Abstract

Extreme ultraviolet (XUV) single-order high harmonic pulses with 106 photons/pulse were separated from multiple harmonic orders by a time-compensated toroidal-grating monochromator consisting of a pair of toroidal gratings. The first grating separates the harmonic order and the second one compensates for the pulse-front tilt. The center photon energies were tunable between 42 and 23 eV. The separated single harmonic pulses were spatially and temporally characterized as having a spot size of 58 ± 3 μm at the focus, with a shortest pulse duration of 47 ± 2 fs. The developed XUV light source is versatile for application to time- and space-resolved spectroscopy.

© 2010 OSA

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  28. Y. Kobayashi, T. Ohno, T. Sekikawa, Y. Nabekawa, and S. Watanabe, “Pulse width measurement of high-order harmonics by autocorrelation,” Appl. Phys. B 70(3), 389–394 (2000).
    [CrossRef]

2009 (3)

F. Krausz and M. Ivanov, “Attosecond physics,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81(1), 163–234 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. Wernet, M. Odelius, K. Godehusen, J. Gaudin, O. Schwarzkopf, and W. Eberhardt, “Real-time evolution of the valence electronic structure in a dissociating molecule,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(1), 013001 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Poletto, “Tolerances of time-delay-compensated monochromators for extreme-ultraviolet ultrashort pulses,” Appl. Opt. 48(23), 4526–4535 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (3)

2007 (4)

L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, E. Benedetti, F. Ferrari, S. Stagira, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, “Intense femtosecond extreme ultraviolet pulses by using a time-delay-compensated monochromator,” Opt. Lett. 32(19), 2897–2899 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Uiberacker, T. Uphues, M. Schultze, A. J. Verhoef, V. Yakovlev, M. F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, N. M. Kabachnik, H. Schröder, M. Lezius, K. L. Kompa, H.-G. Muller, M. J. J. Vrakking, S. Hendel, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond real-time observation of electron tunnelling in atoms,” Nature 446(7136), 627–632 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Nagasono, E. Suljoti, A. Pietzsch, F. Hennies, M. Wellhöfer, J.-T. Hoeft, M. Martins, W. Wurth, R. Treusch, J. Feldhaus, J. R. Schneider, and A. Föhlisch, “Resonant two-photon absorption of extreme-ultraviolet free-electron-laser radiation in helium,” Phys. Rev. A 75(5), 051406 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. C. Kapteyn, O. Cohen, I. Christov, and M. Murnane, “Harnessing attosecond science in the quest for coherent X-rays,” Science 317(5839), 775–778 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (3)

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314(5798), 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Nabekawa, T. Shimizu, T. Okino, K. Furusawa, H. Hasegawa, K. Yamanouchi, and K. Midorikawa, “Interferometric autocorrelation of an attosecond pulse train in the single-cycle regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(15), 153904 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. L. Wagner, A. Wüest, I. P. Christov, T. Popmintchev, X. Zhou, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Monitoring molecular dynamics using coherent electrons from high harmonic generation,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103(36), 13279–13285 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

2003 (2)

T. Shimizu, T. Sekikawa, T. Kanai, S. Watanabe, and M. Itoh, “Time-resolved Auger decay in CsBr using high harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(1), 017401 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Baltuška, T. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature 421(6923), 611–615 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

L. Nugent-Glandorf, M. Scheer, D. A. Samuels, V. M. Bierbaum, and S. R. Leone, “A laser-based instrument for the study of ultrafast chemical dynamics by soft x-ray-probe photoelectron spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73(4), 1875–1886 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (3)

L. Nugent-Glandorf, M. Scheer, D. A. Samuels, A. M. Mulhisen, E. R. Grant, X. Yang, V. M. Bierbaum, and S. R. Leone, “Ultrafast time-resolved soft x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of dissociating Br2,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87(19), 193002 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Auge, P. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation,” Science 292(5522), 1689–1692 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. E. Glover, A. H. Chin, and R. W. Schoenlein, “High-order harmonic pulse broadening in an ionizing medium,” Phys. Rev. A 63(2), 023403 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

Y. Kobayashi, T. Ohno, T. Sekikawa, Y. Nabekawa, and S. Watanabe, “Pulse width measurement of high-order harmonics by autocorrelation,” Appl. Phys. B 70(3), 389–394 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

1996 (2)

J. M. Schins, P. Breger, P. Agostini, R. C. Constantinescu, H. G. Muller, A. Bouhal, G. Grillon, A. Antonetti, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Cross-correlation measurements of femtosecond extreme-ultraviolet high-order harmonics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13(1), 197–208 (1996).
[CrossRef]

T. E. Glover, R. W. Schoenlein, A. H. Chin, and C. V. Shank, “Observation of laser assisted photoelectric effect and femtosecond high order harmonic radiation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76(14), 2468–2471 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

M. Lewenstein, P. Salières, and A. L’Huillier, “Phase of the atomic polarization in high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 52(6), 4747–4754 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (2)

W. Becker, S. Long, and J. K. McIver, “Modeling harmonic generation by a zero-range potential,” Phys. Rev. A 50(2), 1540–1560 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Haight and D. R. Peale, “Tunable photoemission with harmonics of subpicosecond lasers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 65(6), 1853–1857 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Agostini, P.

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Auge, P. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation,” Science 292(5522), 1689–1692 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Schins, P. Breger, P. Agostini, R. C. Constantinescu, H. G. Muller, A. Bouhal, G. Grillon, A. Antonetti, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Cross-correlation measurements of femtosecond extreme-ultraviolet high-order harmonics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13(1), 197–208 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Altucci, C.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314(5798), 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Antonetti, A.

Auge, F.

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Auge, P. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation,” Science 292(5522), 1689–1692 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Avaldi, L.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314(5798), 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Balcou, P.

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Auge, P. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation,” Science 292(5522), 1689–1692 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baltuška, A.

A. Baltuška, T. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature 421(6923), 611–615 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Becker, W.

W. Becker, S. Long, and J. K. McIver, “Modeling harmonic generation by a zero-range potential,” Phys. Rev. A 50(2), 1540–1560 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Benedetti, E.

Bierbaum, V. M.

L. Nugent-Glandorf, M. Scheer, D. A. Samuels, V. M. Bierbaum, and S. R. Leone, “A laser-based instrument for the study of ultrafast chemical dynamics by soft x-ray-probe photoelectron spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73(4), 1875–1886 (2002).
[CrossRef]

L. Nugent-Glandorf, M. Scheer, D. A. Samuels, A. M. Mulhisen, E. R. Grant, X. Yang, V. M. Bierbaum, and S. R. Leone, “Ultrafast time-resolved soft x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of dissociating Br2,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87(19), 193002 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bouhal, A.

Breger, P.

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Auge, P. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation,” Science 292(5522), 1689–1692 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Schins, P. Breger, P. Agostini, R. C. Constantinescu, H. G. Muller, A. Bouhal, G. Grillon, A. Antonetti, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Cross-correlation measurements of femtosecond extreme-ultraviolet high-order harmonics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13(1), 197–208 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Calegari, F.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314(5798), 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chin, A. H.

T. E. Glover, A. H. Chin, and R. W. Schoenlein, “High-order harmonic pulse broadening in an ionizing medium,” Phys. Rev. A 63(2), 023403 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. E. Glover, R. W. Schoenlein, A. H. Chin, and C. V. Shank, “Observation of laser assisted photoelectric effect and femtosecond high order harmonic radiation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76(14), 2468–2471 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Christov, I.

H. C. Kapteyn, O. Cohen, I. Christov, and M. Murnane, “Harnessing attosecond science in the quest for coherent X-rays,” Science 317(5839), 775–778 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Christov, I. P.

N. L. Wagner, A. Wüest, I. P. Christov, T. Popmintchev, X. Zhou, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Monitoring molecular dynamics using coherent electrons from high harmonic generation,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103(36), 13279–13285 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cohen, O.

H. C. Kapteyn, O. Cohen, I. Christov, and M. Murnane, “Harnessing attosecond science in the quest for coherent X-rays,” Science 317(5839), 775–778 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Constantinescu, R. C.

De Silvestri, S.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314(5798), 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Drescher, M.

M. Uiberacker, T. Uphues, M. Schultze, A. J. Verhoef, V. Yakovlev, M. F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, N. M. Kabachnik, H. Schröder, M. Lezius, K. L. Kompa, H.-G. Muller, M. J. J. Vrakking, S. Hendel, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond real-time observation of electron tunnelling in atoms,” Nature 446(7136), 627–632 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eberhardt, W.

P. Wernet, M. Odelius, K. Godehusen, J. Gaudin, O. Schwarzkopf, and W. Eberhardt, “Real-time evolution of the valence electronic structure in a dissociating molecule,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(1), 013001 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feldhaus, J.

M. Nagasono, E. Suljoti, A. Pietzsch, F. Hennies, M. Wellhöfer, J.-T. Hoeft, M. Martins, W. Wurth, R. Treusch, J. Feldhaus, J. R. Schneider, and A. Föhlisch, “Resonant two-photon absorption of extreme-ultraviolet free-electron-laser radiation in helium,” Phys. Rev. A 75(5), 051406 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ferrari, F.

Flammini, R.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314(5798), 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Föhlisch, A.

M. Nagasono, E. Suljoti, A. Pietzsch, F. Hennies, M. Wellhöfer, J.-T. Hoeft, M. Martins, W. Wurth, R. Treusch, J. Feldhaus, J. R. Schneider, and A. Föhlisch, “Resonant two-photon absorption of extreme-ultraviolet free-electron-laser radiation in helium,” Phys. Rev. A 75(5), 051406 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Furusawa, K.

Y. Nabekawa, T. Shimizu, T. Okino, K. Furusawa, H. Hasegawa, K. Yamanouchi, and K. Midorikawa, “Interferometric autocorrelation of an attosecond pulse train in the single-cycle regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(15), 153904 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gaudin, J.

P. Wernet, M. Odelius, K. Godehusen, J. Gaudin, O. Schwarzkopf, and W. Eberhardt, “Real-time evolution of the valence electronic structure in a dissociating molecule,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(1), 013001 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Glover, T. E.

T. E. Glover, A. H. Chin, and R. W. Schoenlein, “High-order harmonic pulse broadening in an ionizing medium,” Phys. Rev. A 63(2), 023403 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. E. Glover, R. W. Schoenlein, A. H. Chin, and C. V. Shank, “Observation of laser assisted photoelectric effect and femtosecond high order harmonic radiation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76(14), 2468–2471 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Godehusen, K.

P. Wernet, M. Odelius, K. Godehusen, J. Gaudin, O. Schwarzkopf, and W. Eberhardt, “Real-time evolution of the valence electronic structure in a dissociating molecule,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(1), 013001 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gohle, Ch.

A. Baltuška, T. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature 421(6923), 611–615 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goulielmakis, E.

A. Baltuška, T. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature 421(6923), 611–615 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grant, E. R.

L. Nugent-Glandorf, M. Scheer, D. A. Samuels, A. M. Mulhisen, E. R. Grant, X. Yang, V. M. Bierbaum, and S. R. Leone, “Ultrafast time-resolved soft x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of dissociating Br2,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87(19), 193002 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grillon, G.

Haight, R.

R. Haight and D. R. Peale, “Tunable photoemission with harmonics of subpicosecond lasers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 65(6), 1853–1857 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Hänsch, T. W.

A. Baltuška, T. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature 421(6923), 611–615 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haraguchi, E.

Hasegawa, H.

Y. Nabekawa, T. Shimizu, T. Okino, K. Furusawa, H. Hasegawa, K. Yamanouchi, and K. Midorikawa, “Interferometric autocorrelation of an attosecond pulse train in the single-cycle regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(15), 153904 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heinzmann, U.

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M. Uiberacker, T. Uphues, M. Schultze, A. J. Verhoef, V. Yakovlev, M. F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, N. M. Kabachnik, H. Schröder, M. Lezius, K. L. Kompa, H.-G. Muller, M. J. J. Vrakking, S. Hendel, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond real-time observation of electron tunnelling in atoms,” Nature 446(7136), 627–632 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Velotta, R.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314(5798), 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Verhoef, A. J.

M. Uiberacker, T. Uphues, M. Schultze, A. J. Verhoef, V. Yakovlev, M. F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, N. M. Kabachnik, H. Schröder, M. Lezius, K. L. Kompa, H.-G. Muller, M. J. J. Vrakking, S. Hendel, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond real-time observation of electron tunnelling in atoms,” Nature 446(7136), 627–632 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Villoresi, P.

Vozzi, C.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314(5798), 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vrakking, M. J. J.

M. Uiberacker, T. Uphues, M. Schultze, A. J. Verhoef, V. Yakovlev, M. F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, N. M. Kabachnik, H. Schröder, M. Lezius, K. L. Kompa, H.-G. Muller, M. J. J. Vrakking, S. Hendel, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond real-time observation of electron tunnelling in atoms,” Nature 446(7136), 627–632 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wagner, N. L.

N. L. Wagner, A. Wüest, I. P. Christov, T. Popmintchev, X. Zhou, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Monitoring molecular dynamics using coherent electrons from high harmonic generation,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103(36), 13279–13285 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Watanabe, S.

T. Sekikawa, A. Kosuge, T. Kanai, and S. Watanabe, “Nonlinear optics in the extreme ultraviolet,” Nature 432(7017), 605–608 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Shimizu, T. Sekikawa, T. Kanai, S. Watanabe, and M. Itoh, “Time-resolved Auger decay in CsBr using high harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(1), 017401 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Kobayashi, T. Ohno, T. Sekikawa, Y. Nabekawa, and S. Watanabe, “Pulse width measurement of high-order harmonics by autocorrelation,” Appl. Phys. B 70(3), 389–394 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wellhöfer, M.

M. Nagasono, E. Suljoti, A. Pietzsch, F. Hennies, M. Wellhöfer, J.-T. Hoeft, M. Martins, W. Wurth, R. Treusch, J. Feldhaus, J. R. Schneider, and A. Föhlisch, “Resonant two-photon absorption of extreme-ultraviolet free-electron-laser radiation in helium,” Phys. Rev. A 75(5), 051406 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wernet, P.

P. Wernet, M. Odelius, K. Godehusen, J. Gaudin, O. Schwarzkopf, and W. Eberhardt, “Real-time evolution of the valence electronic structure in a dissociating molecule,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(1), 013001 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wüest, A.

N. L. Wagner, A. Wüest, I. P. Christov, T. Popmintchev, X. Zhou, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Monitoring molecular dynamics using coherent electrons from high harmonic generation,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103(36), 13279–13285 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wurth, W.

M. Nagasono, E. Suljoti, A. Pietzsch, F. Hennies, M. Wellhöfer, J.-T. Hoeft, M. Martins, W. Wurth, R. Treusch, J. Feldhaus, J. R. Schneider, and A. Föhlisch, “Resonant two-photon absorption of extreme-ultraviolet free-electron-laser radiation in helium,” Phys. Rev. A 75(5), 051406 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yakovlev, V.

M. Uiberacker, T. Uphues, M. Schultze, A. J. Verhoef, V. Yakovlev, M. F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, N. M. Kabachnik, H. Schröder, M. Lezius, K. L. Kompa, H.-G. Muller, M. J. J. Vrakking, S. Hendel, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond real-time observation of electron tunnelling in atoms,” Nature 446(7136), 627–632 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yakovlev, V. S.

A. Baltuška, T. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature 421(6923), 611–615 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yamanouchi, K.

Y. Nabekawa, T. Shimizu, T. Okino, K. Furusawa, H. Hasegawa, K. Yamanouchi, and K. Midorikawa, “Interferometric autocorrelation of an attosecond pulse train in the single-cycle regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(15), 153904 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yamashita, M.

Yang, X.

L. Nugent-Glandorf, M. Scheer, D. A. Samuels, A. M. Mulhisen, E. R. Grant, X. Yang, V. M. Bierbaum, and S. R. Leone, “Ultrafast time-resolved soft x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of dissociating Br2,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87(19), 193002 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhou, X.

N. L. Wagner, A. Wüest, I. P. Christov, T. Popmintchev, X. Zhou, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Monitoring molecular dynamics using coherent electrons from high harmonic generation,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103(36), 13279–13285 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

Y. Kobayashi, T. Ohno, T. Sekikawa, Y. Nabekawa, and S. Watanabe, “Pulse width measurement of high-order harmonics by autocorrelation,” Appl. Phys. B 70(3), 389–394 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

Nature (3)

M. Uiberacker, T. Uphues, M. Schultze, A. J. Verhoef, V. Yakovlev, M. F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, N. M. Kabachnik, H. Schröder, M. Lezius, K. L. Kompa, H.-G. Muller, M. J. J. Vrakking, S. Hendel, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond real-time observation of electron tunnelling in atoms,” Nature 446(7136), 627–632 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Baltuška, T. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature 421(6923), 611–615 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Sekikawa, A. Kosuge, T. Kanai, and S. Watanabe, “Nonlinear optics in the extreme ultraviolet,” Nature 432(7017), 605–608 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

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Phys. Rev. A (4)

M. Nagasono, E. Suljoti, A. Pietzsch, F. Hennies, M. Wellhöfer, J.-T. Hoeft, M. Martins, W. Wurth, R. Treusch, J. Feldhaus, J. R. Schneider, and A. Föhlisch, “Resonant two-photon absorption of extreme-ultraviolet free-electron-laser radiation in helium,” Phys. Rev. A 75(5), 051406 (2007).
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T. E. Glover, R. W. Schoenlein, A. H. Chin, and C. V. Shank, “Observation of laser assisted photoelectric effect and femtosecond high order harmonic radiation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76(14), 2468–2471 (1996).
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T. Shimizu, T. Sekikawa, T. Kanai, S. Watanabe, and M. Itoh, “Time-resolved Auger decay in CsBr using high harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(1), 017401 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Wernet, M. Odelius, K. Godehusen, J. Gaudin, O. Schwarzkopf, and W. Eberhardt, “Real-time evolution of the valence electronic structure in a dissociating molecule,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(1), 013001 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Nugent-Glandorf, M. Scheer, D. A. Samuels, A. M. Mulhisen, E. R. Grant, X. Yang, V. M. Bierbaum, and S. R. Leone, “Ultrafast time-resolved soft x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of dissociating Br2,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87(19), 193002 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Nabekawa, T. Shimizu, T. Okino, K. Furusawa, H. Hasegawa, K. Yamanouchi, and K. Midorikawa, “Interferometric autocorrelation of an attosecond pulse train in the single-cycle regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(15), 153904 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1)

N. L. Wagner, A. Wüest, I. P. Christov, T. Popmintchev, X. Zhou, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Monitoring molecular dynamics using coherent electrons from high harmonic generation,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103(36), 13279–13285 (2006).
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F. Krausz and M. Ivanov, “Attosecond physics,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81(1), 163–234 (2009).
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L. Nugent-Glandorf, M. Scheer, D. A. Samuels, V. M. Bierbaum, and S. R. Leone, “A laser-based instrument for the study of ultrafast chemical dynamics by soft x-ray-probe photoelectron spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73(4), 1875–1886 (2002).
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Science (3)

H. C. Kapteyn, O. Cohen, I. Christov, and M. Murnane, “Harnessing attosecond science in the quest for coherent X-rays,” Science 317(5839), 775–778 (2007).
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P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Auge, P. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation,” Science 292(5522), 1689–1692 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314(5798), 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic of a pulse-front-tilt compensator. The dotted lines indicate the pulse front inside the beam. The distance between the red lines corresponds to the broadening of the pulse duration. (b) Numerically simulated output beam profile of the compensator using the combination of a concave and a toroidal gratings. The spot size by a pair of toroidal gratings is about 100 μm in diameter.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental setup for the spatial and temporal characterization of the pulse-front-tilt compensator. For the measurement of the beam profiles, a Ce:YAG crystal was inserted at the focal point.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Beam profiles of the 17th harmonic at the exit of the pulse-front-tilt compensator. (a) A pair of gratings was set to the 0th order. (b) The first grating was set to the 1st order. (c) Both gratings were set to the 1st order.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Temporal cross-correlation functions of the 23rd harmonic pulses with the fundamental laser pulses (a) with only the first grating set to the 1st order, (b) with both gratings set to the 1st order, and (c) with both gratings set to the 0th order. The corresponding pulse durations after the deconvolution are 230 ± 10, 59 ± 2, and 25 ± 5 fs. The solid lines are the fitting results to a Gaussian function.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Photon numbers at the focus point of the compensator

Tables Icon

Table 2 Pulse durations of selected high harmonics

Tables Icon

Table 3 Specifications of the time-compensated monochromators

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