Abstract

In this work we present a prototype multiview projection display that combines high-spatial and high-angular resolution with low complexity, compact form factor and potentially low-cost design. The system consists of a single projector and an image steering projection screen. It is based on beam steering using decentered microlens arrays in the projection screen and time-sequential rear-projection of the view images. The prototype has a 25 in. screen, a total of 27 viewing zones with XGA resolution and a horizontal field of view of 30°.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. Son, and B. Javidi, "Three-dimensional imaging methods based on multiview images," J. Disp. Technol. 1, 125-140 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  2. L. Lipton, "Digital stereoscopic cinema: the 21st century," in Stereoscopic Displays and Applications XIX, A. Woods, N. Holliman, and J. Merritt, eds., Proc. SPIE-IS&T Electronic Imaging 6803, 68030W (2008).
  3. Y. Kajiki, H. Yoshikawa, and T. Honda, "Hologram-like video images by 45-view stereoscopic display," in Stereoscopic Displays and Virtual Reality Systems IV, S. Fisher, J. Merritt, and M. Bolas, eds., Proc. SPIE 3012, 154-166 (1997).
  4. T. Honda, and M. Shimomatsu, "Natural 3-D display system by a fan-like array of projection optics," in Three-Dimensional TV, Video, and Display, B. Javidi and F. Okano, eds., Proc. SPIE 4864, 96-103 (2002).
  5. Y. Takaki, "High-density directional display for generating natural three-dimensional images," Proc. IEEE 94, 654-663 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  6. O. Willemsen, S. de Zwart, M. Hiddink, D. de Boer, and M. Krijn, "Multi-view 3D displays," SID Symposium Digest 38, 1154-1157 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. Krijn, S. de Zwart, D. de Boer, O. Willemsen, and M. Sluijter, "2-D/3-D displays based on switchable lenticulars," J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 16, 847-855 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  8. B. Lee, H. Hong, J. Park, H. Park, H. Shin, and I. Jung, "Multiview autostereoscopic display of 36view using an ultra-high resolution LCD," in Stereoscopic Displays and Virtual Reality Systems XIV, A. Woods, N. Dodgson, J. Merritt, M. Bolas, and I. McDowall, eds., Proc. SPIE-IS&T Electronic Imaging 6490, 64900S (2007).
  9. Y. Takaki, O. Yokoyama, and G. Hamagishi, "Flat panel display with slanted pixel arrangement for 16-view display," in Stereoscopic Displays and Applications XX, A. Woods, N. Holliman, and J. Merrittl, eds., Proc. SPIE-IS&T Electronic Imaging 7237, 723708 (2009).
  10. J. Son, V. Komar, Y. Chun, S. Sabo, V. Mayorov, L. Balasny, S. Belyaev, M. Semin, M. Krutik, and H. Jeon, "A multiview 3-D imaging system with full color capabilities," in Stereoscopic Displays and Virtual Reality Systems V, M. Bolas, S. Fisher, and J. Merritt, eds., Proc. SPIE 3295, 218-223 (1998).
  11. T. Kanebako, and Y. Takaki, "Time-multiplexing display module for high-density directional display," in Stereoscopic Displays and Applications XIX, A. Woods, N. Holliman, and J. Merritt, eds., Proc. SPIE-IS&T Electronic Imaging 6803, 68030P (2008).
  12. L. Hornbeck, "Digital light processing for high-brightness high-resolution applications," in Projection Displays III, M. Wu, ed., Proc. SPIE 3013, 27-40 (1997).
  13. T. Balogh, "The HoloVizio system," in Stereoscopic Displays and Virtual Reality Systems XIII, A. Woods, N. Dodgson, J. Merritt, M. Bolas, and I. McDowall, eds., Proc. SPIE-IS&T Electronic Imaging 6055, 60550U (2006).
  14. K. Kikuta, and Y. Takaki, "Development of SVGA resolution 128-directional display," in Stereoscopic Displays and Virtual Reality Systems XIV, A. Woods, N. Dodgson, J. Merritt, M. Bolas, and I. McDowall, eds., Proc. SPIE-IS&T Electronic Imaging 6490, 64900U (2007).
  15. Y. Takaki, and N. Nago, "Multi-projection of lenticular displays to construct a 256-view super multi-view display," Opt. Express 18, 8824-8835 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. E. Watson, "Analysis of beam steering with decentered microlens arrays," Opt. Eng. 32, 2665-2670 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  17. J. Duparré, D. Radtke, and P. Dannberg, "Implementation of fiel lens arrays in beam-deflectin microlens array telescopes," Appl. Opt. 43, 4854-4861 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. J. Jang, and B. Javidi, "Improved viewing resolution of three-dimensional integral imaging by use of nonstationary micro-optics," Opt. Lett. 27, 324-326 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  19. W. Bleha, and R. Sterling, "D-ILA technology for high resolution projection displays," in Cockpit Displays X, D. Hopper, ed., Proc. SPIE 5080, 239-249 (2003).
  20. S. Hashimoto, O. Akimoto, H. Ishikawa, T. Kiyomiya, T. Togawa, T. Isozaki, H. Abe, M. Nakai, H. Terakawa, H. Horikiri, T. Ishii, and M. Kogure, "SXRD (Silicon X-tal Reflect ve Display); a new display device for projection displays," SID Symposium Digest 36, 1362-1365 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  21. E. Wolterink, and K. Demeyer, "Waferoptics mass volume production and reliability," in Micro-Optics 2010, H. Thienpont, P. V. Daele, J. Mohr, and H. Zappe, eds., Proc. SPIE 7716, 771614 (2010).
  22. Y. Cheng, F. Tsai, A. Wang, and H. Chiu, "High brightness LED based projector with NTSC 120% wide color gamut," SID Symposium Digest 41, 976-978 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  23. F. Fournier, and J. Rolland, "Design methodology for high brightness projectors," J. Disp. Technol. 4, 86-91 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  24. E. Geißler, "Meeting the challenges of developing LED-based projection displays," in Photonics in Multimedia, A. Tervonen, M. Kujawinska, W. IJzerman, and H. De Smet, eds., Proc. SPIE 6196, 619601 (2006).
  25. S. Roelandt, L. Bogaert, Y. Meuret, A. Avci, H. De Smet, and H. Thienpont, "Color uniformity in compact LED illumination for DMD projectors," in Optics, Photonics, and Digital Technologies for Multimedia Applications, P. Schelkens, T. Ebrahimi, G. Cristóbal, F. Truchetet, and P. Saarikko, eds., Proc. SPIE 7723, 77230X (2010).
  26. C. Hoepfner, "PhlatLight photonic lattice LEDs for RPTV light engines," SID Symposium Digest 37, 1808-1811 (2006).
    [CrossRef]

2010 (1)

Y. Takaki, and N. Nago, "Multi-projection of lenticular displays to construct a 256-view super multi-view display," Opt. Express 18, 8824-8835 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

M. Krijn, S. de Zwart, D. de Boer, O. Willemsen, and M. Sluijter, "2-D/3-D displays based on switchable lenticulars," J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 16, 847-855 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Fournier, and J. Rolland, "Design methodology for high brightness projectors," J. Disp. Technol. 4, 86-91 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

Y. Takaki, "High-density directional display for generating natural three-dimensional images," Proc. IEEE 94, 654-663 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

J. Son, and B. Javidi, "Three-dimensional imaging methods based on multiview images," J. Disp. Technol. 1, 125-140 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

J. Duparré, D. Radtke, and P. Dannberg, "Implementation of fiel lens arrays in beam-deflectin microlens array telescopes," Appl. Opt. 43, 4854-4861 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

J. Jang, and B. Javidi, "Improved viewing resolution of three-dimensional integral imaging by use of nonstationary micro-optics," Opt. Lett. 27, 324-326 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

E. Watson, "Analysis of beam steering with decentered microlens arrays," Opt. Eng. 32, 2665-2670 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Dannberg, P.

J. Duparré, D. Radtke, and P. Dannberg, "Implementation of fiel lens arrays in beam-deflectin microlens array telescopes," Appl. Opt. 43, 4854-4861 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Boer, D.

M. Krijn, S. de Zwart, D. de Boer, O. Willemsen, and M. Sluijter, "2-D/3-D displays based on switchable lenticulars," J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 16, 847-855 (2008).
[CrossRef]

de Zwart, S.

M. Krijn, S. de Zwart, D. de Boer, O. Willemsen, and M. Sluijter, "2-D/3-D displays based on switchable lenticulars," J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 16, 847-855 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Duparré, J.

J. Duparré, D. Radtke, and P. Dannberg, "Implementation of fiel lens arrays in beam-deflectin microlens array telescopes," Appl. Opt. 43, 4854-4861 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fournier, F.

F. Fournier, and J. Rolland, "Design methodology for high brightness projectors," J. Disp. Technol. 4, 86-91 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jang, J.

J. Jang, and B. Javidi, "Improved viewing resolution of three-dimensional integral imaging by use of nonstationary micro-optics," Opt. Lett. 27, 324-326 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Javidi, B.

J. Son, and B. Javidi, "Three-dimensional imaging methods based on multiview images," J. Disp. Technol. 1, 125-140 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Jang, and B. Javidi, "Improved viewing resolution of three-dimensional integral imaging by use of nonstationary micro-optics," Opt. Lett. 27, 324-326 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Krijn, M.

M. Krijn, S. de Zwart, D. de Boer, O. Willemsen, and M. Sluijter, "2-D/3-D displays based on switchable lenticulars," J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 16, 847-855 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nago, N.

Y. Takaki, and N. Nago, "Multi-projection of lenticular displays to construct a 256-view super multi-view display," Opt. Express 18, 8824-8835 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Radtke, D.

J. Duparré, D. Radtke, and P. Dannberg, "Implementation of fiel lens arrays in beam-deflectin microlens array telescopes," Appl. Opt. 43, 4854-4861 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rolland, J.

F. Fournier, and J. Rolland, "Design methodology for high brightness projectors," J. Disp. Technol. 4, 86-91 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sluijter, M.

M. Krijn, S. de Zwart, D. de Boer, O. Willemsen, and M. Sluijter, "2-D/3-D displays based on switchable lenticulars," J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 16, 847-855 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Son, J.

J. Son, and B. Javidi, "Three-dimensional imaging methods based on multiview images," J. Disp. Technol. 1, 125-140 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Takaki, Y.

Y. Takaki, and N. Nago, "Multi-projection of lenticular displays to construct a 256-view super multi-view display," Opt. Express 18, 8824-8835 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Takaki, "High-density directional display for generating natural three-dimensional images," Proc. IEEE 94, 654-663 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Watson, E.

E. Watson, "Analysis of beam steering with decentered microlens arrays," Opt. Eng. 32, 2665-2670 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Willemsen, O.

M. Krijn, S. de Zwart, D. de Boer, O. Willemsen, and M. Sluijter, "2-D/3-D displays based on switchable lenticulars," J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 16, 847-855 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

J. Duparré, D. Radtke, and P. Dannberg, "Implementation of fiel lens arrays in beam-deflectin microlens array telescopes," Appl. Opt. 43, 4854-4861 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Disp. Technol. (2)

F. Fournier, and J. Rolland, "Design methodology for high brightness projectors," J. Disp. Technol. 4, 86-91 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Son, and B. Javidi, "Three-dimensional imaging methods based on multiview images," J. Disp. Technol. 1, 125-140 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Soc. Inf. Disp. (1)

M. Krijn, S. de Zwart, D. de Boer, O. Willemsen, and M. Sluijter, "2-D/3-D displays based on switchable lenticulars," J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 16, 847-855 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

E. Watson, "Analysis of beam steering with decentered microlens arrays," Opt. Eng. 32, 2665-2670 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Y. Takaki, and N. Nago, "Multi-projection of lenticular displays to construct a 256-view super multi-view display," Opt. Express 18, 8824-8835 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (1)

J. Jang, and B. Javidi, "Improved viewing resolution of three-dimensional integral imaging by use of nonstationary micro-optics," Opt. Lett. 27, 324-326 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Proc. IEEE (1)

Y. Takaki, "High-density directional display for generating natural three-dimensional images," Proc. IEEE 94, 654-663 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Other (18)

O. Willemsen, S. de Zwart, M. Hiddink, D. de Boer, and M. Krijn, "Multi-view 3D displays," SID Symposium Digest 38, 1154-1157 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Lipton, "Digital stereoscopic cinema: the 21st century," in Stereoscopic Displays and Applications XIX, A. Woods, N. Holliman, and J. Merritt, eds., Proc. SPIE-IS&T Electronic Imaging 6803, 68030W (2008).

Y. Kajiki, H. Yoshikawa, and T. Honda, "Hologram-like video images by 45-view stereoscopic display," in Stereoscopic Displays and Virtual Reality Systems IV, S. Fisher, J. Merritt, and M. Bolas, eds., Proc. SPIE 3012, 154-166 (1997).

T. Honda, and M. Shimomatsu, "Natural 3-D display system by a fan-like array of projection optics," in Three-Dimensional TV, Video, and Display, B. Javidi and F. Okano, eds., Proc. SPIE 4864, 96-103 (2002).

B. Lee, H. Hong, J. Park, H. Park, H. Shin, and I. Jung, "Multiview autostereoscopic display of 36view using an ultra-high resolution LCD," in Stereoscopic Displays and Virtual Reality Systems XIV, A. Woods, N. Dodgson, J. Merritt, M. Bolas, and I. McDowall, eds., Proc. SPIE-IS&T Electronic Imaging 6490, 64900S (2007).

Y. Takaki, O. Yokoyama, and G. Hamagishi, "Flat panel display with slanted pixel arrangement for 16-view display," in Stereoscopic Displays and Applications XX, A. Woods, N. Holliman, and J. Merrittl, eds., Proc. SPIE-IS&T Electronic Imaging 7237, 723708 (2009).

J. Son, V. Komar, Y. Chun, S. Sabo, V. Mayorov, L. Balasny, S. Belyaev, M. Semin, M. Krutik, and H. Jeon, "A multiview 3-D imaging system with full color capabilities," in Stereoscopic Displays and Virtual Reality Systems V, M. Bolas, S. Fisher, and J. Merritt, eds., Proc. SPIE 3295, 218-223 (1998).

T. Kanebako, and Y. Takaki, "Time-multiplexing display module for high-density directional display," in Stereoscopic Displays and Applications XIX, A. Woods, N. Holliman, and J. Merritt, eds., Proc. SPIE-IS&T Electronic Imaging 6803, 68030P (2008).

L. Hornbeck, "Digital light processing for high-brightness high-resolution applications," in Projection Displays III, M. Wu, ed., Proc. SPIE 3013, 27-40 (1997).

T. Balogh, "The HoloVizio system," in Stereoscopic Displays and Virtual Reality Systems XIII, A. Woods, N. Dodgson, J. Merritt, M. Bolas, and I. McDowall, eds., Proc. SPIE-IS&T Electronic Imaging 6055, 60550U (2006).

K. Kikuta, and Y. Takaki, "Development of SVGA resolution 128-directional display," in Stereoscopic Displays and Virtual Reality Systems XIV, A. Woods, N. Dodgson, J. Merritt, M. Bolas, and I. McDowall, eds., Proc. SPIE-IS&T Electronic Imaging 6490, 64900U (2007).

W. Bleha, and R. Sterling, "D-ILA technology for high resolution projection displays," in Cockpit Displays X, D. Hopper, ed., Proc. SPIE 5080, 239-249 (2003).

S. Hashimoto, O. Akimoto, H. Ishikawa, T. Kiyomiya, T. Togawa, T. Isozaki, H. Abe, M. Nakai, H. Terakawa, H. Horikiri, T. Ishii, and M. Kogure, "SXRD (Silicon X-tal Reflect ve Display); a new display device for projection displays," SID Symposium Digest 36, 1362-1365 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. Wolterink, and K. Demeyer, "Waferoptics mass volume production and reliability," in Micro-Optics 2010, H. Thienpont, P. V. Daele, J. Mohr, and H. Zappe, eds., Proc. SPIE 7716, 771614 (2010).

Y. Cheng, F. Tsai, A. Wang, and H. Chiu, "High brightness LED based projector with NTSC 120% wide color gamut," SID Symposium Digest 41, 976-978 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. Geißler, "Meeting the challenges of developing LED-based projection displays," in Photonics in Multimedia, A. Tervonen, M. Kujawinska, W. IJzerman, and H. De Smet, eds., Proc. SPIE 6196, 619601 (2006).

S. Roelandt, L. Bogaert, Y. Meuret, A. Avci, H. De Smet, and H. Thienpont, "Color uniformity in compact LED illumination for DMD projectors," in Optics, Photonics, and Digital Technologies for Multimedia Applications, P. Schelkens, T. Ebrahimi, G. Cristóbal, F. Truchetet, and P. Saarikko, eds., Proc. SPIE 7723, 77230X (2010).

C. Hoepfner, "PhlatLight photonic lattice LEDs for RPTV light engines," SID Symposium Digest 37, 1808-1811 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Supplementary Material (1)

» Media 1: MOV (3231 KB)     

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic illustration of the time-sequential operation of the multiview display.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Beam steering using decentered microlens arrays.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic illustration of the projection setup using a DLP projector with a single DMD light modulator.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Horizontal cross section of one beam steering element on both lens sheets. One pixel of the image is traced through the lens system with no decenter (top) and with maximal decenter (bottom).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

The simulated steering angle and full-angle divergence of the steered light beam throughout the decenter range.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

CAD drawing of the moving mechanism. The moving lens sheet is part of a mass-spring system.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Calculated angular distribution of 35 2-bit full-color images. The steering angle (a) and steering range (b) of each image during the sinusoidal motion of the screen.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Picture of the prototype system. The projector is located on the left and the image steering projection screen on the right. The 3D images are seen on the other side of the projection screen ( Media 1).

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Picture of the odd viewing zones at a viewing distance of 1 m (from left to right, numbers: 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, 15, 17, 19, 21, 23, 25 and 27).

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Measured angular distribution of the viewing zones (a) and the uniformity of the steered light (b).

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

The time between consecutive images in viewing zones 1, 14 and 27 (225 μm, 0 μm and −225 μm decenter, respectively).

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Picture of the Moiré patterns on the vibrating screen. Outmost left viewing zone (a), center viewing zone (b) and outmost right viewing zone (c).

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Overview of the number of image frames the DMD can modulate and the number of viewing zones this corresponds to.

Metrics