Abstract

We present a study of ultrafast carrier transfer from highly luminescent states inside the core of silicon nanocrystal (due to quasidirect transitions) to states on the nanocrystal-matrix interface. This transfer leads to a sub-picosecond luminescence decay, which is followed by a slower decay component induced by carrier relaxation to lower interface states. We investigate the luminescence dynamics for two different surface passivation types and we propose a general model describing spectral dependence of ultrafast carrier dynamics. Our results stress the crucial role of the energy distribution of the interface states on surface-related quenching of quasidirect luminescence in silicon nanocrystals. We discuss how to avoid this quenching in order to bring the attractive properties of the quasidirect recombination closer to exploitation.

© 2010 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
  5. D. Kovalev, H. Heckler, M. Ben-Chorin, G. Polisski, M. Schwartzkopff, and F. Koch, “Breakdown of the k-conservation rule in Si nanocrystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81(13), 2803–2806 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. S. Hybertsen, “Absorption and emission of light in nanoscale silicon structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72(10), 1514–1517 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. N. Holonyak, J. C. Campbell, M. H. Lee, J. T. Verdeyen, W. L. Johnson, M. G. Craford, and D. Finn, “Pumping of GaAs1−x Px: N (at 77 °K, for x≤0.53) by an electron beam from a gas plasma,” J. Appl. Phys. 44(12), 5517–5521 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. V. Wolkin, J. Jorne, P. M. Fauchet, G. Allan, and C. Delerue, “Electronic States and Luminescence in Porous Silicon Quantum Dots: The Role of Oxygen,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(1), 197–200 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
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  12. L. Van Dao, J. Davis, P. Hannaford, Y.-H. Cho, M. A. Green, and E.-C. Cho, “Ultrafast carrier dynamics of Si quantum dots embedded in SiN matrix,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(8), 081105 (2007).
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  17. F. M. Dickinson, T. A. Alsop, N. Al-Sharif, C. E. M. Berger, H. K. Datta, L. Šiller, Y. Chao, E. M. Tuite, A. Houlton, and B. R. Horrocks, “Dispersions of alkyl-capped silicon nanocrystals in aqueous media: photoluminescence and ageing,” Analyst (Lond.) 133(11), 1573–1580 (2008).
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  19. L. Šiller, S. Krishnamurthy, L. Kjeldgaard, B. R. Horrocks, Y. Chao, A. Houlton, A. K. Chakraborty, and M. R. C. Hunt, “Core and valence exciton formation in x-ray absorption, x-ray emission and x-ray excited optical luminescence from passivated Si nanocrystals at the Si L2,3 edge,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 21(9), 095005 (2009).
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  21. K. Dohnalová, L. Ondič, K. Kůsová, I. Pelant, J. L. Rehspringer, and R. R. Mafouana, “White-emitting oxide silicon nanocrystals: Discontinuity in spectral development with reducing size,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(5), 053102 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  22. K. Dohnalová, I. Pelant, K. Kůsová, P. Gilliot, M. Galart, O. Crégut, J. L. Rehspringer, B. Hönerlage, T. Ostatnický, and S. Bakardjieva, “Closely packed luminescent silicon nanocrystals in a distributed-feedback laser cavity,” N. J. Phys. 10(6), 063014 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  23. J. Valenta, A. Fučíková, I. Pelant, K. Kůsová, K. Dohnalová, A. Aleknavičius, O. Cibulka, A. Fojtík, and G. Kada, “On the origin of the fast photoluminescence band in small silicon nanoparticles,” N. J. Phys. 10(7), 073022 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  24. J. Valenta, A. Fučíková, F. Vácha, F. Adamec, J. Humpolíčková, M. Hof, I. Pelant, K. Kůsová, K. Dohnalová, and J. Linnros, “Light-Emission Performance of Silicon Nanocrystals Deduced from Single Quantum Dot Spectroscopy,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 18(18), 2666–2672 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  25. J. Shah, “Ultrafast Luminescence Spectroscopy Using Sum Frequency Generation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24(2), 276–288 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  26. D. M. Mittleman, R. W. Schoenlein, J. J. Shiang, V. L. Colvin, A. P. Alivisatos, and C. V. Shank, “Quantum size dependence of femtosecond electronic dephasing and vibrational dynamics in CdSe nanocrystals,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 49(20), 14435–14447 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. M. D. Garrett, M. J. Bowers, J. R. McBride, R. L. Orndorff, S. J. Pennycook, and S. J. Rosenthal, “Band edge dynamics in CdSe nanocrystals observed by ultrafast fluorescence upconversion,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112(2), 436–442 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  28. K. Kůsová, O. Cibulka, K. Dohnalová, I. Pelant, J. Valenta, A. Fucíková, K. Zídek, J. Lang, J. Englich, P. Matějka, P. Stepánek, and S. Bakardjieva, “Brightly luminescent organically capped silicon nanocrystals fabricated at room temperature and atmospheric pressure,” ACS Nano 4(8), 4495–4504 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (3)

G. Juška, A. Medvids, and V. Gulbinas, “Initial charge carrier dynamics in porous silicon revealed by time-resolved fluorescence and transient reflectivity,” Phys. Sta. Solidi A 207, 188–193 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. Dohnalová, L. Ondič, K. Kůsová, I. Pelant, J. L. Rehspringer, and R. R. Mafouana, “White-emitting oxide silicon nanocrystals: Discontinuity in spectral development with reducing size,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(5), 053102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. Kůsová, O. Cibulka, K. Dohnalová, I. Pelant, J. Valenta, A. Fucíková, K. Zídek, J. Lang, J. Englich, P. Matějka, P. Stepánek, and S. Bakardjieva, “Brightly luminescent organically capped silicon nanocrystals fabricated at room temperature and atmospheric pressure,” ACS Nano 4(8), 4495–4504 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (4)

W. de Boer, H. Zhang, and T. Gregorkiewicz, “Optical spectroscopy of carrier relaxation processes in Si nanocrystals,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 159–160, 190–193 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Šiller, S. Krishnamurthy, L. Kjeldgaard, B. R. Horrocks, Y. Chao, A. Houlton, A. K. Chakraborty, and M. R. C. Hunt, “Core and valence exciton formation in x-ray absorption, x-ray emission and x-ray excited optical luminescence from passivated Si nanocrystals at the Si L2,3 edge,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 21(9), 095005 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Roston, B. R. Horrocks, and G. Roberts, “Distributed luminescence from alkyl-capped silicon quantum dots,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(9), 094302 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. H. Alsharif, C. E. M. Berger, S. S. Varanasi, Y. Chao, B. R. Horrocks, and H. K. Datta, “Alkyl-capped silicon nanocrystals lack cytotoxicity and have enhanced intracellular accumulation in malignant cells via cholesterol-dependent endocytosis,” Small 5(2), 221–228 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (7)

A. Othonos, E. Lioudakis, and A. G. Nassiopoulou, “Surface-Related States in Oxidized Silicon Nanocrystals Enhance Carrier Relaxation and Inhibit Auger Recombination,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 3(9), 315–320 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Sykora, L. Mangolini, R. D. Schaller, U. Kortshagen, D. Jurbergs, and V. I. Klimov, “Size-dependent intrinsic radiative decay rates of silicon nanocrystals at large confinement energies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(6), 067401 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. M. Dickinson, T. A. Alsop, N. Al-Sharif, C. E. M. Berger, H. K. Datta, L. Šiller, Y. Chao, E. M. Tuite, A. Houlton, and B. R. Horrocks, “Dispersions of alkyl-capped silicon nanocrystals in aqueous media: photoluminescence and ageing,” Analyst (Lond.) 133(11), 1573–1580 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Garrett, M. J. Bowers, J. R. McBride, R. L. Orndorff, S. J. Pennycook, and S. J. Rosenthal, “Band edge dynamics in CdSe nanocrystals observed by ultrafast fluorescence upconversion,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112(2), 436–442 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Dohnalová, I. Pelant, K. Kůsová, P. Gilliot, M. Galart, O. Crégut, J. L. Rehspringer, B. Hönerlage, T. Ostatnický, and S. Bakardjieva, “Closely packed luminescent silicon nanocrystals in a distributed-feedback laser cavity,” N. J. Phys. 10(6), 063014 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Valenta, A. Fučíková, I. Pelant, K. Kůsová, K. Dohnalová, A. Aleknavičius, O. Cibulka, A. Fojtík, and G. Kada, “On the origin of the fast photoluminescence band in small silicon nanoparticles,” N. J. Phys. 10(7), 073022 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Valenta, A. Fučíková, F. Vácha, F. Adamec, J. Humpolíčková, M. Hof, I. Pelant, K. Kůsová, K. Dohnalová, and J. Linnros, “Light-Emission Performance of Silicon Nanocrystals Deduced from Single Quantum Dot Spectroscopy,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 18(18), 2666–2672 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

Y. Chao, L. Šiller, S. Krishnamurthy, P. R. Coxon, U. Bangert, M. Gass, L. Kjeldgaard, S. N. Patole, L. H. Lie, N. O’Farrell, T. A. Alsop, A. Houlton, and B. R. Horrocks, “Evaporation and deposition of alkyl-capped silicon nanocrystals in ultrahigh vacuum,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2(8), 486–489 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Van Dao, J. Davis, P. Hannaford, Y.-H. Cho, M. A. Green, and E.-C. Cho, “Ultrafast carrier dynamics of Si quantum dots embedded in SiN matrix,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(8), 081105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

F. Trojánek, K. Neudert, P. Malý, K. Dohnalová, and I. Pelant, “Ultrafast photoluminescence in silicon nanocrystals studied by femtosecond up-conversion technique,” J. Appl. Phys. 99(11), 116108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Trojánek, K. Neudert, K. Žídek, K. Dohnalová, I. Pelant, and P. Malý, “Femtosecond photoluminescence spectroscopy of silicon nanocrystals,” Phys. Stat. Solidi C 3(11), 3873–3876 (2006).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

M. V. Wolkin, J. Jorne, P. M. Fauchet, G. Allan, and C. Delerue, “Electronic States and Luminescence in Porous Silicon Quantum Dots: The Role of Oxygen,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(1), 197–200 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

V. I. Klimov, J. C. Schwarz, D. McBranch, and C. W. White, “Initial carrier relaxation dynamics in ion-implanted Si nanocrystals: Femtosecond transient absorption study,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(18), 2603 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. Kovalev, H. Heckler, M. Ben-Chorin, G. Polisski, M. Schwartzkopff, and F. Koch, “Breakdown of the k-conservation rule in Si nanocrystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81(13), 2803–2806 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

M. S. Hybertsen, “Absorption and emission of light in nanoscale silicon structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72(10), 1514–1517 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. M. Mittleman, R. W. Schoenlein, J. J. Shiang, V. L. Colvin, A. P. Alivisatos, and C. V. Shank, “Quantum size dependence of femtosecond electronic dephasing and vibrational dynamics in CdSe nanocrystals,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 49(20), 14435–14447 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

A. G. Cullis and L. T. Canham, “Visible light emission due to quantum size effects in highly porous crystalline silicon,” Nature 353(6342), 335–338 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

J. Shah, “Ultrafast Luminescence Spectroscopy Using Sum Frequency Generation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24(2), 276–288 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

N. Holonyak, J. C. Campbell, M. H. Lee, J. T. Verdeyen, W. L. Johnson, M. G. Craford, and D. Finn, “Pumping of GaAs1−x Px: N (at 77 °K, for x≤0.53) by an electron beam from a gas plasma,” J. Appl. Phys. 44(12), 5517–5521 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Adamec, F.

J. Valenta, A. Fučíková, F. Vácha, F. Adamec, J. Humpolíčková, M. Hof, I. Pelant, K. Kůsová, K. Dohnalová, and J. Linnros, “Light-Emission Performance of Silicon Nanocrystals Deduced from Single Quantum Dot Spectroscopy,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 18(18), 2666–2672 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Aleknavicius, A.

J. Valenta, A. Fučíková, I. Pelant, K. Kůsová, K. Dohnalová, A. Aleknavičius, O. Cibulka, A. Fojtík, and G. Kada, “On the origin of the fast photoluminescence band in small silicon nanoparticles,” N. J. Phys. 10(7), 073022 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Alivisatos, A. P.

D. M. Mittleman, R. W. Schoenlein, J. J. Shiang, V. L. Colvin, A. P. Alivisatos, and C. V. Shank, “Quantum size dependence of femtosecond electronic dephasing and vibrational dynamics in CdSe nanocrystals,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 49(20), 14435–14447 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Allan, G.

M. V. Wolkin, J. Jorne, P. M. Fauchet, G. Allan, and C. Delerue, “Electronic States and Luminescence in Porous Silicon Quantum Dots: The Role of Oxygen,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(1), 197–200 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Alsharif, N. H.

N. H. Alsharif, C. E. M. Berger, S. S. Varanasi, Y. Chao, B. R. Horrocks, and H. K. Datta, “Alkyl-capped silicon nanocrystals lack cytotoxicity and have enhanced intracellular accumulation in malignant cells via cholesterol-dependent endocytosis,” Small 5(2), 221–228 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Al-Sharif, N.

F. M. Dickinson, T. A. Alsop, N. Al-Sharif, C. E. M. Berger, H. K. Datta, L. Šiller, Y. Chao, E. M. Tuite, A. Houlton, and B. R. Horrocks, “Dispersions of alkyl-capped silicon nanocrystals in aqueous media: photoluminescence and ageing,” Analyst (Lond.) 133(11), 1573–1580 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Alsop, T. A.

F. M. Dickinson, T. A. Alsop, N. Al-Sharif, C. E. M. Berger, H. K. Datta, L. Šiller, Y. Chao, E. M. Tuite, A. Houlton, and B. R. Horrocks, “Dispersions of alkyl-capped silicon nanocrystals in aqueous media: photoluminescence and ageing,” Analyst (Lond.) 133(11), 1573–1580 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Chao, L. Šiller, S. Krishnamurthy, P. R. Coxon, U. Bangert, M. Gass, L. Kjeldgaard, S. N. Patole, L. H. Lie, N. O’Farrell, T. A. Alsop, A. Houlton, and B. R. Horrocks, “Evaporation and deposition of alkyl-capped silicon nanocrystals in ultrahigh vacuum,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2(8), 486–489 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bakardjieva, S.

K. Kůsová, O. Cibulka, K. Dohnalová, I. Pelant, J. Valenta, A. Fucíková, K. Zídek, J. Lang, J. Englich, P. Matějka, P. Stepánek, and S. Bakardjieva, “Brightly luminescent organically capped silicon nanocrystals fabricated at room temperature and atmospheric pressure,” ACS Nano 4(8), 4495–4504 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Dohnalová, I. Pelant, K. Kůsová, P. Gilliot, M. Galart, O. Crégut, J. L. Rehspringer, B. Hönerlage, T. Ostatnický, and S. Bakardjieva, “Closely packed luminescent silicon nanocrystals in a distributed-feedback laser cavity,” N. J. Phys. 10(6), 063014 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bangert, U.

Y. Chao, L. Šiller, S. Krishnamurthy, P. R. Coxon, U. Bangert, M. Gass, L. Kjeldgaard, S. N. Patole, L. H. Lie, N. O’Farrell, T. A. Alsop, A. Houlton, and B. R. Horrocks, “Evaporation and deposition of alkyl-capped silicon nanocrystals in ultrahigh vacuum,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2(8), 486–489 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ben-Chorin, M.

D. Kovalev, H. Heckler, M. Ben-Chorin, G. Polisski, M. Schwartzkopff, and F. Koch, “Breakdown of the k-conservation rule in Si nanocrystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81(13), 2803–2806 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Berger, C. E. M.

N. H. Alsharif, C. E. M. Berger, S. S. Varanasi, Y. Chao, B. R. Horrocks, and H. K. Datta, “Alkyl-capped silicon nanocrystals lack cytotoxicity and have enhanced intracellular accumulation in malignant cells via cholesterol-dependent endocytosis,” Small 5(2), 221–228 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. M. Dickinson, T. A. Alsop, N. Al-Sharif, C. E. M. Berger, H. K. Datta, L. Šiller, Y. Chao, E. M. Tuite, A. Houlton, and B. R. Horrocks, “Dispersions of alkyl-capped silicon nanocrystals in aqueous media: photoluminescence and ageing,” Analyst (Lond.) 133(11), 1573–1580 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bowers, M. J.

M. D. Garrett, M. J. Bowers, J. R. McBride, R. L. Orndorff, S. J. Pennycook, and S. J. Rosenthal, “Band edge dynamics in CdSe nanocrystals observed by ultrafast fluorescence upconversion,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112(2), 436–442 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Campbell, J. C.

N. Holonyak, J. C. Campbell, M. H. Lee, J. T. Verdeyen, W. L. Johnson, M. G. Craford, and D. Finn, “Pumping of GaAs1−x Px: N (at 77 °K, for x≤0.53) by an electron beam from a gas plasma,” J. Appl. Phys. 44(12), 5517–5521 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Canham, L. T.

A. G. Cullis and L. T. Canham, “Visible light emission due to quantum size effects in highly porous crystalline silicon,” Nature 353(6342), 335–338 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Chakraborty, A. K.

L. Šiller, S. Krishnamurthy, L. Kjeldgaard, B. R. Horrocks, Y. Chao, A. Houlton, A. K. Chakraborty, and M. R. C. Hunt, “Core and valence exciton formation in x-ray absorption, x-ray emission and x-ray excited optical luminescence from passivated Si nanocrystals at the Si L2,3 edge,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 21(9), 095005 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chao, Y.

L. Šiller, S. Krishnamurthy, L. Kjeldgaard, B. R. Horrocks, Y. Chao, A. Houlton, A. K. Chakraborty, and M. R. C. Hunt, “Core and valence exciton formation in x-ray absorption, x-ray emission and x-ray excited optical luminescence from passivated Si nanocrystals at the Si L2,3 edge,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 21(9), 095005 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. H. Alsharif, C. E. M. Berger, S. S. Varanasi, Y. Chao, B. R. Horrocks, and H. K. Datta, “Alkyl-capped silicon nanocrystals lack cytotoxicity and have enhanced intracellular accumulation in malignant cells via cholesterol-dependent endocytosis,” Small 5(2), 221–228 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. M. Dickinson, T. A. Alsop, N. Al-Sharif, C. E. M. Berger, H. K. Datta, L. Šiller, Y. Chao, E. M. Tuite, A. Houlton, and B. R. Horrocks, “Dispersions of alkyl-capped silicon nanocrystals in aqueous media: photoluminescence and ageing,” Analyst (Lond.) 133(11), 1573–1580 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Chao, L. Šiller, S. Krishnamurthy, P. R. Coxon, U. Bangert, M. Gass, L. Kjeldgaard, S. N. Patole, L. H. Lie, N. O’Farrell, T. A. Alsop, A. Houlton, and B. R. Horrocks, “Evaporation and deposition of alkyl-capped silicon nanocrystals in ultrahigh vacuum,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2(8), 486–489 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cho, E.-C.

L. Van Dao, J. Davis, P. Hannaford, Y.-H. Cho, M. A. Green, and E.-C. Cho, “Ultrafast carrier dynamics of Si quantum dots embedded in SiN matrix,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(8), 081105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cho, Y.-H.

L. Van Dao, J. Davis, P. Hannaford, Y.-H. Cho, M. A. Green, and E.-C. Cho, “Ultrafast carrier dynamics of Si quantum dots embedded in SiN matrix,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(8), 081105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cibulka, O.

K. Kůsová, O. Cibulka, K. Dohnalová, I. Pelant, J. Valenta, A. Fucíková, K. Zídek, J. Lang, J. Englich, P. Matějka, P. Stepánek, and S. Bakardjieva, “Brightly luminescent organically capped silicon nanocrystals fabricated at room temperature and atmospheric pressure,” ACS Nano 4(8), 4495–4504 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Valenta, A. Fučíková, I. Pelant, K. Kůsová, K. Dohnalová, A. Aleknavičius, O. Cibulka, A. Fojtík, and G. Kada, “On the origin of the fast photoluminescence band in small silicon nanoparticles,” N. J. Phys. 10(7), 073022 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Colvin, V. L.

D. M. Mittleman, R. W. Schoenlein, J. J. Shiang, V. L. Colvin, A. P. Alivisatos, and C. V. Shank, “Quantum size dependence of femtosecond electronic dephasing and vibrational dynamics in CdSe nanocrystals,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 49(20), 14435–14447 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Coxon, P. R.

Y. Chao, L. Šiller, S. Krishnamurthy, P. R. Coxon, U. Bangert, M. Gass, L. Kjeldgaard, S. N. Patole, L. H. Lie, N. O’Farrell, T. A. Alsop, A. Houlton, and B. R. Horrocks, “Evaporation and deposition of alkyl-capped silicon nanocrystals in ultrahigh vacuum,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2(8), 486–489 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Craford, M. G.

N. Holonyak, J. C. Campbell, M. H. Lee, J. T. Verdeyen, W. L. Johnson, M. G. Craford, and D. Finn, “Pumping of GaAs1−x Px: N (at 77 °K, for x≤0.53) by an electron beam from a gas plasma,” J. Appl. Phys. 44(12), 5517–5521 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Crégut, O.

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K. Kůsová, O. Cibulka, K. Dohnalová, I. Pelant, J. Valenta, A. Fucíková, K. Zídek, J. Lang, J. Englich, P. Matějka, P. Stepánek, and S. Bakardjieva, “Brightly luminescent organically capped silicon nanocrystals fabricated at room temperature and atmospheric pressure,” ACS Nano 4(8), 4495–4504 (2010).
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J. Valenta, A. Fučíková, I. Pelant, K. Kůsová, K. Dohnalová, A. Aleknavičius, O. Cibulka, A. Fojtík, and G. Kada, “On the origin of the fast photoluminescence band in small silicon nanoparticles,” N. J. Phys. 10(7), 073022 (2008).
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K. Dohnalová, I. Pelant, K. Kůsová, P. Gilliot, M. Galart, O. Crégut, J. L. Rehspringer, B. Hönerlage, T. Ostatnický, and S. Bakardjieva, “Closely packed luminescent silicon nanocrystals in a distributed-feedback laser cavity,” N. J. Phys. 10(6), 063014 (2008).
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F. Trojánek, K. Neudert, K. Žídek, K. Dohnalová, I. Pelant, and P. Malý, “Femtosecond photoluminescence spectroscopy of silicon nanocrystals,” Phys. Stat. Solidi C 3(11), 3873–3876 (2006).
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F. Trojánek, K. Neudert, P. Malý, K. Dohnalová, and I. Pelant, “Ultrafast photoluminescence in silicon nanocrystals studied by femtosecond up-conversion technique,” J. Appl. Phys. 99(11), 116108 (2006).
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K. Kůsová, O. Cibulka, K. Dohnalová, I. Pelant, J. Valenta, A. Fucíková, K. Zídek, J. Lang, J. Englich, P. Matějka, P. Stepánek, and S. Bakardjieva, “Brightly luminescent organically capped silicon nanocrystals fabricated at room temperature and atmospheric pressure,” ACS Nano 4(8), 4495–4504 (2010).
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M. V. Wolkin, J. Jorne, P. M. Fauchet, G. Allan, and C. Delerue, “Electronic States and Luminescence in Porous Silicon Quantum Dots: The Role of Oxygen,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(1), 197–200 (1999).
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J. Valenta, A. Fučíková, I. Pelant, K. Kůsová, K. Dohnalová, A. Aleknavičius, O. Cibulka, A. Fojtík, and G. Kada, “On the origin of the fast photoluminescence band in small silicon nanoparticles,” N. J. Phys. 10(7), 073022 (2008).
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K. Kůsová, O. Cibulka, K. Dohnalová, I. Pelant, J. Valenta, A. Fucíková, K. Zídek, J. Lang, J. Englich, P. Matějka, P. Stepánek, and S. Bakardjieva, “Brightly luminescent organically capped silicon nanocrystals fabricated at room temperature and atmospheric pressure,” ACS Nano 4(8), 4495–4504 (2010).
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J. Valenta, A. Fučíková, F. Vácha, F. Adamec, J. Humpolíčková, M. Hof, I. Pelant, K. Kůsová, K. Dohnalová, and J. Linnros, “Light-Emission Performance of Silicon Nanocrystals Deduced from Single Quantum Dot Spectroscopy,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 18(18), 2666–2672 (2008).
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J. Valenta, A. Fučíková, I. Pelant, K. Kůsová, K. Dohnalová, A. Aleknavičius, O. Cibulka, A. Fojtík, and G. Kada, “On the origin of the fast photoluminescence band in small silicon nanoparticles,” N. J. Phys. 10(7), 073022 (2008).
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K. Dohnalová, I. Pelant, K. Kůsová, P. Gilliot, M. Galart, O. Crégut, J. L. Rehspringer, B. Hönerlage, T. Ostatnický, and S. Bakardjieva, “Closely packed luminescent silicon nanocrystals in a distributed-feedback laser cavity,” N. J. Phys. 10(6), 063014 (2008).
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K. Dohnalová, I. Pelant, K. Kůsová, P. Gilliot, M. Galart, O. Crégut, J. L. Rehspringer, B. Hönerlage, T. Ostatnický, and S. Bakardjieva, “Closely packed luminescent silicon nanocrystals in a distributed-feedback laser cavity,” N. J. Phys. 10(6), 063014 (2008).
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L. Van Dao, J. Davis, P. Hannaford, Y.-H. Cho, M. A. Green, and E.-C. Cho, “Ultrafast carrier dynamics of Si quantum dots embedded in SiN matrix,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(8), 081105 (2007).
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W. de Boer, H. Zhang, and T. Gregorkiewicz, “Optical spectroscopy of carrier relaxation processes in Si nanocrystals,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 159–160, 190–193 (2009).
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G. Juška, A. Medvids, and V. Gulbinas, “Initial charge carrier dynamics in porous silicon revealed by time-resolved fluorescence and transient reflectivity,” Phys. Sta. Solidi A 207, 188–193 (2010).
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L. Van Dao, J. Davis, P. Hannaford, Y.-H. Cho, M. A. Green, and E.-C. Cho, “Ultrafast carrier dynamics of Si quantum dots embedded in SiN matrix,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(8), 081105 (2007).
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D. Kovalev, H. Heckler, M. Ben-Chorin, G. Polisski, M. Schwartzkopff, and F. Koch, “Breakdown of the k-conservation rule in Si nanocrystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81(13), 2803–2806 (1998).
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J. Valenta, A. Fučíková, F. Vácha, F. Adamec, J. Humpolíčková, M. Hof, I. Pelant, K. Kůsová, K. Dohnalová, and J. Linnros, “Light-Emission Performance of Silicon Nanocrystals Deduced from Single Quantum Dot Spectroscopy,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 18(18), 2666–2672 (2008).
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K. Dohnalová, I. Pelant, K. Kůsová, P. Gilliot, M. Galart, O. Crégut, J. L. Rehspringer, B. Hönerlage, T. Ostatnický, and S. Bakardjieva, “Closely packed luminescent silicon nanocrystals in a distributed-feedback laser cavity,” N. J. Phys. 10(6), 063014 (2008).
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N. H. Alsharif, C. E. M. Berger, S. S. Varanasi, Y. Chao, B. R. Horrocks, and H. K. Datta, “Alkyl-capped silicon nanocrystals lack cytotoxicity and have enhanced intracellular accumulation in malignant cells via cholesterol-dependent endocytosis,” Small 5(2), 221–228 (2009).
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L. Šiller, S. Krishnamurthy, L. Kjeldgaard, B. R. Horrocks, Y. Chao, A. Houlton, A. K. Chakraborty, and M. R. C. Hunt, “Core and valence exciton formation in x-ray absorption, x-ray emission and x-ray excited optical luminescence from passivated Si nanocrystals at the Si L2,3 edge,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 21(9), 095005 (2009).
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F. M. Dickinson, T. A. Alsop, N. Al-Sharif, C. E. M. Berger, H. K. Datta, L. Šiller, Y. Chao, E. M. Tuite, A. Houlton, and B. R. Horrocks, “Dispersions of alkyl-capped silicon nanocrystals in aqueous media: photoluminescence and ageing,” Analyst (Lond.) 133(11), 1573–1580 (2008).
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Y. Chao, L. Šiller, S. Krishnamurthy, P. R. Coxon, U. Bangert, M. Gass, L. Kjeldgaard, S. N. Patole, L. H. Lie, N. O’Farrell, T. A. Alsop, A. Houlton, and B. R. Horrocks, “Evaporation and deposition of alkyl-capped silicon nanocrystals in ultrahigh vacuum,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2(8), 486–489 (2007).
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L. Šiller, S. Krishnamurthy, L. Kjeldgaard, B. R. Horrocks, Y. Chao, A. Houlton, A. K. Chakraborty, and M. R. C. Hunt, “Core and valence exciton formation in x-ray absorption, x-ray emission and x-ray excited optical luminescence from passivated Si nanocrystals at the Si L2,3 edge,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 21(9), 095005 (2009).
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F. M. Dickinson, T. A. Alsop, N. Al-Sharif, C. E. M. Berger, H. K. Datta, L. Šiller, Y. Chao, E. M. Tuite, A. Houlton, and B. R. Horrocks, “Dispersions of alkyl-capped silicon nanocrystals in aqueous media: photoluminescence and ageing,” Analyst (Lond.) 133(11), 1573–1580 (2008).
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Y. Chao, L. Šiller, S. Krishnamurthy, P. R. Coxon, U. Bangert, M. Gass, L. Kjeldgaard, S. N. Patole, L. H. Lie, N. O’Farrell, T. A. Alsop, A. Houlton, and B. R. Horrocks, “Evaporation and deposition of alkyl-capped silicon nanocrystals in ultrahigh vacuum,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2(8), 486–489 (2007).
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L. Šiller, S. Krishnamurthy, L. Kjeldgaard, B. R. Horrocks, Y. Chao, A. Houlton, A. K. Chakraborty, and M. R. C. Hunt, “Core and valence exciton formation in x-ray absorption, x-ray emission and x-ray excited optical luminescence from passivated Si nanocrystals at the Si L2,3 edge,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 21(9), 095005 (2009).
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M. V. Wolkin, J. Jorne, P. M. Fauchet, G. Allan, and C. Delerue, “Electronic States and Luminescence in Porous Silicon Quantum Dots: The Role of Oxygen,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(1), 197–200 (1999).
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M. Sykora, L. Mangolini, R. D. Schaller, U. Kortshagen, D. Jurbergs, and V. I. Klimov, “Size-dependent intrinsic radiative decay rates of silicon nanocrystals at large confinement energies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(6), 067401 (2008).
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G. Juška, A. Medvids, and V. Gulbinas, “Initial charge carrier dynamics in porous silicon revealed by time-resolved fluorescence and transient reflectivity,” Phys. Sta. Solidi A 207, 188–193 (2010).
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J. Valenta, A. Fučíková, I. Pelant, K. Kůsová, K. Dohnalová, A. Aleknavičius, O. Cibulka, A. Fojtík, and G. Kada, “On the origin of the fast photoluminescence band in small silicon nanoparticles,” N. J. Phys. 10(7), 073022 (2008).
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L. Šiller, S. Krishnamurthy, L. Kjeldgaard, B. R. Horrocks, Y. Chao, A. Houlton, A. K. Chakraborty, and M. R. C. Hunt, “Core and valence exciton formation in x-ray absorption, x-ray emission and x-ray excited optical luminescence from passivated Si nanocrystals at the Si L2,3 edge,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 21(9), 095005 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Chao, L. Šiller, S. Krishnamurthy, P. R. Coxon, U. Bangert, M. Gass, L. Kjeldgaard, S. N. Patole, L. H. Lie, N. O’Farrell, T. A. Alsop, A. Houlton, and B. R. Horrocks, “Evaporation and deposition of alkyl-capped silicon nanocrystals in ultrahigh vacuum,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2(8), 486–489 (2007).
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M. Sykora, L. Mangolini, R. D. Schaller, U. Kortshagen, D. Jurbergs, and V. I. Klimov, “Size-dependent intrinsic radiative decay rates of silicon nanocrystals at large confinement energies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(6), 067401 (2008).
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V. I. Klimov, J. C. Schwarz, D. McBranch, and C. W. White, “Initial carrier relaxation dynamics in ion-implanted Si nanocrystals: Femtosecond transient absorption study,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(18), 2603 (1998).
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D. Kovalev, H. Heckler, M. Ben-Chorin, G. Polisski, M. Schwartzkopff, and F. Koch, “Breakdown of the k-conservation rule in Si nanocrystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81(13), 2803–2806 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kortshagen, U.

M. Sykora, L. Mangolini, R. D. Schaller, U. Kortshagen, D. Jurbergs, and V. I. Klimov, “Size-dependent intrinsic radiative decay rates of silicon nanocrystals at large confinement energies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(6), 067401 (2008).
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D. Kovalev, H. Heckler, M. Ben-Chorin, G. Polisski, M. Schwartzkopff, and F. Koch, “Breakdown of the k-conservation rule in Si nanocrystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81(13), 2803–2806 (1998).
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Krishnamurthy, S.

L. Šiller, S. Krishnamurthy, L. Kjeldgaard, B. R. Horrocks, Y. Chao, A. Houlton, A. K. Chakraborty, and M. R. C. Hunt, “Core and valence exciton formation in x-ray absorption, x-ray emission and x-ray excited optical luminescence from passivated Si nanocrystals at the Si L2,3 edge,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 21(9), 095005 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Chao, L. Šiller, S. Krishnamurthy, P. R. Coxon, U. Bangert, M. Gass, L. Kjeldgaard, S. N. Patole, L. H. Lie, N. O’Farrell, T. A. Alsop, A. Houlton, and B. R. Horrocks, “Evaporation and deposition of alkyl-capped silicon nanocrystals in ultrahigh vacuum,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2(8), 486–489 (2007).
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K. Dohnalová, L. Ondič, K. Kůsová, I. Pelant, J. L. Rehspringer, and R. R. Mafouana, “White-emitting oxide silicon nanocrystals: Discontinuity in spectral development with reducing size,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(5), 053102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. Kůsová, O. Cibulka, K. Dohnalová, I. Pelant, J. Valenta, A. Fucíková, K. Zídek, J. Lang, J. Englich, P. Matějka, P. Stepánek, and S. Bakardjieva, “Brightly luminescent organically capped silicon nanocrystals fabricated at room temperature and atmospheric pressure,” ACS Nano 4(8), 4495–4504 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Valenta, A. Fučíková, F. Vácha, F. Adamec, J. Humpolíčková, M. Hof, I. Pelant, K. Kůsová, K. Dohnalová, and J. Linnros, “Light-Emission Performance of Silicon Nanocrystals Deduced from Single Quantum Dot Spectroscopy,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 18(18), 2666–2672 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Valenta, A. Fučíková, I. Pelant, K. Kůsová, K. Dohnalová, A. Aleknavičius, O. Cibulka, A. Fojtík, and G. Kada, “On the origin of the fast photoluminescence band in small silicon nanoparticles,” N. J. Phys. 10(7), 073022 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Dohnalová, I. Pelant, K. Kůsová, P. Gilliot, M. Galart, O. Crégut, J. L. Rehspringer, B. Hönerlage, T. Ostatnický, and S. Bakardjieva, “Closely packed luminescent silicon nanocrystals in a distributed-feedback laser cavity,” N. J. Phys. 10(6), 063014 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lang, J.

K. Kůsová, O. Cibulka, K. Dohnalová, I. Pelant, J. Valenta, A. Fucíková, K. Zídek, J. Lang, J. Englich, P. Matějka, P. Stepánek, and S. Bakardjieva, “Brightly luminescent organically capped silicon nanocrystals fabricated at room temperature and atmospheric pressure,” ACS Nano 4(8), 4495–4504 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, M. H.

N. Holonyak, J. C. Campbell, M. H. Lee, J. T. Verdeyen, W. L. Johnson, M. G. Craford, and D. Finn, “Pumping of GaAs1−x Px: N (at 77 °K, for x≤0.53) by an electron beam from a gas plasma,” J. Appl. Phys. 44(12), 5517–5521 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Lie, L. H.

Y. Chao, L. Šiller, S. Krishnamurthy, P. R. Coxon, U. Bangert, M. Gass, L. Kjeldgaard, S. N. Patole, L. H. Lie, N. O’Farrell, T. A. Alsop, A. Houlton, and B. R. Horrocks, “Evaporation and deposition of alkyl-capped silicon nanocrystals in ultrahigh vacuum,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2(8), 486–489 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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J. Valenta, A. Fučíková, F. Vácha, F. Adamec, J. Humpolíčková, M. Hof, I. Pelant, K. Kůsová, K. Dohnalová, and J. Linnros, “Light-Emission Performance of Silicon Nanocrystals Deduced from Single Quantum Dot Spectroscopy,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 18(18), 2666–2672 (2008).
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Mafouana, R. R.

K. Dohnalová, L. Ondič, K. Kůsová, I. Pelant, J. L. Rehspringer, and R. R. Mafouana, “White-emitting oxide silicon nanocrystals: Discontinuity in spectral development with reducing size,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(5), 053102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Malý, P.

F. Trojánek, K. Neudert, P. Malý, K. Dohnalová, and I. Pelant, “Ultrafast photoluminescence in silicon nanocrystals studied by femtosecond up-conversion technique,” J. Appl. Phys. 99(11), 116108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Trojánek, K. Neudert, K. Žídek, K. Dohnalová, I. Pelant, and P. Malý, “Femtosecond photoluminescence spectroscopy of silicon nanocrystals,” Phys. Stat. Solidi C 3(11), 3873–3876 (2006).
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Mangolini, L.

M. Sykora, L. Mangolini, R. D. Schaller, U. Kortshagen, D. Jurbergs, and V. I. Klimov, “Size-dependent intrinsic radiative decay rates of silicon nanocrystals at large confinement energies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(6), 067401 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Matejka, P.

K. Kůsová, O. Cibulka, K. Dohnalová, I. Pelant, J. Valenta, A. Fucíková, K. Zídek, J. Lang, J. Englich, P. Matějka, P. Stepánek, and S. Bakardjieva, “Brightly luminescent organically capped silicon nanocrystals fabricated at room temperature and atmospheric pressure,” ACS Nano 4(8), 4495–4504 (2010).
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V. I. Klimov, J. C. Schwarz, D. McBranch, and C. W. White, “Initial carrier relaxation dynamics in ion-implanted Si nanocrystals: Femtosecond transient absorption study,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(18), 2603 (1998).
[CrossRef]

McBride, J. R.

M. D. Garrett, M. J. Bowers, J. R. McBride, R. L. Orndorff, S. J. Pennycook, and S. J. Rosenthal, “Band edge dynamics in CdSe nanocrystals observed by ultrafast fluorescence upconversion,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112(2), 436–442 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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G. Juška, A. Medvids, and V. Gulbinas, “Initial charge carrier dynamics in porous silicon revealed by time-resolved fluorescence and transient reflectivity,” Phys. Sta. Solidi A 207, 188–193 (2010).
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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nassiopoulou, A. G.

A. Othonos, E. Lioudakis, and A. G. Nassiopoulou, “Surface-Related States in Oxidized Silicon Nanocrystals Enhance Carrier Relaxation and Inhibit Auger Recombination,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 3(9), 315–320 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Neudert, K.

F. Trojánek, K. Neudert, P. Malý, K. Dohnalová, and I. Pelant, “Ultrafast photoluminescence in silicon nanocrystals studied by femtosecond up-conversion technique,” J. Appl. Phys. 99(11), 116108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Trojánek, K. Neudert, K. Žídek, K. Dohnalová, I. Pelant, and P. Malý, “Femtosecond photoluminescence spectroscopy of silicon nanocrystals,” Phys. Stat. Solidi C 3(11), 3873–3876 (2006).
[CrossRef]

O’Farrell, N.

Y. Chao, L. Šiller, S. Krishnamurthy, P. R. Coxon, U. Bangert, M. Gass, L. Kjeldgaard, S. N. Patole, L. H. Lie, N. O’Farrell, T. A. Alsop, A. Houlton, and B. R. Horrocks, “Evaporation and deposition of alkyl-capped silicon nanocrystals in ultrahigh vacuum,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2(8), 486–489 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ondic, L.

K. Dohnalová, L. Ondič, K. Kůsová, I. Pelant, J. L. Rehspringer, and R. R. Mafouana, “White-emitting oxide silicon nanocrystals: Discontinuity in spectral development with reducing size,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(5), 053102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Orndorff, R. L.

M. D. Garrett, M. J. Bowers, J. R. McBride, R. L. Orndorff, S. J. Pennycook, and S. J. Rosenthal, “Band edge dynamics in CdSe nanocrystals observed by ultrafast fluorescence upconversion,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112(2), 436–442 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ostatnický, T.

K. Dohnalová, I. Pelant, K. Kůsová, P. Gilliot, M. Galart, O. Crégut, J. L. Rehspringer, B. Hönerlage, T. Ostatnický, and S. Bakardjieva, “Closely packed luminescent silicon nanocrystals in a distributed-feedback laser cavity,” N. J. Phys. 10(6), 063014 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Othonos, A.

A. Othonos, E. Lioudakis, and A. G. Nassiopoulou, “Surface-Related States in Oxidized Silicon Nanocrystals Enhance Carrier Relaxation and Inhibit Auger Recombination,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 3(9), 315–320 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Patole, S. N.

Y. Chao, L. Šiller, S. Krishnamurthy, P. R. Coxon, U. Bangert, M. Gass, L. Kjeldgaard, S. N. Patole, L. H. Lie, N. O’Farrell, T. A. Alsop, A. Houlton, and B. R. Horrocks, “Evaporation and deposition of alkyl-capped silicon nanocrystals in ultrahigh vacuum,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2(8), 486–489 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pelant, I.

K. Kůsová, O. Cibulka, K. Dohnalová, I. Pelant, J. Valenta, A. Fucíková, K. Zídek, J. Lang, J. Englich, P. Matějka, P. Stepánek, and S. Bakardjieva, “Brightly luminescent organically capped silicon nanocrystals fabricated at room temperature and atmospheric pressure,” ACS Nano 4(8), 4495–4504 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Dohnalová, L. Ondič, K. Kůsová, I. Pelant, J. L. Rehspringer, and R. R. Mafouana, “White-emitting oxide silicon nanocrystals: Discontinuity in spectral development with reducing size,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(5), 053102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Valenta, A. Fučíková, I. Pelant, K. Kůsová, K. Dohnalová, A. Aleknavičius, O. Cibulka, A. Fojtík, and G. Kada, “On the origin of the fast photoluminescence band in small silicon nanoparticles,” N. J. Phys. 10(7), 073022 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Valenta, A. Fučíková, F. Vácha, F. Adamec, J. Humpolíčková, M. Hof, I. Pelant, K. Kůsová, K. Dohnalová, and J. Linnros, “Light-Emission Performance of Silicon Nanocrystals Deduced from Single Quantum Dot Spectroscopy,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 18(18), 2666–2672 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Dohnalová, I. Pelant, K. Kůsová, P. Gilliot, M. Galart, O. Crégut, J. L. Rehspringer, B. Hönerlage, T. Ostatnický, and S. Bakardjieva, “Closely packed luminescent silicon nanocrystals in a distributed-feedback laser cavity,” N. J. Phys. 10(6), 063014 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Trojánek, K. Neudert, K. Žídek, K. Dohnalová, I. Pelant, and P. Malý, “Femtosecond photoluminescence spectroscopy of silicon nanocrystals,” Phys. Stat. Solidi C 3(11), 3873–3876 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Trojánek, K. Neudert, P. Malý, K. Dohnalová, and I. Pelant, “Ultrafast photoluminescence in silicon nanocrystals studied by femtosecond up-conversion technique,” J. Appl. Phys. 99(11), 116108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pennycook, S. J.

M. D. Garrett, M. J. Bowers, J. R. McBride, R. L. Orndorff, S. J. Pennycook, and S. J. Rosenthal, “Band edge dynamics in CdSe nanocrystals observed by ultrafast fluorescence upconversion,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112(2), 436–442 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Polisski, G.

D. Kovalev, H. Heckler, M. Ben-Chorin, G. Polisski, M. Schwartzkopff, and F. Koch, “Breakdown of the k-conservation rule in Si nanocrystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81(13), 2803–2806 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Rehspringer, J. L.

K. Dohnalová, L. Ondič, K. Kůsová, I. Pelant, J. L. Rehspringer, and R. R. Mafouana, “White-emitting oxide silicon nanocrystals: Discontinuity in spectral development with reducing size,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(5), 053102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. Dohnalová, I. Pelant, K. Kůsová, P. Gilliot, M. Galart, O. Crégut, J. L. Rehspringer, B. Hönerlage, T. Ostatnický, and S. Bakardjieva, “Closely packed luminescent silicon nanocrystals in a distributed-feedback laser cavity,” N. J. Phys. 10(6), 063014 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Roberts, G.

R. J. Roston, B. R. Horrocks, and G. Roberts, “Distributed luminescence from alkyl-capped silicon quantum dots,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(9), 094302 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rosenthal, S. J.

M. D. Garrett, M. J. Bowers, J. R. McBride, R. L. Orndorff, S. J. Pennycook, and S. J. Rosenthal, “Band edge dynamics in CdSe nanocrystals observed by ultrafast fluorescence upconversion,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112(2), 436–442 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Roston, R. J.

R. J. Roston, B. R. Horrocks, and G. Roberts, “Distributed luminescence from alkyl-capped silicon quantum dots,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(9), 094302 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Schaller, R. D.

M. Sykora, L. Mangolini, R. D. Schaller, U. Kortshagen, D. Jurbergs, and V. I. Klimov, “Size-dependent intrinsic radiative decay rates of silicon nanocrystals at large confinement energies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(6), 067401 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schoenlein, R. W.

D. M. Mittleman, R. W. Schoenlein, J. J. Shiang, V. L. Colvin, A. P. Alivisatos, and C. V. Shank, “Quantum size dependence of femtosecond electronic dephasing and vibrational dynamics in CdSe nanocrystals,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 49(20), 14435–14447 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schwartzkopff, M.

D. Kovalev, H. Heckler, M. Ben-Chorin, G. Polisski, M. Schwartzkopff, and F. Koch, “Breakdown of the k-conservation rule in Si nanocrystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81(13), 2803–2806 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Schwarz, J. C.

V. I. Klimov, J. C. Schwarz, D. McBranch, and C. W. White, “Initial carrier relaxation dynamics in ion-implanted Si nanocrystals: Femtosecond transient absorption study,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(18), 2603 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Shah, J.

J. Shah, “Ultrafast Luminescence Spectroscopy Using Sum Frequency Generation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24(2), 276–288 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Shank, C. V.

D. M. Mittleman, R. W. Schoenlein, J. J. Shiang, V. L. Colvin, A. P. Alivisatos, and C. V. Shank, “Quantum size dependence of femtosecond electronic dephasing and vibrational dynamics in CdSe nanocrystals,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 49(20), 14435–14447 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shiang, J. J.

D. M. Mittleman, R. W. Schoenlein, J. J. Shiang, V. L. Colvin, A. P. Alivisatos, and C. V. Shank, “Quantum size dependence of femtosecond electronic dephasing and vibrational dynamics in CdSe nanocrystals,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 49(20), 14435–14447 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Šiller, L.

L. Šiller, S. Krishnamurthy, L. Kjeldgaard, B. R. Horrocks, Y. Chao, A. Houlton, A. K. Chakraborty, and M. R. C. Hunt, “Core and valence exciton formation in x-ray absorption, x-ray emission and x-ray excited optical luminescence from passivated Si nanocrystals at the Si L2,3 edge,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 21(9), 095005 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. M. Dickinson, T. A. Alsop, N. Al-Sharif, C. E. M. Berger, H. K. Datta, L. Šiller, Y. Chao, E. M. Tuite, A. Houlton, and B. R. Horrocks, “Dispersions of alkyl-capped silicon nanocrystals in aqueous media: photoluminescence and ageing,” Analyst (Lond.) 133(11), 1573–1580 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Chao, L. Šiller, S. Krishnamurthy, P. R. Coxon, U. Bangert, M. Gass, L. Kjeldgaard, S. N. Patole, L. H. Lie, N. O’Farrell, T. A. Alsop, A. Houlton, and B. R. Horrocks, “Evaporation and deposition of alkyl-capped silicon nanocrystals in ultrahigh vacuum,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2(8), 486–489 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Stepánek, P.

K. Kůsová, O. Cibulka, K. Dohnalová, I. Pelant, J. Valenta, A. Fucíková, K. Zídek, J. Lang, J. Englich, P. Matějka, P. Stepánek, and S. Bakardjieva, “Brightly luminescent organically capped silicon nanocrystals fabricated at room temperature and atmospheric pressure,” ACS Nano 4(8), 4495–4504 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sykora, M.

M. Sykora, L. Mangolini, R. D. Schaller, U. Kortshagen, D. Jurbergs, and V. I. Klimov, “Size-dependent intrinsic radiative decay rates of silicon nanocrystals at large confinement energies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(6), 067401 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Trojánek, F.

F. Trojánek, K. Neudert, K. Žídek, K. Dohnalová, I. Pelant, and P. Malý, “Femtosecond photoluminescence spectroscopy of silicon nanocrystals,” Phys. Stat. Solidi C 3(11), 3873–3876 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Trojánek, K. Neudert, P. Malý, K. Dohnalová, and I. Pelant, “Ultrafast photoluminescence in silicon nanocrystals studied by femtosecond up-conversion technique,” J. Appl. Phys. 99(11), 116108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tuite, E. M.

F. M. Dickinson, T. A. Alsop, N. Al-Sharif, C. E. M. Berger, H. K. Datta, L. Šiller, Y. Chao, E. M. Tuite, A. Houlton, and B. R. Horrocks, “Dispersions of alkyl-capped silicon nanocrystals in aqueous media: photoluminescence and ageing,” Analyst (Lond.) 133(11), 1573–1580 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Vácha, F.

J. Valenta, A. Fučíková, F. Vácha, F. Adamec, J. Humpolíčková, M. Hof, I. Pelant, K. Kůsová, K. Dohnalová, and J. Linnros, “Light-Emission Performance of Silicon Nanocrystals Deduced from Single Quantum Dot Spectroscopy,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 18(18), 2666–2672 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Valenta, J.

K. Kůsová, O. Cibulka, K. Dohnalová, I. Pelant, J. Valenta, A. Fucíková, K. Zídek, J. Lang, J. Englich, P. Matějka, P. Stepánek, and S. Bakardjieva, “Brightly luminescent organically capped silicon nanocrystals fabricated at room temperature and atmospheric pressure,” ACS Nano 4(8), 4495–4504 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Valenta, A. Fučíková, F. Vácha, F. Adamec, J. Humpolíčková, M. Hof, I. Pelant, K. Kůsová, K. Dohnalová, and J. Linnros, “Light-Emission Performance of Silicon Nanocrystals Deduced from Single Quantum Dot Spectroscopy,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 18(18), 2666–2672 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Valenta, A. Fučíková, I. Pelant, K. Kůsová, K. Dohnalová, A. Aleknavičius, O. Cibulka, A. Fojtík, and G. Kada, “On the origin of the fast photoluminescence band in small silicon nanoparticles,” N. J. Phys. 10(7), 073022 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Van Dao, L.

L. Van Dao, J. Davis, P. Hannaford, Y.-H. Cho, M. A. Green, and E.-C. Cho, “Ultrafast carrier dynamics of Si quantum dots embedded in SiN matrix,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(8), 081105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Varanasi, S. S.

N. H. Alsharif, C. E. M. Berger, S. S. Varanasi, Y. Chao, B. R. Horrocks, and H. K. Datta, “Alkyl-capped silicon nanocrystals lack cytotoxicity and have enhanced intracellular accumulation in malignant cells via cholesterol-dependent endocytosis,” Small 5(2), 221–228 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Verdeyen, J. T.

N. Holonyak, J. C. Campbell, M. H. Lee, J. T. Verdeyen, W. L. Johnson, M. G. Craford, and D. Finn, “Pumping of GaAs1−x Px: N (at 77 °K, for x≤0.53) by an electron beam from a gas plasma,” J. Appl. Phys. 44(12), 5517–5521 (1973).
[CrossRef]

White, C. W.

V. I. Klimov, J. C. Schwarz, D. McBranch, and C. W. White, “Initial carrier relaxation dynamics in ion-implanted Si nanocrystals: Femtosecond transient absorption study,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(18), 2603 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wolkin, M. V.

M. V. Wolkin, J. Jorne, P. M. Fauchet, G. Allan, and C. Delerue, “Electronic States and Luminescence in Porous Silicon Quantum Dots: The Role of Oxygen,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(1), 197–200 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, H.

W. de Boer, H. Zhang, and T. Gregorkiewicz, “Optical spectroscopy of carrier relaxation processes in Si nanocrystals,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 159–160, 190–193 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zídek, K.

K. Kůsová, O. Cibulka, K. Dohnalová, I. Pelant, J. Valenta, A. Fucíková, K. Zídek, J. Lang, J. Englich, P. Matějka, P. Stepánek, and S. Bakardjieva, “Brightly luminescent organically capped silicon nanocrystals fabricated at room temperature and atmospheric pressure,” ACS Nano 4(8), 4495–4504 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Žídek, K.

F. Trojánek, K. Neudert, K. Žídek, K. Dohnalová, I. Pelant, and P. Malý, “Femtosecond photoluminescence spectroscopy of silicon nanocrystals,” Phys. Stat. Solidi C 3(11), 3873–3876 (2006).
[CrossRef]

ACS Nano (1)

K. Kůsová, O. Cibulka, K. Dohnalová, I. Pelant, J. Valenta, A. Fucíková, K. Zídek, J. Lang, J. Englich, P. Matějka, P. Stepánek, and S. Bakardjieva, “Brightly luminescent organically capped silicon nanocrystals fabricated at room temperature and atmospheric pressure,” ACS Nano 4(8), 4495–4504 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adv. Funct. Mater. (1)

J. Valenta, A. Fučíková, F. Vácha, F. Adamec, J. Humpolíčková, M. Hof, I. Pelant, K. Kůsová, K. Dohnalová, and J. Linnros, “Light-Emission Performance of Silicon Nanocrystals Deduced from Single Quantum Dot Spectroscopy,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 18(18), 2666–2672 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Analyst (Lond.) (1)

F. M. Dickinson, T. A. Alsop, N. Al-Sharif, C. E. M. Berger, H. K. Datta, L. Šiller, Y. Chao, E. M. Tuite, A. Houlton, and B. R. Horrocks, “Dispersions of alkyl-capped silicon nanocrystals in aqueous media: photoluminescence and ageing,” Analyst (Lond.) 133(11), 1573–1580 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

V. I. Klimov, J. C. Schwarz, D. McBranch, and C. W. White, “Initial carrier relaxation dynamics in ion-implanted Si nanocrystals: Femtosecond transient absorption study,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(18), 2603 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L. Van Dao, J. Davis, P. Hannaford, Y.-H. Cho, M. A. Green, and E.-C. Cho, “Ultrafast carrier dynamics of Si quantum dots embedded in SiN matrix,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(8), 081105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

J. Shah, “Ultrafast Luminescence Spectroscopy Using Sum Frequency Generation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24(2), 276–288 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (4)

R. J. Roston, B. R. Horrocks, and G. Roberts, “Distributed luminescence from alkyl-capped silicon quantum dots,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(9), 094302 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Dohnalová, L. Ondič, K. Kůsová, I. Pelant, J. L. Rehspringer, and R. R. Mafouana, “White-emitting oxide silicon nanocrystals: Discontinuity in spectral development with reducing size,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(5), 053102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. Holonyak, J. C. Campbell, M. H. Lee, J. T. Verdeyen, W. L. Johnson, M. G. Craford, and D. Finn, “Pumping of GaAs1−x Px: N (at 77 °K, for x≤0.53) by an electron beam from a gas plasma,” J. Appl. Phys. 44(12), 5517–5521 (1973).
[CrossRef]

F. Trojánek, K. Neudert, P. Malý, K. Dohnalová, and I. Pelant, “Ultrafast photoluminescence in silicon nanocrystals studied by femtosecond up-conversion technique,” J. Appl. Phys. 99(11), 116108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. C (1)

M. D. Garrett, M. J. Bowers, J. R. McBride, R. L. Orndorff, S. J. Pennycook, and S. J. Rosenthal, “Band edge dynamics in CdSe nanocrystals observed by ultrafast fluorescence upconversion,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112(2), 436–442 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Condens. Matter (1)

L. Šiller, S. Krishnamurthy, L. Kjeldgaard, B. R. Horrocks, Y. Chao, A. Houlton, A. K. Chakraborty, and M. R. C. Hunt, “Core and valence exciton formation in x-ray absorption, x-ray emission and x-ray excited optical luminescence from passivated Si nanocrystals at the Si L2,3 edge,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 21(9), 095005 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mater. Sci. Eng. B (1)

W. de Boer, H. Zhang, and T. Gregorkiewicz, “Optical spectroscopy of carrier relaxation processes in Si nanocrystals,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 159–160, 190–193 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. J. Phys. (2)

K. Dohnalová, I. Pelant, K. Kůsová, P. Gilliot, M. Galart, O. Crégut, J. L. Rehspringer, B. Hönerlage, T. Ostatnický, and S. Bakardjieva, “Closely packed luminescent silicon nanocrystals in a distributed-feedback laser cavity,” N. J. Phys. 10(6), 063014 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Valenta, A. Fučíková, I. Pelant, K. Kůsová, K. Dohnalová, A. Aleknavičius, O. Cibulka, A. Fojtík, and G. Kada, “On the origin of the fast photoluminescence band in small silicon nanoparticles,” N. J. Phys. 10(7), 073022 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nanoscale Res. Lett. (1)

A. Othonos, E. Lioudakis, and A. G. Nassiopoulou, “Surface-Related States in Oxidized Silicon Nanocrystals Enhance Carrier Relaxation and Inhibit Auger Recombination,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 3(9), 315–320 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Nanotechnol. (1)

Y. Chao, L. Šiller, S. Krishnamurthy, P. R. Coxon, U. Bangert, M. Gass, L. Kjeldgaard, S. N. Patole, L. H. Lie, N. O’Farrell, T. A. Alsop, A. Houlton, and B. R. Horrocks, “Evaporation and deposition of alkyl-capped silicon nanocrystals in ultrahigh vacuum,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2(8), 486–489 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

A. G. Cullis and L. T. Canham, “Visible light emission due to quantum size effects in highly porous crystalline silicon,” Nature 353(6342), 335–338 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter (1)

D. M. Mittleman, R. W. Schoenlein, J. J. Shiang, V. L. Colvin, A. P. Alivisatos, and C. V. Shank, “Quantum size dependence of femtosecond electronic dephasing and vibrational dynamics in CdSe nanocrystals,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 49(20), 14435–14447 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (4)

D. Kovalev, H. Heckler, M. Ben-Chorin, G. Polisski, M. Schwartzkopff, and F. Koch, “Breakdown of the k-conservation rule in Si nanocrystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81(13), 2803–2806 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Hybertsen, “Absorption and emission of light in nanoscale silicon structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72(10), 1514–1517 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. V. Wolkin, J. Jorne, P. M. Fauchet, G. Allan, and C. Delerue, “Electronic States and Luminescence in Porous Silicon Quantum Dots: The Role of Oxygen,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(1), 197–200 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Sykora, L. Mangolini, R. D. Schaller, U. Kortshagen, D. Jurbergs, and V. I. Klimov, “Size-dependent intrinsic radiative decay rates of silicon nanocrystals at large confinement energies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(6), 067401 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Sta. Solidi A (1)

G. Juška, A. Medvids, and V. Gulbinas, “Initial charge carrier dynamics in porous silicon revealed by time-resolved fluorescence and transient reflectivity,” Phys. Sta. Solidi A 207, 188–193 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Stat. Solidi C (1)

F. Trojánek, K. Neudert, K. Žídek, K. Dohnalová, I. Pelant, and P. Malý, “Femtosecond photoluminescence spectroscopy of silicon nanocrystals,” Phys. Stat. Solidi C 3(11), 3873–3876 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Small (1)

N. H. Alsharif, C. E. M. Berger, S. S. Varanasi, Y. Chao, B. R. Horrocks, and H. K. Datta, “Alkyl-capped silicon nanocrystals lack cytotoxicity and have enhanced intracellular accumulation in malignant cells via cholesterol-dependent endocytosis,” Small 5(2), 221–228 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

S. Ossicini, L. Pavesi, and F. Priolo, Light Emitting Silicon for Microphotonics, Springer Tracts in Modern Physics 194 (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2003).

L. Khriachtchev, Silicon Nanophotonics: Basic Principles, Present Status and Perspectives (World Scientific, Singapore, 2008).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Normalized time-integrated PL spectra excited by cw 325 nm (solid lines) and extinction (dashed lines) of ALS (red lines) and OXS (black lines) samples.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Left: normalized ultrafast PL dynamics of the sample ALS (exc. 405 nm, 80 fs pulses) for various PL photon energy (solid lines), response function of the setup (dotted line), a two-exponential decay fit convoluted with the response function of the setup (dashed line); Inset: normalized ultrafast PL dynamics of the sample OXS (exc. 405 nm, 80 fs pulses, PL photon energy 1.96 eV); Right: scheme of the processes responsible for the ultrafast PL decay: 1) relaxation inside NC, 2) fast carrier trapping in interface states, 3) relaxation to lower interface states (see the text for details).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Ultrafast PL dynamics spectral dependence of the ALS sample (red solid circles) and the OXS sample (black open circles) obtained by the PL dynamics two-exponential fitting (see the text for details); Left upper panel: fast component decay rate; Left lower panel: slow component decay rate; Right hand side: normalized zero-time PL spectra compared to the time-integrated PL spectra under the same excitation regime (exc. 405 nm, 80 fs pulses, ALS: red dashed line, OXS: black dashed line).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Ultrafast PL spectra of sample ALS for various delays between excitation and gating pulse.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

PL spectra of the OXS sample under 355 nm excitation (Nd:YAG, 7 ns pulses) for various excitation intensity, normalized to the low-energy side of PL, inset: PL maximum position dependence on the excitation pulse energy.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

a) Measured relaxation rates in the interface states for the OXS (black open squares) and ALS (red solid squares) samples, which are compared to fraction of traps with lower energy of the ALS (red line) and OXS (black line) samples; Inset: Spectral distribution of the trap number obtained from PL spectra (see text for details). b) Decay rates ratio kFAST/kSLOW dependence on NC diameter for the ALS and OXS sample with the best fit by 1/d function (dashed lines).

Equations (4)

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k F A S T N t r ( E ) × Θ ( E ) .
k S L O W N t r ( E ) .
N t r ( E ) 1.5 eV E ρ ( ε ) d ε .
k F A S T / k S L O W Θ ( E ) ,

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