Abstract

In this paper, attributes of chalcogenide glass (ChG) based integrated devices are discussed in detail, including origins of optical loss and processing steps used to reduce their contributions to optical component performance. Specifically, efforts to reduce loss and tailor optical characteristics of planar devices utilizing solution-based glass processing and thermal reflow techniques are presented and their results quantified. Post-fabrication trimming techniques based on the intrinsic photosensitivity of the chalcogenide glass are exploited to compensate for fabrication imperfections of ring resonators. Process parameters and implications on enhancement of device fabrication flexibility are presented.

© 2010 OSA

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

2009

2008

X. Yu, Z. Wang, and Y. Han, “Microlenses fabricated by discontinuous dewetting and soft lithography,” Microelectron. Eng. 89, 18781881 (2008).

D. Choi, S. Madden, A. Rode, R. Wang, and B. Luther-Davies, “Plasma etching of As2S3 films for optical waveguides,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 354(27), 3179–3183 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Yang, H. Jain, A. Ganjoo, D. Zhao, Y. Xu, H. Zeng, and G. Chen, “A photo-stable chalcogenide glass,” Opt. Express 16(14), 10565–10571 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Melloni, F. Morichetti, C. Ferrari, and M. Martinelli, “Continuously tunable 1 byte delay in coupled-resonator optical waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 33(20), 2389–2391 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, M. J. Steel, C. Martijn de Sterke, and D. J. Moss, “High-Q cavities in photosensitive photonic crystals,” Opt. Lett. 32(5), 542–544 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. W. Lee, C. Grillet, C. L. Smith, D. J. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, D. Freeman, B. Luther-Davies, S. Madden, A. Rode, Y. Ruan, and Y. H. Lee, “Photosensitive post tuning of chalcogenide photonic crystal waveguides,” Opt. Express 15(3), 1277–1285 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Hu, V. Tarasov, A. Agarwal, L. Kimerling, N. Carlie, L. Petit, and K. Richardson, “Fabrication and testing of planar chalcogenide waveguide integrated microfluidic sensor,” Opt. Express 15(5), 2307–2314 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Hu, V. Tarasov, N. Carlie, N. N. Feng, L. Petit, A. Agarwal, K. Richardson, and L. Kimerling, “Si-CMOS-compatible lift-off fabrication of low-loss planar chalcogenide waveguides,” Opt. Express 15(19), 11798–11807 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Xia, M. Rooks, L. Sekaric, and Y. Vlasov, “Ultra-compact high order ring resonator filters using submicron silicon photonic wires for on-chip optical interconnects,” Opt. Express 15(19), 11934–11941 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Borselli, T. J. Johnson, and O. Painter, “Accurate measurement of scattering and absorption loss in microphotonic devices,” Opt. Lett. 32(20), 2954–2956 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Wilhelm, C. Boussard-Plédel, Q. Coulombier, J. Lucas, B. Bureau, and P. Lucas, “Development of Far-Infrared-Transmitting Te Based Glasses Suitable for Carbon Dioxide Detection and Space Optics,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 19(22), 3796–3800 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Hu, X. Sun, A. M. Agarwal, J.-F. Viens, L. C. Kimerling, L. Petit, N. Carlie, K. C. Richardson, T. Anderson, J. Choi, and M. Richardson, “Studies on Structural, Electrical and Optical Properties of Cu-doped As-Se-Te Chalcogenide Glasses,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(6), 063520 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

L. Petit, N. Carlie, F. Adamietz, M. Couzi, V. Rodriguez, and K. C. Richardson, “Correlation between physical, optical and structural properties of sulfide glasses in the system Ge-Sb-S,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 97(1), 64–70 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Nagata, S. W. Ko, E. Hong, C. A. Randall, S. Trolier-McKinstry, P. Pinceloup, D. Skamser, M. Randall, and A. Tajuddin, “Microcontact Printed BaTiO3 and LaNiO3 Thin Films for Capacitors,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 89, 2816–2821 (2006).

R. Wang, S. Madden, C. Zha, A. Rode, and B. Luther-Davies, “Annealing induced phase transformation in amorphous As2S3 films,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(6), 063524 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Lucas, “Energy landscape and photoinduced structural changes in chalcogenide glasses,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 18(24), 5629–5638 (2006).
[CrossRef]

U. Levy, K. Campbell, A. Groisman, S. Mookherjea, and Y. Fainman, “On-chip microfluidic tuning of an optical microring resonator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(11), 111107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. Hô, M. C. Phillips, H. Qiao, P. J. Allen, K. Krishnaswami, B. J. Riley, T. L. Myers, and N. C. Anheier., “Single-mode low-loss chalcogenide glass waveguides for the mid-infrared,” Opt. Lett. 31(12), 1860–1862 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M.-C. M. Lee and M. C. Wu, “Tunable coupling regimes of silicon microdisk resonators using MEMS actuators,” Opt. Express 14(11), 4703–4712 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

T. Barwicz and H. Haus, “Three-dimensional analysis of scattering losses due to sidewall roughness in microphotonic waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23(9), 2719–2732 (2005).
[CrossRef]

W. Li, S. Seal, C. Rivero, C. Lopez, K. Richardson, A. Pope, A. Schulte, S. Myneni, H. Jain, K. Antoine, and A. Miller, “Role of S/Se ratio in chemical bonding of As-S-Se glasses investigated by Raman, x-ray photoelectron, and extended x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopies,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(5), 053503 (2005).
[CrossRef]

V. Shiryaev, S. Smetanin, D. Ovchinnikov, M. Churbanov, E. Kryukova, and V. Plotnichenko, “Effects of Oxygen and Carbon Impurities on the Optical Transmission of As2Se3 Glass,” Inorg. Mater. 41(3), 308–314 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Webster, R. Pafchek, G. Sukumaran, and T. Koch, “Low-loss quasi-planar ridge waveguides formed on thin silicon-on-insulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(23), 231108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

2003

H. Liu, Y. Lin, and W. Hsu, “Sidewall roughness control in advanced silicon etch process,” Microsyst. Technol. 10(1), 29–34 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Zakery and S. R. Elliot, “Optical properties and applications of chalcogenide glasses: a review,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 330(1-3), 1–12 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. Yanagase, S. Yamagata, and Y. Kokubun, “Wavelength tunable polymer microring resonator filter with 9.4 nm tuning range,” Electron. Lett. 39(12), 922–924 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

A. Tverjanovich, “Calculation of viscosity of chalcogenide glasses near glass transition temperature from heat capacity or thermal expansion data,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 298(2-3), 226–231 (2002).
[CrossRef]

E. Mytilineou, “Chalcogenide amorphous semiconductors: chemical modification or doping?” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. 4, 705–710 (2002).

A. Melloni and M. Martinelli, “Synthesis of Direct-Coupled-Resonators Bandpass Filters for WDM Systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 20(2), 296–303 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. van Popta, R. Decorby, C. Haugen, T. Robinson, J. McMullin, D. Tonchev, and S. Kasap, “Photoinduced refractive index change in As2Se3 by 633nm illumination,” Opt. Express 10(15), 639–644 (2002).
[PubMed]

2001

O. Efimov, L. Glebov, K. Richardson, E. Van Stryland, T. Cardinal, S. Park, M. Couzi, and J. Bruneel, “Waveguide writing in chalcogenide glasses by a train of femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Mater. 17(3), 379–386 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. Y. Suh, Y. S. Kim, and H. H. Lee, “Capillary Force Lithography,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 13(18), 1386–1389 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999

1997

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, J. Foresi, and J.-P. Laine, “Microring resonator channel dropping filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(6), 998–1005 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. Sudoh, Y. Nakano, and K. Tada, “Wavelength trimming technology for multiple-wavelength distributed feedback laser array by photo-induced refractive index change,” Electron. Lett. 33(3), 216–217 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Atkinson, J. Doorbar, A. Hudd, D. L. Segal, and P. J. White, ““Continuous ink-jet printing using sol-gel “Ceramic” inks,” J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol. 8(1-3), 1093–1097 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995

W. A. King, A. G. Clare, and W. C. LaCourse, “Laboratory preparation of highly pure As2Se3 glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 181(3), 231–237 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

J. S. Sanghera, V. Q. Nguyen, P. C. Pureza, F. H. Kung, R. Miklos, and I. D. Aggarwal, “Fabrication of Low-Loss IR-Transmitting Ge30As10Se30Te30 Glass Fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12(5), 737–741 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

R. Syms and A. Holmes, “Reflow and Burial of Channel Waveguides Formed in Sol-Gel Glass on Si Substrates,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5(9), 1077–1079 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992

A. M. Reitter, A. N. Sreeram, A. K. Varshneya, and D. R. Swiler, “Modified preparation procedure for laboratory melting of multicomponent chalcogenide glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 139, 121–128 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1990

R. T. Brown, “Laser-assisted selective chemical etching for active trimming of GaAs waveguide devices,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2(5), 346–348 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1987

J. J. Santiago, M. Sano, M. Hamman, and N. Chen, “Growth and optical characterization of spin-coated As2S3 multilayer thin films,” Thin Solid Films 147(3), 275–284 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1980

K. Tanaka, “Reversible photostructural change: mechanisms, properties and applications,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 35–36, 1023–1034 (1980).
[CrossRef]

S. Dutta, H. Jackson, and J. Boyd, “Reduction of scattering from a glass thin-film optical waveguide by CO2 laser annealing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 37(6), 512–514 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1979

T. T. Nang, M. Okuda, and T. Matsushita, “Photo-induced absorption change in some Se-based glass alloy systems,” Phys. Rev. B 19(2), 947–955 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1975

C. Moynihan, P. Macedo, M. Maklad, R. Mohr, and R. Howard, “Intrinsic and Impurity Infrared Absorption in As2Se3 Glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 17(3), 369–385 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Adamietz, F.

L. Petit, N. Carlie, F. Adamietz, M. Couzi, V. Rodriguez, and K. C. Richardson, “Correlation between physical, optical and structural properties of sulfide glasses in the system Ge-Sb-S,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 97(1), 64–70 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Agarwal, A.

Agarwal, A. M.

J. Hu, X. Sun, A. M. Agarwal, J.-F. Viens, L. C. Kimerling, L. Petit, N. Carlie, K. C. Richardson, T. Anderson, J. Choi, and M. Richardson, “Studies on Structural, Electrical and Optical Properties of Cu-doped As-Se-Te Chalcogenide Glasses,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(6), 063520 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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J. S. Sanghera, V. Q. Nguyen, P. C. Pureza, F. H. Kung, R. Miklos, and I. D. Aggarwal, “Fabrication of Low-Loss IR-Transmitting Ge30As10Se30Te30 Glass Fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12(5), 737–741 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Allen, P. J.

Anderson, T.

J. Hu, X. Sun, A. M. Agarwal, J.-F. Viens, L. C. Kimerling, L. Petit, N. Carlie, K. C. Richardson, T. Anderson, J. Choi, and M. Richardson, “Studies on Structural, Electrical and Optical Properties of Cu-doped As-Se-Te Chalcogenide Glasses,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(6), 063520 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Anheier, N. C.

Antoine, K.

W. Li, S. Seal, C. Rivero, C. Lopez, K. Richardson, A. Pope, A. Schulte, S. Myneni, H. Jain, K. Antoine, and A. Miller, “Role of S/Se ratio in chemical bonding of As-S-Se glasses investigated by Raman, x-ray photoelectron, and extended x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopies,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(5), 053503 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Arnold, C. B.

C. Tsay, E. Mujagić, C. K. Madsen, C. F. Gmachl, and C. B. Arnold, “Mid-infrared characterization of solution-processed As2S3 chalcogenide glass waveguides,” Opt. Express 18(15), 15523–15530 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Song, N. Carlie, J. Boudies, L. Petit, K. Richardson, and C. B. Arnold, “Spin-Coating of Ge23Sb7S70 Chalcogenide Glass Thin Films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 355(45-47), 2272–2278 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Atkinson, A.

A. Atkinson, J. Doorbar, A. Hudd, D. L. Segal, and P. J. White, ““Continuous ink-jet printing using sol-gel “Ceramic” inks,” J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol. 8(1-3), 1093–1097 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Baets, R.

Barwicz, T.

Beeckman, J.

Borselli, M.

Boudies, J.

S. Song, N. Carlie, J. Boudies, L. Petit, K. Richardson, and C. B. Arnold, “Spin-Coating of Ge23Sb7S70 Chalcogenide Glass Thin Films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 355(45-47), 2272–2278 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Boussard-Plédel, C.

A. Wilhelm, C. Boussard-Plédel, Q. Coulombier, J. Lucas, B. Bureau, and P. Lucas, “Development of Far-Infrared-Transmitting Te Based Glasses Suitable for Carbon Dioxide Detection and Space Optics,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 19(22), 3796–3800 (2007).
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S. Dutta, H. Jackson, and J. Boyd, “Reduction of scattering from a glass thin-film optical waveguide by CO2 laser annealing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 37(6), 512–514 (1980).
[CrossRef]

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R. T. Brown, “Laser-assisted selective chemical etching for active trimming of GaAs waveguide devices,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2(5), 346–348 (1990).
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Bruneel, J.

O. Efimov, L. Glebov, K. Richardson, E. Van Stryland, T. Cardinal, S. Park, M. Couzi, and J. Bruneel, “Waveguide writing in chalcogenide glasses by a train of femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Mater. 17(3), 379–386 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bureau, B.

A. Wilhelm, C. Boussard-Plédel, Q. Coulombier, J. Lucas, B. Bureau, and P. Lucas, “Development of Far-Infrared-Transmitting Te Based Glasses Suitable for Carbon Dioxide Detection and Space Optics,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 19(22), 3796–3800 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Campbell, K.

U. Levy, K. Campbell, A. Groisman, S. Mookherjea, and Y. Fainman, “On-chip microfluidic tuning of an optical microring resonator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(11), 111107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cardinal, T.

O. Efimov, L. Glebov, K. Richardson, E. Van Stryland, T. Cardinal, S. Park, M. Couzi, and J. Bruneel, “Waveguide writing in chalcogenide glasses by a train of femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Mater. 17(3), 379–386 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Carlie, N.

J. Hu, M. Torregiani, F. Morichetti, N. Carlie, A. Agarwal, K. Richardson, L. C. Kimerling, and A. Melloni, “Resonant cavity-enhanced photosensitivity in As2S3 chalcogenide glass at 1550 nm telecommunication wavelength,” Opt. Lett. 35(6), 874–876 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Hu, N. N. Feng, N. Carlie, L. Petit, A. Agarwal, K. Richardson, and L. C. Kimerling, “Optical loss reduction in high-index-contrast chalcogenide glass waveguides via thermal reflow,” Opt. Express 18(2), 1469–1478 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Song, N. Carlie, J. Boudies, L. Petit, K. Richardson, and C. B. Arnold, “Spin-Coating of Ge23Sb7S70 Chalcogenide Glass Thin Films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 355(45-47), 2272–2278 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Hu, N. Carlie, L. Petit, A. Agarwal, K. Richardson, and L. C. Kimerling, “Cavity-enhanced infrared absorption in planar chalcogenide glass resonators: experiment & analysis,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(23), 5240–5245 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Hu, V. Tarasov, N. Carlie, N. N. Feng, L. Petit, A. Agarwal, K. Richardson, and L. Kimerling, “Si-CMOS-compatible lift-off fabrication of low-loss planar chalcogenide waveguides,” Opt. Express 15(19), 11798–11807 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Hu, V. Tarasov, A. Agarwal, L. Kimerling, N. Carlie, L. Petit, and K. Richardson, “Fabrication and testing of planar chalcogenide waveguide integrated microfluidic sensor,” Opt. Express 15(5), 2307–2314 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Hu, X. Sun, A. M. Agarwal, J.-F. Viens, L. C. Kimerling, L. Petit, N. Carlie, K. C. Richardson, T. Anderson, J. Choi, and M. Richardson, “Studies on Structural, Electrical and Optical Properties of Cu-doped As-Se-Te Chalcogenide Glasses,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(6), 063520 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Petit, N. Carlie, F. Adamietz, M. Couzi, V. Rodriguez, and K. C. Richardson, “Correlation between physical, optical and structural properties of sulfide glasses in the system Ge-Sb-S,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 97(1), 64–70 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, G.

Chen, N.

J. J. Santiago, M. Sano, M. Hamman, and N. Chen, “Growth and optical characterization of spin-coated As2S3 multilayer thin films,” Thin Solid Films 147(3), 275–284 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Choi, D.

D. Choi, S. Madden, A. Rode, R. Wang, and B. Luther-Davies, “Plasma etching of As2S3 films for optical waveguides,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 354(27), 3179–3183 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Choi, J.

J. Hu, X. Sun, A. M. Agarwal, J.-F. Viens, L. C. Kimerling, L. Petit, N. Carlie, K. C. Richardson, T. Anderson, J. Choi, and M. Richardson, “Studies on Structural, Electrical and Optical Properties of Cu-doped As-Se-Te Chalcogenide Glasses,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(6), 063520 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, J. Foresi, and J.-P. Laine, “Microring resonator channel dropping filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(6), 998–1005 (1997).
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V. Shiryaev, S. Smetanin, D. Ovchinnikov, M. Churbanov, E. Kryukova, and V. Plotnichenko, “Effects of Oxygen and Carbon Impurities on the Optical Transmission of As2Se3 Glass,” Inorg. Mater. 41(3), 308–314 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Clare, A. G.

W. A. King, A. G. Clare, and W. C. LaCourse, “Laboratory preparation of highly pure As2Se3 glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 181(3), 231–237 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Coulombier, Q.

A. Wilhelm, C. Boussard-Plédel, Q. Coulombier, J. Lucas, B. Bureau, and P. Lucas, “Development of Far-Infrared-Transmitting Te Based Glasses Suitable for Carbon Dioxide Detection and Space Optics,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 19(22), 3796–3800 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Couzi, M.

L. Petit, N. Carlie, F. Adamietz, M. Couzi, V. Rodriguez, and K. C. Richardson, “Correlation between physical, optical and structural properties of sulfide glasses in the system Ge-Sb-S,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 97(1), 64–70 (2006).
[CrossRef]

O. Efimov, L. Glebov, K. Richardson, E. Van Stryland, T. Cardinal, S. Park, M. Couzi, and J. Bruneel, “Waveguide writing in chalcogenide glasses by a train of femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Mater. 17(3), 379–386 (2001).
[CrossRef]

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Decorby, R.

Doorbar, J.

A. Atkinson, J. Doorbar, A. Hudd, D. L. Segal, and P. J. White, ““Continuous ink-jet printing using sol-gel “Ceramic” inks,” J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol. 8(1-3), 1093–1097 (1997).
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Dutta, S.

S. Dutta, H. Jackson, and J. Boyd, “Reduction of scattering from a glass thin-film optical waveguide by CO2 laser annealing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 37(6), 512–514 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Efimov, O.

O. Efimov, L. Glebov, K. Richardson, E. Van Stryland, T. Cardinal, S. Park, M. Couzi, and J. Bruneel, “Waveguide writing in chalcogenide glasses by a train of femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Mater. 17(3), 379–386 (2001).
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Elliot, S. R.

A. Zakery and S. R. Elliot, “Optical properties and applications of chalcogenide glasses: a review,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 330(1-3), 1–12 (2003).
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U. Levy, K. Campbell, A. Groisman, S. Mookherjea, and Y. Fainman, “On-chip microfluidic tuning of an optical microring resonator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(11), 111107 (2006).
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Fernández, F. A.

Ferrari, C.

Foresi, J.

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, J. Foresi, and J.-P. Laine, “Microring resonator channel dropping filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(6), 998–1005 (1997).
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Galstyan, T. V.

Ganjoo, A.

Glebov, L.

O. Efimov, L. Glebov, K. Richardson, E. Van Stryland, T. Cardinal, S. Park, M. Couzi, and J. Bruneel, “Waveguide writing in chalcogenide glasses by a train of femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Mater. 17(3), 379–386 (2001).
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Gmachl, C. F.

Grillet, C.

Groisman, A.

U. Levy, K. Campbell, A. Groisman, S. Mookherjea, and Y. Fainman, “On-chip microfluidic tuning of an optical microring resonator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(11), 111107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hamman, M.

J. J. Santiago, M. Sano, M. Hamman, and N. Chen, “Growth and optical characterization of spin-coated As2S3 multilayer thin films,” Thin Solid Films 147(3), 275–284 (1987).
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X. Yu, Z. Wang, and Y. Han, “Microlenses fabricated by discontinuous dewetting and soft lithography,” Microelectron. Eng. 89, 18781881 (2008).

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Haus, H. A.

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, J. Foresi, and J.-P. Laine, “Microring resonator channel dropping filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(6), 998–1005 (1997).
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Holmes, A.

R. Syms and A. Holmes, “Reflow and Burial of Channel Waveguides Formed in Sol-Gel Glass on Si Substrates,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5(9), 1077–1079 (1993).
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Hong, E.

H. Nagata, S. W. Ko, E. Hong, C. A. Randall, S. Trolier-McKinstry, P. Pinceloup, D. Skamser, M. Randall, and A. Tajuddin, “Microcontact Printed BaTiO3 and LaNiO3 Thin Films for Capacitors,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 89, 2816–2821 (2006).

Howard, R.

C. Moynihan, P. Macedo, M. Maklad, R. Mohr, and R. Howard, “Intrinsic and Impurity Infrared Absorption in As2Se3 Glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 17(3), 369–385 (1975).
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Hsu, W.

H. Liu, Y. Lin, and W. Hsu, “Sidewall roughness control in advanced silicon etch process,” Microsyst. Technol. 10(1), 29–34 (2003).
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Hu, J.

J. Hu, “Ultra-sensitive chemical vapor detection using micro-cavity photothermal spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 18(21), 22174–22186 (2010).
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J. Hu, N. N. Feng, N. Carlie, L. Petit, A. Agarwal, K. Richardson, and L. C. Kimerling, “Optical loss reduction in high-index-contrast chalcogenide glass waveguides via thermal reflow,” Opt. Express 18(2), 1469–1478 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Hu, M. Torregiani, F. Morichetti, N. Carlie, A. Agarwal, K. Richardson, L. C. Kimerling, and A. Melloni, “Resonant cavity-enhanced photosensitivity in As2S3 chalcogenide glass at 1550 nm telecommunication wavelength,” Opt. Lett. 35(6), 874–876 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Hu, N. Carlie, L. Petit, A. Agarwal, K. Richardson, and L. C. Kimerling, “Cavity-enhanced infrared absorption in planar chalcogenide glass resonators: experiment & analysis,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(23), 5240–5245 (2009).
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J. Hu, X. Sun, A. Agarwal, and L. C. Kimerling, “Design guidelines for optical resonator biochemical sensors,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 26(5), 1032–1041 (2009).
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J. Hu, X. Sun, A. M. Agarwal, J.-F. Viens, L. C. Kimerling, L. Petit, N. Carlie, K. C. Richardson, T. Anderson, J. Choi, and M. Richardson, “Studies on Structural, Electrical and Optical Properties of Cu-doped As-Se-Te Chalcogenide Glasses,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(6), 063520 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Hu, V. Tarasov, N. Carlie, N. N. Feng, L. Petit, A. Agarwal, K. Richardson, and L. Kimerling, “Si-CMOS-compatible lift-off fabrication of low-loss planar chalcogenide waveguides,” Opt. Express 15(19), 11798–11807 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Hu, V. Tarasov, A. Agarwal, L. Kimerling, N. Carlie, L. Petit, and K. Richardson, “Fabrication and testing of planar chalcogenide waveguide integrated microfluidic sensor,” Opt. Express 15(5), 2307–2314 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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A. Atkinson, J. Doorbar, A. Hudd, D. L. Segal, and P. J. White, ““Continuous ink-jet printing using sol-gel “Ceramic” inks,” J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol. 8(1-3), 1093–1097 (1997).
[CrossRef]

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S. Dutta, H. Jackson, and J. Boyd, “Reduction of scattering from a glass thin-film optical waveguide by CO2 laser annealing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 37(6), 512–514 (1980).
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G. Yang, H. Jain, A. Ganjoo, D. Zhao, Y. Xu, H. Zeng, and G. Chen, “A photo-stable chalcogenide glass,” Opt. Express 16(14), 10565–10571 (2008).
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W. Li, S. Seal, C. Rivero, C. Lopez, K. Richardson, A. Pope, A. Schulte, S. Myneni, H. Jain, K. Antoine, and A. Miller, “Role of S/Se ratio in chemical bonding of As-S-Se glasses investigated by Raman, x-ray photoelectron, and extended x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopies,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(5), 053503 (2005).
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Jarvis, R.

Johnson, T. J.

Kasap, S.

Kim, Y. S.

K. Y. Suh, Y. S. Kim, and H. H. Lee, “Capillary Force Lithography,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 13(18), 1386–1389 (2001).
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Kimerling, L.

Kimerling, L. C.

King, W. A.

W. A. King, A. G. Clare, and W. C. LaCourse, “Laboratory preparation of highly pure As2Se3 glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 181(3), 231–237 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ko, S. W.

H. Nagata, S. W. Ko, E. Hong, C. A. Randall, S. Trolier-McKinstry, P. Pinceloup, D. Skamser, M. Randall, and A. Tajuddin, “Microcontact Printed BaTiO3 and LaNiO3 Thin Films for Capacitors,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 89, 2816–2821 (2006).

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M. Webster, R. Pafchek, G. Sukumaran, and T. Koch, “Low-loss quasi-planar ridge waveguides formed on thin silicon-on-insulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(23), 231108 (2005).
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Y. Yanagase, S. Yamagata, and Y. Kokubun, “Wavelength tunable polymer microring resonator filter with 9.4 nm tuning range,” Electron. Lett. 39(12), 922–924 (2003).
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Krishnaswami, K.

Kryukova, E.

V. Shiryaev, S. Smetanin, D. Ovchinnikov, M. Churbanov, E. Kryukova, and V. Plotnichenko, “Effects of Oxygen and Carbon Impurities on the Optical Transmission of As2Se3 Glass,” Inorg. Mater. 41(3), 308–314 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kung, F. H.

J. S. Sanghera, V. Q. Nguyen, P. C. Pureza, F. H. Kung, R. Miklos, and I. D. Aggarwal, “Fabrication of Low-Loss IR-Transmitting Ge30As10Se30Te30 Glass Fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12(5), 737–741 (1994).
[CrossRef]

LaCourse, W. C.

W. A. King, A. G. Clare, and W. C. LaCourse, “Laboratory preparation of highly pure As2Se3 glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 181(3), 231–237 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Laine, J.-P.

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, J. Foresi, and J.-P. Laine, “Microring resonator channel dropping filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(6), 998–1005 (1997).
[CrossRef]

LaRochelle, S.

Lee, H. H.

K. Y. Suh, Y. S. Kim, and H. H. Lee, “Capillary Force Lithography,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 13(18), 1386–1389 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lee, M. W.

Lee, M.-C. M.

Lee, Y. H.

Levy, U.

U. Levy, K. Campbell, A. Groisman, S. Mookherjea, and Y. Fainman, “On-chip microfluidic tuning of an optical microring resonator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(11), 111107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Li, W.

W. Li, S. Seal, C. Rivero, C. Lopez, K. Richardson, A. Pope, A. Schulte, S. Myneni, H. Jain, K. Antoine, and A. Miller, “Role of S/Se ratio in chemical bonding of As-S-Se glasses investigated by Raman, x-ray photoelectron, and extended x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopies,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(5), 053503 (2005).
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Y. Ruan, W. Li, R. Jarvis, N. Madsen, A. Rode, and B. Luther-Davies, “Fabrication and characterization of low loss rib chalcogenide waveguides made by dry etching,” Opt. Express 12(21), 5140–5145 (2004).
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H. Liu, Y. Lin, and W. Hsu, “Sidewall roughness control in advanced silicon etch process,” Microsyst. Technol. 10(1), 29–34 (2003).
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B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, J. Foresi, and J.-P. Laine, “Microring resonator channel dropping filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(6), 998–1005 (1997).
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H. Liu, Y. Lin, and W. Hsu, “Sidewall roughness control in advanced silicon etch process,” Microsyst. Technol. 10(1), 29–34 (2003).
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W. Li, S. Seal, C. Rivero, C. Lopez, K. Richardson, A. Pope, A. Schulte, S. Myneni, H. Jain, K. Antoine, and A. Miller, “Role of S/Se ratio in chemical bonding of As-S-Se glasses investigated by Raman, x-ray photoelectron, and extended x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopies,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(5), 053503 (2005).
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A. Zoubir, M. Richardson, C. Rivero, A. Schulte, C. Lopez, K. Richardson, N. Hô, and R. Vallée, “Direct femtosecond laser writing of waveguides in As2S3 thin films,” Opt. Lett. 29(7), 748–750 (2004).
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A. Wilhelm, C. Boussard-Plédel, Q. Coulombier, J. Lucas, B. Bureau, and P. Lucas, “Development of Far-Infrared-Transmitting Te Based Glasses Suitable for Carbon Dioxide Detection and Space Optics,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 19(22), 3796–3800 (2007).
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Lucas, P.

A. Wilhelm, C. Boussard-Plédel, Q. Coulombier, J. Lucas, B. Bureau, and P. Lucas, “Development of Far-Infrared-Transmitting Te Based Glasses Suitable for Carbon Dioxide Detection and Space Optics,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 19(22), 3796–3800 (2007).
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P. Lucas, “Energy landscape and photoinduced structural changes in chalcogenide glasses,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 18(24), 5629–5638 (2006).
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C. Moynihan, P. Macedo, M. Maklad, R. Mohr, and R. Howard, “Intrinsic and Impurity Infrared Absorption in As2Se3 Glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 17(3), 369–385 (1975).
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D. Choi, S. Madden, A. Rode, R. Wang, and B. Luther-Davies, “Plasma etching of As2S3 films for optical waveguides,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 354(27), 3179–3183 (2008).
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Madsen, N.

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C. Moynihan, P. Macedo, M. Maklad, R. Mohr, and R. Howard, “Intrinsic and Impurity Infrared Absorption in As2Se3 Glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 17(3), 369–385 (1975).
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Martijn de Sterke, C.

Martinelli, M.

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J. S. Sanghera, V. Q. Nguyen, P. C. Pureza, F. H. Kung, R. Miklos, and I. D. Aggarwal, “Fabrication of Low-Loss IR-Transmitting Ge30As10Se30Te30 Glass Fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12(5), 737–741 (1994).
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Miller, A.

W. Li, S. Seal, C. Rivero, C. Lopez, K. Richardson, A. Pope, A. Schulte, S. Myneni, H. Jain, K. Antoine, and A. Miller, “Role of S/Se ratio in chemical bonding of As-S-Se glasses investigated by Raman, x-ray photoelectron, and extended x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopies,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(5), 053503 (2005).
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Mohr, R.

C. Moynihan, P. Macedo, M. Maklad, R. Mohr, and R. Howard, “Intrinsic and Impurity Infrared Absorption in As2Se3 Glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 17(3), 369–385 (1975).
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Mookherjea, S.

U. Levy, K. Campbell, A. Groisman, S. Mookherjea, and Y. Fainman, “On-chip microfluidic tuning of an optical microring resonator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(11), 111107 (2006).
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Morichetti, F.

Moss, D. J.

Moynihan, C.

C. Moynihan, P. Macedo, M. Maklad, R. Mohr, and R. Howard, “Intrinsic and Impurity Infrared Absorption in As2Se3 Glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 17(3), 369–385 (1975).
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Mujagic, E.

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J. Hu, V. Tarasov, A. Agarwal, L. Kimerling, N. Carlie, L. Petit, and K. Richardson, “Fabrication and testing of planar chalcogenide waveguide integrated microfluidic sensor,” Opt. Express 15(5), 2307–2314 (2007).
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H. Nagata, S. W. Ko, E. Hong, C. A. Randall, S. Trolier-McKinstry, P. Pinceloup, D. Skamser, M. Randall, and A. Tajuddin, “Microcontact Printed BaTiO3 and LaNiO3 Thin Films for Capacitors,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 89, 2816–2821 (2006).

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J. Hu, N. Carlie, L. Petit, A. Agarwal, K. Richardson, and L. C. Kimerling, “Cavity-enhanced infrared absorption in planar chalcogenide glass resonators: experiment & analysis,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(23), 5240–5245 (2009).
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J. Hu, V. Tarasov, A. Agarwal, L. Kimerling, N. Carlie, L. Petit, and K. Richardson, “Fabrication and testing of planar chalcogenide waveguide integrated microfluidic sensor,” Opt. Express 15(5), 2307–2314 (2007).
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A. Zoubir, M. Richardson, C. Rivero, A. Schulte, C. Lopez, K. Richardson, N. Hô, and R. Vallée, “Direct femtosecond laser writing of waveguides in As2S3 thin films,” Opt. Lett. 29(7), 748–750 (2004).
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We have experimentally observed second phase precipitates and optical loss increase in Ge-Sb-S glass waveguides and resonators reflowed at temperatures above 300 °C.

http://www.amorphousmaterials.com/IR%20Fibers.htm

Supplementary Material (2)

» Media 1: MOV (226 KB)     
» Media 2: MOV (384 KB)     

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Oxygen, carbon and hydrogen impurity concentrations in bulk Ge23Sb7S70 glass and thin films thermally evaporated from the same batch of bulk glass.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Schematic illustration of a glass surface with sinusoidal roughness characterized by a spatial period L; (b) calculated internal pressure due to surface tension in glass with a rough surface (reproduced from Ref. 28).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Surface morphology of As2S3 chalcogenide waveguides measured by AFM: (a) as-patterned; (b) reflowed at 230 °C for 15 s exhibiting reduced sidewall roughness; and (c) reflowed at 245 °C for 15 s showing significant cross-sectional geometry modification (reproduced from Ref. 28).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Cross-sectional SEM micrograph of Ge-Sb-S waveguides (a) before and (b) after solution cladding.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

AFM line scans for coated and uncoated waveguides.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Relative optical loss at 1550 nm for coated waveguides as a function of spin-speed and hard-bake temperature (speed/temperature).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Process flow chart for capillary force lithography technique.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

High (a) and low (b) resolution scans of CFL-derived As2S3 grating, showing good reproduction of mold geometry, but with high roughness.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

AFM surface profiles for soft-bake (a) and hard-bake (b) CFL-derived As2S3 grating, showing significantly improved surface roughness.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

(a) Schematic of a second order filter made by two directly coupled micro-ring resonators; (b) theoretical spectral response of the filter with FSR = 1 nm and B = 0.25 nm when λR1 = λR2 (blue solid line), and when λR1 - λR2 = FSR/3 = 0.3 nm (black dashed line).

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

(a) Photograph of the As2S3 two-ring device and schematic of the post-fabrication photoinduced trimming process: the sample is selectively illuminated with visible light through a rectangular aperture; (b) experimental spectral response of the filter: as fabricated (black dashed line), during the progressive tuning of resonances (dotted lines) and in the tuning condition after the exposure (blue solid line) (Media 1).

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

(a) Permanent tuning of the device working wavelength by visible light exposure of the whole circuit: from the initial position (black dashed line), the experimental spectral response is “rigidly” shifted over a full FSR (blue solid line). (Media 2); (b) comparison between the experimental spectral responses measured immediately after the 2nd exposure (black dashed line) and after 1-week storage in dark (blue solid line).

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