Abstract

There is still significant speculation regarding the nature of femtosecond laser induced index change in bulk glasses with colour centre formation and densification the main candidates. In the work presented here, we fabricated waveguide Bragg gratings in doped and undoped phosphate glasses and use these as a diagnostic for monitoring subtle changes in the induced refractive index during photo- and thermal annealing experiments. Reductions in grating strengths during such experiments were attributed to the annihilation of colour centres.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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2009 (2)

2008 (5)

2007 (2)

H. B. Zhang, S. M. Eaton, and P. R. Herman, "Single-step writing of bragg grating waveguides in fused silica with an externally modulated femtosecond fiber laser," Opt. Lett. 32, 2559-2561 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. D. G. Chavez, A. V. Kir’yanov, Y. O. Barmenkov, and N. N. Il’ichev, "Reversible photo-darkening and resonant photobleaching of ytterbium-doped silica fiber at in-core 977-nm and 543-nm irradiation," Laser Physics Letters 4, 734-739 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

2005 (1)

2003 (1)

J. W. Chan, T. R. Huser, S. H. Risbud, J. S. Hayden, and D. M. Krol, "Waveguide fabrication in phosphate glasses using femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2371-2373 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (4)

J. W. Chan, T. Huser, J. S. Hayden, S. H. Risbud, and D. M. Krol, "Fluorescence spectroscopy of color centers generated in phosphate glasses after exposure to femtosecond laser pulses," J. Am. Ceramic Soc. 85, 1037-1040 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Osellame, S. Taccheo, G. Cerullo, M. Marangoni, D. Polli, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, and S. De Silvestri, "Optical gain in er-yb doped waveguides fabricated by femtosecond laser pulses," Electron. Lett. 38, 964-965 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. Cerullo, R. Osellame, S. Taccheo, M. Marangoni, D. Polli, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, and S. De Silvestri, "Femtosecond micromachining of symmetric waveguides at 1.5 m by astigmatic beam focusing," Opt. Lett. 27, 1938-1940 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Krol, "Waveguide fabrication in glasses using femtosecond laser pulses," Glass Sci. Technol. 75, 164-180 (2002).

1998 (1)

1997 (1)

C. G. Askins and M. A. Putnam, "Photodarkening and photobleaching in fiber optic bragg gratings," J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1363-1370 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

1983 (1)

D. L. Griscom, E. J. Friebele, K. J. Long, and J. W. Fleming, "Fundamental defect centers in glass - electron-spin resonance and optical-absorption studies of irradiated phosphorus-doped silica glass and optical fibers," J. Appl. Phys. 54, 3743-3762 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Ams, M.

Askins, C. G.

C. G. Askins and M. A. Putnam, "Photodarkening and photobleaching in fiber optic bragg gratings," J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1363-1370 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Barmenkov, Y. O.

A. D. G. Chavez, A. V. Kir’yanov, Y. O. Barmenkov, and N. N. Il’ichev, "Reversible photo-darkening and resonant photobleaching of ytterbium-doped silica fiber at in-core 977-nm and 543-nm irradiation," Laser Physics Letters 4, 734-739 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bennion, I.

M. Ams, G. D. Marshall, P. Dekker, M. Dubov, V. K. Mezentsev, I. Bennion, and M. J. Withford, "Investigation of ultrafast laser-photonic material interactions: Challenges for directly written glass photonics," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14, 1370-1381 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cerullo, G.

R. Osellame, S. Taccheo, G. Cerullo, M. Marangoni, D. Polli, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, and S. De Silvestri, "Optical gain in er-yb doped waveguides fabricated by femtosecond laser pulses," Electron. Lett. 38, 964-965 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. Cerullo, R. Osellame, S. Taccheo, M. Marangoni, D. Polli, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, and S. De Silvestri, "Femtosecond micromachining of symmetric waveguides at 1.5 m by astigmatic beam focusing," Opt. Lett. 27, 1938-1940 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chan, J. W.

J. W. Chan, T. R. Huser, S. H. Risbud, J. S. Hayden, and D. M. Krol, "Waveguide fabrication in phosphate glasses using femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2371-2373 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Chan, T. Huser, J. S. Hayden, S. H. Risbud, and D. M. Krol, "Fluorescence spectroscopy of color centers generated in phosphate glasses after exposure to femtosecond laser pulses," J. Am. Ceramic Soc. 85, 1037-1040 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chavez, A. D. G.

A. D. G. Chavez, A. V. Kir’yanov, Y. O. Barmenkov, and N. N. Il’ichev, "Reversible photo-darkening and resonant photobleaching of ytterbium-doped silica fiber at in-core 977-nm and 543-nm irradiation," Laser Physics Letters 4, 734-739 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Davis, K. M.

De Silvestri, S.

G. Cerullo, R. Osellame, S. Taccheo, M. Marangoni, D. Polli, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, and S. De Silvestri, "Femtosecond micromachining of symmetric waveguides at 1.5 m by astigmatic beam focusing," Opt. Lett. 27, 1938-1940 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Osellame, S. Taccheo, G. Cerullo, M. Marangoni, D. Polli, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, and S. De Silvestri, "Optical gain in er-yb doped waveguides fabricated by femtosecond laser pulses," Electron. Lett. 38, 964-965 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Dekker, P.

Dubov, M.

M. Ams, G. D. Marshall, P. Dekker, M. Dubov, V. K. Mezentsev, I. Bennion, and M. J. Withford, "Investigation of ultrafast laser-photonic material interactions: Challenges for directly written glass photonics," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14, 1370-1381 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Eaton, S. M.

Efimov, O. M.

Fleming, J. W.

D. L. Griscom, E. J. Friebele, K. J. Long, and J. W. Fleming, "Fundamental defect centers in glass - electron-spin resonance and optical-absorption studies of irradiated phosphorus-doped silica glass and optical fibers," J. Appl. Phys. 54, 3743-3762 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Friebele, E. J.

D. L. Griscom, E. J. Friebele, K. J. Long, and J. W. Fleming, "Fundamental defect centers in glass - electron-spin resonance and optical-absorption studies of irradiated phosphorus-doped silica glass and optical fibers," J. Appl. Phys. 54, 3743-3762 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Gabel, K.

Garnov, S. V.

Gattass, R. R.

R. R. Gattass and E. Mazur, "Femtosecond laser micromachining in transparent materials," Nature Photonics 2, 219-225 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Glebov, L. B.

Grantham, S.

Griscom, D. L.

D. L. Griscom, E. J. Friebele, K. J. Long, and J. W. Fleming, "Fundamental defect centers in glass - electron-spin resonance and optical-absorption studies of irradiated phosphorus-doped silica glass and optical fibers," J. Appl. Phys. 54, 3743-3762 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Hayden, J. S.

J. W. Chan, T. R. Huser, S. H. Risbud, J. S. Hayden, and D. M. Krol, "Waveguide fabrication in phosphate glasses using femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2371-2373 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Chan, T. Huser, J. S. Hayden, S. H. Risbud, and D. M. Krol, "Fluorescence spectroscopy of color centers generated in phosphate glasses after exposure to femtosecond laser pulses," J. Am. Ceramic Soc. 85, 1037-1040 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Herman, P. R.

Hirao, K.

Ho, S.

Hoffman, H. J.

Hotoleanu, M.

Huser, T.

J. W. Chan, T. Huser, J. S. Hayden, S. H. Risbud, and D. M. Krol, "Fluorescence spectroscopy of color centers generated in phosphate glasses after exposure to femtosecond laser pulses," J. Am. Ceramic Soc. 85, 1037-1040 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Huser, T. R.

J. W. Chan, T. R. Huser, S. H. Risbud, J. S. Hayden, and D. M. Krol, "Waveguide fabrication in phosphate glasses using femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2371-2373 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Il’ichev, N. N.

A. D. G. Chavez, A. V. Kir’yanov, Y. O. Barmenkov, and N. N. Il’ichev, "Reversible photo-darkening and resonant photobleaching of ytterbium-doped silica fiber at in-core 977-nm and 543-nm irradiation," Laser Physics Letters 4, 734-739 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kir’yanov, A. V.

A. D. G. Chavez, A. V. Kir’yanov, Y. O. Barmenkov, and N. N. Il’ichev, "Reversible photo-darkening and resonant photobleaching of ytterbium-doped silica fiber at in-core 977-nm and 543-nm irradiation," Laser Physics Letters 4, 734-739 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kliner, D. A. V.

Koplow, J. P.

Koponen, J.

Krol, D. M.

J. W. Chan, T. R. Huser, S. H. Risbud, J. S. Hayden, and D. M. Krol, "Waveguide fabrication in phosphate glasses using femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2371-2373 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Chan, T. Huser, J. S. Hayden, S. H. Risbud, and D. M. Krol, "Fluorescence spectroscopy of color centers generated in phosphate glasses after exposure to femtosecond laser pulses," J. Am. Ceramic Soc. 85, 1037-1040 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Krol, "Waveguide fabrication in glasses using femtosecond laser pulses," Glass Sci. Technol. 75, 164-180 (2002).

Laporta, P.

G. Cerullo, R. Osellame, S. Taccheo, M. Marangoni, D. Polli, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, and S. De Silvestri, "Femtosecond micromachining of symmetric waveguides at 1.5 m by astigmatic beam focusing," Opt. Lett. 27, 1938-1940 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Osellame, S. Taccheo, G. Cerullo, M. Marangoni, D. Polli, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, and S. De Silvestri, "Optical gain in er-yb doped waveguides fabricated by femtosecond laser pulses," Electron. Lett. 38, 964-965 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Li, J.

Long, K. J.

D. L. Griscom, E. J. Friebele, K. J. Long, and J. W. Fleming, "Fundamental defect centers in glass - electron-spin resonance and optical-absorption studies of irradiated phosphorus-doped silica glass and optical fibers," J. Appl. Phys. 54, 3743-3762 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Marangoni, M.

R. Osellame, S. Taccheo, G. Cerullo, M. Marangoni, D. Polli, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, and S. De Silvestri, "Optical gain in er-yb doped waveguides fabricated by femtosecond laser pulses," Electron. Lett. 38, 964-965 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. Cerullo, R. Osellame, S. Taccheo, M. Marangoni, D. Polli, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, and S. De Silvestri, "Femtosecond micromachining of symmetric waveguides at 1.5 m by astigmatic beam focusing," Opt. Lett. 27, 1938-1940 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Marshall, G. D.

Matthews, J. C. F.

Mazur, E.

R. R. Gattass and E. Mazur, "Femtosecond laser micromachining in transparent materials," Nature Photonics 2, 219-225 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mezentsev, V. K.

M. Ams, G. D. Marshall, P. Dekker, M. Dubov, V. K. Mezentsev, I. Bennion, and M. J. Withford, "Investigation of ultrafast laser-photonic material interactions: Challenges for directly written glass photonics," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14, 1370-1381 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Miura, K.

O’Brien, J. L.

Osellame, R.

G. Cerullo, R. Osellame, S. Taccheo, M. Marangoni, D. Polli, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, and S. De Silvestri, "Femtosecond micromachining of symmetric waveguides at 1.5 m by astigmatic beam focusing," Opt. Lett. 27, 1938-1940 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Osellame, S. Taccheo, G. Cerullo, M. Marangoni, D. Polli, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, and S. De Silvestri, "Optical gain in er-yb doped waveguides fabricated by femtosecond laser pulses," Electron. Lett. 38, 964-965 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Piper, J. A.

Politi, A.

Polli, D.

G. Cerullo, R. Osellame, S. Taccheo, M. Marangoni, D. Polli, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, and S. De Silvestri, "Femtosecond micromachining of symmetric waveguides at 1.5 m by astigmatic beam focusing," Opt. Lett. 27, 1938-1940 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Osellame, S. Taccheo, G. Cerullo, M. Marangoni, D. Polli, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, and S. De Silvestri, "Optical gain in er-yb doped waveguides fabricated by femtosecond laser pulses," Electron. Lett. 38, 964-965 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Putnam, M. A.

C. G. Askins and M. A. Putnam, "Photodarkening and photobleaching in fiber optic bragg gratings," J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1363-1370 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ramponi, R.

R. Osellame, S. Taccheo, G. Cerullo, M. Marangoni, D. Polli, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, and S. De Silvestri, "Optical gain in er-yb doped waveguides fabricated by femtosecond laser pulses," Electron. Lett. 38, 964-965 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. Cerullo, R. Osellame, S. Taccheo, M. Marangoni, D. Polli, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, and S. De Silvestri, "Femtosecond micromachining of symmetric waveguides at 1.5 m by astigmatic beam focusing," Opt. Lett. 27, 1938-1940 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Richardson, M.

Risbud, S. H.

J. W. Chan, T. R. Huser, S. H. Risbud, J. S. Hayden, and D. M. Krol, "Waveguide fabrication in phosphate glasses using femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2371-2373 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Chan, T. Huser, J. S. Hayden, S. H. Risbud, and D. M. Krol, "Fluorescence spectroscopy of color centers generated in phosphate glasses after exposure to femtosecond laser pulses," J. Am. Ceramic Soc. 85, 1037-1040 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Soderlund, M.

Soileau, M. J.

Spence, D. J.

Sugimoto, N.

Taccheo, S.

G. Cerullo, R. Osellame, S. Taccheo, M. Marangoni, D. Polli, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, and S. De Silvestri, "Femtosecond micromachining of symmetric waveguides at 1.5 m by astigmatic beam focusing," Opt. Lett. 27, 1938-1940 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Osellame, S. Taccheo, G. Cerullo, M. Marangoni, D. Polli, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, and S. De Silvestri, "Optical gain in er-yb doped waveguides fabricated by femtosecond laser pulses," Electron. Lett. 38, 964-965 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Withford, M. J.

Zhang, H.

Zhang, H. B.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

J. W. Chan, T. R. Huser, S. H. Risbud, J. S. Hayden, and D. M. Krol, "Waveguide fabrication in phosphate glasses using femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2371-2373 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

R. Osellame, S. Taccheo, G. Cerullo, M. Marangoni, D. Polli, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, and S. De Silvestri, "Optical gain in er-yb doped waveguides fabricated by femtosecond laser pulses," Electron. Lett. 38, 964-965 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Glass Sci. Technol. (1)

D. M. Krol, "Waveguide fabrication in glasses using femtosecond laser pulses," Glass Sci. Technol. 75, 164-180 (2002).

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. Ams, G. D. Marshall, P. Dekker, M. Dubov, V. K. Mezentsev, I. Bennion, and M. J. Withford, "Investigation of ultrafast laser-photonic material interactions: Challenges for directly written glass photonics," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14, 1370-1381 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Ceramic Soc. (1)

J. W. Chan, T. Huser, J. S. Hayden, S. H. Risbud, and D. M. Krol, "Fluorescence spectroscopy of color centers generated in phosphate glasses after exposure to femtosecond laser pulses," J. Am. Ceramic Soc. 85, 1037-1040 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

D. L. Griscom, E. J. Friebele, K. J. Long, and J. W. Fleming, "Fundamental defect centers in glass - electron-spin resonance and optical-absorption studies of irradiated phosphorus-doped silica glass and optical fibers," J. Appl. Phys. 54, 3743-3762 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

C. G. Askins and M. A. Putnam, "Photodarkening and photobleaching in fiber optic bragg gratings," J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1363-1370 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Laser Physics Letters (1)

A. D. G. Chavez, A. V. Kir’yanov, Y. O. Barmenkov, and N. N. Il’ichev, "Reversible photo-darkening and resonant photobleaching of ytterbium-doped silica fiber at in-core 977-nm and 543-nm irradiation," Laser Physics Letters 4, 734-739 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nature Photonics (1)

R. R. Gattass and E. Mazur, "Femtosecond laser micromachining in transparent materials," Nature Photonics 2, 219-225 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (5)

Other (1)

A. Othonos and K. Kalli, Fiber Bragg gratings: fundamentals and applications in telecommunications and sensing (Artech House, Inc., Norwood, MA, 1999).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Experimental setup for annealing waveguide devices. WDM-Wavelength division multiplexor, T-Transmission, R-Reflection. Components inside the dotted blue box are removed from the setup for 976 nm ‘pumping’. (b) Sketch of the relative refractive index of the bulk, a waveguide and the grating contrast of a WBG. (c) Example of transmission data through a WBG before and after photo-annealing.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Photo-annealing WBGs (written in 9% Yb-doped phosphate) with various 976 nm pump powers. Inset shows the blue-green co-operative luminescence along the WBG while pumping at 976 nm.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Photo-annealing at various wavelengths of WBGs written in (a) 9% Yb-doped phosphate and (b) undoped phosphate.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Photo-annealing WBGs (written in 9% Yb-doped phosphate) with various 532 nm ‘pump’ powers.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) Thermal annealing of WBGs (written in 9% Yb-doped phosphate). At each temperature there are multiple data points taken over a 30 minute period. This is shown for temperatures of 145 °C and 265 °C in (b).

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

(a) White light transmission through a 70 mm long WBG (written in 5% Yb-doped phosphate) subject to photo- and thermal annealing. Note that the initial WBG shows a 2nd order grating effect at 767 nm. (b) MFD of the guided mode at 800 nm, shown in white, increases post annealing.

Equations (3)

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λ B = 2 n eff Λ .
R = tanh 2 ( κ L ) .
κ = Δ n grating π λ B .

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