J. Lin, “Shape controllable synthesis and upconversion properties of NaYbF4/NaYbF4: Er3+ and YbF3/YbF3: Er3+ microstructures,” J. Mater. Chem. 18(12), 1353–1361 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lin, M. Z.

X. K. Shu, A. Royant, M. Z. Lin, T. A. Aguilera, V. Lev-Ram, P. A. Steinbach, and R. Y. Tsien, “Mammalian expression of infrared fluorescent proteins engineered from a bacterial phytochrome,” Science 324(5928), 804–807 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, H. C.

C. T. Xu, N. Svensson, J. Axelsson, P. Svenmarker, G. Somesfalean, G. Y. Chen, H. J. Liang, H. C. Liu, Z. G. Zhang, and S. Andersson-Engels, “Autofluorescence insensitive imaging using upconverting nanocrystals in scattering media,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(17), 171103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Liu, K.

D. Dosev, M. Nichkova, R. K. Dumas, S. J. Gee, B. D. Hammock, K. Liu, and I. M. Kennedy, “Magnetic/luminescent core/shell particles synthesized by spray pyrolysis and their application in immunoassays with internal standard,” Nanotechnology 18(5), 055102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liu, X. G.

F. Wang and X. G. Liu, “Recent advances in the chemistry of lanthanide-doped upconversion nanocrystals,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 38(4), 976–989 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Wang and X. G. Liu, “Upconversion multicolor fine-tuning: visible to near-infrared emission from lanthanide-doped NaYF4 nanoparticles,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130(17), 5642–5643 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, Z. Y.

Z. Y. Liu, G. S. Yi, H. T. Zhang, J. Ding, Y. W. Zhang, and J. M. Xue, “Monodisperse silica nanoparticles encapsulating upconversion fluorescent and superparamagnetic nanocrystals,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 6(6), 694–696 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Luthi, S. R.

K. W. Kramer, D. Biner, G. Frei, H. U. Gudel, M. P. Hehlen, and S. R. Luthi, “Hexagonal sodium yttrium fluoride based green and blue emitting upconversion phosphors,” Chem. Mater. 16(7), 1244–1251 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mak, C. L.

W. S. Tsang, W. M. Yu, C. L. Mak, W. L. Tsui, K. H. Wong, and H. K. Hui, “Evidence of the influence of phonon density on Tm3+ upconversion luminescence in tellurite and germanate glasses,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(4), 1871–1874 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Miyakawa, T.

T. Miyakawa and D. L. Dexter, “Cooperative and stepwise excitation of luminescence: Trivalent rare-earth ions in Yb3+-sensitized crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 1(1), 70–80 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Nichkova, M.

D. Dosev, M. Nichkova, R. K. Dumas, S. J. Gee, B. D. Hammock, K. Liu, and I. M. Kennedy, “Magnetic/luminescent core/shell particles synthesized by spray pyrolysis and their application in immunoassays with internal standard,” Nanotechnology 18(5), 055102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nyk, M.

R. Kumar, M. Nyk, T. Y. Ohulchanskyy, C. A. Flask, and P. N. Prasad, “Combined optical and MR bioimaging using rare earth ion doped NaYF4 nanocrystals,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(6), 853–859 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Nyk, R. Kumar, T. Y. Ohulchanskyy, E. J. Bergey, and P. N. Prasad, “High contrast in vitro and in vivo photoluminescence bioimaging using near infrared to near infrared up-conversion in Tm3+ and Yb3+ doped fluoride nanophosphors,” Nano Lett. 8(11), 3834–3838 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ohulchanskyy, T. Y.

R. Kumar, M. Nyk, T. Y. Ohulchanskyy, C. A. Flask, and P. N. Prasad, “Combined optical and MR bioimaging using rare earth ion doped NaYF4 nanocrystals,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(6), 853–859 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Nyk, R. Kumar, T. Y. Ohulchanskyy, E. J. Bergey, and P. N. Prasad, “High contrast in vitro and in vivo photoluminescence bioimaging using near infrared to near infrared up-conversion in Tm3+ and Yb3+ doped fluoride nanophosphors,” Nano Lett. 8(11), 3834–3838 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prasad, P. N.

R. Kumar, M. Nyk, T. Y. Ohulchanskyy, C. A. Flask, and P. N. Prasad, “Combined optical and MR bioimaging using rare earth ion doped NaYF4 nanocrystals,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(6), 853–859 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Nyk, R. Kumar, T. Y. Ohulchanskyy, E. J. Bergey, and P. N. Prasad, “High contrast in vitro and in vivo photoluminescence bioimaging using near infrared to near infrared up-conversion in Tm3+ and Yb3+ doped fluoride nanophosphors,” Nano Lett. 8(11), 3834–3838 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Qin, W. P.

G. F. Wang, W. P. Qin, J. S. Zhang, J. S. Zhang, Y. Wang, C. Y. Cao, L. L. Wang, G. D. Wei, P. F. Zhu, and R. J. Kim, “Synthesis, growth mechanism, and tunable upconversion luminescence of Yb3+/Tm3+-codoped YF3 nanobundles,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112(32), 12161–12167 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Quan, Z. W.

C. X. Li, Z. W. Quan, P. P. Yang, J. Yang, H. Z. Lian, and J. Lin, “Shape controllable synthesis and upconversion properties of NaYbF4/NaYbF4: Er3+ and YbF3/YbF3: Er3+ microstructures,” J. Mater. Chem. 18(12), 1353–1361 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rice, B. W.

B. W. Rice and C. H. Contag, “The importance of being red,” Nat. Biotechnol. 27(7), 624–625 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Royant, A.

X. K. Shu, A. Royant, M. Z. Lin, T. A. Aguilera, V. Lev-Ram, P. A. Steinbach, and R. Y. Tsien, “Mammalian expression of infrared fluorescent proteins engineered from a bacterial phytochrome,” Science 324(5928), 804–807 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shu, X. K.

X. K. Shu, A. Royant, M. Z. Lin, T. A. Aguilera, V. Lev-Ram, P. A. Steinbach, and R. Y. Tsien, “Mammalian expression of infrared fluorescent proteins engineered from a bacterial phytochrome,” Science 324(5928), 804–807 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Somesfalean, G.

C. T. Xu, N. Svensson, J. Axelsson, P. Svenmarker, G. Somesfalean, G. Y. Chen, H. J. Liang, H. C. Liu, Z. G. Zhang, and S. Andersson-Engels, “Autofluorescence insensitive imaging using upconverting nanocrystals in scattering media,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(17), 171103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Steinbach, P. A.

X. K. Shu, A. Royant, M. Z. Lin, T. A. Aguilera, V. Lev-Ram, P. A. Steinbach, and R. Y. Tsien, “Mammalian expression of infrared fluorescent proteins engineered from a bacterial phytochrome,” Science 324(5928), 804–807 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Svenmarker, P.

C. T. Xu, N. Svensson, J. Axelsson, P. Svenmarker, G. Somesfalean, G. Y. Chen, H. J. Liang, H. C. Liu, Z. G. Zhang, and S. Andersson-Engels, “Autofluorescence insensitive imaging using upconverting nanocrystals in scattering media,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(17), 171103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Svensson, N.

C. T. Xu, N. Svensson, J. Axelsson, P. Svenmarker, G. Somesfalean, G. Y. Chen, H. J. Liang, H. C. Liu, Z. G. Zhang, and S. Andersson-Engels, “Autofluorescence insensitive imaging using upconverting nanocrystals in scattering media,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(17), 171103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tsang, W. S.

W. S. Tsang, W. M. Yu, C. L. Mak, W. L. Tsui, K. H. Wong, and H. K. Hui, “Evidence of the influence of phonon density on Tm3+ upconversion luminescence in tellurite and germanate glasses,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(4), 1871–1874 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tsien, R. Y.

X. K. Shu, A. Royant, M. Z. Lin, T. A. Aguilera, V. Lev-Ram, P. A. Steinbach, and R. Y. Tsien, “Mammalian expression of infrared fluorescent proteins engineered from a bacterial phytochrome,” Science 324(5928), 804–807 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tsui, W. L.

W. S. Tsang, W. M. Yu, C. L. Mak, W. L. Tsui, K. H. Wong, and H. K. Hui, “Evidence of the influence of phonon density on Tm3+ upconversion luminescence in tellurite and germanate glasses,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(4), 1871–1874 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wang, F.

F. Wang and X. G. Liu, “Recent advances in the chemistry of lanthanide-doped upconversion nanocrystals,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 38(4), 976–989 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Wang and X. G. Liu, “Upconversion multicolor fine-tuning: visible to near-infrared emission from lanthanide-doped NaYF4 nanoparticles,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130(17), 5642–5643 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, G. F.

G. F. Wang, W. P. Qin, J. S. Zhang, J. S. Zhang, Y. Wang, C. Y. Cao, L. L. Wang, G. D. Wei, P. F. Zhu, and R. J. Kim, “Synthesis, growth mechanism, and tunable upconversion luminescence of Yb3+/Tm3+-codoped YF3 nanobundles,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112(32), 12161–12167 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wang, L. L.

G. F. Wang, W. P. Qin, J. S. Zhang, J. S. Zhang, Y. Wang, C. Y. Cao, L. L. Wang, G. D. Wei, P. F. Zhu, and R. J. Kim, “Synthesis, growth mechanism, and tunable upconversion luminescence of Yb3+/Tm3+-codoped YF3 nanobundles,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112(32), 12161–12167 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y.

G. F. Wang, W. P. Qin, J. S. Zhang, J. S. Zhang, Y. Wang, C. Y. Cao, L. L. Wang, G. D. Wei, P. F. Zhu, and R. J. Kim, “Synthesis, growth mechanism, and tunable upconversion luminescence of Yb3+/Tm3+-codoped YF3 nanobundles,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112(32), 12161–12167 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y. S.

D. Q. Chen, Y. S. Wang, Y. L. Yu, and P. Huang, “Intense ultraviolet upconversion luminescence from Tm3+/Yb3+:β-YF3 nanocrystals embedded glass ceramic,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(5), 051920 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wei, G. D.

G. F. Wang, W. P. Qin, J. S. Zhang, J. S. Zhang, Y. Wang, C. Y. Cao, L. L. Wang, G. D. Wei, P. F. Zhu, and R. J. Kim, “Synthesis, growth mechanism, and tunable upconversion luminescence of Yb3+/Tm3+-codoped YF3 nanobundles,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112(32), 12161–12167 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Weissleder, R.

R. Weissleder, “A clearer vision for in vivo imaging,” Nat. Biotechnol. 19(4), 316–317 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wong, H. T.

H. T. Wong, H. L. W. Chan, and J. H. Hao, “Magnetic and luminescent properties of multifunctional GdF3:Eu3+ nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(2), 022512 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wong, K. H.

W. S. Tsang, W. M. Yu, C. L. Mak, W. L. Tsui, K. H. Wong, and H. K. Hui, “Evidence of the influence of phonon density on Tm3+ upconversion luminescence in tellurite and germanate glasses,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(4), 1871–1874 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Xu, C. T.

C. T. Xu, J. Axelsson, and S. Andersson-Engels, “Fluorescence diffuse optical tomography using upconverting nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(25), 251107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. T. Xu, N. Svensson, J. Axelsson, P. Svenmarker, G. Somesfalean, G. Y. Chen, H. J. Liang, H. C. Liu, Z. G. Zhang, and S. Andersson-Engels, “Autofluorescence insensitive imaging using upconverting nanocrystals in scattering media,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(17), 171103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Xue, J. M.

Z. Y. Liu, G. S. Yi, H. T. Zhang, J. Ding, Y. W. Zhang, and J. M. Xue, “Monodisperse silica nanoparticles encapsulating upconversion fluorescent and superparamagnetic nanocrystals,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 6(6), 694–696 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yang, J.

C. X. Li, J. Yang, P. P. Yang, H. Z. Lian, and J. Lin, “Hydrothermal synthesis of lanthanide fluorides LnF3 (Ln = La to Lu) nano-/microcrystals with multiform structures and morphologies,” Chem. Mater. 20(13), 4317–4326 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. X. Li, Z. W. Quan, P. P. Yang, J. Yang, H. Z. Lian, and J. Lin, “Shape controllable synthesis and upconversion properties of NaYbF4/NaYbF4: Er3+ and YbF3/YbF3: Er3+ microstructures,” J. Mater. Chem. 18(12), 1353–1361 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yang, P. P.

C. X. Li, Z. W. Quan, P. P. Yang, J. Yang, H. Z. Lian, and J. Lin, “Shape controllable synthesis and upconversion properties of NaYbF4/NaYbF4: Er3+ and YbF3/YbF3: Er3+ microstructures,” J. Mater. Chem. 18(12), 1353–1361 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. X. Li, J. Yang, P. P. Yang, H. Z. Lian, and J. Lin, “Hydrothermal synthesis of lanthanide fluorides LnF3 (Ln = La to Lu) nano-/microcrystals with multiform structures and morphologies,” Chem. Mater. 20(13), 4317–4326 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yi, G. S.

Z. Y. Liu, G. S. Yi, H. T. Zhang, J. Ding, Y. W. Zhang, and J. M. Xue, “Monodisperse silica nanoparticles encapsulating upconversion fluorescent and superparamagnetic nanocrystals,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 6(6), 694–696 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yu, W. M.

W. S. Tsang, W. M. Yu, C. L. Mak, W. L. Tsui, K. H. Wong, and H. K. Hui, “Evidence of the influence of phonon density on Tm3+ upconversion luminescence in tellurite and germanate glasses,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(4), 1871–1874 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yu, Y. L.

D. Q. Chen, Y. S. Wang, Y. L. Yu, and P. Huang, “Intense ultraviolet upconversion luminescence from Tm3+/Yb3+:β-YF3 nanocrystals embedded glass ceramic,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(5), 051920 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, H. T.

Z. Y. Liu, G. S. Yi, H. T. Zhang, J. Ding, Y. W. Zhang, and J. M. Xue, “Monodisperse silica nanoparticles encapsulating upconversion fluorescent and superparamagnetic nanocrystals,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 6(6), 694–696 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J. S.

G. F. Wang, W. P. Qin, J. S. Zhang, J. S. Zhang, Y. Wang, C. Y. Cao, L. L. Wang, G. D. Wei, P. F. Zhu, and R. J. Kim, “Synthesis, growth mechanism, and tunable upconversion luminescence of Yb3+/Tm3+-codoped YF3 nanobundles,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112(32), 12161–12167 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. F. Wang, W. P. Qin, J. S. Zhang, J. S. Zhang, Y. Wang, C. Y. Cao, L. L. Wang, G. D. Wei, P. F. Zhu, and R. J. Kim, “Synthesis, growth mechanism, and tunable upconversion luminescence of Yb3+/Tm3+-codoped YF3 nanobundles,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112(32), 12161–12167 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y.

Z. Q. Li and Y. Zhang, “Monodisperse silica-coated polyvinylpyrrolidone/NaYF4 nanocrystals with multicolor upconversion fluorescence emission,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 45(46), 7732–7735 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y. W.

Z. Y. Liu, G. S. Yi, H. T. Zhang, J. Ding, Y. W. Zhang, and J. M. Xue, “Monodisperse silica nanoparticles encapsulating upconversion fluorescent and superparamagnetic nanocrystals,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 6(6), 694–696 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Z. G.

C. T. Xu, N. Svensson, J. Axelsson, P. Svenmarker, G. Somesfalean, G. Y. Chen, H. J. Liang, H. C. Liu, Z. G. Zhang, and S. Andersson-Engels, “Autofluorescence insensitive imaging using upconverting nanocrystals in scattering media,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(17), 171103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, P. F.

G. F. Wang, W. P. Qin, J. S. Zhang, J. S. Zhang, Y. Wang, C. Y. Cao, L. L. Wang, G. D. Wei, P. F. Zhu, and R. J. Kim, “Synthesis, growth mechanism, and tunable upconversion luminescence of Yb3+/Tm3+-codoped YF3 nanobundles,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112(32), 12161–12167 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Funct. Mater. (1)

R. Kumar, M. Nyk, T. Y. Ohulchanskyy, C. A. Flask, and P. N. Prasad, “Combined optical and MR bioimaging using rare earth ion doped NaYF4 nanocrystals,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(6), 853–859 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (1)

S. Heer, K. Kompe, H. U. Gudel, and M. Haase, “Highly efficient multicolour upconversion emission in transparent colloids of lanthanide-doped NaYF4 nanocrystals,” Adv. Mater. 16(23–24), 2102–2105 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. (1)

Z. Q. Li and Y. Zhang, “Monodisperse silica-coated polyvinylpyrrolidone/NaYF4 nanocrystals with multicolor upconversion fluorescence emission,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 45(46), 7732–7735 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

C. T. Xu, N. Svensson, J. Axelsson, P. Svenmarker, G. Somesfalean, G. Y. Chen, H. J. Liang, H. C. Liu, Z. G. Zhang, and S. Andersson-Engels, “Autofluorescence insensitive imaging using upconverting nanocrystals in scattering media,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(17), 171103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. T. Xu, J. Axelsson, and S. Andersson-Engels, “Fluorescence diffuse optical tomography using upconverting nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(25), 251107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. T. Wong, H. L. W. Chan, and J. H. Hao, “Magnetic and luminescent properties of multifunctional GdF3:Eu3+ nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(2), 022512 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Q. Chen, Y. S. Wang, Y. L. Yu, and P. Huang, “Intense ultraviolet upconversion luminescence from Tm3+/Yb3+:β-YF3 nanocrystals embedded glass ceramic,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(5), 051920 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Commun. (Camb.) (1)

Z. Y. Liu, G. S. Yi, H. T. Zhang, J. Ding, Y. W. Zhang, and J. M. Xue, “Monodisperse silica nanoparticles encapsulating upconversion fluorescent and superparamagnetic nanocrystals,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 6(6), 694–696 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Mater. (2)

C. X. Li, J. Yang, P. P. Yang, H. Z. Lian, and J. Lin, “Hydrothermal synthesis of lanthanide fluorides LnF3 (Ln = La to Lu) nano-/microcrystals with multiform structures and morphologies,” Chem. Mater. 20(13), 4317–4326 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. W. Kramer, D. Biner, G. Frei, H. U. Gudel, M. P. Hehlen, and S. R. Luthi, “Hexagonal sodium yttrium fluoride based green and blue emitting upconversion phosphors,” Chem. Mater. 16(7), 1244–1251 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Soc. Rev. (1)

F. Wang and X. G. Liu, “Recent advances in the chemistry of lanthanide-doped upconversion nanocrystals,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 38(4), 976–989 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1)

F. Wang and X. G. Liu, “Upconversion multicolor fine-tuning: visible to near-infrared emission from lanthanide-doped NaYF4 nanoparticles,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130(17), 5642–5643 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

W. S. Tsang, W. M. Yu, C. L. Mak, W. L. Tsui, K. H. Wong, and H. K. Hui, “Evidence of the influence of phonon density on Tm3+ upconversion luminescence in tellurite and germanate glasses,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(4), 1871–1874 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Mater. Chem. (1)

C. X. Li, Z. W. Quan, P. P. Yang, J. Yang, H. Z. Lian, and J. Lin, “Shape controllable synthesis and upconversion properties of NaYbF4/NaYbF4: Er3+ and YbF3/YbF3: Er3+ microstructures,” J. Mater. Chem. 18(12), 1353–1361 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. C (1)

G. F. Wang, W. P. Qin, J. S. Zhang, J. S. Zhang, Y. Wang, C. Y. Cao, L. L. Wang, G. D. Wei, P. F. Zhu, and R. J. Kim, “Synthesis, growth mechanism, and tunable upconversion luminescence of Yb3+/Tm3+-codoped YF3 nanobundles,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112(32), 12161–12167 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (1)

M. Nyk, R. Kumar, T. Y. Ohulchanskyy, E. J. Bergey, and P. N. Prasad, “High contrast in vitro and in vivo photoluminescence bioimaging using near infrared to near infrared up-conversion in Tm3+ and Yb3+ doped fluoride nanophosphors,” Nano Lett. 8(11), 3834–3838 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nanotechnology (1)

D. Dosev, M. Nichkova, R. K. Dumas, S. J. Gee, B. D. Hammock, K. Liu, and I. M. Kennedy, “Magnetic/luminescent core/shell particles synthesized by spray pyrolysis and their application in immunoassays with internal standard,” Nanotechnology 18(5), 055102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Biotechnol. (2)

B. W. Rice and C. H. Contag, “The importance of being red,” Nat. Biotechnol. 27(7), 624–625 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Weissleder, “A clearer vision for in vivo imaging,” Nat. Biotechnol. 19(4), 316–317 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

T. Miyakawa and D. L. Dexter, “Cooperative and stepwise excitation of luminescence: Trivalent rare-earth ions in Yb3+-sensitized crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 1(1), 70–80 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

X. K. Shu, A. Royant, M. Z. Lin, T. A. Aguilera, V. Lev-Ram, P. A. Steinbach, and R. Y. Tsien, “Mammalian expression of infrared fluorescent proteins engineered from a bacterial phytochrome,” Science 324(5928), 804–807 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (2)

P. N. Prasad, Introduction to Biophotonics (Wiley-Interscience, 2003).

W. M. Yen and P. M. Selzer, Laser spectroscopy of solids, topics in applied physics (Springer-Verlag, 1986).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) XRD pattern of the GdF3:23%Yb3+,1%Tm3+ nanoparticles with the dominant peaks labeled. (b) FE-SEM image of the GdF3:23%Yb3+,1%Tm3+ nanoparticles.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(Color online) The upconversion mechanisms of the dopants of the Yb3+ and Tm3+ ions under 980 nm CW laser excitation (90 mW). GdF3:23%Yb3+,1%Tm3+ with dominant emission at 807 nm is shown as an example. The upward solid, downward solid, dashed, dotted, and curly solid arrows represent excitation, emission, phonon assisted energy transfer, multiphonon relaxation, and energy mismatch between the transitions within the Yb3+ and the Tm3+ ions, respectively.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(Color online) (a) Room temperature photoluminescent emission spectra of the GdF3: 20% Yb3+, y Tm3+ (y = 0.5, 1, 2, 3 mol%) nanoparticles excited at 980 nm (90 mW). (b) The corresponding magnified part illustrating the weak visible light emission in (a). (c) Room temperature photoluminescent emission spectra of the GdF3: x Yb3+, 1% Tm3+ (x = 20, 23 mol%) nanoparticles excited at 980 nm (90 mW). (d) The corresponding magnified part illustrating the weak visible light emission in (c). The vertical scale of (c) is the same as that of (a), and the vertical scale of (d) is the same as that of (b).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(Color online) (a) Comparison on the room temperature Raman spectra between the GdF3 (blue) and YF3 (red) hosts excited at 488 nm. (b) Normalized room temperature photoluminescent emission spectra of the GdF3:23%Yb3+,1%Tm3+ (blue) and the YF3:23%Yb3+,1%Tm3+ (red) excited at 980 nm (90 mW). (c) The corresponding magnified part illustrating the weak visible light emission in (b). The NIR-to-visible ratio (I807nm/I478nm) of the GdF3:23%Yb3+,1%Tm3+ is significantly larger than that of the YF3:23%Yb3+,1%Tm3+ (105 vs. 52). (d) Room temperature photoluminescent emission spectra of the GdF3:23%Yb3+,1%Tm3+ (blue) and the YF3:23%Yb3+,1%Tm3+ (red) excited at 980 nm (90 mW). (e) The corresponding magnified part illustrating the weak visible light emission in (d).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Magnetization as a function of applied magnetic field of the GdF3:23%Yb3+,1%Tm3+ nanoparticles at 293 K.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Optimization of the NIR-to-visible ratios through variations in dopants concentrations: (a) Variation in Tm3+ doping concentration in GdF3: 20% Yb3+, y Tm3+ (y = 0.5, 1, 2, 3 mol%), and (b) variation in Yb3+ doping concentration in GdF3: x Yb3+, 1% Tm3+ (x = 20, 23 mol%).

Metrics