Abstract

Terahertz plasmonic resonances in semiconductor (indium antimonide, InSb) dimer antennas are investigated theoretically. The antennas are formed by two rods separated by a small gap. We demonstrate that, with an appropriate choice of the shape and dimension of the semiconductor antennas, it is possible to obtain large electromagnetic field enhancement inside the gap. Unlike metallic antennas, the enhancement around the semiconductor plasmonics antenna can be easily adjusted by varying the concentration of free carriers, which can be achieved by optical or thermal excitation of carriers or electrical carrier injection. Such active plasmonic antennas are interesting structures for THz applications such as modulators and sensors.

© 2010 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  34. V. Giannini and J. A. Sánchez-Gil, “Calculations of light scattering from isolated and interacting metallic nanowires with arbitrary cross section by means of Green’s theorem surface integral equations in parametric form,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24(9), 2822–2830 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  35. O. L. Muskens, V. Giannini, J. A. Sánchez-Gil, and J. Gómez Rivas, “Optical scattering resonances of single and coupled dimer plasmonic nanoantennas,” Opt. Express 15(26), 17736–17746 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  39. B. J. Messinger, K. U. von Raben, R. K. Chang, and P. W. Barber, “Local-fields at the surface of noble metal microspheres,” Phys. Rev. B 24(2), 649–657 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  40. M. Thomas, J.-J. Greffet, R. Carminati, and J. R. Arias-Gonzalez, “Single-molecule spontaneous emission close to absorbing nanostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(17), 3863–3865 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  41. G. W. Bryant, F. J. García de Abajo, and J. Aizpurua, “Mapping the Plasmon Resonances of Metallic Nanoantennas,” Nano Lett. 8(2), 631–636 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  42. P. J. Schuck, D. P. Fromm, A. Sundaramurthy, G. S. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, “Improving the mismatch between light and nanoscale objects with gold bowtie nanoantennas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(1), 017402 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2009

M. A. Seo, H. R. Park, S. M. Koo, D. J. Park, J. H. Kang, O. K. Suwal, S. S. Choi, P. C. M. Planken, G. S. Park, N. K. Park, Q. H. Park, and D. S. Kim, “Terahertz field enhancement by a metallic nano slit operating beyond the skin-depth limit,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 152–156 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, M. J. Cich, A. K. Azad, R. D. Averitt, and A. J. Taylor, “A metamaterial solid-state terahertz phase modulator,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 148–151 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

H.-T. Chen, H. Lu, A. K. Azad, R. D. Averitt, A. C. Gossard, S. A. Trugman, J. F. O’Hara, and A. J. Taylor, “Electronic control of extraordinary terahertz transmission through subwavelength metal hole arrays,” Opt. Express 16(11), 7641–7648 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. Hendry, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, L. Martin-Moreno, J. Gómez Rivas, M. Bonn, A. P. Hibbins, and M. J. Lockyear, “Optical control over surface plasmon polariton-assisted THz transmission through a slit aperture,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(12), 123901 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Gómez Rivas, “THz: The art of confinement,” Nat. Photonics 2(3), 137–138 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Rusina, M. Durach, K. A. Nelson, and M. I. Stockman, “Nanoconcentration of terahertz radiation in plasmonic waveguides,” Opt. Express 16(23), 18576–18589 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Williams, S. R. Andrews, S. A. Maier, A. I. Fernández-Domínguez, L. Martín-Moreno, and F. J. García-Vidal, “Highly confined guiding of terahertz surface plasmon polaritons on structured metal surfaces,” Nat. Photonics 2(3), 175–179 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. W. Bryant, F. J. García de Abajo, and J. Aizpurua, “Mapping the Plasmon Resonances of Metallic Nanoantennas,” Nano Lett. 8(2), 631–636 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

L. Novotny, “Effective Wavelength Scaling for Optical Antennas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(26), 266802 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Parthasarathy, A. Bykhovski, B. Gelmont, T. Globus, N. Swami, and D. Woolard, “Enhanced Coupling of Subterahertz Radiation with Semiconductor Periodic Slot Arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(15), 153906 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. Giannini, J. A. Sánchez-Gil, J. V. García-Ramos, and E. R. Méndez, “Collective electromagnetic emission from molecular layers on metal nanostructures mediated by surface plasmon,” Phys. Rev. B 75(23), 235447 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. Zhang, A. K. Azad, J. Han, J. Xu, J. Chen, and X.-C. Zhang, “Direct observation of a transition of a surface plasmon resonance from a photonic crystal effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(18), 183901 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. Giannini and J. A. Sánchez-Gil, “Calculations of light scattering from isolated and interacting metallic nanowires with arbitrary cross section by means of Green’s theorem surface integral equations in parametric form,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24(9), 2822–2830 (2007).
[CrossRef]

O. L. Muskens, V. Giannini, J. A. Sánchez-Gil, and J. Gómez Rivas, “Optical scattering resonances of single and coupled dimer plasmonic nanoantennas,” Opt. Express 15(26), 17736–17746 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

J. Gómez Rivas, M. Kuttge, H. Kurz, P. Haring Bolivar, and J. A. Sánchez-Gil, “Low-frequency active surface plasmon optics on semiconductors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(8), 082106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Sánchez-Gil and J. Gómez Rivas, “Thermal switching of the scattering coefficients of terahertz surface plasmon polaritons impinging on a finite array of subwavelength grooves on semiconductor surfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 73(20), 205410 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Gómez Rivas, J. A. Sánchez-Gil, M. Kuttge, P. Haring Bolívar, and H. Kurz, “Optically switchable mirrors for surface plasmon polaritons propagating on semiconductor surfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 74(24), 245324 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Maier, S. R. Andrews, L. Martin-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, “Terahertz surface plasmon-polariton propagation and focusing on periodically corrugated metal wires,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(17), 1–4 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

H. Cao and A. Nahata, “Coupling of terahertz pulses onto a single metal wire waveguide using milled grooves,” Opt. Express 13(18), 7028–7034 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. P. Hibbins, B. R. Evans, and J. R. Sambles, “Experimental verification of designer surface plasmons,” Science 308(5722), 670–672 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Janke, J. G. Rivas, P. H. Bolivar, and H. Kurz, “All-optical switching of the transmission of electromagnetic radiation through subwavelength apertures,” Opt. Lett. 30(18), 2357–2359 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Pan, C. F. Hsieh, R. P. Pan, M. Tanaka, F. Miyamaru, M. Tani, and M. Hangyo, “Control of enhanced THz transmission through metallic hole arrays using nematic liquid crystal,” Opt. Express 13(11), 3921–3930 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. Mühlschlegel, H.-J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, “Resonant optical antennas,” Science 308(5728), 1607–1609 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Schuck, D. P. Fromm, A. Sundaramurthy, G. S. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, “Improving the mismatch between light and nanoscale objects with gold bowtie nanoantennas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(1), 017402 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

M. Thomas, J.-J. Greffet, R. Carminati, and J. R. Arias-Gonzalez, “Single-molecule spontaneous emission close to absorbing nanostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(17), 3863–3865 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. G. Rivas, P. H. Bolivar, and H. Kurz, “Thermal switching of the enhanced transmission of terahertz radiation through sub-wavelength apertures,” Opt. Lett. 29(14), 1680–1682 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Pendry, L. Martín-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, “Mimicking surface plasmons with structured surfaces,” Science 305(5685), 847–848 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. G. Rivas, M. Kuttge, P. H. Bolivar, H. Kurz, and J. A. Sánchez-Gil, “Propagation of surface plasmon polaritons on semiconductor gratings,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(25), 256804 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Saxler, J. Gómez Rivas, C. Janke, H. P. M. Pellemans, P. Haring Bolivar, and H. Kurz, “Time domain measurements of surface plasmon polaritons in the terahertz frequency range,” Phys. Rev. B 69(15), 155427 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Qu, D. Grischkowsky, and W. Zhang, “Terahertz transmission properties of thin, subwavelength metallic hole arrays,” Opt. Lett. 29(8), 896–898 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Wang and D. M. Mittleman, “Metal wires for terahertz wave guiding,” Nature 432(7015), 376–379 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Cao and A. Nahata, “Resonantly enhanced transmission of terahertz radiation through a periodic array of subwavelength apertures,” Opt. Express 12(6), 1004–1010 (2004).
[CrossRef]

1990

M. van Exter and D. Grischkowsky, “Carrier dynamics of electrons and holes in moderately doped silicon,” Phys. Rev. B 41(17), 12140–12149 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989

D. L. Mills and A. A. Maradudin, “Surface corrugation and surface-polariton binding in the infrared frequency range,” Phys. Rev. B 39(3), 1569–1574 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1983

M. Ordal, L. Long, R. Bell, S. Bell, R. Bell, R. Alexander, and C. Ward, “Optical properties of the metals Al, Co, Cu, Au, Fe, Pb, Ni, Pd, Pt, Ag, Ti, and W in the infrared and far infrared,” Appl. Opt. 22(7), 1099–1119 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1981

B. J. Messinger, K. U. von Raben, R. K. Chang, and P. W. Barber, “Local-fields at the surface of noble metal microspheres,” Phys. Rev. B 24(2), 649–657 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1973

R. Ulrich and M. Tacke, “Submillimeter waveguiding on periodic metal structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 22(5), 251–253 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1972

D. H. Auston, A. M. Glass, and A. A. Ballman, “Optical Rectification by Impurities in Polar Crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 28(14), 897–900 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1971

K. H. Yang, P. L. Richards, and Y. R. Shen, “Generation of far-infrared radiation by picosecond light pulses in LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 19(9), 320–323 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Aizpurua, J.

G. W. Bryant, F. J. García de Abajo, and J. Aizpurua, “Mapping the Plasmon Resonances of Metallic Nanoantennas,” Nano Lett. 8(2), 631–636 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Alexander, R.

M. Ordal, L. Long, R. Bell, S. Bell, R. Bell, R. Alexander, and C. Ward, “Optical properties of the metals Al, Co, Cu, Au, Fe, Pb, Ni, Pd, Pt, Ag, Ti, and W in the infrared and far infrared,” Appl. Opt. 22(7), 1099–1119 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Andrews, S. R.

C. R. Williams, S. R. Andrews, S. A. Maier, A. I. Fernández-Domínguez, L. Martín-Moreno, and F. J. García-Vidal, “Highly confined guiding of terahertz surface plasmon polaritons on structured metal surfaces,” Nat. Photonics 2(3), 175–179 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Maier, S. R. Andrews, L. Martin-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, “Terahertz surface plasmon-polariton propagation and focusing on periodically corrugated metal wires,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(17), 1–4 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Arias-Gonzalez, J. R.

M. Thomas, J.-J. Greffet, R. Carminati, and J. R. Arias-Gonzalez, “Single-molecule spontaneous emission close to absorbing nanostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(17), 3863–3865 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Auston, D. H.

D. H. Auston, A. M. Glass, and A. A. Ballman, “Optical Rectification by Impurities in Polar Crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 28(14), 897–900 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Averitt, R. D.

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, M. J. Cich, A. K. Azad, R. D. Averitt, and A. J. Taylor, “A metamaterial solid-state terahertz phase modulator,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 148–151 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H.-T. Chen, H. Lu, A. K. Azad, R. D. Averitt, A. C. Gossard, S. A. Trugman, J. F. O’Hara, and A. J. Taylor, “Electronic control of extraordinary terahertz transmission through subwavelength metal hole arrays,” Opt. Express 16(11), 7641–7648 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Azad, A. K.

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, M. J. Cich, A. K. Azad, R. D. Averitt, and A. J. Taylor, “A metamaterial solid-state terahertz phase modulator,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 148–151 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H.-T. Chen, H. Lu, A. K. Azad, R. D. Averitt, A. C. Gossard, S. A. Trugman, J. F. O’Hara, and A. J. Taylor, “Electronic control of extraordinary terahertz transmission through subwavelength metal hole arrays,” Opt. Express 16(11), 7641–7648 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. Zhang, A. K. Azad, J. Han, J. Xu, J. Chen, and X.-C. Zhang, “Direct observation of a transition of a surface plasmon resonance from a photonic crystal effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(18), 183901 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ballman, A. A.

D. H. Auston, A. M. Glass, and A. A. Ballman, “Optical Rectification by Impurities in Polar Crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 28(14), 897–900 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Barber, P. W.

B. J. Messinger, K. U. von Raben, R. K. Chang, and P. W. Barber, “Local-fields at the surface of noble metal microspheres,” Phys. Rev. B 24(2), 649–657 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Bell, R.

M. Ordal, L. Long, R. Bell, S. Bell, R. Bell, R. Alexander, and C. Ward, “Optical properties of the metals Al, Co, Cu, Au, Fe, Pb, Ni, Pd, Pt, Ag, Ti, and W in the infrared and far infrared,” Appl. Opt. 22(7), 1099–1119 (1983).
[CrossRef]

M. Ordal, L. Long, R. Bell, S. Bell, R. Bell, R. Alexander, and C. Ward, “Optical properties of the metals Al, Co, Cu, Au, Fe, Pb, Ni, Pd, Pt, Ag, Ti, and W in the infrared and far infrared,” Appl. Opt. 22(7), 1099–1119 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Bell, S.

M. Ordal, L. Long, R. Bell, S. Bell, R. Bell, R. Alexander, and C. Ward, “Optical properties of the metals Al, Co, Cu, Au, Fe, Pb, Ni, Pd, Pt, Ag, Ti, and W in the infrared and far infrared,” Appl. Opt. 22(7), 1099–1119 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Bolivar, P. H.

C. Janke, J. G. Rivas, P. H. Bolivar, and H. Kurz, “All-optical switching of the transmission of electromagnetic radiation through subwavelength apertures,” Opt. Lett. 30(18), 2357–2359 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. G. Rivas, M. Kuttge, P. H. Bolivar, H. Kurz, and J. A. Sánchez-Gil, “Propagation of surface plasmon polaritons on semiconductor gratings,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(25), 256804 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. G. Rivas, P. H. Bolivar, and H. Kurz, “Thermal switching of the enhanced transmission of terahertz radiation through sub-wavelength apertures,” Opt. Lett. 29(14), 1680–1682 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bonn, M.

E. Hendry, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, L. Martin-Moreno, J. Gómez Rivas, M. Bonn, A. P. Hibbins, and M. J. Lockyear, “Optical control over surface plasmon polariton-assisted THz transmission through a slit aperture,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(12), 123901 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bryant, G. W.

G. W. Bryant, F. J. García de Abajo, and J. Aizpurua, “Mapping the Plasmon Resonances of Metallic Nanoantennas,” Nano Lett. 8(2), 631–636 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bykhovski, A.

R. Parthasarathy, A. Bykhovski, B. Gelmont, T. Globus, N. Swami, and D. Woolard, “Enhanced Coupling of Subterahertz Radiation with Semiconductor Periodic Slot Arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(15), 153906 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cao, H.

H. Cao and A. Nahata, “Coupling of terahertz pulses onto a single metal wire waveguide using milled grooves,” Opt. Express 13(18), 7028–7034 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Cao and A. Nahata, “Resonantly enhanced transmission of terahertz radiation through a periodic array of subwavelength apertures,” Opt. Express 12(6), 1004–1010 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Carminati, R.

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[CrossRef]

Park, Q. H.

M. A. Seo, H. R. Park, S. M. Koo, D. J. Park, J. H. Kang, O. K. Suwal, S. S. Choi, P. C. M. Planken, G. S. Park, N. K. Park, Q. H. Park, and D. S. Kim, “Terahertz field enhancement by a metallic nano slit operating beyond the skin-depth limit,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 152–156 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Parthasarathy, R.

R. Parthasarathy, A. Bykhovski, B. Gelmont, T. Globus, N. Swami, and D. Woolard, “Enhanced Coupling of Subterahertz Radiation with Semiconductor Periodic Slot Arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(15), 153906 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pellemans, H. P. M.

J. Saxler, J. Gómez Rivas, C. Janke, H. P. M. Pellemans, P. Haring Bolivar, and H. Kurz, “Time domain measurements of surface plasmon polaritons in the terahertz frequency range,” Phys. Rev. B 69(15), 155427 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pendry, J. B.

J. B. Pendry, L. Martín-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, “Mimicking surface plasmons with structured surfaces,” Science 305(5685), 847–848 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Planken, P. C. M.

M. A. Seo, H. R. Park, S. M. Koo, D. J. Park, J. H. Kang, O. K. Suwal, S. S. Choi, P. C. M. Planken, G. S. Park, N. K. Park, Q. H. Park, and D. S. Kim, “Terahertz field enhancement by a metallic nano slit operating beyond the skin-depth limit,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 152–156 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pohl, D. W.

P. Mühlschlegel, H.-J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, “Resonant optical antennas,” Science 308(5728), 1607–1609 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Qu, D.

D. Qu, D. Grischkowsky, and W. Zhang, “Terahertz transmission properties of thin, subwavelength metallic hole arrays,” Opt. Lett. 29(8), 896–898 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Richards, P. L.

K. H. Yang, P. L. Richards, and Y. R. Shen, “Generation of far-infrared radiation by picosecond light pulses in LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 19(9), 320–323 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Rivas, J. G.

C. Janke, J. G. Rivas, P. H. Bolivar, and H. Kurz, “All-optical switching of the transmission of electromagnetic radiation through subwavelength apertures,” Opt. Lett. 30(18), 2357–2359 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. G. Rivas, M. Kuttge, P. H. Bolivar, H. Kurz, and J. A. Sánchez-Gil, “Propagation of surface plasmon polaritons on semiconductor gratings,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(25), 256804 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. G. Rivas, P. H. Bolivar, and H. Kurz, “Thermal switching of the enhanced transmission of terahertz radiation through sub-wavelength apertures,” Opt. Lett. 29(14), 1680–1682 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rusina, A.

A. Rusina, M. Durach, K. A. Nelson, and M. I. Stockman, “Nanoconcentration of terahertz radiation in plasmonic waveguides,” Opt. Express 16(23), 18576–18589 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sambles, J. R.

A. P. Hibbins, B. R. Evans, and J. R. Sambles, “Experimental verification of designer surface plasmons,” Science 308(5722), 670–672 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sánchez-Gil, J. A.

O. L. Muskens, V. Giannini, J. A. Sánchez-Gil, and J. Gómez Rivas, “Optical scattering resonances of single and coupled dimer plasmonic nanoantennas,” Opt. Express 15(26), 17736–17746 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. Giannini and J. A. Sánchez-Gil, “Calculations of light scattering from isolated and interacting metallic nanowires with arbitrary cross section by means of Green’s theorem surface integral equations in parametric form,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24(9), 2822–2830 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. Giannini, J. A. Sánchez-Gil, J. V. García-Ramos, and E. R. Méndez, “Collective electromagnetic emission from molecular layers on metal nanostructures mediated by surface plasmon,” Phys. Rev. B 75(23), 235447 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Sánchez-Gil and J. Gómez Rivas, “Thermal switching of the scattering coefficients of terahertz surface plasmon polaritons impinging on a finite array of subwavelength grooves on semiconductor surfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 73(20), 205410 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Gómez Rivas, M. Kuttge, H. Kurz, P. Haring Bolivar, and J. A. Sánchez-Gil, “Low-frequency active surface plasmon optics on semiconductors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(8), 082106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Gómez Rivas, J. A. Sánchez-Gil, M. Kuttge, P. Haring Bolívar, and H. Kurz, “Optically switchable mirrors for surface plasmon polaritons propagating on semiconductor surfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 74(24), 245324 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. G. Rivas, M. Kuttge, P. H. Bolivar, H. Kurz, and J. A. Sánchez-Gil, “Propagation of surface plasmon polaritons on semiconductor gratings,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(25), 256804 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Saxler, J.

J. Saxler, J. Gómez Rivas, C. Janke, H. P. M. Pellemans, P. Haring Bolivar, and H. Kurz, “Time domain measurements of surface plasmon polaritons in the terahertz frequency range,” Phys. Rev. B 69(15), 155427 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Schuck, P. J.

P. J. Schuck, D. P. Fromm, A. Sundaramurthy, G. S. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, “Improving the mismatch between light and nanoscale objects with gold bowtie nanoantennas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(1), 017402 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Seo, M. A.

M. A. Seo, H. R. Park, S. M. Koo, D. J. Park, J. H. Kang, O. K. Suwal, S. S. Choi, P. C. M. Planken, G. S. Park, N. K. Park, Q. H. Park, and D. S. Kim, “Terahertz field enhancement by a metallic nano slit operating beyond the skin-depth limit,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 152–156 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Shen, Y. R.

K. H. Yang, P. L. Richards, and Y. R. Shen, “Generation of far-infrared radiation by picosecond light pulses in LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 19(9), 320–323 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Stockman, M. I.

A. Rusina, M. Durach, K. A. Nelson, and M. I. Stockman, “Nanoconcentration of terahertz radiation in plasmonic waveguides,” Opt. Express 16(23), 18576–18589 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sundaramurthy, A.

P. J. Schuck, D. P. Fromm, A. Sundaramurthy, G. S. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, “Improving the mismatch between light and nanoscale objects with gold bowtie nanoantennas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(1), 017402 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Suwal, O. K.

M. A. Seo, H. R. Park, S. M. Koo, D. J. Park, J. H. Kang, O. K. Suwal, S. S. Choi, P. C. M. Planken, G. S. Park, N. K. Park, Q. H. Park, and D. S. Kim, “Terahertz field enhancement by a metallic nano slit operating beyond the skin-depth limit,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 152–156 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Swami, N.

R. Parthasarathy, A. Bykhovski, B. Gelmont, T. Globus, N. Swami, and D. Woolard, “Enhanced Coupling of Subterahertz Radiation with Semiconductor Periodic Slot Arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(15), 153906 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tacke, M.

R. Ulrich and M. Tacke, “Submillimeter waveguiding on periodic metal structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 22(5), 251–253 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, M.

C. L. Pan, C. F. Hsieh, R. P. Pan, M. Tanaka, F. Miyamaru, M. Tani, and M. Hangyo, “Control of enhanced THz transmission through metallic hole arrays using nematic liquid crystal,” Opt. Express 13(11), 3921–3930 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tani, M.

C. L. Pan, C. F. Hsieh, R. P. Pan, M. Tanaka, F. Miyamaru, M. Tani, and M. Hangyo, “Control of enhanced THz transmission through metallic hole arrays using nematic liquid crystal,” Opt. Express 13(11), 3921–3930 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, A. J.

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, M. J. Cich, A. K. Azad, R. D. Averitt, and A. J. Taylor, “A metamaterial solid-state terahertz phase modulator,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 148–151 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H.-T. Chen, H. Lu, A. K. Azad, R. D. Averitt, A. C. Gossard, S. A. Trugman, J. F. O’Hara, and A. J. Taylor, “Electronic control of extraordinary terahertz transmission through subwavelength metal hole arrays,” Opt. Express 16(11), 7641–7648 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Thomas, M.

M. Thomas, J.-J. Greffet, R. Carminati, and J. R. Arias-Gonzalez, “Single-molecule spontaneous emission close to absorbing nanostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(17), 3863–3865 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Trugman, S. A.

H.-T. Chen, H. Lu, A. K. Azad, R. D. Averitt, A. C. Gossard, S. A. Trugman, J. F. O’Hara, and A. J. Taylor, “Electronic control of extraordinary terahertz transmission through subwavelength metal hole arrays,” Opt. Express 16(11), 7641–7648 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ulrich, R.

R. Ulrich and M. Tacke, “Submillimeter waveguiding on periodic metal structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 22(5), 251–253 (1973).
[CrossRef]

van Exter, M.

M. van Exter and D. Grischkowsky, “Carrier dynamics of electrons and holes in moderately doped silicon,” Phys. Rev. B 41(17), 12140–12149 (1990).
[CrossRef]

von Raben, K. U.

B. J. Messinger, K. U. von Raben, R. K. Chang, and P. W. Barber, “Local-fields at the surface of noble metal microspheres,” Phys. Rev. B 24(2), 649–657 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Wang, K.

K. Wang and D. M. Mittleman, “Metal wires for terahertz wave guiding,” Nature 432(7015), 376–379 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ward, C.

M. Ordal, L. Long, R. Bell, S. Bell, R. Bell, R. Alexander, and C. Ward, “Optical properties of the metals Al, Co, Cu, Au, Fe, Pb, Ni, Pd, Pt, Ag, Ti, and W in the infrared and far infrared,” Appl. Opt. 22(7), 1099–1119 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Williams, C. R.

C. R. Williams, S. R. Andrews, S. A. Maier, A. I. Fernández-Domínguez, L. Martín-Moreno, and F. J. García-Vidal, “Highly confined guiding of terahertz surface plasmon polaritons on structured metal surfaces,” Nat. Photonics 2(3), 175–179 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Woolard, D.

R. Parthasarathy, A. Bykhovski, B. Gelmont, T. Globus, N. Swami, and D. Woolard, “Enhanced Coupling of Subterahertz Radiation with Semiconductor Periodic Slot Arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(15), 153906 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Xu, J.

W. Zhang, A. K. Azad, J. Han, J. Xu, J. Chen, and X.-C. Zhang, “Direct observation of a transition of a surface plasmon resonance from a photonic crystal effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(18), 183901 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yang, K. H.

K. H. Yang, P. L. Richards, and Y. R. Shen, “Generation of far-infrared radiation by picosecond light pulses in LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 19(9), 320–323 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, W.

W. Zhang, A. K. Azad, J. Han, J. Xu, J. Chen, and X.-C. Zhang, “Direct observation of a transition of a surface plasmon resonance from a photonic crystal effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(18), 183901 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Qu, D. Grischkowsky, and W. Zhang, “Terahertz transmission properties of thin, subwavelength metallic hole arrays,” Opt. Lett. 29(8), 896–898 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.-C.

W. Zhang, A. K. Azad, J. Han, J. Xu, J. Chen, and X.-C. Zhang, “Direct observation of a transition of a surface plasmon resonance from a photonic crystal effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(18), 183901 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zide, J. M. O.

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

M. Ordal, L. Long, R. Bell, S. Bell, R. Bell, R. Alexander, and C. Ward, “Optical properties of the metals Al, Co, Cu, Au, Fe, Pb, Ni, Pd, Pt, Ag, Ti, and W in the infrared and far infrared,” Appl. Opt. 22(7), 1099–1119 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

J. Gómez Rivas, M. Kuttge, H. Kurz, P. Haring Bolivar, and J. A. Sánchez-Gil, “Low-frequency active surface plasmon optics on semiconductors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(8), 082106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. H. Yang, P. L. Richards, and Y. R. Shen, “Generation of far-infrared radiation by picosecond light pulses in LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 19(9), 320–323 (1971).
[CrossRef]

R. Ulrich and M. Tacke, “Submillimeter waveguiding on periodic metal structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 22(5), 251–253 (1973).
[CrossRef]

M. Thomas, J.-J. Greffet, R. Carminati, and J. R. Arias-Gonzalez, “Single-molecule spontaneous emission close to absorbing nanostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(17), 3863–3865 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

V. Giannini and J. A. Sánchez-Gil, “Calculations of light scattering from isolated and interacting metallic nanowires with arbitrary cross section by means of Green’s theorem surface integral equations in parametric form,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24(9), 2822–2830 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett.

G. W. Bryant, F. J. García de Abajo, and J. Aizpurua, “Mapping the Plasmon Resonances of Metallic Nanoantennas,” Nano Lett. 8(2), 631–636 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, M. J. Cich, A. K. Azad, R. D. Averitt, and A. J. Taylor, “A metamaterial solid-state terahertz phase modulator,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 148–151 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Gómez Rivas, “THz: The art of confinement,” Nat. Photonics 2(3), 137–138 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Williams, S. R. Andrews, S. A. Maier, A. I. Fernández-Domínguez, L. Martín-Moreno, and F. J. García-Vidal, “Highly confined guiding of terahertz surface plasmon polaritons on structured metal surfaces,” Nat. Photonics 2(3), 175–179 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Seo, H. R. Park, S. M. Koo, D. J. Park, J. H. Kang, O. K. Suwal, S. S. Choi, P. C. M. Planken, G. S. Park, N. K. Park, Q. H. Park, and D. S. Kim, “Terahertz field enhancement by a metallic nano slit operating beyond the skin-depth limit,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 152–156 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nature

K. Wang and D. M. Mittleman, “Metal wires for terahertz wave guiding,” Nature 432(7015), 376–379 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

H. Cao and A. Nahata, “Resonantly enhanced transmission of terahertz radiation through a periodic array of subwavelength apertures,” Opt. Express 12(6), 1004–1010 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Rusina, M. Durach, K. A. Nelson, and M. I. Stockman, “Nanoconcentration of terahertz radiation in plasmonic waveguides,” Opt. Express 16(23), 18576–18589 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Cao and A. Nahata, “Coupling of terahertz pulses onto a single metal wire waveguide using milled grooves,” Opt. Express 13(18), 7028–7034 (2005).
[CrossRef]

O. L. Muskens, V. Giannini, J. A. Sánchez-Gil, and J. Gómez Rivas, “Optical scattering resonances of single and coupled dimer plasmonic nanoantennas,” Opt. Express 15(26), 17736–17746 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H.-T. Chen, H. Lu, A. K. Azad, R. D. Averitt, A. C. Gossard, S. A. Trugman, J. F. O’Hara, and A. J. Taylor, “Electronic control of extraordinary terahertz transmission through subwavelength metal hole arrays,” Opt. Express 16(11), 7641–7648 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Pan, C. F. Hsieh, R. P. Pan, M. Tanaka, F. Miyamaru, M. Tani, and M. Hangyo, “Control of enhanced THz transmission through metallic hole arrays using nematic liquid crystal,” Opt. Express 13(11), 3921–3930 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

J. G. Rivas, P. H. Bolivar, and H. Kurz, “Thermal switching of the enhanced transmission of terahertz radiation through sub-wavelength apertures,” Opt. Lett. 29(14), 1680–1682 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. Janke, J. G. Rivas, P. H. Bolivar, and H. Kurz, “All-optical switching of the transmission of electromagnetic radiation through subwavelength apertures,” Opt. Lett. 30(18), 2357–2359 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Qu, D. Grischkowsky, and W. Zhang, “Terahertz transmission properties of thin, subwavelength metallic hole arrays,” Opt. Lett. 29(8), 896–898 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B

J. Saxler, J. Gómez Rivas, C. Janke, H. P. M. Pellemans, P. Haring Bolivar, and H. Kurz, “Time domain measurements of surface plasmon polaritons in the terahertz frequency range,” Phys. Rev. B 69(15), 155427 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Mills and A. A. Maradudin, “Surface corrugation and surface-polariton binding in the infrared frequency range,” Phys. Rev. B 39(3), 1569–1574 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Sánchez-Gil and J. Gómez Rivas, “Thermal switching of the scattering coefficients of terahertz surface plasmon polaritons impinging on a finite array of subwavelength grooves on semiconductor surfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 73(20), 205410 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Gómez Rivas, J. A. Sánchez-Gil, M. Kuttge, P. Haring Bolívar, and H. Kurz, “Optically switchable mirrors for surface plasmon polaritons propagating on semiconductor surfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 74(24), 245324 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. van Exter and D. Grischkowsky, “Carrier dynamics of electrons and holes in moderately doped silicon,” Phys. Rev. B 41(17), 12140–12149 (1990).
[CrossRef]

V. Giannini, J. A. Sánchez-Gil, J. V. García-Ramos, and E. R. Méndez, “Collective electromagnetic emission from molecular layers on metal nanostructures mediated by surface plasmon,” Phys. Rev. B 75(23), 235447 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. J. Messinger, K. U. von Raben, R. K. Chang, and P. W. Barber, “Local-fields at the surface of noble metal microspheres,” Phys. Rev. B 24(2), 649–657 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

E. Hendry, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, L. Martin-Moreno, J. Gómez Rivas, M. Bonn, A. P. Hibbins, and M. J. Lockyear, “Optical control over surface plasmon polariton-assisted THz transmission through a slit aperture,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(12), 123901 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. Zhang, A. K. Azad, J. Han, J. Xu, J. Chen, and X.-C. Zhang, “Direct observation of a transition of a surface plasmon resonance from a photonic crystal effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(18), 183901 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. G. Rivas, M. Kuttge, P. H. Bolivar, H. Kurz, and J. A. Sánchez-Gil, “Propagation of surface plasmon polaritons on semiconductor gratings,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(25), 256804 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Parthasarathy, A. Bykhovski, B. Gelmont, T. Globus, N. Swami, and D. Woolard, “Enhanced Coupling of Subterahertz Radiation with Semiconductor Periodic Slot Arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(15), 153906 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Maier, S. R. Andrews, L. Martin-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, “Terahertz surface plasmon-polariton propagation and focusing on periodically corrugated metal wires,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(17), 1–4 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. H. Auston, A. M. Glass, and A. A. Ballman, “Optical Rectification by Impurities in Polar Crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 28(14), 897–900 (1972).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Schuck, D. P. Fromm, A. Sundaramurthy, G. S. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, “Improving the mismatch between light and nanoscale objects with gold bowtie nanoantennas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(1), 017402 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. Novotny, “Effective Wavelength Scaling for Optical Antennas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(26), 266802 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Science

J. B. Pendry, L. Martín-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, “Mimicking surface plasmons with structured surfaces,” Science 305(5685), 847–848 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. P. Hibbins, B. R. Evans, and J. R. Sambles, “Experimental verification of designer surface plasmons,” Science 308(5722), 670–672 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. Mühlschlegel, H.-J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, “Resonant optical antennas,” Science 308(5728), 1607–1609 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Other

S. Adachi, “Optical Constants of Crystalline and Amorphous Semiconductors: Numerical Data and Graphical Information,” Springer-Verlag, (1999).

Terahertz Spectroscopy, Principles and Applications, S.L. Dexheimer (ed.) (CRC Press, 2008).

S. A. Maier, “Plasmonics: Fundamentals and Applications,” Springer, (2007).

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