Abstract

Taking organic emitter apodization calculated from electromagnetic theory as input, the angular luminance enhancement of a microlens-array-film (MAF) attached OLED (organic light-emitting device) can be further evaluated by ray-tracing approach. First, we assumed artificial emitters and revealed that not every OLED with MAF has luminance enhancement. Then, the OLEDs of different Alq3 thickness were fabricated and their angular luminance measurement validated simulation results. Mode analyses for different layers were performed to estimate the enhancement potential of the MAF attached devices. In conclusion, the organic emitters with higher off-axis-angle luminous intensity cause lower out-coupling efficiency but gain higher enhancement after the MAF attached.

© 2010 OSA

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. A. Chutinan, K. Ishihara, T. Asano, M. Fujita, and S. Noda, “Theoretical analysis on light-extraction efficiency of organic light-emitting diodes using FDTD and mode-expansion methods,” Org. Electron. 6(1), 3–9 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  2. C.-L. Lin, H.-C. Chang, K.-C. Tien, and C.-C. Wu, “Influences of resonant wavelengths on performances of microcavity organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(7), 071111 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. Dodabalapur, L. J. Rothberg, R. H. Jordan, T. M. Miller, R. E. Slusher, and J. M. Phillips, “Physics and applications of organic microcavity light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 80(12), 6954–6964 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  4. H. Riel, S. Karg, T. Beierlein, W. Ries, and K. Neyts, “Tuning the emission characteristics of top-emitting organic light-emitting devices by means of a dielectric capping layer: An experimental and theoretical study,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(8), 5290–5296 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M.-K. Wei and I.-L. Su, “Method to evaluate the enhancement of luminance efficiency in planar OLED light emitting devices for microlens array,” Opt. Express 12(23), 5777–5782 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. L. Lin, T. Shia, and C. Chiu, “Silicon-processed plastic micropyramids for brightness enhancement applications,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 10(3), 395–400 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  7. T. Tsutsui, M. Yahiro, H. Yokogawa, K. Kawano, and M. Yokoyama, “Doubling Coupling-Out Efficiency in Organic Light-Emitting Devices Using a Thin Silica Aerogel Layer,” Adv. Mater. 13(15), 1149–1152 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  8. Y. J. Lee, S. H. Kim, J. Huh, G. H. Kim, Y. H. Lee, S. H. Cho, Y. C. Kim, and Y. R. Do, “A high-extraction-efficiency nanopatterned organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(21), 3779–3781 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  9. H. Peng, Y. Ho, X. Yu, M. Wong, and H. Kwok, “Coupling efficiency enhancement in organic light-emitting devices using microlens array-theory and experiment,” J. Display Technol. 1(2), 278–282 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  10. Y. Sun and S. Forrest, “Organic light emitting devices with enhanced outcoupling via microlenses fabricated by imprint lithography,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(7), 073106 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  11. B. C. Krummacher, M. K. Mathai, V. Choong, S. A. Choulis, F. So, and A. Winnacker, “General method to evaluate substrate surface modification techniques for light extraction enhancement of organic light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(5), 054702 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  12. H. Greiner, “Light Extraction from Organic Light Emitting Diode Substrates: Simulation and Experiment,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(No. 7A), 4125–4137 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  13. H.-C. Chen, J.-H. Lee, C.-C. Shiau, C. C. Yang, and Y.-W. Kiang, “Electromagnetic Modeling of Organic Light-Emitting Devices,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(6), 2450–2457 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  14. H. Y. Lin, Y.-H. Ho, J.-H. Lee, K.-Y. Chen, J.-H. Fang, S.-C. Hsu, M.-K. Wei, H. Y. Lin, J. H. Tsai, and T. C. Wu, “Patterned microlens array for efficiency improvement of small-pixelated organic light-emitting devices,” Opt. Express 16(15), 11044–11051 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. K. Neyts, “Simulation of light emission from thin-film microcavities,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 15(4), 962–971 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  16. M.-H. Lu and J. C. Sturm, “External coupling efficiency in planar organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(13), 1927–1929 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  17. T. Nakamura, N. Tsutsumi, N. Juni, and H. Fujii, “Improvement of coupling-out efficiency in organic electroluminescent devices by addition of a diffusive layer,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(11), 6016–6022 (2004).
    [CrossRef]

2008

2007

C.-L. Lin, H.-C. Chang, K.-C. Tien, and C.-C. Wu, “Influences of resonant wavelengths on performances of microcavity organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(7), 071111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Greiner, “Light Extraction from Organic Light Emitting Diode Substrates: Simulation and Experiment,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(No. 7A), 4125–4137 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

H.-C. Chen, J.-H. Lee, C.-C. Shiau, C. C. Yang, and Y.-W. Kiang, “Electromagnetic Modeling of Organic Light-Emitting Devices,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(6), 2450–2457 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sun and S. Forrest, “Organic light emitting devices with enhanced outcoupling via microlenses fabricated by imprint lithography,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(7), 073106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. C. Krummacher, M. K. Mathai, V. Choong, S. A. Choulis, F. So, and A. Winnacker, “General method to evaluate substrate surface modification techniques for light extraction enhancement of organic light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(5), 054702 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

A. Chutinan, K. Ishihara, T. Asano, M. Fujita, and S. Noda, “Theoretical analysis on light-extraction efficiency of organic light-emitting diodes using FDTD and mode-expansion methods,” Org. Electron. 6(1), 3–9 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Peng, Y. Ho, X. Yu, M. Wong, and H. Kwok, “Coupling efficiency enhancement in organic light-emitting devices using microlens array-theory and experiment,” J. Display Technol. 1(2), 278–282 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

M.-K. Wei and I.-L. Su, “Method to evaluate the enhancement of luminance efficiency in planar OLED light emitting devices for microlens array,” Opt. Express 12(23), 5777–5782 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Nakamura, N. Tsutsumi, N. Juni, and H. Fujii, “Improvement of coupling-out efficiency in organic electroluminescent devices by addition of a diffusive layer,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(11), 6016–6022 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

Y. J. Lee, S. H. Kim, J. Huh, G. H. Kim, Y. H. Lee, S. H. Cho, Y. C. Kim, and Y. R. Do, “A high-extraction-efficiency nanopatterned organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(21), 3779–3781 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Riel, S. Karg, T. Beierlein, W. Ries, and K. Neyts, “Tuning the emission characteristics of top-emitting organic light-emitting devices by means of a dielectric capping layer: An experimental and theoretical study,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(8), 5290–5296 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001

T. Tsutsui, M. Yahiro, H. Yokogawa, K. Kawano, and M. Yokoyama, “Doubling Coupling-Out Efficiency in Organic Light-Emitting Devices Using a Thin Silica Aerogel Layer,” Adv. Mater. 13(15), 1149–1152 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M.-H. Lu and J. C. Sturm, “External coupling efficiency in planar organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(13), 1927–1929 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

L. Lin, T. Shia, and C. Chiu, “Silicon-processed plastic micropyramids for brightness enhancement applications,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 10(3), 395–400 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998

1996

A. Dodabalapur, L. J. Rothberg, R. H. Jordan, T. M. Miller, R. E. Slusher, and J. M. Phillips, “Physics and applications of organic microcavity light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 80(12), 6954–6964 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Asano, T.

A. Chutinan, K. Ishihara, T. Asano, M. Fujita, and S. Noda, “Theoretical analysis on light-extraction efficiency of organic light-emitting diodes using FDTD and mode-expansion methods,” Org. Electron. 6(1), 3–9 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Beierlein, T.

H. Riel, S. Karg, T. Beierlein, W. Ries, and K. Neyts, “Tuning the emission characteristics of top-emitting organic light-emitting devices by means of a dielectric capping layer: An experimental and theoretical study,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(8), 5290–5296 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chang, H.-C.

C.-L. Lin, H.-C. Chang, K.-C. Tien, and C.-C. Wu, “Influences of resonant wavelengths on performances of microcavity organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(7), 071111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H.-C.

Chen, K.-Y.

Chiu, C.

L. Lin, T. Shia, and C. Chiu, “Silicon-processed plastic micropyramids for brightness enhancement applications,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 10(3), 395–400 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Cho, S. H.

Y. J. Lee, S. H. Kim, J. Huh, G. H. Kim, Y. H. Lee, S. H. Cho, Y. C. Kim, and Y. R. Do, “A high-extraction-efficiency nanopatterned organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(21), 3779–3781 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Choong, V.

B. C. Krummacher, M. K. Mathai, V. Choong, S. A. Choulis, F. So, and A. Winnacker, “General method to evaluate substrate surface modification techniques for light extraction enhancement of organic light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(5), 054702 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Choulis, S. A.

B. C. Krummacher, M. K. Mathai, V. Choong, S. A. Choulis, F. So, and A. Winnacker, “General method to evaluate substrate surface modification techniques for light extraction enhancement of organic light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(5), 054702 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chutinan, A.

A. Chutinan, K. Ishihara, T. Asano, M. Fujita, and S. Noda, “Theoretical analysis on light-extraction efficiency of organic light-emitting diodes using FDTD and mode-expansion methods,” Org. Electron. 6(1), 3–9 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Do, Y. R.

Y. J. Lee, S. H. Kim, J. Huh, G. H. Kim, Y. H. Lee, S. H. Cho, Y. C. Kim, and Y. R. Do, “A high-extraction-efficiency nanopatterned organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(21), 3779–3781 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dodabalapur, A.

A. Dodabalapur, L. J. Rothberg, R. H. Jordan, T. M. Miller, R. E. Slusher, and J. M. Phillips, “Physics and applications of organic microcavity light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 80(12), 6954–6964 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Fang, J.-H.

Forrest, S.

Y. Sun and S. Forrest, “Organic light emitting devices with enhanced outcoupling via microlenses fabricated by imprint lithography,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(7), 073106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fujii, H.

T. Nakamura, N. Tsutsumi, N. Juni, and H. Fujii, “Improvement of coupling-out efficiency in organic electroluminescent devices by addition of a diffusive layer,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(11), 6016–6022 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fujita, M.

A. Chutinan, K. Ishihara, T. Asano, M. Fujita, and S. Noda, “Theoretical analysis on light-extraction efficiency of organic light-emitting diodes using FDTD and mode-expansion methods,” Org. Electron. 6(1), 3–9 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Greiner, H.

H. Greiner, “Light Extraction from Organic Light Emitting Diode Substrates: Simulation and Experiment,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(No. 7A), 4125–4137 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ho, Y.

Ho, Y.-H.

Hsu, S.-C.

Huh, J.

Y. J. Lee, S. H. Kim, J. Huh, G. H. Kim, Y. H. Lee, S. H. Cho, Y. C. Kim, and Y. R. Do, “A high-extraction-efficiency nanopatterned organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(21), 3779–3781 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ishihara, K.

A. Chutinan, K. Ishihara, T. Asano, M. Fujita, and S. Noda, “Theoretical analysis on light-extraction efficiency of organic light-emitting diodes using FDTD and mode-expansion methods,” Org. Electron. 6(1), 3–9 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jordan, R. H.

A. Dodabalapur, L. J. Rothberg, R. H. Jordan, T. M. Miller, R. E. Slusher, and J. M. Phillips, “Physics and applications of organic microcavity light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 80(12), 6954–6964 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Juni, N.

T. Nakamura, N. Tsutsumi, N. Juni, and H. Fujii, “Improvement of coupling-out efficiency in organic electroluminescent devices by addition of a diffusive layer,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(11), 6016–6022 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Karg, S.

H. Riel, S. Karg, T. Beierlein, W. Ries, and K. Neyts, “Tuning the emission characteristics of top-emitting organic light-emitting devices by means of a dielectric capping layer: An experimental and theoretical study,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(8), 5290–5296 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kawano, K.

T. Tsutsui, M. Yahiro, H. Yokogawa, K. Kawano, and M. Yokoyama, “Doubling Coupling-Out Efficiency in Organic Light-Emitting Devices Using a Thin Silica Aerogel Layer,” Adv. Mater. 13(15), 1149–1152 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kiang, Y.-W.

Kim, G. H.

Y. J. Lee, S. H. Kim, J. Huh, G. H. Kim, Y. H. Lee, S. H. Cho, Y. C. Kim, and Y. R. Do, “A high-extraction-efficiency nanopatterned organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(21), 3779–3781 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S. H.

Y. J. Lee, S. H. Kim, J. Huh, G. H. Kim, Y. H. Lee, S. H. Cho, Y. C. Kim, and Y. R. Do, “A high-extraction-efficiency nanopatterned organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(21), 3779–3781 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kim, Y. C.

Y. J. Lee, S. H. Kim, J. Huh, G. H. Kim, Y. H. Lee, S. H. Cho, Y. C. Kim, and Y. R. Do, “A high-extraction-efficiency nanopatterned organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(21), 3779–3781 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Krummacher, B. C.

B. C. Krummacher, M. K. Mathai, V. Choong, S. A. Choulis, F. So, and A. Winnacker, “General method to evaluate substrate surface modification techniques for light extraction enhancement of organic light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(5), 054702 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kwok, H.

Lee, J.-H.

Lee, Y. H.

Y. J. Lee, S. H. Kim, J. Huh, G. H. Kim, Y. H. Lee, S. H. Cho, Y. C. Kim, and Y. R. Do, “A high-extraction-efficiency nanopatterned organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(21), 3779–3781 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y. J.

Y. J. Lee, S. H. Kim, J. Huh, G. H. Kim, Y. H. Lee, S. H. Cho, Y. C. Kim, and Y. R. Do, “A high-extraction-efficiency nanopatterned organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(21), 3779–3781 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C.-L.

C.-L. Lin, H.-C. Chang, K.-C. Tien, and C.-C. Wu, “Influences of resonant wavelengths on performances of microcavity organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(7), 071111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lin, H. Y.

Lin, L.

L. Lin, T. Shia, and C. Chiu, “Silicon-processed plastic micropyramids for brightness enhancement applications,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 10(3), 395–400 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lu, M.-H.

M.-H. Lu and J. C. Sturm, “External coupling efficiency in planar organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(13), 1927–1929 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mathai, M. K.

B. C. Krummacher, M. K. Mathai, V. Choong, S. A. Choulis, F. So, and A. Winnacker, “General method to evaluate substrate surface modification techniques for light extraction enhancement of organic light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(5), 054702 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Miller, T. M.

A. Dodabalapur, L. J. Rothberg, R. H. Jordan, T. M. Miller, R. E. Slusher, and J. M. Phillips, “Physics and applications of organic microcavity light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 80(12), 6954–6964 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, T.

T. Nakamura, N. Tsutsumi, N. Juni, and H. Fujii, “Improvement of coupling-out efficiency in organic electroluminescent devices by addition of a diffusive layer,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(11), 6016–6022 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Neyts, K.

H. Riel, S. Karg, T. Beierlein, W. Ries, and K. Neyts, “Tuning the emission characteristics of top-emitting organic light-emitting devices by means of a dielectric capping layer: An experimental and theoretical study,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(8), 5290–5296 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. Neyts, “Simulation of light emission from thin-film microcavities,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 15(4), 962–971 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Noda, S.

A. Chutinan, K. Ishihara, T. Asano, M. Fujita, and S. Noda, “Theoretical analysis on light-extraction efficiency of organic light-emitting diodes using FDTD and mode-expansion methods,” Org. Electron. 6(1), 3–9 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Peng, H.

Phillips, J. M.

A. Dodabalapur, L. J. Rothberg, R. H. Jordan, T. M. Miller, R. E. Slusher, and J. M. Phillips, “Physics and applications of organic microcavity light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 80(12), 6954–6964 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Riel, H.

H. Riel, S. Karg, T. Beierlein, W. Ries, and K. Neyts, “Tuning the emission characteristics of top-emitting organic light-emitting devices by means of a dielectric capping layer: An experimental and theoretical study,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(8), 5290–5296 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ries, W.

H. Riel, S. Karg, T. Beierlein, W. Ries, and K. Neyts, “Tuning the emission characteristics of top-emitting organic light-emitting devices by means of a dielectric capping layer: An experimental and theoretical study,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(8), 5290–5296 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rothberg, L. J.

A. Dodabalapur, L. J. Rothberg, R. H. Jordan, T. M. Miller, R. E. Slusher, and J. M. Phillips, “Physics and applications of organic microcavity light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 80(12), 6954–6964 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Shia, T.

L. Lin, T. Shia, and C. Chiu, “Silicon-processed plastic micropyramids for brightness enhancement applications,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 10(3), 395–400 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Shiau, C.-C.

Slusher, R. E.

A. Dodabalapur, L. J. Rothberg, R. H. Jordan, T. M. Miller, R. E. Slusher, and J. M. Phillips, “Physics and applications of organic microcavity light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 80(12), 6954–6964 (1996).
[CrossRef]

So, F.

B. C. Krummacher, M. K. Mathai, V. Choong, S. A. Choulis, F. So, and A. Winnacker, “General method to evaluate substrate surface modification techniques for light extraction enhancement of organic light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(5), 054702 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sturm, J. C.

M.-H. Lu and J. C. Sturm, “External coupling efficiency in planar organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(13), 1927–1929 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Su, I.-L.

Sun, Y.

Y. Sun and S. Forrest, “Organic light emitting devices with enhanced outcoupling via microlenses fabricated by imprint lithography,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(7), 073106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tien, K.-C.

C.-L. Lin, H.-C. Chang, K.-C. Tien, and C.-C. Wu, “Influences of resonant wavelengths on performances of microcavity organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(7), 071111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, J. H.

Tsutsui, T.

T. Tsutsui, M. Yahiro, H. Yokogawa, K. Kawano, and M. Yokoyama, “Doubling Coupling-Out Efficiency in Organic Light-Emitting Devices Using a Thin Silica Aerogel Layer,” Adv. Mater. 13(15), 1149–1152 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Tsutsumi, N.

T. Nakamura, N. Tsutsumi, N. Juni, and H. Fujii, “Improvement of coupling-out efficiency in organic electroluminescent devices by addition of a diffusive layer,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(11), 6016–6022 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wei, M.-K.

Winnacker, A.

B. C. Krummacher, M. K. Mathai, V. Choong, S. A. Choulis, F. So, and A. Winnacker, “General method to evaluate substrate surface modification techniques for light extraction enhancement of organic light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(5), 054702 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wong, M.

Wu, C.-C.

C.-L. Lin, H.-C. Chang, K.-C. Tien, and C.-C. Wu, “Influences of resonant wavelengths on performances of microcavity organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(7), 071111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wu, T. C.

Yahiro, M.

T. Tsutsui, M. Yahiro, H. Yokogawa, K. Kawano, and M. Yokoyama, “Doubling Coupling-Out Efficiency in Organic Light-Emitting Devices Using a Thin Silica Aerogel Layer,” Adv. Mater. 13(15), 1149–1152 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yang, C. C.

Yokogawa, H.

T. Tsutsui, M. Yahiro, H. Yokogawa, K. Kawano, and M. Yokoyama, “Doubling Coupling-Out Efficiency in Organic Light-Emitting Devices Using a Thin Silica Aerogel Layer,” Adv. Mater. 13(15), 1149–1152 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yokoyama, M.

T. Tsutsui, M. Yahiro, H. Yokogawa, K. Kawano, and M. Yokoyama, “Doubling Coupling-Out Efficiency in Organic Light-Emitting Devices Using a Thin Silica Aerogel Layer,” Adv. Mater. 13(15), 1149–1152 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yu, X.

Adv. Mater.

T. Tsutsui, M. Yahiro, H. Yokogawa, K. Kawano, and M. Yokoyama, “Doubling Coupling-Out Efficiency in Organic Light-Emitting Devices Using a Thin Silica Aerogel Layer,” Adv. Mater. 13(15), 1149–1152 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

Y. J. Lee, S. H. Kim, J. Huh, G. H. Kim, Y. H. Lee, S. H. Cho, Y. C. Kim, and Y. R. Do, “A high-extraction-efficiency nanopatterned organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(21), 3779–3781 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C.-L. Lin, H.-C. Chang, K.-C. Tien, and C.-C. Wu, “Influences of resonant wavelengths on performances of microcavity organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(7), 071111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M.-H. Lu and J. C. Sturm, “External coupling efficiency in planar organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(13), 1927–1929 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

T. Nakamura, N. Tsutsumi, N. Juni, and H. Fujii, “Improvement of coupling-out efficiency in organic electroluminescent devices by addition of a diffusive layer,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(11), 6016–6022 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Dodabalapur, L. J. Rothberg, R. H. Jordan, T. M. Miller, R. E. Slusher, and J. M. Phillips, “Physics and applications of organic microcavity light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 80(12), 6954–6964 (1996).
[CrossRef]

H. Riel, S. Karg, T. Beierlein, W. Ries, and K. Neyts, “Tuning the emission characteristics of top-emitting organic light-emitting devices by means of a dielectric capping layer: An experimental and theoretical study,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(8), 5290–5296 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sun and S. Forrest, “Organic light emitting devices with enhanced outcoupling via microlenses fabricated by imprint lithography,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(7), 073106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. C. Krummacher, M. K. Mathai, V. Choong, S. A. Choulis, F. So, and A. Winnacker, “General method to evaluate substrate surface modification techniques for light extraction enhancement of organic light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(5), 054702 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Display Technol.

J. Lightwave Technol.

J. Micromech. Microeng.

L. Lin, T. Shia, and C. Chiu, “Silicon-processed plastic micropyramids for brightness enhancement applications,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 10(3), 395–400 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

H. Greiner, “Light Extraction from Organic Light Emitting Diode Substrates: Simulation and Experiment,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(No. 7A), 4125–4137 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Org. Electron.

A. Chutinan, K. Ishihara, T. Asano, M. Fujita, and S. Noda, “Theoretical analysis on light-extraction efficiency of organic light-emitting diodes using FDTD and mode-expansion methods,” Org. Electron. 6(1), 3–9 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Two artificial source emitting patterns and (b) the geometrical optics calculations of relative luminance (all values were normalized to normal direction value of each reference device).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) The simulated source apodization varying Alq3 thickness from electromagnetic theory; (b) the simulated luminance from geometrical optics; (c) the validation of experimental results.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Mode ratios calculated by transfer matrix method with embedded sources. The blank area of each bar represented the optical power ratio of the surface plasmonic mode; (b) the experimental mode ratios. The extra air mode was according to the air mode multiplied by (LPR - 1).

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Coupling efficiency, luminous power ratio, and normal luminance ratio of the two artificial sources

Tables Icon

Table 2 Luminous power ratio and normal direction luminance gain of four devices of different Alq3 thickness

Metrics