Abstract

We show that photons can be efficiently extracted from fluorescent molecules, utilizing the strongly enhanced local field of a two-dimensional dielectric annular Bragg resonant cavity. Due to the diffraction and constructive interference together with the annular focusing, the periodic ring structure converts the normal incident light into planar guided modes and forms a hot spot at the center of the structure. Theoretically, the field can be enhanced more than 40 times, which leads to the averaged 20-fold enhancement of the fluorescence signal observed in experiments. Compared with fluorescence enhancement by plasmonic structures, this dielectric approach does not suffer from pronounced quenching that often occurs near metallic structures. These results not only can be applied as ultrasensitive sensors for various biological systems, but also have broad potential applications, such as optical trapping and fluorescent microscopy.

© 2010 OSA

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2010 (1)

V. G. Kravets, G. Zoriniants, C. P. Burrows, F. Schedin, A. K. Geim, W. L. Barnes, and A. N. Grigorenko, “Composite au nanostructures for fluorescence studies in visible light,” Nano Lett. 10(3), 874–879 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

A. Kinkhabwala, Z. Yu, S. Fan, Y. Avlasevich, K. Mullen, and W. E. Moerner, “Single-molecule fluorescence enhancements produced by a Bowtie nanoantenna,” Nat. Photonics 3(11), 654–657 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Righini, P. Ghenuche, S. Cherukulappurath, V. Myroshnychenko, F. J. García de Abajo, and R. Quidant, “Nano-optical trapping of Rayleigh particles and Escherichia coli bacteria with resonant optical antennas,” Nano Lett. 9(10), 3387–3391 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (7)

A. N. Grigorenko, N. W. Roberts, M. R. Dickinson, and Y. Zhang, “Nanometric optical tweezers based on nanostructured substrates,” Nat. Photonics 2(6), 365–370 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ö. Duyar, F. Placido, and H. Z. Durusoy, “Optimization of TiO2 films prepared by reactive electron beam evaporation of Ti3O5,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(9), 095307 (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. G. Kravets, F. Schedin, and A. N. Grigorenko, “Extremely narrow plasmon resonances based on diffraction coupling of localized plasmons in arrays of metallic nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(8), 087403 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Fort and S. Grésillon, “Surface enhanced fluorescence,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(1), 013001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. Ganesh, I. D. Block, P. C. Mathias, W. Zhang, E. Chow, V. Malyarchuk, and B. T. Cunningham, “Leaky-mode assisted fluorescence extraction: application to fluorescence enhancement biosensors,” Opt. Express 16(26), 21626–21640 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Karvinen, T. Nuutinen, O. Hyvärinen, and P. Vahimaa, “Enhancement of laser-induced fluorescence at 473 nm excitation with subwavelength resonant waveguide gratings,” Opt. Express 16(21), 16364–16370 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (4)

M. Laroche, S. Albaladejo, R. Carminati, and J. J. Sáenz, “Optical resonances in one-dimensional dielectric nanorod arrays: field-induced fluorescence enhancement,” Opt. Lett. 32(18), 2762–2764 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Ganesh, W. Zhang, P. C. Mathias, E. Chow, J. A. N. T. Soares, V. Malyarchuk, A. D. Smith, and B. T. Cunningham, “Enhanced fluorescence emission from quantum dots on a photonic crystal surface,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2(8), 515–520 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Wang, D. F. P. Pile, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Nanopin plasmonic resonator array and its optical properties,” Nano Lett. 7(4), 1076–1080 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Tam, G. P. Goodrich, B. R. Johnson, and N. J. Halas, “Plasmonic enhancement of molecular fluorescence,” Nano Lett. 7(2), 496–501 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

Y. J. Hung, I. I. Smolyaninov, C. C. Davis, and H. C. Wu, “Fluorescence enhancement by surface gratings,” Opt. Express 14(22), 10825–10830 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Anger, P. Bharadwaj, and L. Novotny, “Enhancement and quenching of single-molecule fluorescence,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(11), 113002 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

F. D. Stefani, K. Vasilev, N. Bocchio, N. Stoyanova, and M. Kreiter, “Surface-plasmon-mediated single-molecule fluorescence through a thin metallic film,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(2), 023005 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Scheuer, W. M. J. Green, G. A. DeRose, and A. Yariv, “Lasing from a circular Bragg nanocavity with an ultrasmall modal volume,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(25), 251101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

2003 (3)

M. J. Levene, J. Korlach, S. W. Turner, M. Foquet, H. G. Craighead, and W. W. Webb, “Zero-mode waveguides for single-molecule analysis at high concentrations,” Science 299(5607), 682–686 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Scheuer and A. Yariv, “Annular Bragg defect mode resonators,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20(11), 2285 (2003).
[CrossRef]

U. Becherer, T. Moser, W. Stühmer, and M. Oheim, “Calcium regulates exocytosis at the level of single vesicles,” Nat. Neurosci. 6(8), 846–853 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

M. Boroditsky, T. F. Krauss, R. Coccioli, R. Virjen, R. Bhat, and E. Yablonovitch, “Light extraction from optically pumped light-emitting diode by thin-slab photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(8), 1036–1038 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

1990 (1)

1984 (1)

G. W. Ford and W. H. Weber, “Electromagnetic interactions of molecules with metal surfaces,” Phys. Rep. 113(4), 195–287 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1902 (1)

R. W. Wood, “On a remarkable case of uneven distribution of light in a diffraction grating spectrum,” Philos. Mag. 4, 392–402 (1902).

Albaladejo, S.

Almeida, V. R.

Anger, P.

P. Anger, P. Bharadwaj, and L. Novotny, “Enhancement and quenching of single-molecule fluorescence,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(11), 113002 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anker, J. N.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Avlasevich, Y.

A. Kinkhabwala, Z. Yu, S. Fan, Y. Avlasevich, K. Mullen, and W. E. Moerner, “Single-molecule fluorescence enhancements produced by a Bowtie nanoantenna,” Nat. Photonics 3(11), 654–657 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bagby, J. S.

Barnes, W. L.

V. G. Kravets, G. Zoriniants, C. P. Burrows, F. Schedin, A. K. Geim, W. L. Barnes, and A. N. Grigorenko, “Composite au nanostructures for fluorescence studies in visible light,” Nano Lett. 10(3), 874–879 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Becherer, U.

U. Becherer, T. Moser, W. Stühmer, and M. Oheim, “Calcium regulates exocytosis at the level of single vesicles,” Nat. Neurosci. 6(8), 846–853 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bharadwaj, P.

P. Anger, P. Bharadwaj, and L. Novotny, “Enhancement and quenching of single-molecule fluorescence,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(11), 113002 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bhat, R.

M. Boroditsky, T. F. Krauss, R. Coccioli, R. Virjen, R. Bhat, and E. Yablonovitch, “Light extraction from optically pumped light-emitting diode by thin-slab photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(8), 1036–1038 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Block, I. D.

Bocchio, N.

F. D. Stefani, K. Vasilev, N. Bocchio, N. Stoyanova, and M. Kreiter, “Surface-plasmon-mediated single-molecule fluorescence through a thin metallic film,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(2), 023005 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boroditsky, M.

M. Boroditsky, T. F. Krauss, R. Coccioli, R. Virjen, R. Bhat, and E. Yablonovitch, “Light extraction from optically pumped light-emitting diode by thin-slab photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(8), 1036–1038 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Burrows, C. P.

V. G. Kravets, G. Zoriniants, C. P. Burrows, F. Schedin, A. K. Geim, W. L. Barnes, and A. N. Grigorenko, “Composite au nanostructures for fluorescence studies in visible light,” Nano Lett. 10(3), 874–879 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carminati, R.

Cherukulappurath, S.

M. Righini, P. Ghenuche, S. Cherukulappurath, V. Myroshnychenko, F. J. García de Abajo, and R. Quidant, “Nano-optical trapping of Rayleigh particles and Escherichia coli bacteria with resonant optical antennas,” Nano Lett. 9(10), 3387–3391 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chow, E.

N. Ganesh, I. D. Block, P. C. Mathias, W. Zhang, E. Chow, V. Malyarchuk, and B. T. Cunningham, “Leaky-mode assisted fluorescence extraction: application to fluorescence enhancement biosensors,” Opt. Express 16(26), 21626–21640 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Ganesh, W. Zhang, P. C. Mathias, E. Chow, J. A. N. T. Soares, V. Malyarchuk, A. D. Smith, and B. T. Cunningham, “Enhanced fluorescence emission from quantum dots on a photonic crystal surface,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2(8), 515–520 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Coccioli, R.

M. Boroditsky, T. F. Krauss, R. Coccioli, R. Virjen, R. Bhat, and E. Yablonovitch, “Light extraction from optically pumped light-emitting diode by thin-slab photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(8), 1036–1038 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Craighead, H. G.

M. J. Levene, J. Korlach, S. W. Turner, M. Foquet, H. G. Craighead, and W. W. Webb, “Zero-mode waveguides for single-molecule analysis at high concentrations,” Science 299(5607), 682–686 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cunningham, B. T.

N. Ganesh, I. D. Block, P. C. Mathias, W. Zhang, E. Chow, V. Malyarchuk, and B. T. Cunningham, “Leaky-mode assisted fluorescence extraction: application to fluorescence enhancement biosensors,” Opt. Express 16(26), 21626–21640 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Ganesh, W. Zhang, P. C. Mathias, E. Chow, J. A. N. T. Soares, V. Malyarchuk, A. D. Smith, and B. T. Cunningham, “Enhanced fluorescence emission from quantum dots on a photonic crystal surface,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2(8), 515–520 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Davis, C. C.

DeRose, G. A.

J. Scheuer, W. M. J. Green, G. A. DeRose, and A. Yariv, “Lasing from a circular Bragg nanocavity with an ultrasmall modal volume,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(25), 251101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dickinson, M. R.

A. N. Grigorenko, N. W. Roberts, M. R. Dickinson, and Y. Zhang, “Nanometric optical tweezers based on nanostructured substrates,” Nat. Photonics 2(6), 365–370 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Durusoy, H. Z.

Ö. Duyar, F. Placido, and H. Z. Durusoy, “Optimization of TiO2 films prepared by reactive electron beam evaporation of Ti3O5,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(9), 095307 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Duyar, Ö.

Ö. Duyar, F. Placido, and H. Z. Durusoy, “Optimization of TiO2 films prepared by reactive electron beam evaporation of Ti3O5,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(9), 095307 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fan, S.

A. Kinkhabwala, Z. Yu, S. Fan, Y. Avlasevich, K. Mullen, and W. E. Moerner, “Single-molecule fluorescence enhancements produced by a Bowtie nanoantenna,” Nat. Photonics 3(11), 654–657 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Foquet, M.

M. J. Levene, J. Korlach, S. W. Turner, M. Foquet, H. G. Craighead, and W. W. Webb, “Zero-mode waveguides for single-molecule analysis at high concentrations,” Science 299(5607), 682–686 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ford, G. W.

G. W. Ford and W. H. Weber, “Electromagnetic interactions of molecules with metal surfaces,” Phys. Rep. 113(4), 195–287 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Fort, E.

E. Fort and S. Grésillon, “Surface enhanced fluorescence,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(1), 013001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ganesh, N.

N. Ganesh, I. D. Block, P. C. Mathias, W. Zhang, E. Chow, V. Malyarchuk, and B. T. Cunningham, “Leaky-mode assisted fluorescence extraction: application to fluorescence enhancement biosensors,” Opt. Express 16(26), 21626–21640 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Ganesh, W. Zhang, P. C. Mathias, E. Chow, J. A. N. T. Soares, V. Malyarchuk, A. D. Smith, and B. T. Cunningham, “Enhanced fluorescence emission from quantum dots on a photonic crystal surface,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2(8), 515–520 (2007).
[CrossRef]

García de Abajo, F. J.

M. Righini, P. Ghenuche, S. Cherukulappurath, V. Myroshnychenko, F. J. García de Abajo, and R. Quidant, “Nano-optical trapping of Rayleigh particles and Escherichia coli bacteria with resonant optical antennas,” Nano Lett. 9(10), 3387–3391 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Geim, A. K.

V. G. Kravets, G. Zoriniants, C. P. Burrows, F. Schedin, A. K. Geim, W. L. Barnes, and A. N. Grigorenko, “Composite au nanostructures for fluorescence studies in visible light,” Nano Lett. 10(3), 874–879 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ghenuche, P.

M. Righini, P. Ghenuche, S. Cherukulappurath, V. Myroshnychenko, F. J. García de Abajo, and R. Quidant, “Nano-optical trapping of Rayleigh particles and Escherichia coli bacteria with resonant optical antennas,” Nano Lett. 9(10), 3387–3391 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goodrich, G. P.

F. Tam, G. P. Goodrich, B. R. Johnson, and N. J. Halas, “Plasmonic enhancement of molecular fluorescence,” Nano Lett. 7(2), 496–501 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Green, W. M. J.

J. Scheuer, W. M. J. Green, G. A. DeRose, and A. Yariv, “Lasing from a circular Bragg nanocavity with an ultrasmall modal volume,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(25), 251101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Grésillon, S.

E. Fort and S. Grésillon, “Surface enhanced fluorescence,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(1), 013001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Grigorenko, A. N.

V. G. Kravets, G. Zoriniants, C. P. Burrows, F. Schedin, A. K. Geim, W. L. Barnes, and A. N. Grigorenko, “Composite au nanostructures for fluorescence studies in visible light,” Nano Lett. 10(3), 874–879 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. N. Grigorenko, N. W. Roberts, M. R. Dickinson, and Y. Zhang, “Nanometric optical tweezers based on nanostructured substrates,” Nat. Photonics 2(6), 365–370 (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. G. Kravets, F. Schedin, and A. N. Grigorenko, “Extremely narrow plasmon resonances based on diffraction coupling of localized plasmons in arrays of metallic nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(8), 087403 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Halas, N. J.

F. Tam, G. P. Goodrich, B. R. Johnson, and N. J. Halas, “Plasmonic enhancement of molecular fluorescence,” Nano Lett. 7(2), 496–501 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hall, W. P.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hung, Y. J.

Hyvärinen, O.

Johnson, B. R.

F. Tam, G. P. Goodrich, B. R. Johnson, and N. J. Halas, “Plasmonic enhancement of molecular fluorescence,” Nano Lett. 7(2), 496–501 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Karvinen, P.

Kinkhabwala, A.

A. Kinkhabwala, Z. Yu, S. Fan, Y. Avlasevich, K. Mullen, and W. E. Moerner, “Single-molecule fluorescence enhancements produced by a Bowtie nanoantenna,” Nat. Photonics 3(11), 654–657 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Korlach, J.

M. J. Levene, J. Korlach, S. W. Turner, M. Foquet, H. G. Craighead, and W. W. Webb, “Zero-mode waveguides for single-molecule analysis at high concentrations,” Science 299(5607), 682–686 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krauss, T. F.

M. Boroditsky, T. F. Krauss, R. Coccioli, R. Virjen, R. Bhat, and E. Yablonovitch, “Light extraction from optically pumped light-emitting diode by thin-slab photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(8), 1036–1038 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kravets, V. G.

V. G. Kravets, G. Zoriniants, C. P. Burrows, F. Schedin, A. K. Geim, W. L. Barnes, and A. N. Grigorenko, “Composite au nanostructures for fluorescence studies in visible light,” Nano Lett. 10(3), 874–879 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. G. Kravets, F. Schedin, and A. N. Grigorenko, “Extremely narrow plasmon resonances based on diffraction coupling of localized plasmons in arrays of metallic nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(8), 087403 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kreiter, M.

F. D. Stefani, K. Vasilev, N. Bocchio, N. Stoyanova, and M. Kreiter, “Surface-plasmon-mediated single-molecule fluorescence through a thin metallic film,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(2), 023005 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Laroche, M.

Levene, M. J.

M. J. Levene, J. Korlach, S. W. Turner, M. Foquet, H. G. Craighead, and W. W. Webb, “Zero-mode waveguides for single-molecule analysis at high concentrations,” Science 299(5607), 682–686 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lipson, M.

Lyandres, O.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Magnusson, R.

Malyarchuk, V.

N. Ganesh, I. D. Block, P. C. Mathias, W. Zhang, E. Chow, V. Malyarchuk, and B. T. Cunningham, “Leaky-mode assisted fluorescence extraction: application to fluorescence enhancement biosensors,” Opt. Express 16(26), 21626–21640 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Ganesh, W. Zhang, P. C. Mathias, E. Chow, J. A. N. T. Soares, V. Malyarchuk, A. D. Smith, and B. T. Cunningham, “Enhanced fluorescence emission from quantum dots on a photonic crystal surface,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2(8), 515–520 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mathias, P. C.

N. Ganesh, I. D. Block, P. C. Mathias, W. Zhang, E. Chow, V. Malyarchuk, and B. T. Cunningham, “Leaky-mode assisted fluorescence extraction: application to fluorescence enhancement biosensors,” Opt. Express 16(26), 21626–21640 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Ganesh, W. Zhang, P. C. Mathias, E. Chow, J. A. N. T. Soares, V. Malyarchuk, A. D. Smith, and B. T. Cunningham, “Enhanced fluorescence emission from quantum dots on a photonic crystal surface,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2(8), 515–520 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Moerner, W. E.

A. Kinkhabwala, Z. Yu, S. Fan, Y. Avlasevich, K. Mullen, and W. E. Moerner, “Single-molecule fluorescence enhancements produced by a Bowtie nanoantenna,” Nat. Photonics 3(11), 654–657 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Moharam, M. G.

Moser, T.

U. Becherer, T. Moser, W. Stühmer, and M. Oheim, “Calcium regulates exocytosis at the level of single vesicles,” Nat. Neurosci. 6(8), 846–853 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mullen, K.

A. Kinkhabwala, Z. Yu, S. Fan, Y. Avlasevich, K. Mullen, and W. E. Moerner, “Single-molecule fluorescence enhancements produced by a Bowtie nanoantenna,” Nat. Photonics 3(11), 654–657 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Myroshnychenko, V.

M. Righini, P. Ghenuche, S. Cherukulappurath, V. Myroshnychenko, F. J. García de Abajo, and R. Quidant, “Nano-optical trapping of Rayleigh particles and Escherichia coli bacteria with resonant optical antennas,” Nano Lett. 9(10), 3387–3391 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Novotny, L.

P. Anger, P. Bharadwaj, and L. Novotny, “Enhancement and quenching of single-molecule fluorescence,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(11), 113002 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nuutinen, T.

Oheim, M.

U. Becherer, T. Moser, W. Stühmer, and M. Oheim, “Calcium regulates exocytosis at the level of single vesicles,” Nat. Neurosci. 6(8), 846–853 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Panepucci, R. R.

Pile, D. F. P.

S. Wang, D. F. P. Pile, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Nanopin plasmonic resonator array and its optical properties,” Nano Lett. 7(4), 1076–1080 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Placido, F.

Ö. Duyar, F. Placido, and H. Z. Durusoy, “Optimization of TiO2 films prepared by reactive electron beam evaporation of Ti3O5,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(9), 095307 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Quidant, R.

M. Righini, P. Ghenuche, S. Cherukulappurath, V. Myroshnychenko, F. J. García de Abajo, and R. Quidant, “Nano-optical trapping of Rayleigh particles and Escherichia coli bacteria with resonant optical antennas,” Nano Lett. 9(10), 3387–3391 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Righini, M.

M. Righini, P. Ghenuche, S. Cherukulappurath, V. Myroshnychenko, F. J. García de Abajo, and R. Quidant, “Nano-optical trapping of Rayleigh particles and Escherichia coli bacteria with resonant optical antennas,” Nano Lett. 9(10), 3387–3391 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roberts, N. W.

A. N. Grigorenko, N. W. Roberts, M. R. Dickinson, and Y. Zhang, “Nanometric optical tweezers based on nanostructured substrates,” Nat. Photonics 2(6), 365–370 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sáenz, J. J.

Schedin, F.

V. G. Kravets, G. Zoriniants, C. P. Burrows, F. Schedin, A. K. Geim, W. L. Barnes, and A. N. Grigorenko, “Composite au nanostructures for fluorescence studies in visible light,” Nano Lett. 10(3), 874–879 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. G. Kravets, F. Schedin, and A. N. Grigorenko, “Extremely narrow plasmon resonances based on diffraction coupling of localized plasmons in arrays of metallic nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(8), 087403 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scheuer, J.

J. Scheuer, W. M. J. Green, G. A. DeRose, and A. Yariv, “Lasing from a circular Bragg nanocavity with an ultrasmall modal volume,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(25), 251101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Scheuer and A. Yariv, “Annular Bragg defect mode resonators,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20(11), 2285 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Shah, N. C.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, A. D.

N. Ganesh, W. Zhang, P. C. Mathias, E. Chow, J. A. N. T. Soares, V. Malyarchuk, A. D. Smith, and B. T. Cunningham, “Enhanced fluorescence emission from quantum dots on a photonic crystal surface,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2(8), 515–520 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Smolyaninov, I. I.

Soares, J. A. N. T.

N. Ganesh, W. Zhang, P. C. Mathias, E. Chow, J. A. N. T. Soares, V. Malyarchuk, A. D. Smith, and B. T. Cunningham, “Enhanced fluorescence emission from quantum dots on a photonic crystal surface,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2(8), 515–520 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Stefani, F. D.

F. D. Stefani, K. Vasilev, N. Bocchio, N. Stoyanova, and M. Kreiter, “Surface-plasmon-mediated single-molecule fluorescence through a thin metallic film,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(2), 023005 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stoyanova, N.

F. D. Stefani, K. Vasilev, N. Bocchio, N. Stoyanova, and M. Kreiter, “Surface-plasmon-mediated single-molecule fluorescence through a thin metallic film,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(2), 023005 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stühmer, W.

U. Becherer, T. Moser, W. Stühmer, and M. Oheim, “Calcium regulates exocytosis at the level of single vesicles,” Nat. Neurosci. 6(8), 846–853 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, C.

S. Wang, D. F. P. Pile, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Nanopin plasmonic resonator array and its optical properties,” Nano Lett. 7(4), 1076–1080 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tam, F.

F. Tam, G. P. Goodrich, B. R. Johnson, and N. J. Halas, “Plasmonic enhancement of molecular fluorescence,” Nano Lett. 7(2), 496–501 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Turner, S. W.

M. J. Levene, J. Korlach, S. W. Turner, M. Foquet, H. G. Craighead, and W. W. Webb, “Zero-mode waveguides for single-molecule analysis at high concentrations,” Science 299(5607), 682–686 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vahimaa, P.

Van Duyne, R. P.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vasilev, K.

F. D. Stefani, K. Vasilev, N. Bocchio, N. Stoyanova, and M. Kreiter, “Surface-plasmon-mediated single-molecule fluorescence through a thin metallic film,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(2), 023005 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Virjen, R.

M. Boroditsky, T. F. Krauss, R. Coccioli, R. Virjen, R. Bhat, and E. Yablonovitch, “Light extraction from optically pumped light-emitting diode by thin-slab photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(8), 1036–1038 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wang, S.

S. Wang, D. F. P. Pile, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Nanopin plasmonic resonator array and its optical properties,” Nano Lett. 7(4), 1076–1080 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, S. S.

Webb, W. W.

M. J. Levene, J. Korlach, S. W. Turner, M. Foquet, H. G. Craighead, and W. W. Webb, “Zero-mode waveguides for single-molecule analysis at high concentrations,” Science 299(5607), 682–686 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weber, W. H.

G. W. Ford and W. H. Weber, “Electromagnetic interactions of molecules with metal surfaces,” Phys. Rep. 113(4), 195–287 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Wood, R. W.

R. W. Wood, “On a remarkable case of uneven distribution of light in a diffraction grating spectrum,” Philos. Mag. 4, 392–402 (1902).

Wu, H. C.

Xu, Q. F.

Yablonovitch, E.

M. Boroditsky, T. F. Krauss, R. Coccioli, R. Virjen, R. Bhat, and E. Yablonovitch, “Light extraction from optically pumped light-emitting diode by thin-slab photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(8), 1036–1038 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yariv, A.

J. Scheuer, W. M. J. Green, G. A. DeRose, and A. Yariv, “Lasing from a circular Bragg nanocavity with an ultrasmall modal volume,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(25), 251101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Scheuer and A. Yariv, “Annular Bragg defect mode resonators,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20(11), 2285 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yu, Z.

A. Kinkhabwala, Z. Yu, S. Fan, Y. Avlasevich, K. Mullen, and W. E. Moerner, “Single-molecule fluorescence enhancements produced by a Bowtie nanoantenna,” Nat. Photonics 3(11), 654–657 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, W.

N. Ganesh, I. D. Block, P. C. Mathias, W. Zhang, E. Chow, V. Malyarchuk, and B. T. Cunningham, “Leaky-mode assisted fluorescence extraction: application to fluorescence enhancement biosensors,” Opt. Express 16(26), 21626–21640 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Ganesh, W. Zhang, P. C. Mathias, E. Chow, J. A. N. T. Soares, V. Malyarchuk, A. D. Smith, and B. T. Cunningham, “Enhanced fluorescence emission from quantum dots on a photonic crystal surface,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2(8), 515–520 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.

S. Wang, D. F. P. Pile, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Nanopin plasmonic resonator array and its optical properties,” Nano Lett. 7(4), 1076–1080 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, Y.

A. N. Grigorenko, N. W. Roberts, M. R. Dickinson, and Y. Zhang, “Nanometric optical tweezers based on nanostructured substrates,” Nat. Photonics 2(6), 365–370 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, J.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zoriniants, G.

V. G. Kravets, G. Zoriniants, C. P. Burrows, F. Schedin, A. K. Geim, W. L. Barnes, and A. N. Grigorenko, “Composite au nanostructures for fluorescence studies in visible light,” Nano Lett. 10(3), 874–879 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

M. Boroditsky, T. F. Krauss, R. Coccioli, R. Virjen, R. Bhat, and E. Yablonovitch, “Light extraction from optically pumped light-emitting diode by thin-slab photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(8), 1036–1038 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Scheuer, W. M. J. Green, G. A. DeRose, and A. Yariv, “Lasing from a circular Bragg nanocavity with an ultrasmall modal volume,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(25), 251101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. (2)

Ö. Duyar, F. Placido, and H. Z. Durusoy, “Optimization of TiO2 films prepared by reactive electron beam evaporation of Ti3O5,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(9), 095307 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. Fort and S. Grésillon, “Surface enhanced fluorescence,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(1), 013001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (4)

F. Tam, G. P. Goodrich, B. R. Johnson, and N. J. Halas, “Plasmonic enhancement of molecular fluorescence,” Nano Lett. 7(2), 496–501 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Wang, D. F. P. Pile, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Nanopin plasmonic resonator array and its optical properties,” Nano Lett. 7(4), 1076–1080 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. G. Kravets, G. Zoriniants, C. P. Burrows, F. Schedin, A. K. Geim, W. L. Barnes, and A. N. Grigorenko, “Composite au nanostructures for fluorescence studies in visible light,” Nano Lett. 10(3), 874–879 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Righini, P. Ghenuche, S. Cherukulappurath, V. Myroshnychenko, F. J. García de Abajo, and R. Quidant, “Nano-optical trapping of Rayleigh particles and Escherichia coli bacteria with resonant optical antennas,” Nano Lett. 9(10), 3387–3391 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Mater. (1)

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Nanotechnol. (1)

N. Ganesh, W. Zhang, P. C. Mathias, E. Chow, J. A. N. T. Soares, V. Malyarchuk, A. D. Smith, and B. T. Cunningham, “Enhanced fluorescence emission from quantum dots on a photonic crystal surface,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2(8), 515–520 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Neurosci. (1)

U. Becherer, T. Moser, W. Stühmer, and M. Oheim, “Calcium regulates exocytosis at the level of single vesicles,” Nat. Neurosci. 6(8), 846–853 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (2)

A. Kinkhabwala, Z. Yu, S. Fan, Y. Avlasevich, K. Mullen, and W. E. Moerner, “Single-molecule fluorescence enhancements produced by a Bowtie nanoantenna,” Nat. Photonics 3(11), 654–657 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. N. Grigorenko, N. W. Roberts, M. R. Dickinson, and Y. Zhang, “Nanometric optical tweezers based on nanostructured substrates,” Nat. Photonics 2(6), 365–370 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Philos. Mag. (1)

R. W. Wood, “On a remarkable case of uneven distribution of light in a diffraction grating spectrum,” Philos. Mag. 4, 392–402 (1902).

Phys. Rep. (1)

G. W. Ford and W. H. Weber, “Electromagnetic interactions of molecules with metal surfaces,” Phys. Rep. 113(4), 195–287 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

V. G. Kravets, F. Schedin, and A. N. Grigorenko, “Extremely narrow plasmon resonances based on diffraction coupling of localized plasmons in arrays of metallic nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(8), 087403 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. D. Stefani, K. Vasilev, N. Bocchio, N. Stoyanova, and M. Kreiter, “Surface-plasmon-mediated single-molecule fluorescence through a thin metallic film,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(2), 023005 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Anger, P. Bharadwaj, and L. Novotny, “Enhancement and quenching of single-molecule fluorescence,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(11), 113002 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (1)

M. J. Levene, J. Korlach, S. W. Turner, M. Foquet, H. G. Craighead, and W. W. Webb, “Zero-mode waveguides for single-molecule analysis at high concentrations,” Science 299(5607), 682–686 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic of the annular Bragg resonator. The perpendicular incident waves are converted to in-plane resonant guided modes, and focused at the center of the cavity. Consequently, fluorescence emission is enhanced. (b) Scanning electron microscope (SEM) image of one fabricated annular Bragg resonator.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The distribution of the electric field in the cavity at the wavelength of 640 nm. (a)-(c) plot the amplitude of the electric field (|E|) at three different cross-sections.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The field enhancement at the center of the cavity for different numbers of rings.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) The fluorescence images of three different annular Bragg resonant cavities, exhibiting the maximum enhancement factors 21, 13, and 14, respectively. For the three samples, the width of the ring is fixed as 200 nm, the height of the ring is 90 nm, while the periodicity of sample 1, 2, 3 is 410 nm, 390 nm and 430 nm, respectively. The upper panel is the fluorescence enhancement images and the bottom panel is the corresponding bright field images. The scale bar is 20μm. (b) The simulated averaged fluorescence enhancement over an area of 4 μm2 at the central region of the cavity, in compassion with the experimental results.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

γ e m = γ e x c η e x t
η e x t = γ r a d / ( γ r a d + γ n o n r a d )
η = ( I s a m p l e I b a c k g r o u n d ) / ( I s u b s t r a t e I b a c k g r o u n d )

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