Abstract

Laser action has been demonstrated in chalcogenide glass microsphere. A sub millimeter neodymium-doped gallium lanthanum sulphide glass sphere was pumped at 808 nm with a laser diode and single and multimode laser action demonstrated at wavelengths between 1075 and 1086 nm. The gallium lanthanum sulphide family of glass offer higher thermal stability compared to other chalcogenide glasses, and this, along with an optimized Q-factor for the microcavity allowed laser action to be achieved. When varying the pump power, changes in the output spectrum suggest nonlinear and/or thermal effects have a strong effect on laser action.

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2009

2008

A. Faraon, D. Englund, D. Bulla, B. Luther-Davies, B. J. Eggleton, N. Stoltz, P. Petroff, and J. Vučković, “Local tuning of photonic crystal cavities using chalcogenide glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(4), 043123–042125 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

2006

Y. S. Park, A. K. Cook, and H. Wang, “Cavity QED with diamond nanocrystals and silica microspheres,” Nano Lett. 6(9), 2075–2079 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

X. Peng, F. Song, S. Jiang, N. Peyghambarian, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, and L. Xu, “Fiber-taper-coupled L-band Er3+-doped tellurite glass microsphere laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(10), 1497–1499 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

K. Sasagawa, K. Kusawake, J. Ohta, and M. Nunoshita, “Nd-doped tellurite glass microsphere laser,” Electron. Lett. 38(22), 1355–1357 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Mairaj, A. M. Chardon, D. P. Shepherd, and D. W. Hewak, “Laser performance and spectroscopic analysis of optically written channel waveguides in neodymium-doped gallium lanthanum sulphide glass,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(6), 1381–1388 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Spillane, T. J. Kippenberg, and K. J. Vahala, “Ultralow-threshold Raman laser using a spherical dielectric microcavity,” Nature 415(6872), 621–623 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001

1999

1998

M. Kuwata-Gonokami and K. Takeda, “Polymer whispering gallery mode lasers,” Opt. Mater. 9(1-4), 12–17 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

T. Schweizer, B. N. Samson, R. C. Moore, D. W. Hewak, and D. N. Payne, “Rare-earth doped chalcogenide glass fibre laser,” Electron. Lett. 33(5), 414–416 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

V. Sandoghdar, F. Treussart, J. Hare, V. Lefèvre-Seguin, J.-M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, “Very low threshold whispering-gallery-mode microsphere laser,” Phys. Rev. A 54(3), R1777–R1780 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Schweizer, D. W. Hewak, D. N. Payne, T. Jensen, and G. Huber, “Rare-earth doped chalcogenide glass laser,” Electron. Lett. 32(7), 666–667 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. Miura, K. Tanaka, and K. Hirao, “Laser oscillation of a Nd3+-doped fluoride glass microsphere,” J. Mater. Sci. Lett. 15(21), 1854–1857 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1993

L. Collot, V. Lefevre-Seguin, M. Brune, J. M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, “Very high-Q whispering-gallery mode resonances observed on fused silica microspheres,” Europhys. Lett. 23(5), 327–334 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1990

P. N. Kumta and S. H. Risbud, “Novel glasses in rare-earth sulphide systems,” Ceramic Bull. 69, 1977–1984 (1990).

1961

C. G. B. Garrett, W. Kaiser, and W. L. Bond, “Stimulated. Emission into Optical Whispering Modes of Spheres,” Phys. Rev. 124(6), 1807–1809 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Agha, I. H.

Bond, W. L.

C. G. B. Garrett, W. Kaiser, and W. L. Bond, “Stimulated. Emission into Optical Whispering Modes of Spheres,” Phys. Rev. 124(6), 1807–1809 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Broaddus, D. H.

Brune, M.

L. Collot, V. Lefevre-Seguin, M. Brune, J. M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, “Very high-Q whispering-gallery mode resonances observed on fused silica microspheres,” Europhys. Lett. 23(5), 327–334 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Bulla, D.

A. Faraon, D. Englund, D. Bulla, B. Luther-Davies, B. J. Eggleton, N. Stoltz, P. Petroff, and J. Vučković, “Local tuning of photonic crystal cavities using chalcogenide glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(4), 043123–042125 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cai, M.

Chardon, A. M.

A. K. Mairaj, A. M. Chardon, D. P. Shepherd, and D. W. Hewak, “Laser performance and spectroscopic analysis of optically written channel waveguides in neodymium-doped gallium lanthanum sulphide glass,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(6), 1381–1388 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Collot, L.

L. Collot, V. Lefevre-Seguin, M. Brune, J. M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, “Very high-Q whispering-gallery mode resonances observed on fused silica microspheres,” Europhys. Lett. 23(5), 327–334 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Cook, A. K.

Y. S. Park, A. K. Cook, and H. Wang, “Cavity QED with diamond nanocrystals and silica microspheres,” Nano Lett. 6(9), 2075–2079 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eggleton, B. J.

A. Faraon, D. Englund, D. Bulla, B. Luther-Davies, B. J. Eggleton, N. Stoltz, P. Petroff, and J. Vučković, “Local tuning of photonic crystal cavities using chalcogenide glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(4), 043123–042125 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Elliott, G. R.

Englund, D.

A. Faraon, D. Englund, D. Bulla, B. Luther-Davies, B. J. Eggleton, N. Stoltz, P. Petroff, and J. Vučković, “Local tuning of photonic crystal cavities using chalcogenide glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(4), 043123–042125 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Faraon, A.

A. Faraon, D. Englund, D. Bulla, B. Luther-Davies, B. J. Eggleton, N. Stoltz, P. Petroff, and J. Vučković, “Local tuning of photonic crystal cavities using chalcogenide glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(4), 043123–042125 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Foster, M. A.

Gaeta, A. L.

Garrett, C. G. B.

C. G. B. Garrett, W. Kaiser, and W. L. Bond, “Stimulated. Emission into Optical Whispering Modes of Spheres,” Phys. Rev. 124(6), 1807–1809 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Hare, J.

V. Sandoghdar, F. Treussart, J. Hare, V. Lefèvre-Seguin, J.-M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, “Very low threshold whispering-gallery-mode microsphere laser,” Phys. Rev. A 54(3), R1777–R1780 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haroche, S.

V. Sandoghdar, F. Treussart, J. Hare, V. Lefèvre-Seguin, J.-M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, “Very low threshold whispering-gallery-mode microsphere laser,” Phys. Rev. A 54(3), R1777–R1780 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Collot, V. Lefevre-Seguin, M. Brune, J. M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, “Very high-Q whispering-gallery mode resonances observed on fused silica microspheres,” Europhys. Lett. 23(5), 327–334 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Haus, H. A.

Hewak, D. W.

G. R. Elliott, D. W. Hewak, G. S. Murugan, and J. S. Wilkinson, “Chalcogenide glass microspheres; their production, characterization and potential,” Opt. Express 15(26), 17542–17553 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. K. Mairaj, A. M. Chardon, D. P. Shepherd, and D. W. Hewak, “Laser performance and spectroscopic analysis of optically written channel waveguides in neodymium-doped gallium lanthanum sulphide glass,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(6), 1381–1388 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Schweizer, B. N. Samson, R. C. Moore, D. W. Hewak, and D. N. Payne, “Rare-earth doped chalcogenide glass fibre laser,” Electron. Lett. 33(5), 414–416 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. Schweizer, D. W. Hewak, D. N. Payne, T. Jensen, and G. Huber, “Rare-earth doped chalcogenide glass laser,” Electron. Lett. 32(7), 666–667 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hirao, K.

K. Miura, K. Tanaka, and K. Hirao, “Laser oscillation of a Nd3+-doped fluoride glass microsphere,” J. Mater. Sci. Lett. 15(21), 1854–1857 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Huber, G.

T. Schweizer, D. W. Hewak, D. N. Payne, T. Jensen, and G. Huber, “Rare-earth doped chalcogenide glass laser,” Electron. Lett. 32(7), 666–667 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Jensen, T.

T. Schweizer, D. W. Hewak, D. N. Payne, T. Jensen, and G. Huber, “Rare-earth doped chalcogenide glass laser,” Electron. Lett. 32(7), 666–667 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, S.

X. Peng, F. Song, S. Jiang, N. Peyghambarian, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, and L. Xu, “Fiber-taper-coupled L-band Er3+-doped tellurite glass microsphere laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(10), 1497–1499 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kaiser, W.

C. G. B. Garrett, W. Kaiser, and W. L. Bond, “Stimulated. Emission into Optical Whispering Modes of Spheres,” Phys. Rev. 124(6), 1807–1809 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Kippenberg, T. J.

S. M. Spillane, T. J. Kippenberg, and K. J. Vahala, “Ultralow-threshold Raman laser using a spherical dielectric microcavity,” Nature 415(6872), 621–623 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kumta, P. N.

P. N. Kumta and S. H. Risbud, “Novel glasses in rare-earth sulphide systems,” Ceramic Bull. 69, 1977–1984 (1990).

Kusawake, K.

K. Sasagawa, K. Kusawake, J. Ohta, and M. Nunoshita, “Nd-doped tellurite glass microsphere laser,” Electron. Lett. 38(22), 1355–1357 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kuwata-Gonokami, M.

X. Peng, F. Song, S. Jiang, N. Peyghambarian, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, and L. Xu, “Fiber-taper-coupled L-band Er3+-doped tellurite glass microsphere laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(10), 1497–1499 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Kuwata-Gonokami and K. Takeda, “Polymer whispering gallery mode lasers,” Opt. Mater. 9(1-4), 12–17 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Laine, J.-P.

Lefevre-Seguin, V.

L. Collot, V. Lefevre-Seguin, M. Brune, J. M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, “Very high-Q whispering-gallery mode resonances observed on fused silica microspheres,” Europhys. Lett. 23(5), 327–334 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Lefèvre-Seguin, V.

V. Sandoghdar, F. Treussart, J. Hare, V. Lefèvre-Seguin, J.-M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, “Very low threshold whispering-gallery-mode microsphere laser,” Phys. Rev. A 54(3), R1777–R1780 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lipson, M.

Little, B. E.

Luther-Davies, B.

A. Faraon, D. Englund, D. Bulla, B. Luther-Davies, B. J. Eggleton, N. Stoltz, P. Petroff, and J. Vučković, “Local tuning of photonic crystal cavities using chalcogenide glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(4), 043123–042125 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mairaj, A. K.

A. K. Mairaj, A. M. Chardon, D. P. Shepherd, and D. W. Hewak, “Laser performance and spectroscopic analysis of optically written channel waveguides in neodymium-doped gallium lanthanum sulphide glass,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(6), 1381–1388 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Miura, K.

K. Miura, K. Tanaka, and K. Hirao, “Laser oscillation of a Nd3+-doped fluoride glass microsphere,” J. Mater. Sci. Lett. 15(21), 1854–1857 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Moore, R. C.

T. Schweizer, B. N. Samson, R. C. Moore, D. W. Hewak, and D. N. Payne, “Rare-earth doped chalcogenide glass fibre laser,” Electron. Lett. 33(5), 414–416 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Murugan, G. S.

Nunoshita, M.

K. Sasagawa, K. Kusawake, J. Ohta, and M. Nunoshita, “Nd-doped tellurite glass microsphere laser,” Electron. Lett. 38(22), 1355–1357 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ohta, J.

K. Sasagawa, K. Kusawake, J. Ohta, and M. Nunoshita, “Nd-doped tellurite glass microsphere laser,” Electron. Lett. 38(22), 1355–1357 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Park, Y. S.

Y. S. Park, A. K. Cook, and H. Wang, “Cavity QED with diamond nanocrystals and silica microspheres,” Nano Lett. 6(9), 2075–2079 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Payne, D. N.

T. Schweizer, B. N. Samson, R. C. Moore, D. W. Hewak, and D. N. Payne, “Rare-earth doped chalcogenide glass fibre laser,” Electron. Lett. 33(5), 414–416 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. Schweizer, D. W. Hewak, D. N. Payne, T. Jensen, and G. Huber, “Rare-earth doped chalcogenide glass laser,” Electron. Lett. 32(7), 666–667 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Peng, X.

X. Peng, F. Song, S. Jiang, N. Peyghambarian, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, and L. Xu, “Fiber-taper-coupled L-band Er3+-doped tellurite glass microsphere laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(10), 1497–1499 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Petroff, P.

A. Faraon, D. Englund, D. Bulla, B. Luther-Davies, B. J. Eggleton, N. Stoltz, P. Petroff, and J. Vučković, “Local tuning of photonic crystal cavities using chalcogenide glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(4), 043123–042125 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Peyghambarian, N.

X. Peng, F. Song, S. Jiang, N. Peyghambarian, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, and L. Xu, “Fiber-taper-coupled L-band Er3+-doped tellurite glass microsphere laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(10), 1497–1499 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Raimond, J. M.

L. Collot, V. Lefevre-Seguin, M. Brune, J. M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, “Very high-Q whispering-gallery mode resonances observed on fused silica microspheres,” Europhys. Lett. 23(5), 327–334 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Raimond, J.-M.

V. Sandoghdar, F. Treussart, J. Hare, V. Lefèvre-Seguin, J.-M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, “Very low threshold whispering-gallery-mode microsphere laser,” Phys. Rev. A 54(3), R1777–R1780 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Risbud, S. H.

P. N. Kumta and S. H. Risbud, “Novel glasses in rare-earth sulphide systems,” Ceramic Bull. 69, 1977–1984 (1990).

Robinson, J. T.

Samson, B. N.

T. Schweizer, B. N. Samson, R. C. Moore, D. W. Hewak, and D. N. Payne, “Rare-earth doped chalcogenide glass fibre laser,” Electron. Lett. 33(5), 414–416 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sandoghdar, V.

V. Sandoghdar, F. Treussart, J. Hare, V. Lefèvre-Seguin, J.-M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, “Very low threshold whispering-gallery-mode microsphere laser,” Phys. Rev. A 54(3), R1777–R1780 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sasagawa, K.

K. Sasagawa, K. Kusawake, J. Ohta, and M. Nunoshita, “Nd-doped tellurite glass microsphere laser,” Electron. Lett. 38(22), 1355–1357 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Schweizer, T.

T. Schweizer, B. N. Samson, R. C. Moore, D. W. Hewak, and D. N. Payne, “Rare-earth doped chalcogenide glass fibre laser,” Electron. Lett. 33(5), 414–416 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. Schweizer, D. W. Hewak, D. N. Payne, T. Jensen, and G. Huber, “Rare-earth doped chalcogenide glass laser,” Electron. Lett. 32(7), 666–667 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Shepherd, D. P.

A. K. Mairaj, A. M. Chardon, D. P. Shepherd, and D. W. Hewak, “Laser performance and spectroscopic analysis of optically written channel waveguides in neodymium-doped gallium lanthanum sulphide glass,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(6), 1381–1388 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Song, F.

X. Peng, F. Song, S. Jiang, N. Peyghambarian, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, and L. Xu, “Fiber-taper-coupled L-band Er3+-doped tellurite glass microsphere laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(10), 1497–1499 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Spillane, S. M.

S. M. Spillane, T. J. Kippenberg, and K. J. Vahala, “Ultralow-threshold Raman laser using a spherical dielectric microcavity,” Nature 415(6872), 621–623 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stoltz, N.

A. Faraon, D. Englund, D. Bulla, B. Luther-Davies, B. J. Eggleton, N. Stoltz, P. Petroff, and J. Vučković, “Local tuning of photonic crystal cavities using chalcogenide glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(4), 043123–042125 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Takeda, K.

M. Kuwata-Gonokami and K. Takeda, “Polymer whispering gallery mode lasers,” Opt. Mater. 9(1-4), 12–17 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, K.

K. Miura, K. Tanaka, and K. Hirao, “Laser oscillation of a Nd3+-doped fluoride glass microsphere,” J. Mater. Sci. Lett. 15(21), 1854–1857 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Treussart, F.

V. Sandoghdar, F. Treussart, J. Hare, V. Lefèvre-Seguin, J.-M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, “Very low threshold whispering-gallery-mode microsphere laser,” Phys. Rev. A 54(3), R1777–R1780 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vahala, K.

Vahala, K. J.

S. M. Spillane, T. J. Kippenberg, and K. J. Vahala, “Ultralow-threshold Raman laser using a spherical dielectric microcavity,” Nature 415(6872), 621–623 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vuckovic, J.

A. Faraon, D. Englund, D. Bulla, B. Luther-Davies, B. J. Eggleton, N. Stoltz, P. Petroff, and J. Vučković, “Local tuning of photonic crystal cavities using chalcogenide glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(4), 043123–042125 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wang, H.

Y. S. Park, A. K. Cook, and H. Wang, “Cavity QED with diamond nanocrystals and silica microspheres,” Nano Lett. 6(9), 2075–2079 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wilkinson, J. S.

Xu, L.

X. Peng, F. Song, S. Jiang, N. Peyghambarian, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, and L. Xu, “Fiber-taper-coupled L-band Er3+-doped tellurite glass microsphere laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(10), 1497–1499 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

X. Peng, F. Song, S. Jiang, N. Peyghambarian, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, and L. Xu, “Fiber-taper-coupled L-band Er3+-doped tellurite glass microsphere laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(10), 1497–1499 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Faraon, D. Englund, D. Bulla, B. Luther-Davies, B. J. Eggleton, N. Stoltz, P. Petroff, and J. Vučković, “Local tuning of photonic crystal cavities using chalcogenide glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(4), 043123–042125 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ceramic Bull.

P. N. Kumta and S. H. Risbud, “Novel glasses in rare-earth sulphide systems,” Ceramic Bull. 69, 1977–1984 (1990).

Electron. Lett.

T. Schweizer, D. W. Hewak, D. N. Payne, T. Jensen, and G. Huber, “Rare-earth doped chalcogenide glass laser,” Electron. Lett. 32(7), 666–667 (1996).
[CrossRef]

T. Schweizer, B. N. Samson, R. C. Moore, D. W. Hewak, and D. N. Payne, “Rare-earth doped chalcogenide glass fibre laser,” Electron. Lett. 33(5), 414–416 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. Sasagawa, K. Kusawake, J. Ohta, and M. Nunoshita, “Nd-doped tellurite glass microsphere laser,” Electron. Lett. 38(22), 1355–1357 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Europhys. Lett.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

A selection of Nd3+-doped GLS microspheres as observed under an optical microscope.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Photograph of microsphere attached to the angle cleaved end of a graded index fibre.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic of the experimental apparatus used to optically pump the microsphere and detect emission.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Fluorescence spectrum from a GLS microsphere doped with 1.5 mol% Nd2S3. The inset shows the region between 1070 and 1090 nm, the region of interest in our laser experiments and the clear spectrum of whispering gallery modes supported by the sphere.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Laser modal peak output power showing the eight most dominant modes as a function of pump powers. With the primary mode highlighted to show the threshold at ~82mW incident pump power, initial slope and competing modes. Modes are identified by the wavelength at which they first laser.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Laser peaks, showing the change of mode, movement of peaks and the increase of laser output with increased pump power. Inset shows the power output from the microsphere as the laser threshold (incident power) is crossed.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Wavelength of laser peaks and their shifts as pump power increases. Laser modes move up to 2.5 nm. Inset shows a CCD camera image of a lasing sphere.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Spectroscopic properties of selected Nd3+- doped glasses.

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