Abstract

We investigate the photosensitive and thermo-optic nonlinear properties of chalcogenide glass photonic crystal (PhC) cavities at telecommunications wavelengths. We observe a photosensitive refractive index change in AMTIR-1 (Ge33As12Se55) material in the near-infrared, which is enhanced by light localization in the PhC cavity and manifests in a permanent blue-shift of the nanocavity resonance. Thermo-optic non-linear properties are thoroughly investigated by i) carrying out thermal bistable switching experiments, from which we determined thermal switching times of 63μs and 93μs for switch on and switch off respectively and ii) by studying heating of the cavity with a high peak power pulsed laser input, which shows that two-photon absorption is the dominant heating mechanism. Our measurements and analysis highlight the detrimental impact of near-infrared photosensitivity and two-photon absorption on cavity based nonlinear optical switching schemes. We conclude that glass compositions with lower two-photon absorption and more stable properties (reduced photosensitivity) are therefore required for nonlinear applications in chalcogenide photonic crystal cavities.

© 2010 OSA

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2010 (3)

2009 (4)

2008 (5)

A. Prasad, C. J. Zha, R. P. Wang, A. Smith, S. Madden, and B. Luther-Davies, “Properties of GexAsySe1-x-y glasses for all-optical signal processing,” Opt. Express 16(4), 2804–2815 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. W. Lee, C. Grillet, C. G. Poulton, C. Monat, C. L. Smith, E. Mägi, D. Freeman, S. Madden, B. Luther-Davies, and B. J. Eggleton, “Characterizing photonic crystal waveguides with an expanded k-space evanescent coupling technique,” Opt. Express 16(18), 13800–13808 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Freeman, C. Grillet, M. W. Lee, C. L. C. Smith, Y. Ruan, A. Rode, M. Krolikowska, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, C. M. de Sterke, M. J. Steel, B. Luther-Davies, S. Madden, D. J. Moss, Y. H. Lee, and B. J. Eggleton, “Chalcogenide glass photonic crystals,” Photonics and Nanostructures-Fundamentals and Applications 6, 3–11 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Faraon, D. Englund, D. Bulla, B. Luther-Davies, B. J. Eggleton, N. Stoltz, P. Petroff, and J. Vučković, “Local tuning of photonic crystal cavities using chalcogenide glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(4), 043123 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Pelusi, V. G. Ta'eed, L. Fu, E. Magi, M. R. E. Lamont, S. Madden, D. Y. Choi, D. A. P. Bulla, B. Luther-Davies, and B. J. Eggleton, “Applications of highly-nonlinear chalcogenide glass devices tailored for high-speed all-optical signal processing,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14(3), 529–539 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

2006 (3)

C. Grillet, C. Smith, D. Freeman, S. Madden, B. Luther-Davies, E. Magi, D. Moss, and B. Eggleton, “Efficient coupling to chalcogenide glass photonic crystal waveguides via silica optical fiber nanowires,” Opt. Express 14(3), 1070–1078 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Song, S. S. Howard, Z. Liu, A. O. Dirisu, C. F. Gmachl, and C. B. Arnold, “Mode tuning of quantum cascade lasers through optical processing of chalcogenide glass claddings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(4), 041115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. G. Ta’eed, M. Shokooh-Saremi, L. Fu, I. C. M. Littler, D. J. Moss, M. Rochette, B. J. Eggleton, Y. Ruan, and B. Luther-Davies, “Self-phase modulation-based integrated optical regeneration in chalcogenide waveguides,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, ••• (2006).

2005 (5)

M. Shokooh-Saremi, V. G. Ta'eed, I. C. M. Littler, D. J. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, Y. Ruan, and B. Luther-Davies, “Ultra-strong, well-apodised Bragg gratings in Chalcogenide rib waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 41(13), 738–739 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Notomi, A. Shinya, S. Mitsugi, G. Kira, E. Kuramochi, and T. Tanabe, “Optical bistable switching action of Si high-Q photonic-crystal nanocavities,” Opt. Express 13(7), 2678–2687 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. S. Song, S. Noda, T. Asano, and Y. Akahane, “Ultra-high-Q photonic double-heterostructure nanocavity,” Nat. Mater. 4(3), 207–210 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Tanaka, “Optical nonlinearity in photonic glasses,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 16(10), 633–643 (2005).
[CrossRef]

I. K. Hwang, S. K. Kim, J. K. Yang, S. H. Kim, S. H. Lee, and Y. H. Lee, “Curved-microfiber photon coupling for photonic crystal light emitter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(13), 131107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (5)

P. E. Barclay, K. Srinivasan, M. Borselli, and O. Painter, “Efficient input and output fiber coupling to a photonic crystal waveguide,” Opt. Lett. 29(7), 697–699 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Ruan, W. Li, R. Jarvis, N. Madsen, A. Rode, and B. Luther-Davies, “Fabrication and characterization of low loss rib chalcogenide waveguides made by dry etching,” Opt. Express 12(21), 5140–5145 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. SoljaČiĆ and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Enhancement of nonlinear effects using photonic crystals,” Nat. Mater. 3(4), 211–219 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Lyubin, M. Klebanov, A. Feigel, and B. Sfez, “Films of chalcogenide glassy semiconductors: New phenomena and new applications,” Thin Solid Films 459(1-2), 183–186 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Gopinath, M. Soljačić, E. P. Ippen, V. N. Fuflyigin, W. A. King, and M. Shurgalin, “Third order nonlinearities in Ge-As-Se-based glasses for telecommunications applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(11), 6931 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (4)

A. Zakery and S. R. Elliott, “Optical properties and applications of chalcogenide glasses: a review,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 330(1-3), 1–12 (2003).
[CrossRef]

N. Hô, J. M. Laniel, R. Vallée, and A. Villeneuve, “Photosensitivity of As_2S_3 chalcogenide thin films at 1.5 μm Opt. Lett. 28(12), 965–967 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Dinu, F. Quochi, and H. Garcia, “Third-order nonlinearities in silicon at telecom wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(18), 2954 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. McNab, N. Moll, and Y. Vlasov, “Ultra-low loss photonic integrated circuit with membrane-type photonic crystal waveguides,” Opt. Express 11(22), 2927–2939 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

J. M. Harbold, F. Ilday, F. W. Wise, and B. G. Aitken, “Highly nonlinear Ge–As–Se and Ge–As–S–Se glasses for all-optical switching,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14(6), 822–824 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Harbold, F. O. Ilday, F. W. Wise, J. S. Sanghera, V. Q. Nguyen, L. B. Shaw, and I. D. Aggarwal, “Highly nonlinear As-S-Se glasses for all-optical switching,” Opt. Lett. 27(2), 119–121 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

C. Quémard, F. Smektala, V. Couderc, A. Barthélémy, and J. Lucas, “Chalcogenide glasses with high non linear optical properties for telecommunications,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 62(8), 1435–1440 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

E. Centeno and D. Felbacq, “Optical bistability in finite-size nonlinear bidimensional photonic crystals doped by a microcavity,” Phys. Rev. B 62(12), 7683–7686 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

K. Petkov and P. J. S. Ewen, “Photoinduced changes in the linear and non-linear optical properties of chalcogenide glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 249(2-3), 150–159 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

T. K. Sudoh, Y. Nakano, and K. Tada, “Wavelength trimming technology for multiple-wavelength distributed-feedback laser arrays by photo-induced refractive index change,” Electron. Lett. 33(3), 216–217 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

T. I. Kosa, R. Rangel-Rojo, E. Hajto, P. J. S. Ewen, A. E. Owen, A. K. Kar, and B. S. Wherrett, “Nonlinear optical properties of silver-doped As2S3,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 164, 1219–1222 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

Agarwal, A.

Aggarwal, I. D.

Aitken, B. G.

J. M. Harbold, F. Ilday, F. W. Wise, and B. G. Aitken, “Highly nonlinear Ge–As–Se and Ge–As–S–Se glasses for all-optical switching,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14(6), 822–824 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Akahane, Y.

B. S. Song, S. Noda, T. Asano, and Y. Akahane, “Ultra-high-Q photonic double-heterostructure nanocavity,” Nat. Mater. 4(3), 207–210 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Andrejco, M. J.

Arnold, C. B.

S. Song, S. S. Howard, Z. Liu, A. O. Dirisu, C. F. Gmachl, and C. B. Arnold, “Mode tuning of quantum cascade lasers through optical processing of chalcogenide glass claddings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(4), 041115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Asano, T.

B. S. Song, S. Noda, T. Asano, and Y. Akahane, “Ultra-high-Q photonic double-heterostructure nanocavity,” Nat. Mater. 4(3), 207–210 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Baba, T.

Barclay, P. E.

Barthélémy, A.

C. Quémard, F. Smektala, V. Couderc, A. Barthélémy, and J. Lucas, “Chalcogenide glasses with high non linear optical properties for telecommunications,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 62(8), 1435–1440 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Beveratos, A.

Borselli, M.

Braive, R.

Brunstein, M.

Bulla, D.

A. Faraon, D. Englund, D. Bulla, B. Luther-Davies, B. J. Eggleton, N. Stoltz, P. Petroff, and J. Vučković, “Local tuning of photonic crystal cavities using chalcogenide glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(4), 043123 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bulla, D. A. P.

Carlie, N.

Centeno, E.

E. Centeno and D. Felbacq, “Optical bistability in finite-size nonlinear bidimensional photonic crystals doped by a microcavity,” Phys. Rev. B 62(12), 7683–7686 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Choi, D. Y.

Combrié, S.

C. Husko, A. De Rossi, S. Combrié, Q. V. Tran, F. Raineri, and C. W. Wong, “Ultrafast all-optical modulation in GaAs photonic crystal cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(2), 021111 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Couderc, V.

C. Quémard, F. Smektala, V. Couderc, A. Barthélémy, and J. Lucas, “Chalcogenide glasses with high non linear optical properties for telecommunications,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 62(8), 1435–1440 (2001).
[CrossRef]

De Rossi, A.

C. Husko, A. De Rossi, S. Combrié, Q. V. Tran, F. Raineri, and C. W. Wong, “Ultrafast all-optical modulation in GaAs photonic crystal cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(2), 021111 (2009).
[CrossRef]

de Sterke, C. M.

D. Freeman, C. Grillet, M. W. Lee, C. L. C. Smith, Y. Ruan, A. Rode, M. Krolikowska, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, C. M. de Sterke, M. J. Steel, B. Luther-Davies, S. Madden, D. J. Moss, Y. H. Lee, and B. J. Eggleton, “Chalcogenide glass photonic crystals,” Photonics and Nanostructures-Fundamentals and Applications 6, 3–11 (2008).
[CrossRef]

De Wilde, Y.

Delong, K. W.

Dinu, M.

M. Dinu, F. Quochi, and H. Garcia, “Third-order nonlinearities in silicon at telecom wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(18), 2954 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dirisu, A. O.

S. Song, S. S. Howard, Z. Liu, A. O. Dirisu, C. F. Gmachl, and C. B. Arnold, “Mode tuning of quantum cascade lasers through optical processing of chalcogenide glass claddings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(4), 041115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Eggleton, B.

Eggleton, B. J.

T. D. Vo, H. Hu, M. Galili, E. Palushani, J. Xu, L. K. Oxenløwe, S. J. Madden, D. Y. Choi, D. A. P. Bulla, M. D. Pelusi, J. Schröder, B. Luther-Davies, and B. J. Eggleton, “Photonic chip based transmitter optimization and receiver demultiplexing of a 1.28 Tbit/s OTDM signal,” Opt. Express 18(16), 17252–17261 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. W. Lee, C. Grillet, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, E. C. Mägi, D. J. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, X. Gai, S. Madden, D. Y. Choi, D. A. P. Bulla, and B. Luther-Davies, “Photowritten high-Q cavities in two-dimensional chalcogenide glass photonic crystals,” Opt. Lett. 34(23), 3671–3673 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Freeman, C. Grillet, M. W. Lee, C. L. C. Smith, Y. Ruan, A. Rode, M. Krolikowska, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, C. M. de Sterke, M. J. Steel, B. Luther-Davies, S. Madden, D. J. Moss, Y. H. Lee, and B. J. Eggleton, “Chalcogenide glass photonic crystals,” Photonics and Nanostructures-Fundamentals and Applications 6, 3–11 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Faraon, D. Englund, D. Bulla, B. Luther-Davies, B. J. Eggleton, N. Stoltz, P. Petroff, and J. Vučković, “Local tuning of photonic crystal cavities using chalcogenide glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(4), 043123 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Pelusi, V. G. Ta'eed, L. Fu, E. Magi, M. R. E. Lamont, S. Madden, D. Y. Choi, D. A. P. Bulla, B. Luther-Davies, and B. J. Eggleton, “Applications of highly-nonlinear chalcogenide glass devices tailored for high-speed all-optical signal processing,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14(3), 529–539 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. W. Lee, C. Grillet, C. G. Poulton, C. Monat, C. L. Smith, E. Mägi, D. Freeman, S. Madden, B. Luther-Davies, and B. J. Eggleton, “Characterizing photonic crystal waveguides with an expanded k-space evanescent coupling technique,” Opt. Express 16(18), 13800–13808 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. W. Lee, C. Grillet, C. L. C. Smith, D. J. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, D. Freeman, B. Luther-Davies, S. Madden, A. Rode, Y. Ruan, and Y.-H. Lee, “Photosensitive post tuning of chalcogenide photonic crystal waveguides,” Opt. Express 15(3), 1277–1285 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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I. K. Hwang, S. K. Kim, J. K. Yang, S. H. Kim, S. H. Lee, and Y. H. Lee, “Curved-microfiber photon coupling for photonic crystal light emitter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(13), 131107 (2005).
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I. K. Hwang, S. K. Kim, J. K. Yang, S. H. Kim, S. H. Lee, and Y. H. Lee, “Curved-microfiber photon coupling for photonic crystal light emitter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(13), 131107 (2005).
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T. I. Kosa, R. Rangel-Rojo, E. Hajto, P. J. S. Ewen, A. E. Owen, A. K. Kar, and B. S. Wherrett, “Nonlinear optical properties of silver-doped As2S3,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 164, 1219–1222 (1993).
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N. Hô, J. M. Laniel, R. Vallée, and A. Villeneuve, “Photosensitivity of As_2S_3 chalcogenide thin films at 1.5 μm Opt. Lett. 28(12), 965–967 (2003).
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M. Shokooh-Saremi, V. G. Ta'eed, I. C. M. Littler, D. J. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, Y. Ruan, and B. Luther-Davies, “Ultra-strong, well-apodised Bragg gratings in Chalcogenide rib waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 41(13), 738–739 (2005).
[CrossRef]

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S. Song, S. S. Howard, Z. Liu, A. O. Dirisu, C. F. Gmachl, and C. B. Arnold, “Mode tuning of quantum cascade lasers through optical processing of chalcogenide glass claddings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(4), 041115 (2006).
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M. W. Lee, C. Grillet, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, E. C. Mägi, D. J. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, X. Gai, S. Madden, D. Y. Choi, D. A. P. Bulla, and B. Luther-Davies, “Photowritten high-Q cavities in two-dimensional chalcogenide glass photonic crystals,” Opt. Lett. 34(23), 3671–3673 (2009).
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D. Freeman, C. Grillet, M. W. Lee, C. L. C. Smith, Y. Ruan, A. Rode, M. Krolikowska, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, C. M. de Sterke, M. J. Steel, B. Luther-Davies, S. Madden, D. J. Moss, Y. H. Lee, and B. J. Eggleton, “Chalcogenide glass photonic crystals,” Photonics and Nanostructures-Fundamentals and Applications 6, 3–11 (2008).
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A. Prasad, C. J. Zha, R. P. Wang, A. Smith, S. Madden, and B. Luther-Davies, “Properties of GexAsySe1-x-y glasses for all-optical signal processing,” Opt. Express 16(4), 2804–2815 (2008).
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M. W. Lee, C. Grillet, C. G. Poulton, C. Monat, C. L. Smith, E. Mägi, D. Freeman, S. Madden, B. Luther-Davies, and B. J. Eggleton, “Characterizing photonic crystal waveguides with an expanded k-space evanescent coupling technique,” Opt. Express 16(18), 13800–13808 (2008).
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M. W. Lee, C. Grillet, C. L. C. Smith, D. J. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, D. Freeman, B. Luther-Davies, S. Madden, A. Rode, Y. Ruan, and Y.-H. Lee, “Photosensitive post tuning of chalcogenide photonic crystal waveguides,” Opt. Express 15(3), 1277–1285 (2007).
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C. Grillet, C. Smith, D. Freeman, S. Madden, B. Luther-Davies, E. Magi, D. Moss, and B. Eggleton, “Efficient coupling to chalcogenide glass photonic crystal waveguides via silica optical fiber nanowires,” Opt. Express 14(3), 1070–1078 (2006).
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V. G. Ta’eed, M. Shokooh-Saremi, L. Fu, I. C. M. Littler, D. J. Moss, M. Rochette, B. J. Eggleton, Y. Ruan, and B. Luther-Davies, “Self-phase modulation-based integrated optical regeneration in chalcogenide waveguides,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, ••• (2006).

M. Shokooh-Saremi, V. G. Ta'eed, I. C. M. Littler, D. J. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, Y. Ruan, and B. Luther-Davies, “Ultra-strong, well-apodised Bragg gratings in Chalcogenide rib waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 41(13), 738–739 (2005).
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Y. Ruan, W. Li, R. Jarvis, N. Madsen, A. Rode, and B. Luther-Davies, “Fabrication and characterization of low loss rib chalcogenide waveguides made by dry etching,” Opt. Express 12(21), 5140–5145 (2004).
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V. Lyubin, M. Klebanov, A. Feigel, and B. Sfez, “Films of chalcogenide glassy semiconductors: New phenomena and new applications,” Thin Solid Films 459(1-2), 183–186 (2004).
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M. W. Lee, C. Grillet, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, E. C. Mägi, D. J. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, X. Gai, S. Madden, D. Y. Choi, D. A. P. Bulla, and B. Luther-Davies, “Photowritten high-Q cavities in two-dimensional chalcogenide glass photonic crystals,” Opt. Lett. 34(23), 3671–3673 (2009).
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M. W. Lee, C. Grillet, C. G. Poulton, C. Monat, C. L. Smith, E. Mägi, D. Freeman, S. Madden, B. Luther-Davies, and B. J. Eggleton, “Characterizing photonic crystal waveguides with an expanded k-space evanescent coupling technique,” Opt. Express 16(18), 13800–13808 (2008).
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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. W. Lee, C. Grillet, C. L. C. Smith, D. J. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, D. Freeman, B. Luther-Davies, S. Madden, A. Rode, Y. Ruan, and Y.-H. Lee, “Photosensitive post tuning of chalcogenide photonic crystal waveguides,” Opt. Express 15(3), 1277–1285 (2007).
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C. Grillet, C. Smith, D. Freeman, S. Madden, B. Luther-Davies, E. Magi, D. Moss, and B. Eggleton, “Efficient coupling to chalcogenide glass photonic crystal waveguides via silica optical fiber nanowires,” Opt. Express 14(3), 1070–1078 (2006).
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Madsen, N.

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M. D. Pelusi, V. G. Ta'eed, L. Fu, E. Magi, M. R. E. Lamont, S. Madden, D. Y. Choi, D. A. P. Bulla, B. Luther-Davies, and B. J. Eggleton, “Applications of highly-nonlinear chalcogenide glass devices tailored for high-speed all-optical signal processing,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14(3), 529–539 (2008).
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C. Grillet, C. Smith, D. Freeman, S. Madden, B. Luther-Davies, E. Magi, D. Moss, and B. Eggleton, “Efficient coupling to chalcogenide glass photonic crystal waveguides via silica optical fiber nanowires,” Opt. Express 14(3), 1070–1078 (2006).
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M. W. Lee, C. Grillet, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, E. C. Mägi, D. J. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, X. Gai, S. Madden, D. Y. Choi, D. A. P. Bulla, and B. Luther-Davies, “Photowritten high-Q cavities in two-dimensional chalcogenide glass photonic crystals,” Opt. Lett. 34(23), 3671–3673 (2009).
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T. D. Vo, H. Hu, M. Galili, E. Palushani, J. Xu, L. K. Oxenløwe, S. J. Madden, D. Y. Choi, D. A. P. Bulla, M. D. Pelusi, J. Schröder, B. Luther-Davies, and B. J. Eggleton, “Photonic chip based transmitter optimization and receiver demultiplexing of a 1.28 Tbit/s OTDM signal,” Opt. Express 18(16), 17252–17261 (2010).
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M. D. Pelusi, V. G. Ta'eed, L. Fu, E. Magi, M. R. E. Lamont, S. Madden, D. Y. Choi, D. A. P. Bulla, B. Luther-Davies, and B. J. Eggleton, “Applications of highly-nonlinear chalcogenide glass devices tailored for high-speed all-optical signal processing,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14(3), 529–539 (2008).
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[CrossRef]

Petroff, P.

A. Faraon, D. Englund, D. Bulla, B. Luther-Davies, B. J. Eggleton, N. Stoltz, P. Petroff, and J. Vučković, “Local tuning of photonic crystal cavities using chalcogenide glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(4), 043123 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Poulton, C. G.

Prasad, A.

Quémard, C.

C. Quémard, F. Smektala, V. Couderc, A. Barthélémy, and J. Lucas, “Chalcogenide glasses with high non linear optical properties for telecommunications,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 62(8), 1435–1440 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Quochi, F.

M. Dinu, F. Quochi, and H. Garcia, “Third-order nonlinearities in silicon at telecom wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(18), 2954 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Raineri, F.

C. Husko, A. De Rossi, S. Combrié, Q. V. Tran, F. Raineri, and C. W. Wong, “Ultrafast all-optical modulation in GaAs photonic crystal cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(2), 021111 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rangel-Rojo, R.

T. I. Kosa, R. Rangel-Rojo, E. Hajto, P. J. S. Ewen, A. E. Owen, A. K. Kar, and B. S. Wherrett, “Nonlinear optical properties of silver-doped As2S3,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 164, 1219–1222 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Richardson, K.

Rober-Philip, I.

Rochette, M.

V. G. Ta’eed, M. Shokooh-Saremi, L. Fu, I. C. M. Littler, D. J. Moss, M. Rochette, B. J. Eggleton, Y. Ruan, and B. Luther-Davies, “Self-phase modulation-based integrated optical regeneration in chalcogenide waveguides,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, ••• (2006).

Rode, A.

Ruan, Y.

D. Freeman, C. Grillet, M. W. Lee, C. L. C. Smith, Y. Ruan, A. Rode, M. Krolikowska, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, C. M. de Sterke, M. J. Steel, B. Luther-Davies, S. Madden, D. J. Moss, Y. H. Lee, and B. J. Eggleton, “Chalcogenide glass photonic crystals,” Photonics and Nanostructures-Fundamentals and Applications 6, 3–11 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. W. Lee, C. Grillet, C. L. C. Smith, D. J. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, D. Freeman, B. Luther-Davies, S. Madden, A. Rode, Y. Ruan, and Y.-H. Lee, “Photosensitive post tuning of chalcogenide photonic crystal waveguides,” Opt. Express 15(3), 1277–1285 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. G. Ta’eed, M. Shokooh-Saremi, L. Fu, I. C. M. Littler, D. J. Moss, M. Rochette, B. J. Eggleton, Y. Ruan, and B. Luther-Davies, “Self-phase modulation-based integrated optical regeneration in chalcogenide waveguides,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, ••• (2006).

M. Shokooh-Saremi, V. G. Ta'eed, I. C. M. Littler, D. J. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, Y. Ruan, and B. Luther-Davies, “Ultra-strong, well-apodised Bragg gratings in Chalcogenide rib waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 41(13), 738–739 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ruan, W. Li, R. Jarvis, N. Madsen, A. Rode, and B. Luther-Davies, “Fabrication and characterization of low loss rib chalcogenide waveguides made by dry etching,” Opt. Express 12(21), 5140–5145 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sagnes, I.

Saifi, M. A.

Sanghera, J. S.

Sato, T.

K. Nozaki, T. Tanabe, A. Shinya, S. Matsuo, T. Sato, H. Taniyama, and M. Notomi, “Sub-femtojoule all-optical switching using a photonic-crystal nanocavity,” Nat. Photonics 4(7), 477–483 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Schröder, J.

Sfez, B.

V. Lyubin, M. Klebanov, A. Feigel, and B. Sfez, “Films of chalcogenide glassy semiconductors: New phenomena and new applications,” Thin Solid Films 459(1-2), 183–186 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shaw, L. B.

Shinya, A.

K. Nozaki, T. Tanabe, A. Shinya, S. Matsuo, T. Sato, H. Taniyama, and M. Notomi, “Sub-femtojoule all-optical switching using a photonic-crystal nanocavity,” Nat. Photonics 4(7), 477–483 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Notomi, A. Shinya, S. Mitsugi, G. Kira, E. Kuramochi, and T. Tanabe, “Optical bistable switching action of Si high-Q photonic-crystal nanocavities,” Opt. Express 13(7), 2678–2687 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shokooh-Saremi, M.

V. G. Ta’eed, M. Shokooh-Saremi, L. Fu, I. C. M. Littler, D. J. Moss, M. Rochette, B. J. Eggleton, Y. Ruan, and B. Luther-Davies, “Self-phase modulation-based integrated optical regeneration in chalcogenide waveguides,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, ••• (2006).

M. Shokooh-Saremi, V. G. Ta'eed, I. C. M. Littler, D. J. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, Y. Ruan, and B. Luther-Davies, “Ultra-strong, well-apodised Bragg gratings in Chalcogenide rib waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 41(13), 738–739 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shurgalin, M.

J. T. Gopinath, M. Soljačić, E. P. Ippen, V. N. Fuflyigin, W. A. King, and M. Shurgalin, “Third order nonlinearities in Ge-As-Se-based glasses for telecommunications applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(11), 6931 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Smektala, F.

C. Quémard, F. Smektala, V. Couderc, A. Barthélémy, and J. Lucas, “Chalcogenide glasses with high non linear optical properties for telecommunications,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 62(8), 1435–1440 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Smith, A.

Smith, C.

Smith, C. L.

Smith, C. L. C.

D. Freeman, C. Grillet, M. W. Lee, C. L. C. Smith, Y. Ruan, A. Rode, M. Krolikowska, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, C. M. de Sterke, M. J. Steel, B. Luther-Davies, S. Madden, D. J. Moss, Y. H. Lee, and B. J. Eggleton, “Chalcogenide glass photonic crystals,” Photonics and Nanostructures-Fundamentals and Applications 6, 3–11 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. W. Lee, C. Grillet, C. L. C. Smith, D. J. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, D. Freeman, B. Luther-Davies, S. Madden, A. Rode, Y. Ruan, and Y.-H. Lee, “Photosensitive post tuning of chalcogenide photonic crystal waveguides,” Opt. Express 15(3), 1277–1285 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

SoljaCiC, M.

M. SoljaČiĆ and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Enhancement of nonlinear effects using photonic crystals,” Nat. Mater. 3(4), 211–219 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. T. Gopinath, M. Soljačić, E. P. Ippen, V. N. Fuflyigin, W. A. King, and M. Shurgalin, “Third order nonlinearities in Ge-As-Se-based glasses for telecommunications applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(11), 6931 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Song, B. S.

B. S. Song, S. Noda, T. Asano, and Y. Akahane, “Ultra-high-Q photonic double-heterostructure nanocavity,” Nat. Mater. 4(3), 207–210 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Song, S.

S. Song, S. S. Howard, Z. Liu, A. O. Dirisu, C. F. Gmachl, and C. B. Arnold, “Mode tuning of quantum cascade lasers through optical processing of chalcogenide glass claddings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(4), 041115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Srinivasan, K.

Steel, M. J.

D. Freeman, C. Grillet, M. W. Lee, C. L. C. Smith, Y. Ruan, A. Rode, M. Krolikowska, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, C. M. de Sterke, M. J. Steel, B. Luther-Davies, S. Madden, D. J. Moss, Y. H. Lee, and B. J. Eggleton, “Chalcogenide glass photonic crystals,” Photonics and Nanostructures-Fundamentals and Applications 6, 3–11 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, M. J. Steel, C. Martijn de Sterke, and D. J. Moss, “High-Q cavities in photosensitive photonic crystals,” Opt. Lett. 32(5), 542–544 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stegeman, G. I.

Stoltz, N.

A. Faraon, D. Englund, D. Bulla, B. Luther-Davies, B. J. Eggleton, N. Stoltz, P. Petroff, and J. Vučković, “Local tuning of photonic crystal cavities using chalcogenide glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(4), 043123 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sudoh, T. K.

T. K. Sudoh, Y. Nakano, and K. Tada, “Wavelength trimming technology for multiple-wavelength distributed-feedback laser arrays by photo-induced refractive index change,” Electron. Lett. 33(3), 216–217 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, K.

Ta’eed, V. G.

V. G. Ta’eed, M. Shokooh-Saremi, L. Fu, I. C. M. Littler, D. J. Moss, M. Rochette, B. J. Eggleton, Y. Ruan, and B. Luther-Davies, “Self-phase modulation-based integrated optical regeneration in chalcogenide waveguides,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, ••• (2006).

Tada, K.

T. K. Sudoh, Y. Nakano, and K. Tada, “Wavelength trimming technology for multiple-wavelength distributed-feedback laser arrays by photo-induced refractive index change,” Electron. Lett. 33(3), 216–217 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ta'eed, V. G.

M. D. Pelusi, V. G. Ta'eed, L. Fu, E. Magi, M. R. E. Lamont, S. Madden, D. Y. Choi, D. A. P. Bulla, B. Luther-Davies, and B. J. Eggleton, “Applications of highly-nonlinear chalcogenide glass devices tailored for high-speed all-optical signal processing,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14(3), 529–539 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Shokooh-Saremi, V. G. Ta'eed, I. C. M. Littler, D. J. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, Y. Ruan, and B. Luther-Davies, “Ultra-strong, well-apodised Bragg gratings in Chalcogenide rib waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 41(13), 738–739 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tanabe, T.

K. Nozaki, T. Tanabe, A. Shinya, S. Matsuo, T. Sato, H. Taniyama, and M. Notomi, “Sub-femtojoule all-optical switching using a photonic-crystal nanocavity,” Nat. Photonics 4(7), 477–483 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Notomi, A. Shinya, S. Mitsugi, G. Kira, E. Kuramochi, and T. Tanabe, “Optical bistable switching action of Si high-Q photonic-crystal nanocavities,” Opt. Express 13(7), 2678–2687 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tanaka, K.

K. Tanaka, “Optical nonlinearity in photonic glasses,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 16(10), 633–643 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Taniyama, H.

K. Nozaki, T. Tanabe, A. Shinya, S. Matsuo, T. Sato, H. Taniyama, and M. Notomi, “Sub-femtojoule all-optical switching using a photonic-crystal nanocavity,” Nat. Photonics 4(7), 477–483 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tessier, G.

Tomljenovic-Hanic, S.

Torregiani, M.

Tran, Q. V.

C. Husko, A. De Rossi, S. Combrié, Q. V. Tran, F. Raineri, and C. W. Wong, “Ultrafast all-optical modulation in GaAs photonic crystal cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(2), 021111 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Vallée, R.

N. Hô, J. M. Laniel, R. Vallée, and A. Villeneuve, “Photosensitivity of As_2S_3 chalcogenide thin films at 1.5 μm Opt. Lett. 28(12), 965–967 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Villeneuve, A.

N. Hô, J. M. Laniel, R. Vallée, and A. Villeneuve, “Photosensitivity of As_2S_3 chalcogenide thin films at 1.5 μm Opt. Lett. 28(12), 965–967 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vlasov, Y.

Vo, T. D.

Vuckovic, J.

A. Faraon, D. Englund, D. Bulla, B. Luther-Davies, B. J. Eggleton, N. Stoltz, P. Petroff, and J. Vučković, “Local tuning of photonic crystal cavities using chalcogenide glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(4), 043123 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wang, R. P.

Wherrett, B. S.

T. I. Kosa, R. Rangel-Rojo, E. Hajto, P. J. S. Ewen, A. E. Owen, A. K. Kar, and B. S. Wherrett, “Nonlinear optical properties of silver-doped As2S3,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 164, 1219–1222 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Wise, F. W.

J. M. Harbold, F. Ilday, F. W. Wise, and B. G. Aitken, “Highly nonlinear Ge–As–Se and Ge–As–S–Se glasses for all-optical switching,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14(6), 822–824 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Harbold, F. O. Ilday, F. W. Wise, J. S. Sanghera, V. Q. Nguyen, L. B. Shaw, and I. D. Aggarwal, “Highly nonlinear As-S-Se glasses for all-optical switching,” Opt. Lett. 27(2), 119–121 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wong, C. W.

C. Husko, A. De Rossi, S. Combrié, Q. V. Tran, F. Raineri, and C. W. Wong, “Ultrafast all-optical modulation in GaAs photonic crystal cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(2), 021111 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Xu, J.

Yacomotti, A. M.

Yang, J. K.

I. K. Hwang, S. K. Kim, J. K. Yang, S. H. Kim, S. H. Lee, and Y. H. Lee, “Curved-microfiber photon coupling for photonic crystal light emitter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(13), 131107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zakery, A.

A. Zakery and S. R. Elliott, “Optical properties and applications of chalcogenide glasses: a review,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 330(1-3), 1–12 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zha, C. J.

Opt. Lett. (1)

N. Hô, J. M. Laniel, R. Vallée, and A. Villeneuve, “Photosensitivity of As_2S_3 chalcogenide thin films at 1.5 μm Opt. Lett. 28(12), 965–967 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

M. Dinu, F. Quochi, and H. Garcia, “Third-order nonlinearities in silicon at telecom wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(18), 2954 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. Husko, A. De Rossi, S. Combrié, Q. V. Tran, F. Raineri, and C. W. Wong, “Ultrafast all-optical modulation in GaAs photonic crystal cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(2), 021111 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Song, S. S. Howard, Z. Liu, A. O. Dirisu, C. F. Gmachl, and C. B. Arnold, “Mode tuning of quantum cascade lasers through optical processing of chalcogenide glass claddings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(4), 041115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Faraon, D. Englund, D. Bulla, B. Luther-Davies, B. J. Eggleton, N. Stoltz, P. Petroff, and J. Vučković, “Local tuning of photonic crystal cavities using chalcogenide glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(4), 043123 (2008).
[CrossRef]

I. K. Hwang, S. K. Kim, J. K. Yang, S. H. Kim, S. H. Lee, and Y. H. Lee, “Curved-microfiber photon coupling for photonic crystal light emitter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(13), 131107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (2)

M. Shokooh-Saremi, V. G. Ta'eed, I. C. M. Littler, D. J. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, Y. Ruan, and B. Luther-Davies, “Ultra-strong, well-apodised Bragg gratings in Chalcogenide rib waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 41(13), 738–739 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. K. Sudoh, Y. Nakano, and K. Tada, “Wavelength trimming technology for multiple-wavelength distributed-feedback laser arrays by photo-induced refractive index change,” Electron. Lett. 33(3), 216–217 (1997).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (2)

V. G. Ta’eed, M. Shokooh-Saremi, L. Fu, I. C. M. Littler, D. J. Moss, M. Rochette, B. J. Eggleton, Y. Ruan, and B. Luther-Davies, “Self-phase modulation-based integrated optical regeneration in chalcogenide waveguides,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, ••• (2006).

M. D. Pelusi, V. G. Ta'eed, L. Fu, E. Magi, M. R. E. Lamont, S. Madden, D. Y. Choi, D. A. P. Bulla, B. Luther-Davies, and B. J. Eggleton, “Applications of highly-nonlinear chalcogenide glass devices tailored for high-speed all-optical signal processing,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14(3), 529–539 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

J. M. Harbold, F. Ilday, F. W. Wise, and B. G. Aitken, “Highly nonlinear Ge–As–Se and Ge–As–S–Se glasses for all-optical switching,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14(6), 822–824 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

J. T. Gopinath, M. Soljačić, E. P. Ippen, V. N. Fuflyigin, W. A. King, and M. Shurgalin, “Third order nonlinearities in Ge-As-Se-based glasses for telecommunications applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(11), 6931 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. (1)

K. Tanaka, “Optical nonlinearity in photonic glasses,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 16(10), 633–643 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (3)

T. I. Kosa, R. Rangel-Rojo, E. Hajto, P. J. S. Ewen, A. E. Owen, A. K. Kar, and B. S. Wherrett, “Nonlinear optical properties of silver-doped As2S3,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 164, 1219–1222 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. Zakery and S. R. Elliott, “Optical properties and applications of chalcogenide glasses: a review,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 330(1-3), 1–12 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. Petkov and P. J. S. Ewen, “Photoinduced changes in the linear and non-linear optical properties of chalcogenide glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 249(2-3), 150–159 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. Solids (1)

C. Quémard, F. Smektala, V. Couderc, A. Barthélémy, and J. Lucas, “Chalcogenide glasses with high non linear optical properties for telecommunications,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 62(8), 1435–1440 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Mater. (2)

B. S. Song, S. Noda, T. Asano, and Y. Akahane, “Ultra-high-Q photonic double-heterostructure nanocavity,” Nat. Mater. 4(3), 207–210 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. SoljaČiĆ and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Enhancement of nonlinear effects using photonic crystals,” Nat. Mater. 3(4), 211–219 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (1)

K. Nozaki, T. Tanabe, A. Shinya, S. Matsuo, T. Sato, H. Taniyama, and M. Notomi, “Sub-femtojoule all-optical switching using a photonic-crystal nanocavity,” Nat. Photonics 4(7), 477–483 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (10)

C. Grillet, C. Smith, D. Freeman, S. Madden, B. Luther-Davies, E. Magi, D. Moss, and B. Eggleton, “Efficient coupling to chalcogenide glass photonic crystal waveguides via silica optical fiber nanowires,” Opt. Express 14(3), 1070–1078 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Ruan, W. Li, R. Jarvis, N. Madsen, A. Rode, and B. Luther-Davies, “Fabrication and characterization of low loss rib chalcogenide waveguides made by dry etching,” Opt. Express 12(21), 5140–5145 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Suzuki, Y. Hamachi, and T. Baba, “Fabrication and characterization of chalcogenide glass photonic crystal waveguides,” Opt. Express 17(25), 22393–22400 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Notomi, A. Shinya, S. Mitsugi, G. Kira, E. Kuramochi, and T. Tanabe, “Optical bistable switching action of Si high-Q photonic-crystal nanocavities,” Opt. Express 13(7), 2678–2687 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. D. Vo, H. Hu, M. Galili, E. Palushani, J. Xu, L. K. Oxenløwe, S. J. Madden, D. Y. Choi, D. A. P. Bulla, M. D. Pelusi, J. Schröder, B. Luther-Davies, and B. J. Eggleton, “Photonic chip based transmitter optimization and receiver demultiplexing of a 1.28 Tbit/s OTDM signal,” Opt. Express 18(16), 17252–17261 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. W. Lee, C. Grillet, C. L. C. Smith, D. J. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, D. Freeman, B. Luther-Davies, S. Madden, A. Rode, Y. Ruan, and Y.-H. Lee, “Photosensitive post tuning of chalcogenide photonic crystal waveguides,” Opt. Express 15(3), 1277–1285 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. W. Lee, C. Grillet, C. G. Poulton, C. Monat, C. L. Smith, E. Mägi, D. Freeman, S. Madden, B. Luther-Davies, and B. J. Eggleton, “Characterizing photonic crystal waveguides with an expanded k-space evanescent coupling technique,” Opt. Express 16(18), 13800–13808 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Brunstein, R. Braive, R. Hostein, A. Beveratos, I. Rober-Philip, I. Sagnes, T. J. Karle, A. M. Yacomotti, J. A. Levenson, V. Moreau, G. Tessier, and Y. De Wilde, “Thermo-optical dynamics in an optically pumped Photonic Crystal nano-cavity,” Opt. Express 17(19), 17118–17129 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Prasad, C. J. Zha, R. P. Wang, A. Smith, S. Madden, and B. Luther-Davies, “Properties of GexAsySe1-x-y glasses for all-optical signal processing,” Opt. Express 16(4), 2804–2815 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. McNab, N. Moll, and Y. Vlasov, “Ultra-low loss photonic integrated circuit with membrane-type photonic crystal waveguides,” Opt. Express 11(22), 2927–2939 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (6)

Photonics and Nanostructures-Fundamentals and Applications (1)

D. Freeman, C. Grillet, M. W. Lee, C. L. C. Smith, Y. Ruan, A. Rode, M. Krolikowska, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, C. M. de Sterke, M. J. Steel, B. Luther-Davies, S. Madden, D. J. Moss, Y. H. Lee, and B. J. Eggleton, “Chalcogenide glass photonic crystals,” Photonics and Nanostructures-Fundamentals and Applications 6, 3–11 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

E. Centeno and D. Felbacq, “Optical bistability in finite-size nonlinear bidimensional photonic crystals doped by a microcavity,” Phys. Rev. B 62(12), 7683–7686 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films (1)

V. Lyubin, M. Klebanov, A. Feigel, and B. Sfez, “Films of chalcogenide glassy semiconductors: New phenomena and new applications,” Thin Solid Films 459(1-2), 183–186 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

A schematic view of our experimental setup with a tapered fiber coupled to the PhC cavity. The cavity is depicted by the darker region of the PhC. The input light source was modulated with a Mach-Zehnder modulator and then passed through a circulator so that both the reflection and transmission from the PhC cavity could be measured. Light was coupled into the PhC cavity by evanescent coupling with a tapered optical fiber. The coupling condition between the fiber taper and the cavity mode was controlled by changing the displacement of the taper from the cavity region along the waveguide axis.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) The shift of the resonance is shown in the spectra recorded at various times while the cavity was excited with the near IR pulsed source at an average input power of 7.57μW. (b) Cavity resonance position as a function of time at various input power levels. The lines show a linear fit to the data at each power level.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The rate of index change as a function of input power shows a linear relationship. This indicates that the photosensitive process results from linear absorption in the regime of peak power we measured.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a): The resonance spectrum for the thermal bistable switching measurement. Resonance linewidth (FWHM) = 0.148nm, λ0 = 1539.597nm (b): Input and output power plotted as a function of time for a detuning of 0.14nm. Switching times were: trise ~63μs, tfall ~93μs (c): Output power against input power for a range of detunings. Thermal hysteresis was observed for sufficiently large detunings.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

A schematic showing how the peak power and duty cycle were varied to maintain the same average power. The shaded areas represent the pulse bursts and both diagrams show the same average power.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a): A series of measurements of the cavity reflection spectrum with a fixed average power but increasing peak power. (b): A plot of the resonance shift relative to the cold cavity against peak power for three series of measurements, each with a fixed average power.

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