Abstract

A spectroscopic method of molecular detection based on dispersion measurements using a frequency-chirped laser source is presented. An infrared quantum cascade laser emitting around 1912 cm−1 is used as a tunable spectroscopic source to measure dispersion that occurs in the vicinity of molecular ro-vibrational transitions. The sample under study is a mixture of nitric oxide in dry nitrogen. Two experimental configurations based on a coherent detection scheme are investigated and discussed. The theoretical models, which describe the observed spectral signals, are developed and verified experimentally. The method is particularly relevant to optical sensing based on mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers as the high chirp rates available with those sources can significantly enhance the magnitude of the measured dispersion signals. The method relies on heterodyne beatnote frequency measurements and shows high immunity to variations in the optical power received by the photodetector.

© 2010 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2009

D. Richter, A. Fried, and P. Weibring, “Difference frequency generation laser based spectrometers,” Laser Photon. Rev. 3(4), 343–354 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simecková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Lewicki, J. H. Doty, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, and G. Wysocki, “Ultrasensitive detection of nitric oxide at 5.33  m by using external cavity quantum cascade laser-based Faraday rotation spectroscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106(31), 12587–12592 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

A. Foltynowicz, W. Ma, and O. Axner, “Characterization of fiber-laser-based sub-Doppler NICE-OHMS for quantitative trace gas detection,” Opt. Express 16(19), 14689–14702 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

J. B. McManus, D. D. Nelson, S. C. Herndon, J. H. Shorter, M. S. Zahniser, S. Blaser, L. Hvozdara, A. Muller, M. Giovannini, and J. Faist, “Comparison of cw and pulsed operation with a TE-cooled quantum cascade infrared laser for detection of nitric oxide at 1900 cm-1,” Appl. Phys. B 85(2-3), 235–241 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Taslakov, V. Simeonov, M. Froidevaux, and H. van den Bergh, “Open-path ozone detection by quantum-cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. B 82(3), 501–506 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Moschella, R. C. Hazelton, and M. D. Keitz, “Resonant, heterodyne laser interferometer for state density measurements in atoms and ions,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77(9), 093108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

S. Marchetti and R. Simili, “Measurement of the refractive index dispersion around an absorbing line,” Opt. Commun. 249(1-3), 37–41 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Duxbury, N. Langford, M. T. McCulloch, and S. Wright, “Quantum cascade semiconductor infrared and far-infrared lasers: from trace gas sensing to non-linear optics,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 34(11), 921–934 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

H. Ganser, M. Horstjann, C. V. Suschek, P. Hering, and M. Mürtz, “Online monitoring of biogenic nitric oxide with a QC laser-based Faraday modulation technique,” Appl. Phys. B 78(3-4), 513–517 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

M. B. Pushkarsky, M. E. Webber, and C. K. N. Patel, “Ultra-sensitive ambient ammonia detection using CO2-laser-based photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 77(4), 381–385 (2003).
[CrossRef]

E. Normand, M. McCulloch, G. Duxbury, and N. Langford, “Fast, real-time spectrometer based on a pulsed quantum-cascade laser,” Opt. Lett. 28(1), 16–18 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Beyer, M. Braun, and A. Lambrecht, “Fast gas spectroscopy using pulsed quantum cascade lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(6), 3158–3160 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. T. McCulloch, E. L. Normand, N. Langford, G. Duxbury, and D. A. Newnham, “Highly sensitive detection of trace gases using the time-resolved frequency downchirp from pulsed quantum-cascade lasers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20(8), 1761–1768 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

A. A. Kosterev and F. K. Tittel, “Chemical sensors based on quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(6), 582–591 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000

M. Shurgalin, W. H. Parkinson, K. Yoshino, C. Schoene, and W. P. Lapatovich, “Precision measurements of sodium-sodium and sodium-noble gas molecular absorption,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 11(6), 730–737 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. P. Tzannis, J. C. Lee, P. Beaud, H. M. Frey, T. Greber, B. Mischler, P. P. Radi, and K. Boulouchos, “OH Concentration Measurements by Resonant Holographic Interferometry and Comparison with Direct Numerical Simulations,” Flow Turbul. Combus. 64(3), 183–196 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1996

P. Werle, “Spectroscopic trace gas analysis using semiconductor diode lasers,” Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc. 52(8), 805–822 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1982

O. E. Denchev, A. G. Zhiglinskii, N. S. Ryazanov, and A. N. Samokhin, “Possibility of intra-resonator double-beam spectrointerferometry of phase objects using a dye laser,” J. Appl. Spectrosc. 36(3), 267–271 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1980

R. Gross, R. Chodzko, E. Turner, and J. Coffer, “Measurements of the anomalous dispersion of HF in absorption,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 16(7), 795–798 (1980).
[CrossRef]

A. B. Duval and A. I. McIntosh, “Measurement of oscillator strength by tunable laser interferometry,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 13(9), 1617–1624 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1975

M. Crance, P. Juncar, and J. Pinard, “A new method for measuring relative oscillator strengths using a CW dye laser,” J. Phys. B 8(15), 2461 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1972

V. Hasson, A. J. D. Farmer, and R. W. Nicholls, “Application of dispersion techniques to molecular band intensity measurements: I. Principles of ‘fringe shift’ and ‘fringe slope’ band analysis procedures,” J. Phys. B 5(1), 7–15 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1912

D. Roschdestwensky, “Anomale Dispersion im Natriumdampf,” Ann. Phys. 344(12), 307–345 (1912).
[CrossRef]

1901

R. W. Wood, “The Anomalous Dispersion of Sodium Vapour,” Proc. R. Soc. Lond. 69(451-458), 157–171 (1901).
[CrossRef]

Axner, O.

A. Foltynowicz, W. Ma, and O. Axner, “Characterization of fiber-laser-based sub-Doppler NICE-OHMS for quantitative trace gas detection,” Opt. Express 16(19), 14689–14702 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barbe, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simecková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Beaud, P.

A. P. Tzannis, J. C. Lee, P. Beaud, H. M. Frey, T. Greber, B. Mischler, P. P. Radi, and K. Boulouchos, “OH Concentration Measurements by Resonant Holographic Interferometry and Comparison with Direct Numerical Simulations,” Flow Turbul. Combus. 64(3), 183–196 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Benner, D. C.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simecková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bernath, P. F.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simecková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Beyer, T.

T. Beyer, M. Braun, and A. Lambrecht, “Fast gas spectroscopy using pulsed quantum cascade lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(6), 3158–3160 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Birk, M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simecková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Blaser, S.

J. B. McManus, D. D. Nelson, S. C. Herndon, J. H. Shorter, M. S. Zahniser, S. Blaser, L. Hvozdara, A. Muller, M. Giovannini, and J. Faist, “Comparison of cw and pulsed operation with a TE-cooled quantum cascade infrared laser for detection of nitric oxide at 1900 cm-1,” Appl. Phys. B 85(2-3), 235–241 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Boudon, V.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simecková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Boulouchos, K.

A. P. Tzannis, J. C. Lee, P. Beaud, H. M. Frey, T. Greber, B. Mischler, P. P. Radi, and K. Boulouchos, “OH Concentration Measurements by Resonant Holographic Interferometry and Comparison with Direct Numerical Simulations,” Flow Turbul. Combus. 64(3), 183–196 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Braun, M.

T. Beyer, M. Braun, and A. Lambrecht, “Fast gas spectroscopy using pulsed quantum cascade lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(6), 3158–3160 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Brown, L. R.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simecková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Campargue, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simecková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Champion, J. P.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simecková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chance, K.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simecková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chodzko, R.

R. Gross, R. Chodzko, E. Turner, and J. Coffer, “Measurements of the anomalous dispersion of HF in absorption,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 16(7), 795–798 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Coffer, J.

R. Gross, R. Chodzko, E. Turner, and J. Coffer, “Measurements of the anomalous dispersion of HF in absorption,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 16(7), 795–798 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Coudert, L. H.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simecková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
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R. Lewicki, J. H. Doty, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, and G. Wysocki, “Ultrasensitive detection of nitric oxide at 5.33  m by using external cavity quantum cascade laser-based Faraday rotation spectroscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106(31), 12587–12592 (2009).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simecková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simecková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
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R. Lewicki, J. H. Doty, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, and G. Wysocki, “Ultrasensitive detection of nitric oxide at 5.33  m by using external cavity quantum cascade laser-based Faraday rotation spectroscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106(31), 12587–12592 (2009).
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A. B. Duval and A. I. McIntosh, “Measurement of oscillator strength by tunable laser interferometry,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 13(9), 1617–1624 (1980).
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G. Duxbury, N. Langford, M. T. McCulloch, and S. Wright, “Quantum cascade semiconductor infrared and far-infrared lasers: from trace gas sensing to non-linear optics,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 34(11), 921–934 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Normand, M. McCulloch, G. Duxbury, and N. Langford, “Fast, real-time spectrometer based on a pulsed quantum-cascade laser,” Opt. Lett. 28(1), 16–18 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. T. McCulloch, E. L. Normand, N. Langford, G. Duxbury, and D. A. Newnham, “Highly sensitive detection of trace gases using the time-resolved frequency downchirp from pulsed quantum-cascade lasers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20(8), 1761–1768 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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J. B. McManus, D. D. Nelson, S. C. Herndon, J. H. Shorter, M. S. Zahniser, S. Blaser, L. Hvozdara, A. Muller, M. Giovannini, and J. Faist, “Comparison of cw and pulsed operation with a TE-cooled quantum cascade infrared laser for detection of nitric oxide at 1900 cm-1,” Appl. Phys. B 85(2-3), 235–241 (2006).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simecková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
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A. Foltynowicz, W. Ma, and O. Axner, “Characterization of fiber-laser-based sub-Doppler NICE-OHMS for quantitative trace gas detection,” Opt. Express 16(19), 14689–14702 (2008).
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A. P. Tzannis, J. C. Lee, P. Beaud, H. M. Frey, T. Greber, B. Mischler, P. P. Radi, and K. Boulouchos, “OH Concentration Measurements by Resonant Holographic Interferometry and Comparison with Direct Numerical Simulations,” Flow Turbul. Combus. 64(3), 183–196 (2000).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simecková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
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H. Ganser, M. Horstjann, C. V. Suschek, P. Hering, and M. Mürtz, “Online monitoring of biogenic nitric oxide with a QC laser-based Faraday modulation technique,” Appl. Phys. B 78(3-4), 513–517 (2004).
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J. B. McManus, D. D. Nelson, S. C. Herndon, J. H. Shorter, M. S. Zahniser, S. Blaser, L. Hvozdara, A. Muller, M. Giovannini, and J. Faist, “Comparison of cw and pulsed operation with a TE-cooled quantum cascade infrared laser for detection of nitric oxide at 1900 cm-1,” Appl. Phys. B 85(2-3), 235–241 (2006).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simecková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simecková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
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V. Hasson, A. J. D. Farmer, and R. W. Nicholls, “Application of dispersion techniques to molecular band intensity measurements: I. Principles of ‘fringe shift’ and ‘fringe slope’ band analysis procedures,” J. Phys. B 5(1), 7–15 (1972).
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J. J. Moschella, R. C. Hazelton, and M. D. Keitz, “Resonant, heterodyne laser interferometer for state density measurements in atoms and ions,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77(9), 093108 (2006).
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H. Ganser, M. Horstjann, C. V. Suschek, P. Hering, and M. Mürtz, “Online monitoring of biogenic nitric oxide with a QC laser-based Faraday modulation technique,” Appl. Phys. B 78(3-4), 513–517 (2004).
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J. B. McManus, D. D. Nelson, S. C. Herndon, J. H. Shorter, M. S. Zahniser, S. Blaser, L. Hvozdara, A. Muller, M. Giovannini, and J. Faist, “Comparison of cw and pulsed operation with a TE-cooled quantum cascade infrared laser for detection of nitric oxide at 1900 cm-1,” Appl. Phys. B 85(2-3), 235–241 (2006).
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H. Ganser, M. Horstjann, C. V. Suschek, P. Hering, and M. Mürtz, “Online monitoring of biogenic nitric oxide with a QC laser-based Faraday modulation technique,” Appl. Phys. B 78(3-4), 513–517 (2004).
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J. B. McManus, D. D. Nelson, S. C. Herndon, J. H. Shorter, M. S. Zahniser, S. Blaser, L. Hvozdara, A. Muller, M. Giovannini, and J. Faist, “Comparison of cw and pulsed operation with a TE-cooled quantum cascade infrared laser for detection of nitric oxide at 1900 cm-1,” Appl. Phys. B 85(2-3), 235–241 (2006).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simecková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
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M. Crance, P. Juncar, and J. Pinard, “A new method for measuring relative oscillator strengths using a CW dye laser,” J. Phys. B 8(15), 2461 (1975).
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J. J. Moschella, R. C. Hazelton, and M. D. Keitz, “Resonant, heterodyne laser interferometer for state density measurements in atoms and ions,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77(9), 093108 (2006).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simecková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simecková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simecková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
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G. Duxbury, N. Langford, M. T. McCulloch, and S. Wright, “Quantum cascade semiconductor infrared and far-infrared lasers: from trace gas sensing to non-linear optics,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 34(11), 921–934 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. T. McCulloch, E. L. Normand, N. Langford, G. Duxbury, and D. A. Newnham, “Highly sensitive detection of trace gases using the time-resolved frequency downchirp from pulsed quantum-cascade lasers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20(8), 1761–1768 (2003).
[CrossRef]

E. Normand, M. McCulloch, G. Duxbury, and N. Langford, “Fast, real-time spectrometer based on a pulsed quantum-cascade laser,” Opt. Lett. 28(1), 16–18 (2003).
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[CrossRef]

Lewicki, R.

R. Lewicki, J. H. Doty, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, and G. Wysocki, “Ultrasensitive detection of nitric oxide at 5.33  m by using external cavity quantum cascade laser-based Faraday rotation spectroscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106(31), 12587–12592 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ma, W.

A. Foltynowicz, W. Ma, and O. Axner, “Characterization of fiber-laser-based sub-Doppler NICE-OHMS for quantitative trace gas detection,” Opt. Express 16(19), 14689–14702 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simecková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simecková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
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E. Normand, M. McCulloch, G. Duxbury, and N. Langford, “Fast, real-time spectrometer based on a pulsed quantum-cascade laser,” Opt. Lett. 28(1), 16–18 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McCulloch, M. T.

G. Duxbury, N. Langford, M. T. McCulloch, and S. Wright, “Quantum cascade semiconductor infrared and far-infrared lasers: from trace gas sensing to non-linear optics,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 34(11), 921–934 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. T. McCulloch, E. L. Normand, N. Langford, G. Duxbury, and D. A. Newnham, “Highly sensitive detection of trace gases using the time-resolved frequency downchirp from pulsed quantum-cascade lasers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20(8), 1761–1768 (2003).
[CrossRef]

McIntosh, A. I.

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M. Shurgalin, W. H. Parkinson, K. Yoshino, C. Schoene, and W. P. Lapatovich, “Precision measurements of sodium-sodium and sodium-noble gas molecular absorption,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 11(6), 730–737 (2000).
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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Absorption coefficient and dispersion spectra calculated using the HITRAN database for the NO transitions at ~1912.07 cm−1 (left panels) and 1912.79 cm−1 (right panels). Calculations were made for a NO-N2 mixture at 5 Torr containing 1% of NO.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Experimental arrangement for CLaDS sensing. (T - temperature, I - current, QCL - quantum cascade laser, AOM - acousto-optical modulator, M - mirror, BS – beam splitter, PD – photodetector, A - amplitude, f – frequency, ω - optical angular frequency); (b) Schematic representation of the optical layout with parameters used in the theoretical model. (ω - optical angular frequency, Ω - acousto-optical frequency shift, n1,2 – refractive indices of the media, L - geometrical length in the free space/air, Lc – geometrical length of the gas cell, ΔL – geometrical path difference between the optical arms).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Amplitude- and frequency-demodulated signals (carrier frequency Ω excluded) when applying a linear laser frequency scan across the NO doublet at ~1912.075 cm−1. Laser chirp rate was varied for each plot: A: 188Hz/ns, B: 347Hz/ns, C: 523Hz/ns, and D: 1042Hz/ns. The blue lines refer to the constant frequency value due to path difference ΔL appearing in Eq. (19).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Amplitude (top panels) and frequency (bottom panels) demodulated spectra of the NO doublet centered at ~1912.075 cm−1. Spectra have been fitted with the model (red line). The spectra presented here corresponds to the data showed in Fig. 4(a) (left column) and Fig. 4(c) (right column).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

A: Evolution of the laser power and B: the corresponding instantaneous frequency of the heterodyne signal measured during a square waveform current modulation (8mA amplitude) with no gas sample and for ΔL = −5.5cm (carrier frequency Ω excluded). The blue line in plot A is the calculated relative laser frequency evolution within the modulation period. C: NO doublet dispersion signal recorded where the QCL chirp rate is maximum (black) and away from that condition (red).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Frequency demodulated spectra (carrier frequency Ω excluded) recorded when placing the sample cell in the dual-beam configuration. A corresponds to the non-resolved NO doublet (single line) and C to the doublet. The current step was 16 mA, applied at a 100 kHz frequency. The plots B and D are the corresponding calculated spectra.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Calculation of the frequency-demodulated heterodyne signal (carrier frequency Ω excluded) for dispersion sensing in the dual-beam configuration for different frequency shifts Ω. The optimized situation (blue line) corresponds to a frequency shift of 150 MHz, identical to the NO transition linewidth.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Dispersion spectrum (single-frequency beam configuration with carrier frequency Ω excluded)) of the NO transition at 1912.79 cm−1. The applied current step is 14mA, 100 scans were averaged, and the baseline was corrected by a third order polynomial.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Molecular dispersion spectra measured for a wide range of detected RF powers (the vertical shift between spectra was introduced for viewing purposes). The signal and noise remain mostly unaffected by a four orders of magnitude RF power variation.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Spectroscopic characteristics of the NO transitions targeted during the experimental study. Data are taken from the HITRAN database [22]

Tables Icon

Table 2 Input parameters used and output parameters returned by the fitting algorithm for calculated spectra appearing in Fig. 4

Equations (22)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

n ( ω ) = 1 + c π 0 + α ( ω ' ) ω ' 2 ω 2 d ω '
E 1 = A 1 cos ( ω 1 t ϕ 1 )
E 2 = A 2 cos ( ω 2 t ϕ 2 )
I p h A 1 2 + A 2 2 + 2 A 1 A 2 cos [ ( ω 1 ω 2 ) t ( ϕ 1 ϕ 2 ) ] = A 1 2 + A 2 2 + 2 A 1 A 2 cos ( φ )
E = A 0 cos ( ω 0 t + 1 2 S t 2 )
ω ( t ) = ω 0 + S t
Δ t 1 = L + Δ L + L C [ n ( ω 1 ) 1 ] c
Δ t 2 = L + L C [ n ( ω 2 ) 1 ] c
E 1 = A 1 cos [ ω 0 ( t Δ t 1 ) + 1 2 S ( t Δ t 1 ) 2 ]
E 2 = A 2 cos [ ω 0 ( t Δ t 2 ) + 1 2 S ( t Δ t 2 ) 2 Ω ( t Δ t 2 ) ]
φ ( t ) = [ Ω + S ( Δ t 2 Δ t 1 ) ] t Ω Δ t 2 + ω 0 ( Δ t 2 Δ t 1 ) 1 2 S ( Δ t 2 2 Δ t 1 2 )
f ( t ) = 1 2 π { Ω + S ( Δ t 2 Δ t 1 ) + S t [ d d t ( Δ t 2 ) d d t ( Δ t 1 ) ] + ω 0 [ d d t ( Δ t 2 ) d d t ( Δ t 1 ) ] S [ Δ t 2 d d t ( Δ t 2 ) Δ t 1 d d t ( Δ t 1 ) ] Ω d d t ( Δ t 2 ) }
d d t ( Δ t 1 , 2 ) = L C c d n 1 , 2 d t = L C c d n d ω | ω 1 , 2 d ω d t = S L C c d n d ω | ω 1 , 2
f ( ω ) = 1 2 π { Ω + S Δ L c S L C c ω ( d n d ω | ω Ω d n d ω | ω ) + S L C c [ n ( ω Ω ) n ( ω ) ] }
f ( ω ) = 1 2 π [ Ω + S Δ L c S L C c ω ( d n d ω | ω Ω d n d ω | ω Ω ω d n d ω | ω ) ]
f ( ω ) = 1 2 π [ Ω + S Δ L c S L C c ω ( d n d ω | ω Ω d n d ω | ω ) ]
A 1 , 2 = A 01 , 02 exp ( α ( ω 1 , 2 ) L C 2 )
A ( ω ) = 2 A 1 A 2 = 2 A 01 A 02 exp [ ( α ( ω ) L C 2 + α ( ω Ω ) L C 2 ) ]
f ( ω ) = 1 2 π ( Ω + S Δ L c + S L C c ω d n d ω | ω )
A ( ω ) = 2 A 1 A 2 = 2 A 01 A 02 exp ( α ( ω ) L C 2 )
f ( ω ) = 1 2 π ( Ω + S Δ L c )
S N R = 3 C N R ( 1 + β ) β 2

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