Abstract

We measure the complete electric field of extremely complex ultrafast waveforms using the simple linear-optical, interferometric pulse-measurement technique, MUD TADPOLE. The waveforms were measured with ~40 fs temporal resolution over a temporal range of ~3.5ns and had time-bandwidth products exceeding 65,000. The approach is general and could allow the measurement of arbitrary optical waveforms.

© 2010 OSA

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  1. V. Yanovsky, V. Chvykov, G. Kalinchenko, P. Rousseau, T. Planchon, T. Matsuoka, A. Maksimchuk, J. Nees, G. Cheriaux, G. Mourou, and K. Krushelnick, “Ultra-high intensity- 300-TW laser at 0.1 Hz repetition rate,” Opt. Express 16(3), 2109–2114 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. Z. Jiang, C.-B. Huang, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, “Optical arbitrary waveform processing of more than 100 spectral comb lines,” Nat. Photonics 1(8), 463–467 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  3. R. Trebino, Frequency-Resolved Optical Gating: The Measurement of Ultrashort Laser Pulses (Kluwer Academic Publishers, Boston, 2002).
  4. X. Gu, L. Xu, M. Kimmel, E. Zeek, P. O’Shea, A. P. Shreenath, R. Trebino, and R. S. Windeler, “Frequency-resolved optical gating and single-shot spectral measurements reveal fine structure in microstructure-fiber continuum,” Opt. Lett. 27(13), 1174–1176 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. Linden, H. Giessen, and J. Kuhl, “XFROG-a new method for amplitude and phase characterization of weak ultrashort pulses,” Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res. 206(1), 119–124 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  6. C. Froehly, A. Lacourt, and J. C. Vienot, “Time impulse response and time frequency response of optical pupils.: experimental confirmations and applications,” Nouv. Rev. Opt. 4(4), 183–196 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  7. D. N. Fittinghoff, J. L. Bowie, J. N. Sweetser, R. T. Jennings, M. A. Krumbüugel, K. W. Delong, R. Trebino, and I. A. Walmsley, “Measurement of the intensity and phase of ultraweak, ultrashort laser pulses,” Opt. Lett. 21(12), 884–886 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. C. Dorrer, N. Belabas, J.-P. Likforman, and M. Joffre, “Spectral resolution and sampling issues in Fourier-transform spectral interferometry,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17(10), 1795–1802 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. V. R. Supradeepa, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, “Single shot amplitude and phase characterization of optical arbitrary waveforms,” Opt. Express 17(16), 14434–14443 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. S. A. Diddams, L. Hollberg, and V. Mbele, “Molecular fingerprinting with the resolved modes of a femtosecond laser frequency comb,” Nature 445(7128), 627–630 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. S. Xiao and A. Weiner, “2-D wavelength demultiplexer with potential for >/= 1000 channels in the C-band,” Opt. Express 12(13), 2895–2902 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, L. Zhou, F. M. Soares, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Real-time full-field arbitrary optical waveform measurement,” Nat. Photonics 4(4), 248–254 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  15. J. Chou, G. A. Sefler, J. Conway, G. C. Valley, and B. Jalali, “4-Channel Continuous-Time 77 GSa/s ADC using Photonic Bandwidth Compression,” in Microwave Photonics, 2007 IEEE International Topical Meeting on (2007), pp. 54–57.
  16. Y. Han and B. Jalali, “Photonic Time-Stretched Analog-to-Digital Converter: Fundamental Concepts and Practical Considerations,” J. Lightwave Technol. 21(12), 3085–3103 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. P. Bowlan, U. Fuchs, R. Trebino, and U. D. Zeitner, “Measuring the spatiotemporal electric field of tightly focused ultrashort pulses with sub-micron spatial resolution,” Opt. Express 16(18), 13663–13675 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. P. Bowlan, P. Gabolde, M. A. Coughlan, R. Trebino, and R. J. Levis, “Measuring the spatiotemporal electric field of ultrashort pulses with high spatial and spectral resolution,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25(6), A81–A92 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  20. P. Bowlan, P. Gabolde, and R. Trebino, “Directly measuring the spatio-temporal electric field of focusing ultrashort pulses,” Opt. Express 15(16), 10219–10230 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. P. Bowlan, H. Valtna-Lukner, M. Lõhmus, P. Piksarv, P. Saari, and R. Trebino, “Measuring the spatiotemporal field of ultrashort Bessel-X pulses,” Opt. Lett. 34(15), 2276–2278 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. P. Bowlan, P. Gabolde, A. Shreenath, K. McGresham, R. Trebino, and S. Akturk, “Crossed-beam spectral interferometry: a simple, high-spectral-resolution method for completely characterizing complex ultrashort pulses in real time,” Opt. Express 14(24), 11892–11900 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. J. P. Geindre, P. Audebert, S. Rebibo, and J. C. Gauthier, “Single-shot spectral interferometry with chirped pulses,” Opt. Lett. 26(20), 1612–1614 (2001).
    [CrossRef]

2010

N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, L. Zhou, F. M. Soares, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Real-time full-field arbitrary optical waveform measurement,” Nat. Photonics 4(4), 248–254 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Cohen, P. Bowlan, V. Chauhan, and R. Trebino, “Measuring temporally complex ultrashort pulses using multiple-delay crossed-beam spectral interferometry,” Opt. Express 18(7), 6583–6597 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

2008

2007

P. Bowlan, P. Gabolde, and R. Trebino, “Directly measuring the spatio-temporal electric field of focusing ultrashort pulses,” Opt. Express 15(16), 10219–10230 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Jiang, C.-B. Huang, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, “Optical arbitrary waveform processing of more than 100 spectral comb lines,” Nat. Photonics 1(8), 463–467 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Diddams, L. Hollberg, and V. Mbele, “Molecular fingerprinting with the resolved modes of a femtosecond laser frequency comb,” Nature 445(7128), 627–630 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

2004

2003

2002

2001

2000

1998

S. Linden, H. Giessen, and J. Kuhl, “XFROG-a new method for amplitude and phase characterization of weak ultrashort pulses,” Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res. 206(1), 119–124 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996

1995

1973

C. Froehly, A. Lacourt, and J. C. Vienot, “Time impulse response and time frequency response of optical pupils.: experimental confirmations and applications,” Nouv. Rev. Opt. 4(4), 183–196 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Akturk, S.

Audebert, P.

Belabas, N.

Bowie, J. L.

Bowlan, P.

Chauhan, V.

Cheriaux, G.

Chvykov, V.

Cohen, J.

Coughlan, M. A.

Delong, K. W.

Diddams, S. A.

S. A. Diddams, L. Hollberg, and V. Mbele, “Molecular fingerprinting with the resolved modes of a femtosecond laser frequency comb,” Nature 445(7128), 627–630 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dorrer, C.

Fittinghoff, D. N.

Fontaine, N. K.

N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, L. Zhou, F. M. Soares, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Real-time full-field arbitrary optical waveform measurement,” Nat. Photonics 4(4), 248–254 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Near quantum-limited, single-shot coherent arbitrary optical waveform measurements,” Opt. Express 17(15), 12332–12344 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Froehly, C.

C. Froehly, A. Lacourt, and J. C. Vienot, “Time impulse response and time frequency response of optical pupils.: experimental confirmations and applications,” Nouv. Rev. Opt. 4(4), 183–196 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Fuchs, U.

Gabolde, P.

Gauthier, J. C.

Geindre, J. P.

Giessen, H.

S. Linden, H. Giessen, and J. Kuhl, “XFROG-a new method for amplitude and phase characterization of weak ultrashort pulses,” Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res. 206(1), 119–124 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gu, X.

Han, Y.

Heritage, J. P.

N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, L. Zhou, F. M. Soares, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Real-time full-field arbitrary optical waveform measurement,” Nat. Photonics 4(4), 248–254 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Near quantum-limited, single-shot coherent arbitrary optical waveform measurements,” Opt. Express 17(15), 12332–12344 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hollberg, L.

S. A. Diddams, L. Hollberg, and V. Mbele, “Molecular fingerprinting with the resolved modes of a femtosecond laser frequency comb,” Nature 445(7128), 627–630 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, C.-B.

Z. Jiang, C.-B. Huang, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, “Optical arbitrary waveform processing of more than 100 spectral comb lines,” Nat. Photonics 1(8), 463–467 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jalali, B.

Jennings, R. T.

Jiang, Z.

Z. Jiang, C.-B. Huang, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, “Optical arbitrary waveform processing of more than 100 spectral comb lines,” Nat. Photonics 1(8), 463–467 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Joffre, M.

Kalinchenko, G.

Kimmel, M.

Krumbüugel, M. A.

Krushelnick, K.

Kuhl, J.

S. Linden, H. Giessen, and J. Kuhl, “XFROG-a new method for amplitude and phase characterization of weak ultrashort pulses,” Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res. 206(1), 119–124 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lacourt, A.

C. Froehly, A. Lacourt, and J. C. Vienot, “Time impulse response and time frequency response of optical pupils.: experimental confirmations and applications,” Nouv. Rev. Opt. 4(4), 183–196 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Leaird, D. E.

V. R. Supradeepa, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, “Single shot amplitude and phase characterization of optical arbitrary waveforms,” Opt. Express 17(16), 14434–14443 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Jiang, C.-B. Huang, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, “Optical arbitrary waveform processing of more than 100 spectral comb lines,” Nat. Photonics 1(8), 463–467 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lepetit, L.

Levis, R. J.

Likforman, J.-P.

Linden, S.

S. Linden, H. Giessen, and J. Kuhl, “XFROG-a new method for amplitude and phase characterization of weak ultrashort pulses,” Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res. 206(1), 119–124 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lõhmus, M.

Maksimchuk, A.

Matsuoka, T.

Mbele, V.

S. A. Diddams, L. Hollberg, and V. Mbele, “Molecular fingerprinting with the resolved modes of a femtosecond laser frequency comb,” Nature 445(7128), 627–630 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McGresham, K.

Mourou, G.

Nees, J.

O’Shea, P.

Piksarv, P.

Planchon, T.

Rebibo, S.

Rousseau, P.

Saari, P.

Scott, R. P.

N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, L. Zhou, F. M. Soares, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Real-time full-field arbitrary optical waveform measurement,” Nat. Photonics 4(4), 248–254 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Near quantum-limited, single-shot coherent arbitrary optical waveform measurements,” Opt. Express 17(15), 12332–12344 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shreenath, A.

Shreenath, A. P.

Soares, F. M.

N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, L. Zhou, F. M. Soares, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Real-time full-field arbitrary optical waveform measurement,” Nat. Photonics 4(4), 248–254 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Supradeepa, V. R.

Sweetser, J. N.

Trebino, R.

J. Cohen, P. Bowlan, V. Chauhan, and R. Trebino, “Measuring temporally complex ultrashort pulses using multiple-delay crossed-beam spectral interferometry,” Opt. Express 18(7), 6583–6597 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Bowlan, H. Valtna-Lukner, M. Lõhmus, P. Piksarv, P. Saari, and R. Trebino, “Measuring the spatiotemporal field of ultrashort Bessel-X pulses,” Opt. Lett. 34(15), 2276–2278 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Bowlan, P. Gabolde, M. A. Coughlan, R. Trebino, and R. J. Levis, “Measuring the spatiotemporal electric field of ultrashort pulses with high spatial and spectral resolution,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25(6), A81–A92 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Bowlan, U. Fuchs, R. Trebino, and U. D. Zeitner, “Measuring the spatiotemporal electric field of tightly focused ultrashort pulses with sub-micron spatial resolution,” Opt. Express 16(18), 13663–13675 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Bowlan, P. Gabolde, and R. Trebino, “Directly measuring the spatio-temporal electric field of focusing ultrashort pulses,” Opt. Express 15(16), 10219–10230 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Bowlan, P. Gabolde, A. Shreenath, K. McGresham, R. Trebino, and S. Akturk, “Crossed-beam spectral interferometry: a simple, high-spectral-resolution method for completely characterizing complex ultrashort pulses in real time,” Opt. Express 14(24), 11892–11900 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Gu, L. Xu, M. Kimmel, E. Zeek, P. O’Shea, A. P. Shreenath, R. Trebino, and R. S. Windeler, “Frequency-resolved optical gating and single-shot spectral measurements reveal fine structure in microstructure-fiber continuum,” Opt. Lett. 27(13), 1174–1176 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. N. Fittinghoff, J. L. Bowie, J. N. Sweetser, R. T. Jennings, M. A. Krumbüugel, K. W. Delong, R. Trebino, and I. A. Walmsley, “Measurement of the intensity and phase of ultraweak, ultrashort laser pulses,” Opt. Lett. 21(12), 884–886 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Valtna-Lukner, H.

Vienot, J. C.

C. Froehly, A. Lacourt, and J. C. Vienot, “Time impulse response and time frequency response of optical pupils.: experimental confirmations and applications,” Nouv. Rev. Opt. 4(4), 183–196 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Walmsley, I. A.

Weiner, A.

Weiner, A. M.

V. R. Supradeepa, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, “Single shot amplitude and phase characterization of optical arbitrary waveforms,” Opt. Express 17(16), 14434–14443 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Jiang, C.-B. Huang, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, “Optical arbitrary waveform processing of more than 100 spectral comb lines,” Nat. Photonics 1(8), 463–467 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Windeler, R. S.

Xiao, S.

Xu, L.

Yanovsky, V.

Yoo, S. J. B.

N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, L. Zhou, F. M. Soares, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Real-time full-field arbitrary optical waveform measurement,” Nat. Photonics 4(4), 248–254 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Near quantum-limited, single-shot coherent arbitrary optical waveform measurements,” Opt. Express 17(15), 12332–12344 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zeek, E.

Zeitner, U. D.

Zhou, L.

N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, L. Zhou, F. M. Soares, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Real-time full-field arbitrary optical waveform measurement,” Nat. Photonics 4(4), 248–254 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Nat. Photonics

N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, L. Zhou, F. M. Soares, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Real-time full-field arbitrary optical waveform measurement,” Nat. Photonics 4(4), 248–254 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. Jiang, C.-B. Huang, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, “Optical arbitrary waveform processing of more than 100 spectral comb lines,” Nat. Photonics 1(8), 463–467 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nature

S. A. Diddams, L. Hollberg, and V. Mbele, “Molecular fingerprinting with the resolved modes of a femtosecond laser frequency comb,” Nature 445(7128), 627–630 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nouv. Rev. Opt.

C. Froehly, A. Lacourt, and J. C. Vienot, “Time impulse response and time frequency response of optical pupils.: experimental confirmations and applications,” Nouv. Rev. Opt. 4(4), 183–196 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

P. Bowlan, U. Fuchs, R. Trebino, and U. D. Zeitner, “Measuring the spatiotemporal electric field of tightly focused ultrashort pulses with sub-micron spatial resolution,” Opt. Express 16(18), 13663–13675 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Near quantum-limited, single-shot coherent arbitrary optical waveform measurements,” Opt. Express 17(15), 12332–12344 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Xiao and A. Weiner, “2-D wavelength demultiplexer with potential for >/= 1000 channels in the C-band,” Opt. Express 12(13), 2895–2902 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Bowlan, P. Gabolde, A. Shreenath, K. McGresham, R. Trebino, and S. Akturk, “Crossed-beam spectral interferometry: a simple, high-spectral-resolution method for completely characterizing complex ultrashort pulses in real time,” Opt. Express 14(24), 11892–11900 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Bowlan, P. Gabolde, and R. Trebino, “Directly measuring the spatio-temporal electric field of focusing ultrashort pulses,” Opt. Express 15(16), 10219–10230 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Yanovsky, V. Chvykov, G. Kalinchenko, P. Rousseau, T. Planchon, T. Matsuoka, A. Maksimchuk, J. Nees, G. Cheriaux, G. Mourou, and K. Krushelnick, “Ultra-high intensity- 300-TW laser at 0.1 Hz repetition rate,” Opt. Express 16(3), 2109–2114 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. R. Supradeepa, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, “Single shot amplitude and phase characterization of optical arbitrary waveforms,” Opt. Express 17(16), 14434–14443 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Cohen, P. Bowlan, V. Chauhan, and R. Trebino, “Measuring temporally complex ultrashort pulses using multiple-delay crossed-beam spectral interferometry,” Opt. Express 18(7), 6583–6597 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res.

S. Linden, H. Giessen, and J. Kuhl, “XFROG-a new method for amplitude and phase characterization of weak ultrashort pulses,” Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res. 206(1), 119–124 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Other

R. Trebino, Frequency-Resolved Optical Gating: The Measurement of Ultrashort Laser Pulses (Kluwer Academic Publishers, Boston, 2002).

J. Chou, G. A. Sefler, J. Conway, G. C. Valley, and B. Jalali, “4-Channel Continuous-Time 77 GSa/s ADC using Photonic Bandwidth Compression,” in Microwave Photonics, 2007 IEEE International Topical Meeting on (2007), pp. 54–57.

Supplementary Material (1)

» Media 1: AVI (87848 KB)     

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup for MUD TADPOLE. Both the unknown pulse and the reference pulse are coupled into two equal-length single-mode fibers. The reference pulse passes through a delay stage, which provides the variable delay. In the horizontal dimension, the light is collimated by the spherical lens and spectrally resolved by the spectrometer. In the vertical dimension, the beams cross at a slight angle, resulting in spatial fringes at the camera.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

a. The MUD TADPOLE spectrogram of a 3.5 ns chirped double pulse. b. The retrieved temporal intensity and phase of a 3.5 ns pulse. c. The MUD TADPOLE-retrieved spectrum. The solid color of the spectrum is due to the massive fine spectral structure in the complex pulse, which MUD TADPOLE is able to resolve. d. A zoomed in plot of a small section of the spectrum demonstrates MUD TADPOLE’s high spectral resolution. The periodicity of the fringes in the spectrum was 5 pm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

a. The MUD TADPOLE spectrogram of a train of linearly chirped pulses. b. The temporal profile of the train of pulses. The measurement shows the steadily decreasing intesities of the pulses, the expected result of the multiple relections inside the etalon. c. The spectrum of the pulse train. As expected, the asymmetric spectrum results from the nonparallel mirror pair and the differing absolute phases of the individual pulses in the pulse train. A more detailed view of the complex spectrum is shown in Media 1, which is a movie that scans the spectrum along the entire spectral domain.

Metrics