Abstract

In this paper, the polarization dependent optical properties of InGaN/GaN multi-quantum wells (MQWs) LED with cascading plasmonic gratings are investigated using an angle-resolved photoluminescence (ARPL) spectrometer. The plasmonic gratings consist of two Ag gratings with a half-pitch displacement. The ARPL spectra of the TE-TM state present a broadband emission with resonance dips occasioned by the SP resonance while the TM-TE state presents resonance peaks with low sideband emission. The resonance properties can be tuned by modifying the geometric parameters of the plasmonic grating. The ARPL spectrum of the LED sample with pure GaN 1D grating is also measured and discussed. The investigated plasmonics LED represents resonance optical properties different from the conventional surface relief LED, which can be used in special applications.

© 2010 OSA

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  1. J. B. Kim, S. M. Kim, Y. W. Kim, S. K. Kang, S. R. Jeon, N. Hwang, Y. J. Choi, and C. S. Chung, “Light Extraction Enhancement of GaN-Based Light-Emitting Diodes Using Volcano-Shaped Patterned Sapphire Substrates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 49(4), 042102 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  2. C. H. Lin, C. Y. Chen, D. M. Yeh, and C. C. Yang, “Light Extraction Enhancement of a GaN-Based Light-Emitting Diode Through Grating-Patterned Photoelectrochemical Surface Etching With Phase Mask Interferometry,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(9), 640–642 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  3. C. Wiesmann, K. Bergenek, N. Linder, and U. T. Schwarz, “Photonic crystal LEDs - designing light extraction,” Laser Photon. Rev. 3(3), 262–286 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  4. C. Y. Huang, H. M. Ku, and S. Chao, “Light extraction enhancement for InGaN/GaN LED by three dimensional auto-cloned photonics crystal,” Opt. Express 17(26), 23702–23711 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. M. Hwang, K. F. Lee, and H. L. Hwang, “Optical and electrical properties of GaN micron-scale light-emitting diode,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 69(2-3), 752–758 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  6. Z. Gong, E. Gu, S. R. Jin, D. Massoubre, B. Guilhabert, H. X. Zhang, M. D. Dawson, V. Poher, G. T. Kennedy, P. M. W. French, and M. A. A. Neil, “Efficient flip-chip InGaN micro-pixellated light-emitting diode arrays: promising candidates for micro-displays and colour conversion,” J. Phys. 41, 094002 (2008).
  7. W. S. Wong, T. Sands, and N. W. Cheung, “Damage-free separation of GaN thin films from sapphire substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(5), 599–601 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  8. V. Haerle, B. Hahn, S. Kaiser, A. Weimar, S. Bader, F. Eberhard, A. Plössl, and D. Eisert, “High brightness LEDs for general lighting application Using the new ThinGaN Technology,” Phys. Status Solidi 201(12), 2736–2739 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  9. L. C. Chen and Y. M. Ho, “Ag and zinc oxide-doped indium oxide ohmic contacts to p-type GaN for flip-chip LED applications,” J. Phys. 40, 6514–6517 (2007).
  10. C. F. Shen, S. J. Chang, W. S. Chen, T. K. Ko, C. T. Kuo, and S. C. Shei, “Nitride-based high-power flip-chip LED with double-side patterned sapphire substrate,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(10), 780–782 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  11. I. Gontijo, M. Boroditsky, E. Yablonovitch, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, “Coupling of InGaN quantum-well photoluminescence to silver surface plasmons,” Phys. Rev. B 60(16), 11564–11567 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  12. W. L. Barnes, “Electromagnetic crystals for surface plasmon polaritons and the extraction of light from emissive devices,” J. Lightwave Technol. 17(11), 2170–2182 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  13. S. Gianordoli, R. Hainberger, A. Köck, N. Finger, E. Gornik, C. Hanke, and L. Korte, “Optimization of the emission characteristics of light emitting diodes by surface plasmons and surface waveguide modes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(15), 2295–2297 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. Vuckovic, M. Loncar, and A. Scherer, “Surface plasmon enhanced light-emitting diode,” IEEE J. Quant. Electron. 36(10), 1131–1144 (2000).
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  15. P. A. Hobson, S. Wedge, J. A. E. Wasey, I. Sage, and W. L. Barnes, “Surface plasmon mediated emission from organic light emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 14(19), 1393–1396 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  16. A. Neogi, C. W. Lee, H. O. Everitt, T. Kuroda, A. Tackeuchi, and E. Yablonovitch, “Enhancement of spontaneous recombination rate in a quantum well by resonant surface plasmon coupling,” Phys. Rev. B 66(15), 153305 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  17. K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Shvartser, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and A. Scherer, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced light emitters based on InGaN quantum wells,” Nat. Mater. 3(9), 601–605 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  19. M. K. Kwon, J. Y. Kim, B. H. Kim, I. K. Park, C. Y. Cho, C. C. Byeon, and S. J. Park, “Surface-Plasmon-Enhanced Light-Emitting Diodes,” Adv. Mater. 20(7), 1253–1257 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  20. K. Okamoto and Y. Kawakami, “High-Efficiency InGaN/GaN Light Emitters Based on Nanophotonics and Plasmonics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1199–1209 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  21. E. D. Palik ed., Handbook of optical constants of solids (Academic Press, San Diego 1985).
  22. J. Moreland, A. Adams, and P. K. Hansma, “Efficiency of light emission from surface plasmons,” Phys. Rev. B 25(4), 2297–2300 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  23. P. T. Worthing and W. L. Barnes, “Efficient coupling of surface Plasmon polaritons to radiation using a bi-grating,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(19), 3035–3037 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  24. A. David, C. Meier, R. Sharma, F. S. Diana, S. P. DenBaars, E. Hu, S. Nakamura, C. Weisbuch, and H. Benisty, Photonic bands in two-dimensionally patterned multimode GaN waveguides for light extraction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(10), 101107 (2005).
    [CrossRef]

2010 (2)

J. B. Kim, S. M. Kim, Y. W. Kim, S. K. Kang, S. R. Jeon, N. Hwang, Y. J. Choi, and C. S. Chung, “Light Extraction Enhancement of GaN-Based Light-Emitting Diodes Using Volcano-Shaped Patterned Sapphire Substrates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 49(4), 042102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Lin, C. Y. Chen, D. M. Yeh, and C. C. Yang, “Light Extraction Enhancement of a GaN-Based Light-Emitting Diode Through Grating-Patterned Photoelectrochemical Surface Etching With Phase Mask Interferometry,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(9), 640–642 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (3)

C. Wiesmann, K. Bergenek, N. Linder, and U. T. Schwarz, “Photonic crystal LEDs - designing light extraction,” Laser Photon. Rev. 3(3), 262–286 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Y. Huang, H. M. Ku, and S. Chao, “Light extraction enhancement for InGaN/GaN LED by three dimensional auto-cloned photonics crystal,” Opt. Express 17(26), 23702–23711 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Okamoto and Y. Kawakami, “High-Efficiency InGaN/GaN Light Emitters Based on Nanophotonics and Plasmonics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1199–1209 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (3)

J. M. Hwang, K. F. Lee, and H. L. Hwang, “Optical and electrical properties of GaN micron-scale light-emitting diode,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 69(2-3), 752–758 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Z. Gong, E. Gu, S. R. Jin, D. Massoubre, B. Guilhabert, H. X. Zhang, M. D. Dawson, V. Poher, G. T. Kennedy, P. M. W. French, and M. A. A. Neil, “Efficient flip-chip InGaN micro-pixellated light-emitting diode arrays: promising candidates for micro-displays and colour conversion,” J. Phys. 41, 094002 (2008).

M. K. Kwon, J. Y. Kim, B. H. Kim, I. K. Park, C. Y. Cho, C. C. Byeon, and S. J. Park, “Surface-Plasmon-Enhanced Light-Emitting Diodes,” Adv. Mater. 20(7), 1253–1257 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

L. C. Chen and Y. M. Ho, “Ag and zinc oxide-doped indium oxide ohmic contacts to p-type GaN for flip-chip LED applications,” J. Phys. 40, 6514–6517 (2007).

C. F. Shen, S. J. Chang, W. S. Chen, T. K. Ko, C. T. Kuo, and S. C. Shei, “Nitride-based high-power flip-chip LED with double-side patterned sapphire substrate,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(10), 780–782 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Scherer, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and Y. Kawakami, “Surface plasmon enhanced spontaneous emission rate of InGaN/GaN quantum wells probed by time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(7), 071102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. David, C. Meier, R. Sharma, F. S. Diana, S. P. DenBaars, E. Hu, S. Nakamura, C. Weisbuch, and H. Benisty, Photonic bands in two-dimensionally patterned multimode GaN waveguides for light extraction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(10), 101107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

V. Haerle, B. Hahn, S. Kaiser, A. Weimar, S. Bader, F. Eberhard, A. Plössl, and D. Eisert, “High brightness LEDs for general lighting application Using the new ThinGaN Technology,” Phys. Status Solidi 201(12), 2736–2739 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Shvartser, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and A. Scherer, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced light emitters based on InGaN quantum wells,” Nat. Mater. 3(9), 601–605 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

P. A. Hobson, S. Wedge, J. A. E. Wasey, I. Sage, and W. L. Barnes, “Surface plasmon mediated emission from organic light emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 14(19), 1393–1396 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Neogi, C. W. Lee, H. O. Everitt, T. Kuroda, A. Tackeuchi, and E. Yablonovitch, “Enhancement of spontaneous recombination rate in a quantum well by resonant surface plasmon coupling,” Phys. Rev. B 66(15), 153305 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

P. T. Worthing and W. L. Barnes, “Efficient coupling of surface Plasmon polaritons to radiation using a bi-grating,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(19), 3035–3037 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

S. Gianordoli, R. Hainberger, A. Köck, N. Finger, E. Gornik, C. Hanke, and L. Korte, “Optimization of the emission characteristics of light emitting diodes by surface plasmons and surface waveguide modes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(15), 2295–2297 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Vuckovic, M. Loncar, and A. Scherer, “Surface plasmon enhanced light-emitting diode,” IEEE J. Quant. Electron. 36(10), 1131–1144 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

I. Gontijo, M. Boroditsky, E. Yablonovitch, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, “Coupling of InGaN quantum-well photoluminescence to silver surface plasmons,” Phys. Rev. B 60(16), 11564–11567 (1999).
[CrossRef]

W. L. Barnes, “Electromagnetic crystals for surface plasmon polaritons and the extraction of light from emissive devices,” J. Lightwave Technol. 17(11), 2170–2182 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

W. S. Wong, T. Sands, and N. W. Cheung, “Damage-free separation of GaN thin films from sapphire substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(5), 599–601 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

J. Moreland, A. Adams, and P. K. Hansma, “Efficiency of light emission from surface plasmons,” Phys. Rev. B 25(4), 2297–2300 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Adams, A.

J. Moreland, A. Adams, and P. K. Hansma, “Efficiency of light emission from surface plasmons,” Phys. Rev. B 25(4), 2297–2300 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Bader, S.

V. Haerle, B. Hahn, S. Kaiser, A. Weimar, S. Bader, F. Eberhard, A. Plössl, and D. Eisert, “High brightness LEDs for general lighting application Using the new ThinGaN Technology,” Phys. Status Solidi 201(12), 2736–2739 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Barnes, W. L.

P. A. Hobson, S. Wedge, J. A. E. Wasey, I. Sage, and W. L. Barnes, “Surface plasmon mediated emission from organic light emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 14(19), 1393–1396 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. T. Worthing and W. L. Barnes, “Efficient coupling of surface Plasmon polaritons to radiation using a bi-grating,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(19), 3035–3037 (2001).
[CrossRef]

W. L. Barnes, “Electromagnetic crystals for surface plasmon polaritons and the extraction of light from emissive devices,” J. Lightwave Technol. 17(11), 2170–2182 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Benisty, H.

A. David, C. Meier, R. Sharma, F. S. Diana, S. P. DenBaars, E. Hu, S. Nakamura, C. Weisbuch, and H. Benisty, Photonic bands in two-dimensionally patterned multimode GaN waveguides for light extraction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(10), 101107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bergenek, K.

C. Wiesmann, K. Bergenek, N. Linder, and U. T. Schwarz, “Photonic crystal LEDs - designing light extraction,” Laser Photon. Rev. 3(3), 262–286 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Boroditsky, M.

I. Gontijo, M. Boroditsky, E. Yablonovitch, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, “Coupling of InGaN quantum-well photoluminescence to silver surface plasmons,” Phys. Rev. B 60(16), 11564–11567 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Byeon, C. C.

M. K. Kwon, J. Y. Kim, B. H. Kim, I. K. Park, C. Y. Cho, C. C. Byeon, and S. J. Park, “Surface-Plasmon-Enhanced Light-Emitting Diodes,” Adv. Mater. 20(7), 1253–1257 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chang, S. J.

C. F. Shen, S. J. Chang, W. S. Chen, T. K. Ko, C. T. Kuo, and S. C. Shei, “Nitride-based high-power flip-chip LED with double-side patterned sapphire substrate,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(10), 780–782 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chao, S.

C. Y. Huang, H. M. Ku, and S. Chao, “Light extraction enhancement for InGaN/GaN LED by three dimensional auto-cloned photonics crystal,” Opt. Express 17(26), 23702–23711 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C. Y.

C. H. Lin, C. Y. Chen, D. M. Yeh, and C. C. Yang, “Light Extraction Enhancement of a GaN-Based Light-Emitting Diode Through Grating-Patterned Photoelectrochemical Surface Etching With Phase Mask Interferometry,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(9), 640–642 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, L. C.

L. C. Chen and Y. M. Ho, “Ag and zinc oxide-doped indium oxide ohmic contacts to p-type GaN for flip-chip LED applications,” J. Phys. 40, 6514–6517 (2007).

Chen, W. S.

C. F. Shen, S. J. Chang, W. S. Chen, T. K. Ko, C. T. Kuo, and S. C. Shei, “Nitride-based high-power flip-chip LED with double-side patterned sapphire substrate,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(10), 780–782 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cheung, N. W.

W. S. Wong, T. Sands, and N. W. Cheung, “Damage-free separation of GaN thin films from sapphire substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(5), 599–601 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Cho, C. Y.

M. K. Kwon, J. Y. Kim, B. H. Kim, I. K. Park, C. Y. Cho, C. C. Byeon, and S. J. Park, “Surface-Plasmon-Enhanced Light-Emitting Diodes,” Adv. Mater. 20(7), 1253–1257 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Choi, Y. J.

J. B. Kim, S. M. Kim, Y. W. Kim, S. K. Kang, S. R. Jeon, N. Hwang, Y. J. Choi, and C. S. Chung, “Light Extraction Enhancement of GaN-Based Light-Emitting Diodes Using Volcano-Shaped Patterned Sapphire Substrates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 49(4), 042102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chung, C. S.

J. B. Kim, S. M. Kim, Y. W. Kim, S. K. Kang, S. R. Jeon, N. Hwang, Y. J. Choi, and C. S. Chung, “Light Extraction Enhancement of GaN-Based Light-Emitting Diodes Using Volcano-Shaped Patterned Sapphire Substrates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 49(4), 042102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

David, A.

A. David, C. Meier, R. Sharma, F. S. Diana, S. P. DenBaars, E. Hu, S. Nakamura, C. Weisbuch, and H. Benisty, Photonic bands in two-dimensionally patterned multimode GaN waveguides for light extraction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(10), 101107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dawson, M. D.

Z. Gong, E. Gu, S. R. Jin, D. Massoubre, B. Guilhabert, H. X. Zhang, M. D. Dawson, V. Poher, G. T. Kennedy, P. M. W. French, and M. A. A. Neil, “Efficient flip-chip InGaN micro-pixellated light-emitting diode arrays: promising candidates for micro-displays and colour conversion,” J. Phys. 41, 094002 (2008).

DenBaars, S. P.

A. David, C. Meier, R. Sharma, F. S. Diana, S. P. DenBaars, E. Hu, S. Nakamura, C. Weisbuch, and H. Benisty, Photonic bands in two-dimensionally patterned multimode GaN waveguides for light extraction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(10), 101107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

I. Gontijo, M. Boroditsky, E. Yablonovitch, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, “Coupling of InGaN quantum-well photoluminescence to silver surface plasmons,” Phys. Rev. B 60(16), 11564–11567 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Diana, F. S.

A. David, C. Meier, R. Sharma, F. S. Diana, S. P. DenBaars, E. Hu, S. Nakamura, C. Weisbuch, and H. Benisty, Photonic bands in two-dimensionally patterned multimode GaN waveguides for light extraction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(10), 101107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Eberhard, F.

V. Haerle, B. Hahn, S. Kaiser, A. Weimar, S. Bader, F. Eberhard, A. Plössl, and D. Eisert, “High brightness LEDs for general lighting application Using the new ThinGaN Technology,” Phys. Status Solidi 201(12), 2736–2739 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Eisert, D.

V. Haerle, B. Hahn, S. Kaiser, A. Weimar, S. Bader, F. Eberhard, A. Plössl, and D. Eisert, “High brightness LEDs for general lighting application Using the new ThinGaN Technology,” Phys. Status Solidi 201(12), 2736–2739 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Everitt, H. O.

A. Neogi, C. W. Lee, H. O. Everitt, T. Kuroda, A. Tackeuchi, and E. Yablonovitch, “Enhancement of spontaneous recombination rate in a quantum well by resonant surface plasmon coupling,” Phys. Rev. B 66(15), 153305 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Finger, N.

S. Gianordoli, R. Hainberger, A. Köck, N. Finger, E. Gornik, C. Hanke, and L. Korte, “Optimization of the emission characteristics of light emitting diodes by surface plasmons and surface waveguide modes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(15), 2295–2297 (2000).
[CrossRef]

French, P. M. W.

Z. Gong, E. Gu, S. R. Jin, D. Massoubre, B. Guilhabert, H. X. Zhang, M. D. Dawson, V. Poher, G. T. Kennedy, P. M. W. French, and M. A. A. Neil, “Efficient flip-chip InGaN micro-pixellated light-emitting diode arrays: promising candidates for micro-displays and colour conversion,” J. Phys. 41, 094002 (2008).

Gianordoli, S.

S. Gianordoli, R. Hainberger, A. Köck, N. Finger, E. Gornik, C. Hanke, and L. Korte, “Optimization of the emission characteristics of light emitting diodes by surface plasmons and surface waveguide modes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(15), 2295–2297 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gong, Z.

Z. Gong, E. Gu, S. R. Jin, D. Massoubre, B. Guilhabert, H. X. Zhang, M. D. Dawson, V. Poher, G. T. Kennedy, P. M. W. French, and M. A. A. Neil, “Efficient flip-chip InGaN micro-pixellated light-emitting diode arrays: promising candidates for micro-displays and colour conversion,” J. Phys. 41, 094002 (2008).

Gontijo, I.

I. Gontijo, M. Boroditsky, E. Yablonovitch, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, “Coupling of InGaN quantum-well photoluminescence to silver surface plasmons,” Phys. Rev. B 60(16), 11564–11567 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gornik, E.

S. Gianordoli, R. Hainberger, A. Köck, N. Finger, E. Gornik, C. Hanke, and L. Korte, “Optimization of the emission characteristics of light emitting diodes by surface plasmons and surface waveguide modes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(15), 2295–2297 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gu, E.

Z. Gong, E. Gu, S. R. Jin, D. Massoubre, B. Guilhabert, H. X. Zhang, M. D. Dawson, V. Poher, G. T. Kennedy, P. M. W. French, and M. A. A. Neil, “Efficient flip-chip InGaN micro-pixellated light-emitting diode arrays: promising candidates for micro-displays and colour conversion,” J. Phys. 41, 094002 (2008).

Guilhabert, B.

Z. Gong, E. Gu, S. R. Jin, D. Massoubre, B. Guilhabert, H. X. Zhang, M. D. Dawson, V. Poher, G. T. Kennedy, P. M. W. French, and M. A. A. Neil, “Efficient flip-chip InGaN micro-pixellated light-emitting diode arrays: promising candidates for micro-displays and colour conversion,” J. Phys. 41, 094002 (2008).

Haerle, V.

V. Haerle, B. Hahn, S. Kaiser, A. Weimar, S. Bader, F. Eberhard, A. Plössl, and D. Eisert, “High brightness LEDs for general lighting application Using the new ThinGaN Technology,” Phys. Status Solidi 201(12), 2736–2739 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hahn, B.

V. Haerle, B. Hahn, S. Kaiser, A. Weimar, S. Bader, F. Eberhard, A. Plössl, and D. Eisert, “High brightness LEDs for general lighting application Using the new ThinGaN Technology,” Phys. Status Solidi 201(12), 2736–2739 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hainberger, R.

S. Gianordoli, R. Hainberger, A. Köck, N. Finger, E. Gornik, C. Hanke, and L. Korte, “Optimization of the emission characteristics of light emitting diodes by surface plasmons and surface waveguide modes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(15), 2295–2297 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hanke, C.

S. Gianordoli, R. Hainberger, A. Köck, N. Finger, E. Gornik, C. Hanke, and L. Korte, “Optimization of the emission characteristics of light emitting diodes by surface plasmons and surface waveguide modes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(15), 2295–2297 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hansma, P. K.

J. Moreland, A. Adams, and P. K. Hansma, “Efficiency of light emission from surface plasmons,” Phys. Rev. B 25(4), 2297–2300 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Ho, Y. M.

L. C. Chen and Y. M. Ho, “Ag and zinc oxide-doped indium oxide ohmic contacts to p-type GaN for flip-chip LED applications,” J. Phys. 40, 6514–6517 (2007).

Hobson, P. A.

P. A. Hobson, S. Wedge, J. A. E. Wasey, I. Sage, and W. L. Barnes, “Surface plasmon mediated emission from organic light emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 14(19), 1393–1396 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hu, E.

A. David, C. Meier, R. Sharma, F. S. Diana, S. P. DenBaars, E. Hu, S. Nakamura, C. Weisbuch, and H. Benisty, Photonic bands in two-dimensionally patterned multimode GaN waveguides for light extraction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(10), 101107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Huang, C. Y.

C. Y. Huang, H. M. Ku, and S. Chao, “Light extraction enhancement for InGaN/GaN LED by three dimensional auto-cloned photonics crystal,” Opt. Express 17(26), 23702–23711 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hwang, H. L.

J. M. Hwang, K. F. Lee, and H. L. Hwang, “Optical and electrical properties of GaN micron-scale light-emitting diode,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 69(2-3), 752–758 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hwang, J. M.

J. M. Hwang, K. F. Lee, and H. L. Hwang, “Optical and electrical properties of GaN micron-scale light-emitting diode,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 69(2-3), 752–758 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hwang, N.

J. B. Kim, S. M. Kim, Y. W. Kim, S. K. Kang, S. R. Jeon, N. Hwang, Y. J. Choi, and C. S. Chung, “Light Extraction Enhancement of GaN-Based Light-Emitting Diodes Using Volcano-Shaped Patterned Sapphire Substrates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 49(4), 042102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jeon, S. R.

J. B. Kim, S. M. Kim, Y. W. Kim, S. K. Kang, S. R. Jeon, N. Hwang, Y. J. Choi, and C. S. Chung, “Light Extraction Enhancement of GaN-Based Light-Emitting Diodes Using Volcano-Shaped Patterned Sapphire Substrates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 49(4), 042102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jin, S. R.

Z. Gong, E. Gu, S. R. Jin, D. Massoubre, B. Guilhabert, H. X. Zhang, M. D. Dawson, V. Poher, G. T. Kennedy, P. M. W. French, and M. A. A. Neil, “Efficient flip-chip InGaN micro-pixellated light-emitting diode arrays: promising candidates for micro-displays and colour conversion,” J. Phys. 41, 094002 (2008).

Kaiser, S.

V. Haerle, B. Hahn, S. Kaiser, A. Weimar, S. Bader, F. Eberhard, A. Plössl, and D. Eisert, “High brightness LEDs for general lighting application Using the new ThinGaN Technology,” Phys. Status Solidi 201(12), 2736–2739 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kang, S. K.

J. B. Kim, S. M. Kim, Y. W. Kim, S. K. Kang, S. R. Jeon, N. Hwang, Y. J. Choi, and C. S. Chung, “Light Extraction Enhancement of GaN-Based Light-Emitting Diodes Using Volcano-Shaped Patterned Sapphire Substrates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 49(4), 042102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kawakami, Y.

K. Okamoto and Y. Kawakami, “High-Efficiency InGaN/GaN Light Emitters Based on Nanophotonics and Plasmonics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1199–1209 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Scherer, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and Y. Kawakami, “Surface plasmon enhanced spontaneous emission rate of InGaN/GaN quantum wells probed by time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(7), 071102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Keller, S.

I. Gontijo, M. Boroditsky, E. Yablonovitch, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, “Coupling of InGaN quantum-well photoluminescence to silver surface plasmons,” Phys. Rev. B 60(16), 11564–11567 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kennedy, G. T.

Z. Gong, E. Gu, S. R. Jin, D. Massoubre, B. Guilhabert, H. X. Zhang, M. D. Dawson, V. Poher, G. T. Kennedy, P. M. W. French, and M. A. A. Neil, “Efficient flip-chip InGaN micro-pixellated light-emitting diode arrays: promising candidates for micro-displays and colour conversion,” J. Phys. 41, 094002 (2008).

Kim, B. H.

M. K. Kwon, J. Y. Kim, B. H. Kim, I. K. Park, C. Y. Cho, C. C. Byeon, and S. J. Park, “Surface-Plasmon-Enhanced Light-Emitting Diodes,” Adv. Mater. 20(7), 1253–1257 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. B.

J. B. Kim, S. M. Kim, Y. W. Kim, S. K. Kang, S. R. Jeon, N. Hwang, Y. J. Choi, and C. S. Chung, “Light Extraction Enhancement of GaN-Based Light-Emitting Diodes Using Volcano-Shaped Patterned Sapphire Substrates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 49(4), 042102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. Y.

M. K. Kwon, J. Y. Kim, B. H. Kim, I. K. Park, C. Y. Cho, C. C. Byeon, and S. J. Park, “Surface-Plasmon-Enhanced Light-Emitting Diodes,” Adv. Mater. 20(7), 1253–1257 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S. M.

J. B. Kim, S. M. Kim, Y. W. Kim, S. K. Kang, S. R. Jeon, N. Hwang, Y. J. Choi, and C. S. Chung, “Light Extraction Enhancement of GaN-Based Light-Emitting Diodes Using Volcano-Shaped Patterned Sapphire Substrates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 49(4), 042102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kim, Y. W.

J. B. Kim, S. M. Kim, Y. W. Kim, S. K. Kang, S. R. Jeon, N. Hwang, Y. J. Choi, and C. S. Chung, “Light Extraction Enhancement of GaN-Based Light-Emitting Diodes Using Volcano-Shaped Patterned Sapphire Substrates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 49(4), 042102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ko, T. K.

C. F. Shen, S. J. Chang, W. S. Chen, T. K. Ko, C. T. Kuo, and S. C. Shei, “Nitride-based high-power flip-chip LED with double-side patterned sapphire substrate,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(10), 780–782 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Köck, A.

S. Gianordoli, R. Hainberger, A. Köck, N. Finger, E. Gornik, C. Hanke, and L. Korte, “Optimization of the emission characteristics of light emitting diodes by surface plasmons and surface waveguide modes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(15), 2295–2297 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Korte, L.

S. Gianordoli, R. Hainberger, A. Köck, N. Finger, E. Gornik, C. Hanke, and L. Korte, “Optimization of the emission characteristics of light emitting diodes by surface plasmons and surface waveguide modes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(15), 2295–2297 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ku, H. M.

C. Y. Huang, H. M. Ku, and S. Chao, “Light extraction enhancement for InGaN/GaN LED by three dimensional auto-cloned photonics crystal,” Opt. Express 17(26), 23702–23711 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, C. T.

C. F. Shen, S. J. Chang, W. S. Chen, T. K. Ko, C. T. Kuo, and S. C. Shei, “Nitride-based high-power flip-chip LED with double-side patterned sapphire substrate,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(10), 780–782 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kuroda, T.

A. Neogi, C. W. Lee, H. O. Everitt, T. Kuroda, A. Tackeuchi, and E. Yablonovitch, “Enhancement of spontaneous recombination rate in a quantum well by resonant surface plasmon coupling,” Phys. Rev. B 66(15), 153305 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kwon, M. K.

M. K. Kwon, J. Y. Kim, B. H. Kim, I. K. Park, C. Y. Cho, C. C. Byeon, and S. J. Park, “Surface-Plasmon-Enhanced Light-Emitting Diodes,” Adv. Mater. 20(7), 1253–1257 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C. W.

A. Neogi, C. W. Lee, H. O. Everitt, T. Kuroda, A. Tackeuchi, and E. Yablonovitch, “Enhancement of spontaneous recombination rate in a quantum well by resonant surface plasmon coupling,” Phys. Rev. B 66(15), 153305 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lee, K. F.

J. M. Hwang, K. F. Lee, and H. L. Hwang, “Optical and electrical properties of GaN micron-scale light-emitting diode,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 69(2-3), 752–758 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C. H.

C. H. Lin, C. Y. Chen, D. M. Yeh, and C. C. Yang, “Light Extraction Enhancement of a GaN-Based Light-Emitting Diode Through Grating-Patterned Photoelectrochemical Surface Etching With Phase Mask Interferometry,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(9), 640–642 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Linder, N.

C. Wiesmann, K. Bergenek, N. Linder, and U. T. Schwarz, “Photonic crystal LEDs - designing light extraction,” Laser Photon. Rev. 3(3), 262–286 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Loncar, M.

J. Vuckovic, M. Loncar, and A. Scherer, “Surface plasmon enhanced light-emitting diode,” IEEE J. Quant. Electron. 36(10), 1131–1144 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Massoubre, D.

Z. Gong, E. Gu, S. R. Jin, D. Massoubre, B. Guilhabert, H. X. Zhang, M. D. Dawson, V. Poher, G. T. Kennedy, P. M. W. French, and M. A. A. Neil, “Efficient flip-chip InGaN micro-pixellated light-emitting diode arrays: promising candidates for micro-displays and colour conversion,” J. Phys. 41, 094002 (2008).

Meier, C.

A. David, C. Meier, R. Sharma, F. S. Diana, S. P. DenBaars, E. Hu, S. Nakamura, C. Weisbuch, and H. Benisty, Photonic bands in two-dimensionally patterned multimode GaN waveguides for light extraction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(10), 101107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mishra, U. K.

I. Gontijo, M. Boroditsky, E. Yablonovitch, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, “Coupling of InGaN quantum-well photoluminescence to silver surface plasmons,” Phys. Rev. B 60(16), 11564–11567 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Moreland, J.

J. Moreland, A. Adams, and P. K. Hansma, “Efficiency of light emission from surface plasmons,” Phys. Rev. B 25(4), 2297–2300 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Mukai, T.

K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Scherer, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and Y. Kawakami, “Surface plasmon enhanced spontaneous emission rate of InGaN/GaN quantum wells probed by time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(7), 071102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Shvartser, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and A. Scherer, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced light emitters based on InGaN quantum wells,” Nat. Mater. 3(9), 601–605 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nakamura, S.

A. David, C. Meier, R. Sharma, F. S. Diana, S. P. DenBaars, E. Hu, S. Nakamura, C. Weisbuch, and H. Benisty, Photonic bands in two-dimensionally patterned multimode GaN waveguides for light extraction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(10), 101107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Narukawa, Y.

K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Scherer, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and Y. Kawakami, “Surface plasmon enhanced spontaneous emission rate of InGaN/GaN quantum wells probed by time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(7), 071102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Shvartser, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and A. Scherer, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced light emitters based on InGaN quantum wells,” Nat. Mater. 3(9), 601–605 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neil, M. A. A.

Z. Gong, E. Gu, S. R. Jin, D. Massoubre, B. Guilhabert, H. X. Zhang, M. D. Dawson, V. Poher, G. T. Kennedy, P. M. W. French, and M. A. A. Neil, “Efficient flip-chip InGaN micro-pixellated light-emitting diode arrays: promising candidates for micro-displays and colour conversion,” J. Phys. 41, 094002 (2008).

Neogi, A.

A. Neogi, C. W. Lee, H. O. Everitt, T. Kuroda, A. Tackeuchi, and E. Yablonovitch, “Enhancement of spontaneous recombination rate in a quantum well by resonant surface plasmon coupling,” Phys. Rev. B 66(15), 153305 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Niki, I.

K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Scherer, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and Y. Kawakami, “Surface plasmon enhanced spontaneous emission rate of InGaN/GaN quantum wells probed by time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(7), 071102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Shvartser, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and A. Scherer, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced light emitters based on InGaN quantum wells,” Nat. Mater. 3(9), 601–605 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Okamoto, K.

K. Okamoto and Y. Kawakami, “High-Efficiency InGaN/GaN Light Emitters Based on Nanophotonics and Plasmonics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1199–1209 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Scherer, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and Y. Kawakami, “Surface plasmon enhanced spontaneous emission rate of InGaN/GaN quantum wells probed by time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(7), 071102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Shvartser, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and A. Scherer, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced light emitters based on InGaN quantum wells,” Nat. Mater. 3(9), 601–605 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, I. K.

M. K. Kwon, J. Y. Kim, B. H. Kim, I. K. Park, C. Y. Cho, C. C. Byeon, and S. J. Park, “Surface-Plasmon-Enhanced Light-Emitting Diodes,” Adv. Mater. 20(7), 1253–1257 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Park, S. J.

M. K. Kwon, J. Y. Kim, B. H. Kim, I. K. Park, C. Y. Cho, C. C. Byeon, and S. J. Park, “Surface-Plasmon-Enhanced Light-Emitting Diodes,” Adv. Mater. 20(7), 1253–1257 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Plössl, A.

V. Haerle, B. Hahn, S. Kaiser, A. Weimar, S. Bader, F. Eberhard, A. Plössl, and D. Eisert, “High brightness LEDs for general lighting application Using the new ThinGaN Technology,” Phys. Status Solidi 201(12), 2736–2739 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Poher, V.

Z. Gong, E. Gu, S. R. Jin, D. Massoubre, B. Guilhabert, H. X. Zhang, M. D. Dawson, V. Poher, G. T. Kennedy, P. M. W. French, and M. A. A. Neil, “Efficient flip-chip InGaN micro-pixellated light-emitting diode arrays: promising candidates for micro-displays and colour conversion,” J. Phys. 41, 094002 (2008).

Sage, I.

P. A. Hobson, S. Wedge, J. A. E. Wasey, I. Sage, and W. L. Barnes, “Surface plasmon mediated emission from organic light emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 14(19), 1393–1396 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sands, T.

W. S. Wong, T. Sands, and N. W. Cheung, “Damage-free separation of GaN thin films from sapphire substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(5), 599–601 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Scherer, A.

K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Scherer, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and Y. Kawakami, “Surface plasmon enhanced spontaneous emission rate of InGaN/GaN quantum wells probed by time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(7), 071102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Shvartser, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and A. Scherer, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced light emitters based on InGaN quantum wells,” Nat. Mater. 3(9), 601–605 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Vuckovic, M. Loncar, and A. Scherer, “Surface plasmon enhanced light-emitting diode,” IEEE J. Quant. Electron. 36(10), 1131–1144 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Schwarz, U. T.

C. Wiesmann, K. Bergenek, N. Linder, and U. T. Schwarz, “Photonic crystal LEDs - designing light extraction,” Laser Photon. Rev. 3(3), 262–286 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sharma, R.

A. David, C. Meier, R. Sharma, F. S. Diana, S. P. DenBaars, E. Hu, S. Nakamura, C. Weisbuch, and H. Benisty, Photonic bands in two-dimensionally patterned multimode GaN waveguides for light extraction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(10), 101107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shei, S. C.

C. F. Shen, S. J. Chang, W. S. Chen, T. K. Ko, C. T. Kuo, and S. C. Shei, “Nitride-based high-power flip-chip LED with double-side patterned sapphire substrate,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(10), 780–782 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shen, C. F.

C. F. Shen, S. J. Chang, W. S. Chen, T. K. Ko, C. T. Kuo, and S. C. Shei, “Nitride-based high-power flip-chip LED with double-side patterned sapphire substrate,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(10), 780–782 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shvartser, A.

K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Shvartser, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and A. Scherer, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced light emitters based on InGaN quantum wells,” Nat. Mater. 3(9), 601–605 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tackeuchi, A.

A. Neogi, C. W. Lee, H. O. Everitt, T. Kuroda, A. Tackeuchi, and E. Yablonovitch, “Enhancement of spontaneous recombination rate in a quantum well by resonant surface plasmon coupling,” Phys. Rev. B 66(15), 153305 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Vuckovic, J.

J. Vuckovic, M. Loncar, and A. Scherer, “Surface plasmon enhanced light-emitting diode,” IEEE J. Quant. Electron. 36(10), 1131–1144 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wasey, J. A. E.

P. A. Hobson, S. Wedge, J. A. E. Wasey, I. Sage, and W. L. Barnes, “Surface plasmon mediated emission from organic light emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 14(19), 1393–1396 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wedge, S.

P. A. Hobson, S. Wedge, J. A. E. Wasey, I. Sage, and W. L. Barnes, “Surface plasmon mediated emission from organic light emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 14(19), 1393–1396 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Weimar, A.

V. Haerle, B. Hahn, S. Kaiser, A. Weimar, S. Bader, F. Eberhard, A. Plössl, and D. Eisert, “High brightness LEDs for general lighting application Using the new ThinGaN Technology,” Phys. Status Solidi 201(12), 2736–2739 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Weisbuch, C.

A. David, C. Meier, R. Sharma, F. S. Diana, S. P. DenBaars, E. Hu, S. Nakamura, C. Weisbuch, and H. Benisty, Photonic bands in two-dimensionally patterned multimode GaN waveguides for light extraction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(10), 101107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wiesmann, C.

C. Wiesmann, K. Bergenek, N. Linder, and U. T. Schwarz, “Photonic crystal LEDs - designing light extraction,” Laser Photon. Rev. 3(3), 262–286 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wong, W. S.

W. S. Wong, T. Sands, and N. W. Cheung, “Damage-free separation of GaN thin films from sapphire substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(5), 599–601 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Worthing, P. T.

P. T. Worthing and W. L. Barnes, “Efficient coupling of surface Plasmon polaritons to radiation using a bi-grating,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(19), 3035–3037 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yablonovitch, E.

A. Neogi, C. W. Lee, H. O. Everitt, T. Kuroda, A. Tackeuchi, and E. Yablonovitch, “Enhancement of spontaneous recombination rate in a quantum well by resonant surface plasmon coupling,” Phys. Rev. B 66(15), 153305 (2002).
[CrossRef]

I. Gontijo, M. Boroditsky, E. Yablonovitch, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, “Coupling of InGaN quantum-well photoluminescence to silver surface plasmons,” Phys. Rev. B 60(16), 11564–11567 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yang, C. C.

C. H. Lin, C. Y. Chen, D. M. Yeh, and C. C. Yang, “Light Extraction Enhancement of a GaN-Based Light-Emitting Diode Through Grating-Patterned Photoelectrochemical Surface Etching With Phase Mask Interferometry,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(9), 640–642 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yeh, D. M.

C. H. Lin, C. Y. Chen, D. M. Yeh, and C. C. Yang, “Light Extraction Enhancement of a GaN-Based Light-Emitting Diode Through Grating-Patterned Photoelectrochemical Surface Etching With Phase Mask Interferometry,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(9), 640–642 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, H. X.

Z. Gong, E. Gu, S. R. Jin, D. Massoubre, B. Guilhabert, H. X. Zhang, M. D. Dawson, V. Poher, G. T. Kennedy, P. M. W. French, and M. A. A. Neil, “Efficient flip-chip InGaN micro-pixellated light-emitting diode arrays: promising candidates for micro-displays and colour conversion,” J. Phys. 41, 094002 (2008).

Adv. Mater. (2)

P. A. Hobson, S. Wedge, J. A. E. Wasey, I. Sage, and W. L. Barnes, “Surface plasmon mediated emission from organic light emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 14(19), 1393–1396 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. K. Kwon, J. Y. Kim, B. H. Kim, I. K. Park, C. Y. Cho, C. C. Byeon, and S. J. Park, “Surface-Plasmon-Enhanced Light-Emitting Diodes,” Adv. Mater. 20(7), 1253–1257 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Scherer, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and Y. Kawakami, “Surface plasmon enhanced spontaneous emission rate of InGaN/GaN quantum wells probed by time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(7), 071102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. T. Worthing and W. L. Barnes, “Efficient coupling of surface Plasmon polaritons to radiation using a bi-grating,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(19), 3035–3037 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. David, C. Meier, R. Sharma, F. S. Diana, S. P. DenBaars, E. Hu, S. Nakamura, C. Weisbuch, and H. Benisty, Photonic bands in two-dimensionally patterned multimode GaN waveguides for light extraction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(10), 101107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Gianordoli, R. Hainberger, A. Köck, N. Finger, E. Gornik, C. Hanke, and L. Korte, “Optimization of the emission characteristics of light emitting diodes by surface plasmons and surface waveguide modes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(15), 2295–2297 (2000).
[CrossRef]

W. S. Wong, T. Sands, and N. W. Cheung, “Damage-free separation of GaN thin films from sapphire substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(5), 599–601 (1998).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quant. Electron. (1)

J. Vuckovic, M. Loncar, and A. Scherer, “Surface plasmon enhanced light-emitting diode,” IEEE J. Quant. Electron. 36(10), 1131–1144 (2000).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

K. Okamoto and Y. Kawakami, “High-Efficiency InGaN/GaN Light Emitters Based on Nanophotonics and Plasmonics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1199–1209 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

C. F. Shen, S. J. Chang, W. S. Chen, T. K. Ko, C. T. Kuo, and S. C. Shei, “Nitride-based high-power flip-chip LED with double-side patterned sapphire substrate,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(10), 780–782 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Lin, C. Y. Chen, D. M. Yeh, and C. C. Yang, “Light Extraction Enhancement of a GaN-Based Light-Emitting Diode Through Grating-Patterned Photoelectrochemical Surface Etching With Phase Mask Interferometry,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(9), 640–642 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

W. L. Barnes, “Electromagnetic crystals for surface plasmon polaritons and the extraction of light from emissive devices,” J. Lightwave Technol. 17(11), 2170–2182 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. (2)

Z. Gong, E. Gu, S. R. Jin, D. Massoubre, B. Guilhabert, H. X. Zhang, M. D. Dawson, V. Poher, G. T. Kennedy, P. M. W. French, and M. A. A. Neil, “Efficient flip-chip InGaN micro-pixellated light-emitting diode arrays: promising candidates for micro-displays and colour conversion,” J. Phys. 41, 094002 (2008).

L. C. Chen and Y. M. Ho, “Ag and zinc oxide-doped indium oxide ohmic contacts to p-type GaN for flip-chip LED applications,” J. Phys. 40, 6514–6517 (2007).

J. Phys. Chem. Solids (1)

J. M. Hwang, K. F. Lee, and H. L. Hwang, “Optical and electrical properties of GaN micron-scale light-emitting diode,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 69(2-3), 752–758 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

J. B. Kim, S. M. Kim, Y. W. Kim, S. K. Kang, S. R. Jeon, N. Hwang, Y. J. Choi, and C. S. Chung, “Light Extraction Enhancement of GaN-Based Light-Emitting Diodes Using Volcano-Shaped Patterned Sapphire Substrates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 49(4), 042102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Laser Photon. Rev. (1)

C. Wiesmann, K. Bergenek, N. Linder, and U. T. Schwarz, “Photonic crystal LEDs - designing light extraction,” Laser Photon. Rev. 3(3), 262–286 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Mater. (1)

K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Shvartser, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and A. Scherer, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced light emitters based on InGaN quantum wells,” Nat. Mater. 3(9), 601–605 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

C. Y. Huang, H. M. Ku, and S. Chao, “Light extraction enhancement for InGaN/GaN LED by three dimensional auto-cloned photonics crystal,” Opt. Express 17(26), 23702–23711 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (3)

A. Neogi, C. W. Lee, H. O. Everitt, T. Kuroda, A. Tackeuchi, and E. Yablonovitch, “Enhancement of spontaneous recombination rate in a quantum well by resonant surface plasmon coupling,” Phys. Rev. B 66(15), 153305 (2002).
[CrossRef]

I. Gontijo, M. Boroditsky, E. Yablonovitch, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, “Coupling of InGaN quantum-well photoluminescence to silver surface plasmons,” Phys. Rev. B 60(16), 11564–11567 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Moreland, A. Adams, and P. K. Hansma, “Efficiency of light emission from surface plasmons,” Phys. Rev. B 25(4), 2297–2300 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Status Solidi (1)

V. Haerle, B. Hahn, S. Kaiser, A. Weimar, S. Bader, F. Eberhard, A. Plössl, and D. Eisert, “High brightness LEDs for general lighting application Using the new ThinGaN Technology,” Phys. Status Solidi 201(12), 2736–2739 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

E. D. Palik ed., Handbook of optical constants of solids (Academic Press, San Diego 1985).

Supplementary Material (6)

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic representation of InGaN/GaN LED (a) with pure GaN grating and (b) with cascading plasmonic gratings.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

SEM pictures of the 1D GaN grating with a period of (a) 0.3μm and (b) 0.5μm, respectively.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Experimental setup for measuring the ARPL of nanostructured samples. Inset shows definitions for θ: collecting angle of the fiber, ϕ: sample orientation, and x/y movement directions.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

TE-TM mode ARPL spectra of InGaN/GaN MQWs with a cascading plasmonic grating for grating periods of (a) 0.3μm and (b) 0.5μm, respectively.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

TM-TE mode ARPL spectra of InGaN/GaN MQWs with a cascading plasmonic grating for grating periods of (a) 0.3μm and (b) 0.5μm, respectively.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

TM-TE mode ARPL spectra of InGaN/GaN MQWs with 1D gratings without Ag coating for grating periods of (a) 0.3μm and (b) 0.5μm, respectively.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Geometric parameters of the fabricated samples

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