Abstract

This work focuses on experimentally demonstrating the modification in diffusion kinetics, formation of holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystal gratings and an improvement in its electro optic response by doping them with multi-walled carbon nanotubes. Results indicate a faster rise and fall times which is attributed to the reduction in size of the liquid crystal droplets formed and a reduction in switching voltage due to change in dielectric properties of the medium as manifested by a rise in capacitance. Real time diffraction efficiency measurements reveal a time delay in the appearance of the diffracted order due to non-participation of the nanotube in the polymerization induced phase separation process. An analysis of this effect is presented based on the Stoke- Einstein’s diffusion equation incorporating shape anisotropy of the nanotubes.

© 2010 OSA

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  1. L. V. Natarajan, C. K. Shepherd, D. M. Brandelik, R. L. Sutherland, S. Chandra, V. P. Tondiglia, D. Tomlin, and T. J. Bunning, “Switchable Holographic Polymer-Dispersed Liquid Crystal Reflection Gratings Based on Thiol-Ene Photopolymerization,” Chem. Mater. 15(12), 2477–2484 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  3. R. L. Sutherland, V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, and T. J. Bunning, “Phenomenological model of anisotropic volume hologram formation in liquid-crystal-photopolymer mixtures,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(2), 951–965 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  4. T. J. Bunning, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, and R. L. Sutherland, “HOLOGRAPHIC POLYMER-DISPERSED LIQUID CRYSTALS (H-PDLCs)1,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 30(1), 83–115 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. Y. Woo, E. H. Kim, B. K. Kim, and Y. H. Cho, “Morphology and switching of holographic gratings containing an azo dye,” Liq. Cryst. 34(4), 527–533 (2007).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  8. R. Sutherland, V. Tondiglia, L. Natarajan, S. Chandra, D. Tomlin, and T. Bunning, “Switchable orthorhombic F photonic crystals formed by holographic polymerization-induced phase separation of liquid crystal,” Opt. Express 10(20), 1074–1082 (2002).
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    [CrossRef]
  11. J. Klosterman, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, R. L. Sutherland, T. J. White, C. A. Guymon, and T. J. Bunning, “The influence of surfactant in reflective HPDLC gratings,” Polymer (Guildf.) 45(21), 7213–7218 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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  18. B.-G. Wu, J. H. Erdmann, and J. W. Doane, “Response times and voltages for PDLC light shutters,” Liq. Cryst. 5(5), 1453–1465 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  19. S. Park, H.-K. Kim, and J. W. Hong, “Investigation of the photopolymerization-induced phase separation process in polymer dispersed liquid crystal,” Polym. Test. 29(7), 886–893 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  20. T. J. White, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, P. F. Lloyd, T. J. Bunning, and C. A. Guymon, “Holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystals (HPDLCs) containing triallyl isocyanurate monomer,” Polymer (Guildf.) 48(20), 5979–5987 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  21. Y. Tomita, N. Suzuki, and K. Chikama, “Holographic manipulation of nanoparticle distribution morphology in nanoparticle-dispersed photopolymers,” Opt. Lett. 30(8), 839–841 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. A. I. Goncharuk, N. I. Lebovka, L. N. Lisetski, and S. S. Minenko, “Aggregation, percolation and phase transitions in nematic liquid crystal EBBA doped with carbon nanotubes,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 42(16), 165411 (2009).
    [CrossRef]

2010

S. Park, H.-K. Kim, and J. W. Hong, “Investigation of the photopolymerization-induced phase separation process in polymer dispersed liquid crystal,” Polym. Test. 29(7), 886–893 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

A. I. Goncharuk, N. I. Lebovka, L. N. Lisetski, and S. S. Minenko, “Aggregation, percolation and phase transitions in nematic liquid crystal EBBA doped with carbon nanotubes,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 42(16), 165411 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. S. Shim, J. Y. Woo, H. M. Jeong, and B. K. Kim, “High Dielectric Titanium Dioxide Doped Holographic PDLC,” Soft Mater. 7(2), 93–104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

R. L. Sutherland, V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, P. F. Lloyd, and T. J. Bunning, “Enhancing the electro-optical properties of liquid crystal nanodroplets for switchable Bragg gratings,” Proc. SPIE 7050, 705003 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Y. Woo, E. H. Kim, S. S. Shim, and B. K. Kim, “High dielectric anisotropy compound doped transmission gratings of HPDLC,” Opt. Commun. 281(8), 2167–2172 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Havel, K. Behler, G. Korneva, and Y. Gogotsi, “Transparent Thin Films of Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes Self-Assembled on Polyamide 11 Nanofibers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 18(16), 2322–2327 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

S. Osswald, M. Havel, and Y. Gogotsi, “Monitoring oxidation of multiwalled carbon nanotubes by Raman spectroscopy,” J. Raman Spectros. 38(6), 728–736 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Y. Woo, E. H. Kim, B. K. Kim, and Y. H. Cho, “Morphology and switching of holographic gratings containing an azo dye,” Liq. Cryst. 34(4), 527–533 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. J. White, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, P. F. Lloyd, T. J. Bunning, and C. A. Guymon, “Holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystals (HPDLCs) containing triallyl isocyanurate monomer,” Polymer (Guildf.) 48(20), 5979–5987 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

A. V. Sadovoy and V. F. Nazvanov, “Study of the electro-optical response of polymer dispersed liquid crystal doped with multi-wall carbon nanotubes,” Proc. SPIE 6164, 616407 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

Y. J. Kim, T. S. Shin, H. D. Choi, J. H. Kwon, Y.-C. Chung, and H. G. Yoon, “Electrical conductivity of chemically modified multiwalled carbon nanotube/epoxy composites,” Carbon 43(1), 23–30 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Tomita, N. Suzuki, and K. Chikama, “Holographic manipulation of nanoparticle distribution morphology in nanoparticle-dispersed photopolymers,” Opt. Lett. 30(8), 839–841 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

J. Klosterman, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, R. L. Sutherland, T. J. White, C. A. Guymon, and T. J. Bunning, “The influence of surfactant in reflective HPDLC gratings,” Polymer (Guildf.) 45(21), 7213–7218 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Cupelli, F. P. Nicoletta, G. D. Filpo, G. Chidichimo, A. Fazio, B. Gabriele, and G. Salerno, “Fine adjustment of conductivity in polymer-dispersed liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(15), 3292–3294 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Sutherland, V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, and T. J. Bunning, “Phenomenological model of anisotropic volume hologram formation in liquid-crystal-photopolymer mixtures,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(2), 951–965 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

L. V. Natarajan, C. K. Shepherd, D. M. Brandelik, R. L. Sutherland, S. Chandra, V. P. Tondiglia, D. Tomlin, and T. J. Bunning, “Switchable Holographic Polymer-Dispersed Liquid Crystal Reflection Gratings Based on Thiol-Ene Photopolymerization,” Chem. Mater. 15(12), 2477–2484 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

2000

L. H. Domash, G. P. Crawford, A. C. Ashmead, R. T. Smith, M. M. Popovich, and J. Storey, “Holographic PDLC for photonic applications,” Proc. SPIE 4107, 46–58 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Bowley and G. P. Crawford, “Diffusion kinetics of formation of holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystal display materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(16), 2235–2237 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Bunning, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, and R. L. Sutherland, “HOLOGRAPHIC POLYMER-DISPERSED LIQUID CRYSTALS (H-PDLCs)1,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 30(1), 83–115 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1989

B.-G. Wu, J. H. Erdmann, and J. W. Doane, “Response times and voltages for PDLC light shutters,” Liq. Cryst. 5(5), 1453–1465 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Ashmead, A. C.

L. H. Domash, G. P. Crawford, A. C. Ashmead, R. T. Smith, M. M. Popovich, and J. Storey, “Holographic PDLC for photonic applications,” Proc. SPIE 4107, 46–58 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Behler, K.

M. Havel, K. Behler, G. Korneva, and Y. Gogotsi, “Transparent Thin Films of Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes Self-Assembled on Polyamide 11 Nanofibers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 18(16), 2322–2327 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bowley, C. C.

C. C. Bowley and G. P. Crawford, “Diffusion kinetics of formation of holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystal display materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(16), 2235–2237 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Brandelik, D. M.

L. V. Natarajan, C. K. Shepherd, D. M. Brandelik, R. L. Sutherland, S. Chandra, V. P. Tondiglia, D. Tomlin, and T. J. Bunning, “Switchable Holographic Polymer-Dispersed Liquid Crystal Reflection Gratings Based on Thiol-Ene Photopolymerization,” Chem. Mater. 15(12), 2477–2484 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bunning, T.

Bunning, T. J.

R. L. Sutherland, V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, P. F. Lloyd, and T. J. Bunning, “Enhancing the electro-optical properties of liquid crystal nanodroplets for switchable Bragg gratings,” Proc. SPIE 7050, 705003 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. J. White, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, P. F. Lloyd, T. J. Bunning, and C. A. Guymon, “Holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystals (HPDLCs) containing triallyl isocyanurate monomer,” Polymer (Guildf.) 48(20), 5979–5987 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Sutherland, V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, and T. J. Bunning, “Phenomenological model of anisotropic volume hologram formation in liquid-crystal-photopolymer mixtures,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(2), 951–965 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Klosterman, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, R. L. Sutherland, T. J. White, C. A. Guymon, and T. J. Bunning, “The influence of surfactant in reflective HPDLC gratings,” Polymer (Guildf.) 45(21), 7213–7218 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. V. Natarajan, C. K. Shepherd, D. M. Brandelik, R. L. Sutherland, S. Chandra, V. P. Tondiglia, D. Tomlin, and T. J. Bunning, “Switchable Holographic Polymer-Dispersed Liquid Crystal Reflection Gratings Based on Thiol-Ene Photopolymerization,” Chem. Mater. 15(12), 2477–2484 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Bunning, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, and R. L. Sutherland, “HOLOGRAPHIC POLYMER-DISPERSED LIQUID CRYSTALS (H-PDLCs)1,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 30(1), 83–115 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chandra, S.

L. V. Natarajan, C. K. Shepherd, D. M. Brandelik, R. L. Sutherland, S. Chandra, V. P. Tondiglia, D. Tomlin, and T. J. Bunning, “Switchable Holographic Polymer-Dispersed Liquid Crystal Reflection Gratings Based on Thiol-Ene Photopolymerization,” Chem. Mater. 15(12), 2477–2484 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Sutherland, V. Tondiglia, L. Natarajan, S. Chandra, D. Tomlin, and T. Bunning, “Switchable orthorhombic F photonic crystals formed by holographic polymerization-induced phase separation of liquid crystal,” Opt. Express 10(20), 1074–1082 (2002).
[PubMed]

Chidichimo, G.

D. Cupelli, F. P. Nicoletta, G. D. Filpo, G. Chidichimo, A. Fazio, B. Gabriele, and G. Salerno, “Fine adjustment of conductivity in polymer-dispersed liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(15), 3292–3294 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chikama, K.

Cho, Y. H.

J. Y. Woo, E. H. Kim, B. K. Kim, and Y. H. Cho, “Morphology and switching of holographic gratings containing an azo dye,” Liq. Cryst. 34(4), 527–533 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Choi, H. D.

Y. J. Kim, T. S. Shin, H. D. Choi, J. H. Kwon, Y.-C. Chung, and H. G. Yoon, “Electrical conductivity of chemically modified multiwalled carbon nanotube/epoxy composites,” Carbon 43(1), 23–30 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chung, Y.-C.

Y. J. Kim, T. S. Shin, H. D. Choi, J. H. Kwon, Y.-C. Chung, and H. G. Yoon, “Electrical conductivity of chemically modified multiwalled carbon nanotube/epoxy composites,” Carbon 43(1), 23–30 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Crawford, G. P.

C. C. Bowley and G. P. Crawford, “Diffusion kinetics of formation of holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystal display materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(16), 2235–2237 (2000).
[CrossRef]

L. H. Domash, G. P. Crawford, A. C. Ashmead, R. T. Smith, M. M. Popovich, and J. Storey, “Holographic PDLC for photonic applications,” Proc. SPIE 4107, 46–58 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Cupelli, D.

D. Cupelli, F. P. Nicoletta, G. D. Filpo, G. Chidichimo, A. Fazio, B. Gabriele, and G. Salerno, “Fine adjustment of conductivity in polymer-dispersed liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(15), 3292–3294 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Doane, J. W.

B.-G. Wu, J. H. Erdmann, and J. W. Doane, “Response times and voltages for PDLC light shutters,” Liq. Cryst. 5(5), 1453–1465 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Domash, L. H.

L. H. Domash, G. P. Crawford, A. C. Ashmead, R. T. Smith, M. M. Popovich, and J. Storey, “Holographic PDLC for photonic applications,” Proc. SPIE 4107, 46–58 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Erdmann, J. H.

B.-G. Wu, J. H. Erdmann, and J. W. Doane, “Response times and voltages for PDLC light shutters,” Liq. Cryst. 5(5), 1453–1465 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Fazio, A.

D. Cupelli, F. P. Nicoletta, G. D. Filpo, G. Chidichimo, A. Fazio, B. Gabriele, and G. Salerno, “Fine adjustment of conductivity in polymer-dispersed liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(15), 3292–3294 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Filpo, G. D.

D. Cupelli, F. P. Nicoletta, G. D. Filpo, G. Chidichimo, A. Fazio, B. Gabriele, and G. Salerno, “Fine adjustment of conductivity in polymer-dispersed liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(15), 3292–3294 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gabriele, B.

D. Cupelli, F. P. Nicoletta, G. D. Filpo, G. Chidichimo, A. Fazio, B. Gabriele, and G. Salerno, “Fine adjustment of conductivity in polymer-dispersed liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(15), 3292–3294 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gogotsi, Y.

M. Havel, K. Behler, G. Korneva, and Y. Gogotsi, “Transparent Thin Films of Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes Self-Assembled on Polyamide 11 Nanofibers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 18(16), 2322–2327 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Osswald, M. Havel, and Y. Gogotsi, “Monitoring oxidation of multiwalled carbon nanotubes by Raman spectroscopy,” J. Raman Spectros. 38(6), 728–736 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Goncharuk, A. I.

A. I. Goncharuk, N. I. Lebovka, L. N. Lisetski, and S. S. Minenko, “Aggregation, percolation and phase transitions in nematic liquid crystal EBBA doped with carbon nanotubes,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 42(16), 165411 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Guymon, C. A.

T. J. White, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, P. F. Lloyd, T. J. Bunning, and C. A. Guymon, “Holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystals (HPDLCs) containing triallyl isocyanurate monomer,” Polymer (Guildf.) 48(20), 5979–5987 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Klosterman, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, R. L. Sutherland, T. J. White, C. A. Guymon, and T. J. Bunning, “The influence of surfactant in reflective HPDLC gratings,” Polymer (Guildf.) 45(21), 7213–7218 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Havel, M.

M. Havel, K. Behler, G. Korneva, and Y. Gogotsi, “Transparent Thin Films of Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes Self-Assembled on Polyamide 11 Nanofibers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 18(16), 2322–2327 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Osswald, M. Havel, and Y. Gogotsi, “Monitoring oxidation of multiwalled carbon nanotubes by Raman spectroscopy,” J. Raman Spectros. 38(6), 728–736 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hong, J. W.

S. Park, H.-K. Kim, and J. W. Hong, “Investigation of the photopolymerization-induced phase separation process in polymer dispersed liquid crystal,” Polym. Test. 29(7), 886–893 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jeong, H. M.

S. S. Shim, J. Y. Woo, H. M. Jeong, and B. K. Kim, “High Dielectric Titanium Dioxide Doped Holographic PDLC,” Soft Mater. 7(2), 93–104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kim, B. K.

S. S. Shim, J. Y. Woo, H. M. Jeong, and B. K. Kim, “High Dielectric Titanium Dioxide Doped Holographic PDLC,” Soft Mater. 7(2), 93–104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Y. Woo, E. H. Kim, S. S. Shim, and B. K. Kim, “High dielectric anisotropy compound doped transmission gratings of HPDLC,” Opt. Commun. 281(8), 2167–2172 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Y. Woo, E. H. Kim, B. K. Kim, and Y. H. Cho, “Morphology and switching of holographic gratings containing an azo dye,” Liq. Cryst. 34(4), 527–533 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kim, E. H.

J. Y. Woo, E. H. Kim, S. S. Shim, and B. K. Kim, “High dielectric anisotropy compound doped transmission gratings of HPDLC,” Opt. Commun. 281(8), 2167–2172 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Y. Woo, E. H. Kim, B. K. Kim, and Y. H. Cho, “Morphology and switching of holographic gratings containing an azo dye,” Liq. Cryst. 34(4), 527–533 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H.-K.

S. Park, H.-K. Kim, and J. W. Hong, “Investigation of the photopolymerization-induced phase separation process in polymer dispersed liquid crystal,” Polym. Test. 29(7), 886–893 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kim, Y. J.

Y. J. Kim, T. S. Shin, H. D. Choi, J. H. Kwon, Y.-C. Chung, and H. G. Yoon, “Electrical conductivity of chemically modified multiwalled carbon nanotube/epoxy composites,” Carbon 43(1), 23–30 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Klosterman, J.

J. Klosterman, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, R. L. Sutherland, T. J. White, C. A. Guymon, and T. J. Bunning, “The influence of surfactant in reflective HPDLC gratings,” Polymer (Guildf.) 45(21), 7213–7218 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Korneva, G.

M. Havel, K. Behler, G. Korneva, and Y. Gogotsi, “Transparent Thin Films of Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes Self-Assembled on Polyamide 11 Nanofibers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 18(16), 2322–2327 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kwon, J. H.

Y. J. Kim, T. S. Shin, H. D. Choi, J. H. Kwon, Y.-C. Chung, and H. G. Yoon, “Electrical conductivity of chemically modified multiwalled carbon nanotube/epoxy composites,” Carbon 43(1), 23–30 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lebovka, N. I.

A. I. Goncharuk, N. I. Lebovka, L. N. Lisetski, and S. S. Minenko, “Aggregation, percolation and phase transitions in nematic liquid crystal EBBA doped with carbon nanotubes,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 42(16), 165411 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lisetski, L. N.

A. I. Goncharuk, N. I. Lebovka, L. N. Lisetski, and S. S. Minenko, “Aggregation, percolation and phase transitions in nematic liquid crystal EBBA doped with carbon nanotubes,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 42(16), 165411 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lloyd, P. F.

R. L. Sutherland, V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, P. F. Lloyd, and T. J. Bunning, “Enhancing the electro-optical properties of liquid crystal nanodroplets for switchable Bragg gratings,” Proc. SPIE 7050, 705003 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. J. White, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, P. F. Lloyd, T. J. Bunning, and C. A. Guymon, “Holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystals (HPDLCs) containing triallyl isocyanurate monomer,” Polymer (Guildf.) 48(20), 5979–5987 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Minenko, S. S.

A. I. Goncharuk, N. I. Lebovka, L. N. Lisetski, and S. S. Minenko, “Aggregation, percolation and phase transitions in nematic liquid crystal EBBA doped with carbon nanotubes,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 42(16), 165411 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Natarajan, L.

Natarajan, L. V.

R. L. Sutherland, V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, P. F. Lloyd, and T. J. Bunning, “Enhancing the electro-optical properties of liquid crystal nanodroplets for switchable Bragg gratings,” Proc. SPIE 7050, 705003 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. J. White, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, P. F. Lloyd, T. J. Bunning, and C. A. Guymon, “Holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystals (HPDLCs) containing triallyl isocyanurate monomer,” Polymer (Guildf.) 48(20), 5979–5987 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Sutherland, V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, and T. J. Bunning, “Phenomenological model of anisotropic volume hologram formation in liquid-crystal-photopolymer mixtures,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(2), 951–965 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Klosterman, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, R. L. Sutherland, T. J. White, C. A. Guymon, and T. J. Bunning, “The influence of surfactant in reflective HPDLC gratings,” Polymer (Guildf.) 45(21), 7213–7218 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. V. Natarajan, C. K. Shepherd, D. M. Brandelik, R. L. Sutherland, S. Chandra, V. P. Tondiglia, D. Tomlin, and T. J. Bunning, “Switchable Holographic Polymer-Dispersed Liquid Crystal Reflection Gratings Based on Thiol-Ene Photopolymerization,” Chem. Mater. 15(12), 2477–2484 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Bunning, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, and R. L. Sutherland, “HOLOGRAPHIC POLYMER-DISPERSED LIQUID CRYSTALS (H-PDLCs)1,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 30(1), 83–115 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nazvanov, V. F.

A. V. Sadovoy and V. F. Nazvanov, “Study of the electro-optical response of polymer dispersed liquid crystal doped with multi-wall carbon nanotubes,” Proc. SPIE 6164, 616407 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nicoletta, F. P.

D. Cupelli, F. P. Nicoletta, G. D. Filpo, G. Chidichimo, A. Fazio, B. Gabriele, and G. Salerno, “Fine adjustment of conductivity in polymer-dispersed liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(15), 3292–3294 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Osswald, S.

S. Osswald, M. Havel, and Y. Gogotsi, “Monitoring oxidation of multiwalled carbon nanotubes by Raman spectroscopy,” J. Raman Spectros. 38(6), 728–736 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Park, S.

S. Park, H.-K. Kim, and J. W. Hong, “Investigation of the photopolymerization-induced phase separation process in polymer dispersed liquid crystal,” Polym. Test. 29(7), 886–893 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Popovich, M. M.

L. H. Domash, G. P. Crawford, A. C. Ashmead, R. T. Smith, M. M. Popovich, and J. Storey, “Holographic PDLC for photonic applications,” Proc. SPIE 4107, 46–58 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sadovoy, A. V.

A. V. Sadovoy and V. F. Nazvanov, “Study of the electro-optical response of polymer dispersed liquid crystal doped with multi-wall carbon nanotubes,” Proc. SPIE 6164, 616407 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Salerno, G.

D. Cupelli, F. P. Nicoletta, G. D. Filpo, G. Chidichimo, A. Fazio, B. Gabriele, and G. Salerno, “Fine adjustment of conductivity in polymer-dispersed liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(15), 3292–3294 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shepherd, C. K.

L. V. Natarajan, C. K. Shepherd, D. M. Brandelik, R. L. Sutherland, S. Chandra, V. P. Tondiglia, D. Tomlin, and T. J. Bunning, “Switchable Holographic Polymer-Dispersed Liquid Crystal Reflection Gratings Based on Thiol-Ene Photopolymerization,” Chem. Mater. 15(12), 2477–2484 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Shim, S. S.

S. S. Shim, J. Y. Woo, H. M. Jeong, and B. K. Kim, “High Dielectric Titanium Dioxide Doped Holographic PDLC,” Soft Mater. 7(2), 93–104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Y. Woo, E. H. Kim, S. S. Shim, and B. K. Kim, “High dielectric anisotropy compound doped transmission gratings of HPDLC,” Opt. Commun. 281(8), 2167–2172 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shin, T. S.

Y. J. Kim, T. S. Shin, H. D. Choi, J. H. Kwon, Y.-C. Chung, and H. G. Yoon, “Electrical conductivity of chemically modified multiwalled carbon nanotube/epoxy composites,” Carbon 43(1), 23–30 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Smith, R. T.

L. H. Domash, G. P. Crawford, A. C. Ashmead, R. T. Smith, M. M. Popovich, and J. Storey, “Holographic PDLC for photonic applications,” Proc. SPIE 4107, 46–58 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Storey, J.

L. H. Domash, G. P. Crawford, A. C. Ashmead, R. T. Smith, M. M. Popovich, and J. Storey, “Holographic PDLC for photonic applications,” Proc. SPIE 4107, 46–58 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sutherland, R.

Sutherland, R. L.

R. L. Sutherland, V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, P. F. Lloyd, and T. J. Bunning, “Enhancing the electro-optical properties of liquid crystal nanodroplets for switchable Bragg gratings,” Proc. SPIE 7050, 705003 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Sutherland, V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, and T. J. Bunning, “Phenomenological model of anisotropic volume hologram formation in liquid-crystal-photopolymer mixtures,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(2), 951–965 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Klosterman, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, R. L. Sutherland, T. J. White, C. A. Guymon, and T. J. Bunning, “The influence of surfactant in reflective HPDLC gratings,” Polymer (Guildf.) 45(21), 7213–7218 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. V. Natarajan, C. K. Shepherd, D. M. Brandelik, R. L. Sutherland, S. Chandra, V. P. Tondiglia, D. Tomlin, and T. J. Bunning, “Switchable Holographic Polymer-Dispersed Liquid Crystal Reflection Gratings Based on Thiol-Ene Photopolymerization,” Chem. Mater. 15(12), 2477–2484 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Bunning, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, and R. L. Sutherland, “HOLOGRAPHIC POLYMER-DISPERSED LIQUID CRYSTALS (H-PDLCs)1,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 30(1), 83–115 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, N.

Tomita, Y.

Tomlin, D.

L. V. Natarajan, C. K. Shepherd, D. M. Brandelik, R. L. Sutherland, S. Chandra, V. P. Tondiglia, D. Tomlin, and T. J. Bunning, “Switchable Holographic Polymer-Dispersed Liquid Crystal Reflection Gratings Based on Thiol-Ene Photopolymerization,” Chem. Mater. 15(12), 2477–2484 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Sutherland, V. Tondiglia, L. Natarajan, S. Chandra, D. Tomlin, and T. Bunning, “Switchable orthorhombic F photonic crystals formed by holographic polymerization-induced phase separation of liquid crystal,” Opt. Express 10(20), 1074–1082 (2002).
[PubMed]

Tondiglia, V.

Tondiglia, V. P.

R. L. Sutherland, V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, P. F. Lloyd, and T. J. Bunning, “Enhancing the electro-optical properties of liquid crystal nanodroplets for switchable Bragg gratings,” Proc. SPIE 7050, 705003 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. J. White, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, P. F. Lloyd, T. J. Bunning, and C. A. Guymon, “Holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystals (HPDLCs) containing triallyl isocyanurate monomer,” Polymer (Guildf.) 48(20), 5979–5987 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Sutherland, V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, and T. J. Bunning, “Phenomenological model of anisotropic volume hologram formation in liquid-crystal-photopolymer mixtures,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(2), 951–965 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Klosterman, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, R. L. Sutherland, T. J. White, C. A. Guymon, and T. J. Bunning, “The influence of surfactant in reflective HPDLC gratings,” Polymer (Guildf.) 45(21), 7213–7218 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. V. Natarajan, C. K. Shepherd, D. M. Brandelik, R. L. Sutherland, S. Chandra, V. P. Tondiglia, D. Tomlin, and T. J. Bunning, “Switchable Holographic Polymer-Dispersed Liquid Crystal Reflection Gratings Based on Thiol-Ene Photopolymerization,” Chem. Mater. 15(12), 2477–2484 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Bunning, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, and R. L. Sutherland, “HOLOGRAPHIC POLYMER-DISPERSED LIQUID CRYSTALS (H-PDLCs)1,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 30(1), 83–115 (2000).
[CrossRef]

White, T. J.

T. J. White, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, P. F. Lloyd, T. J. Bunning, and C. A. Guymon, “Holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystals (HPDLCs) containing triallyl isocyanurate monomer,” Polymer (Guildf.) 48(20), 5979–5987 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Klosterman, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, R. L. Sutherland, T. J. White, C. A. Guymon, and T. J. Bunning, “The influence of surfactant in reflective HPDLC gratings,” Polymer (Guildf.) 45(21), 7213–7218 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Woo, J. Y.

S. S. Shim, J. Y. Woo, H. M. Jeong, and B. K. Kim, “High Dielectric Titanium Dioxide Doped Holographic PDLC,” Soft Mater. 7(2), 93–104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Y. Woo, E. H. Kim, S. S. Shim, and B. K. Kim, “High dielectric anisotropy compound doped transmission gratings of HPDLC,” Opt. Commun. 281(8), 2167–2172 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Y. Woo, E. H. Kim, B. K. Kim, and Y. H. Cho, “Morphology and switching of holographic gratings containing an azo dye,” Liq. Cryst. 34(4), 527–533 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wu, B.-G.

B.-G. Wu, J. H. Erdmann, and J. W. Doane, “Response times and voltages for PDLC light shutters,” Liq. Cryst. 5(5), 1453–1465 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Yoon, H. G.

Y. J. Kim, T. S. Shin, H. D. Choi, J. H. Kwon, Y.-C. Chung, and H. G. Yoon, “Electrical conductivity of chemically modified multiwalled carbon nanotube/epoxy composites,” Carbon 43(1), 23–30 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Funct. Mater.

M. Havel, K. Behler, G. Korneva, and Y. Gogotsi, “Transparent Thin Films of Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes Self-Assembled on Polyamide 11 Nanofibers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 18(16), 2322–2327 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci.

T. J. Bunning, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, and R. L. Sutherland, “HOLOGRAPHIC POLYMER-DISPERSED LIQUID CRYSTALS (H-PDLCs)1,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 30(1), 83–115 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

C. C. Bowley and G. P. Crawford, “Diffusion kinetics of formation of holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystal display materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(16), 2235–2237 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Cupelli, F. P. Nicoletta, G. D. Filpo, G. Chidichimo, A. Fazio, B. Gabriele, and G. Salerno, “Fine adjustment of conductivity in polymer-dispersed liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(15), 3292–3294 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Carbon

Y. J. Kim, T. S. Shin, H. D. Choi, J. H. Kwon, Y.-C. Chung, and H. G. Yoon, “Electrical conductivity of chemically modified multiwalled carbon nanotube/epoxy composites,” Carbon 43(1), 23–30 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Mater.

L. V. Natarajan, C. K. Shepherd, D. M. Brandelik, R. L. Sutherland, S. Chandra, V. P. Tondiglia, D. Tomlin, and T. J. Bunning, “Switchable Holographic Polymer-Dispersed Liquid Crystal Reflection Gratings Based on Thiol-Ene Photopolymerization,” Chem. Mater. 15(12), 2477–2484 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

R. L. Sutherland, V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, and T. J. Bunning, “Phenomenological model of anisotropic volume hologram formation in liquid-crystal-photopolymer mixtures,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(2), 951–965 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.

A. I. Goncharuk, N. I. Lebovka, L. N. Lisetski, and S. S. Minenko, “Aggregation, percolation and phase transitions in nematic liquid crystal EBBA doped with carbon nanotubes,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 42(16), 165411 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Raman Spectros.

S. Osswald, M. Havel, and Y. Gogotsi, “Monitoring oxidation of multiwalled carbon nanotubes by Raman spectroscopy,” J. Raman Spectros. 38(6), 728–736 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liq. Cryst.

B.-G. Wu, J. H. Erdmann, and J. W. Doane, “Response times and voltages for PDLC light shutters,” Liq. Cryst. 5(5), 1453–1465 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Y. Woo, E. H. Kim, B. K. Kim, and Y. H. Cho, “Morphology and switching of holographic gratings containing an azo dye,” Liq. Cryst. 34(4), 527–533 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

J. Y. Woo, E. H. Kim, S. S. Shim, and B. K. Kim, “High dielectric anisotropy compound doped transmission gratings of HPDLC,” Opt. Commun. 281(8), 2167–2172 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Polym. Test.

S. Park, H.-K. Kim, and J. W. Hong, “Investigation of the photopolymerization-induced phase separation process in polymer dispersed liquid crystal,” Polym. Test. 29(7), 886–893 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Polymer (Guildf.)

T. J. White, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, P. F. Lloyd, T. J. Bunning, and C. A. Guymon, “Holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystals (HPDLCs) containing triallyl isocyanurate monomer,” Polymer (Guildf.) 48(20), 5979–5987 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Klosterman, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, R. L. Sutherland, T. J. White, C. A. Guymon, and T. J. Bunning, “The influence of surfactant in reflective HPDLC gratings,” Polymer (Guildf.) 45(21), 7213–7218 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE

A. V. Sadovoy and V. F. Nazvanov, “Study of the electro-optical response of polymer dispersed liquid crystal doped with multi-wall carbon nanotubes,” Proc. SPIE 6164, 616407 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Sutherland, V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, P. F. Lloyd, and T. J. Bunning, “Enhancing the electro-optical properties of liquid crystal nanodroplets for switchable Bragg gratings,” Proc. SPIE 7050, 705003 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. H. Domash, G. P. Crawford, A. C. Ashmead, R. T. Smith, M. M. Popovich, and J. Storey, “Holographic PDLC for photonic applications,” Proc. SPIE 4107, 46–58 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Soft Mater.

S. S. Shim, J. Y. Woo, H. M. Jeong, and B. K. Kim, “High Dielectric Titanium Dioxide Doped Holographic PDLC,” Soft Mater. 7(2), 93–104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Other

J. Colegrove, J. Kelly, T. Fiske, A. Lewis, H. Yuan, H. Tran, G. P. Crawford, and L. Silverstein, “P-59: Technology of Stacking HPDLC for Higher Reflectance,” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers 31, 770–773 (2000).

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

a) Recording geometry of the H-PDLC reflection grating. b) Recording geometry of the H-PDLC diffraction grating with setup for recording real time evolution of diffracted order.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

POM images of HPDLC reflection gratings doped with various MWNT concentrations a) 0mg b) 0.01mg c) 0.025mg d) 0.05mg e) 0.1mg f) 0.25mg g) 1mg.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Transmission spectra of HPDLC reflection gratings doped with various concentrations of MWNT. The inset plot shows a decrease in reflection efficiency with increasing MWNT concentration.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Change in capacitance and resistivity of the HPDLC reflection gratings doped with MWNT at a driving frequency of 1kHz. The inset plot shows the range of MWNT concentration in which no shorting of the ITO electrodes is observed. The circles represent capacitance and the triangles represent resistivity.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Transmission vs applied voltage plots for various concentrations of MWNT. The inset plot shows a reduction in switching voltage with increasing amount of MWNT.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Rise and fall time measurements of HPDLC reflection gratings doped with various concentrations of MWNT. The inset plots show the rise and fall time readings up to 0.1mg MWNT.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

a) Real time evolution of diffracted order for various concentrations of MWNT, b) Time delay in rise of diffracted order observed in the first 5 seconds during exposure c) Increase in induction period with increasing concentration of MWNT.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Rise and fall time measurements of HPDLC diffraction gratings doped with various concentrations of MWNT. The inset plots show the rise and fall time readings upto 0.1mg MWNT.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Scanning electron microscopy images of H-PDLC diffraction gratings with various concentrations of MWNT: a) 0mg, b) 0.01mg, c) 0.05mg) 0.1mg) and 0.25mg).

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

V c = d 0 3 a ( σ L C σ p + 2 ) ( K ( l 2 + 1 ) ε 0 Δ ε ) 1 / 2 ,
E L C = E a p p l ( 3 σ p + m w n t 2 σ p + m w n t + σ L C ) ,
D T = k T ln r 3 π η d r ,
D i ( z , t ) = D i 0 exp [ i α i φ i p ( z , t ) ] ,
τ o n 1 = 1 γ 1 ( Δ ε E 2 + K ( l 2 1 ) a 2 ) and τ o f f = γ 1 a 2 K ( l 2 1 ) ,

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