Abstract

A plastic waveguide laser doped with organic dye molecule was fabricated with self-written active (SWA) waveguide technique. The device has a Fabry-Perot resonator consisting of a pair of highly reflective dielectric mirrors, which has brought two advantages for efficient optical pumping; (i) the efficient optical feedback in the cavity can be induced, and (ii) the reflection band of the dielectric mirrors can be tuned to overlap only with the emission band of the doped dye. For the SWA waveguide devices, furthermore, the active waveguide core is essentially coupled with a fiber port for optical input. Owing to these advantages, an experimental configuration for the optical end pumping can be easily applied. The high absorption efficiency for the pumping light could be obtained in this pumping method. A remarkable lowering of the lasing threshold was observed. As the best results of this study, consequently, the lasing action under the optical pumping energy as low as 50 nJ was achieved.

© 2010 OSA

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2010

C. Ge, M. Lu, W. Zhang, and B. T. Cunningham, “Distributed feedback laser biosensor incorporating a titanium dioxide nanorod surface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(16), 163702 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. Yamashita, N. Takeuchi, K. Oe, and H. Yanagi, “Simultaneous RGB lasing from a single-chip polymer device,” Opt. Lett. 35(14), 2451–2453 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Schmidtke and E. M. Terentjev, “Polydimethylsiloxane-enclosed liquid crystal lasers for lab-on-a-chip applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(15), 151111 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Grivas, J. Yang, M. B. J. Diemeer, A. Driessen, and M. Pollnau, “Continuous-wave Nd-doped polymer lasers,” Opt. Lett. 35(12), 1983–1985 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

K. Yamashita, M. Ito, E. Fukuzawa, H. Okada, and K. Oe, “Device parameter analyses of solid-state organic laser made by self-written active waveguide technique,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(20), 4570–4574 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Yamashita, E. Fukuzawa, H. Okada, and K. Oe, “Fiber-to-fiber optical gain of polymer-based amplifier with self-written active waveguide,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(10), 102406 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

K. Yamashita, A. Kitanobou, M. Ito, E. Fukuzawa, and K. Oe, “Solid-state organic laser using self-written active waveguide with in-line Fabry-Pérot cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(14), 143305 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Yamashita, E. Fukuzawa, A. Kitanobou, and K. Oe, “Self-written active waveguide for integrated optical amplifier,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(5), 051102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Yamashita, M. Arimatsu, M. Takayama, K. Oe, and H. Yanagi, “Simple fabrication technique of distributed-feedback polymer laser by direct photonanoimprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(24), 243306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Yuyama, T. Nakajima, K. Yamashita, and K. Oe, “Solid state organic laser emission at 970 nm from dye-doped fluorinated-polyimide planar waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(2), 023306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

Y. Oki, Y. Ogawa, K. Yamashita, M. Miyazaki, and M. Maeda, “Integration of optical pumped dye laser on organic microflowcytometry chip,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 463(1), 131–140 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. B. Christiansen, M. Schøler, and A. Kristensen, “Integration of active and passive polymer optics,” Opt. Express 15(7), 3931–3939 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Yamashita, H. Taniguchi, S. Yuyama, K. Oe, J. Sun, and H. Mataki, “Continuous-wave stimulated emission and optical amplification in europium (III)-aluminum nanocluster-doped polymeric waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(8), 081115 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Chen, Z. Li, Z. Zhang, D. Psaltis, and A. Scherer, “Nanoimprinted circular grating distributed feedback dye laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(5), 051109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

2005

A. Rose, Z. Zhu, C. F. Madigan, T. M. Swager, and V. Bulović, “Sensitivity gains in chemosensing by lasing action in organic polymers,” Nature 434(7035), 876–879 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Yamashita, T. Kuro, K. Oe, K. Mune, T. Hikita, and A. Mochizuki, “Propagation-mode-controlled fabrication of self-written waveguide in photosensitive polyimide for single-mode operation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(4), 786–788 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

O. Sugihara, H. Tsuchie, H. Endo, N. Okamoto, T. Yamashita, M. Kagami, and T. Kaino, “Light-induced self-written polymeric optical waveguides for single-mode propagation and for optical interconnections,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(3), 804–806 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. Sobel, D. Gindre, J.-M. Nunzi, C. Denis, V. Dumarcher, C. Fiorini-Debuisschert, K. P. Kretsch, and L. Rocha, “Multimode distributed feedback laser emission in a dye-doped optically pumped polymer thin-film,” Opt. Mater. 27(2), 199–201 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

A. Costela, I. García-Moreno, and R. Sastre, “Polymeric solid-state dye laser: Recent developments,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 5, 4745–4763 (2003) (and references therein).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Lawrence, G. A. Turnbull, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Polymer laser fabricated by a simple micromolding process,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(23), 4023–4025 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

2001

M. Kagami, T. Yamashita, and H. Ito, “Light-induced self-written three-dimensional optical waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(8), 1079 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

M. Fukuda and K. Mito, “Solid-state dye laser with photo-induced distributed feedback,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39(Part 1, No. 10), 5859–5863 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998

M. Berggren, A. Dodabalapur, R. E. Slusher, A. Timko, and O. Nalamsu, “Organic solid-state laser with imprinted gratings on plastic substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(4), 410–411 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

V. G. Kozlov, V. Bulovic, P. E. Burrows, and S. R. Forrest, “Laser action in organic semiconductor waveguide and double-heterostructure devices,” Nature 389(6649), 362–364 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

1993

1971

H. Kogelnik and C. V. Shank, “Stimulated emission in a periodic structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 18(4), 152–154 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Andrews, M. P.

Arimatsu, M.

K. Yamashita, M. Arimatsu, M. Takayama, K. Oe, and H. Yanagi, “Simple fabrication technique of distributed-feedback polymer laser by direct photonanoimprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(24), 243306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Berggren, M.

M. Berggren, A. Dodabalapur, R. E. Slusher, A. Timko, and O. Nalamsu, “Organic solid-state laser with imprinted gratings on plastic substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(4), 410–411 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bulovic, V.

A. Rose, Z. Zhu, C. F. Madigan, T. M. Swager, and V. Bulović, “Sensitivity gains in chemosensing by lasing action in organic polymers,” Nature 434(7035), 876–879 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. G. Kozlov, V. Bulovic, P. E. Burrows, and S. R. Forrest, “Laser action in organic semiconductor waveguide and double-heterostructure devices,” Nature 389(6649), 362–364 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Burrows, P. E.

V. G. Kozlov, V. Bulovic, P. E. Burrows, and S. R. Forrest, “Laser action in organic semiconductor waveguide and double-heterostructure devices,” Nature 389(6649), 362–364 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.

Y. Chen, Z. Li, Z. Zhang, D. Psaltis, and A. Scherer, “Nanoimprinted circular grating distributed feedback dye laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(5), 051109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Christiansen, M. B.

Costela, A.

A. Costela, I. García-Moreno, and R. Sastre, “Polymeric solid-state dye laser: Recent developments,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 5, 4745–4763 (2003) (and references therein).
[CrossRef]

Cunningham, B. T.

C. Ge, M. Lu, W. Zhang, and B. T. Cunningham, “Distributed feedback laser biosensor incorporating a titanium dioxide nanorod surface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(16), 163702 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Denis, C.

F. Sobel, D. Gindre, J.-M. Nunzi, C. Denis, V. Dumarcher, C. Fiorini-Debuisschert, K. P. Kretsch, and L. Rocha, “Multimode distributed feedback laser emission in a dye-doped optically pumped polymer thin-film,” Opt. Mater. 27(2), 199–201 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Diemeer, M. B. J.

Dodabalapur, A.

M. Berggren, A. Dodabalapur, R. E. Slusher, A. Timko, and O. Nalamsu, “Organic solid-state laser with imprinted gratings on plastic substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(4), 410–411 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Driessen, A.

Dumarcher, V.

F. Sobel, D. Gindre, J.-M. Nunzi, C. Denis, V. Dumarcher, C. Fiorini-Debuisschert, K. P. Kretsch, and L. Rocha, “Multimode distributed feedback laser emission in a dye-doped optically pumped polymer thin-film,” Opt. Mater. 27(2), 199–201 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Endo, H.

O. Sugihara, H. Tsuchie, H. Endo, N. Okamoto, T. Yamashita, M. Kagami, and T. Kaino, “Light-induced self-written polymeric optical waveguides for single-mode propagation and for optical interconnections,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(3), 804–806 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fiorini-Debuisschert, C.

F. Sobel, D. Gindre, J.-M. Nunzi, C. Denis, V. Dumarcher, C. Fiorini-Debuisschert, K. P. Kretsch, and L. Rocha, “Multimode distributed feedback laser emission in a dye-doped optically pumped polymer thin-film,” Opt. Mater. 27(2), 199–201 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Forrest, S. R.

V. G. Kozlov, V. Bulovic, P. E. Burrows, and S. R. Forrest, “Laser action in organic semiconductor waveguide and double-heterostructure devices,” Nature 389(6649), 362–364 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Frisken, S. J.

Fujihara, A.

Fukuda, M.

M. Fukuda and K. Mito, “Solid-state dye laser with photo-induced distributed feedback,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39(Part 1, No. 10), 5859–5863 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Fukuzawa, E.

K. Yamashita, M. Ito, E. Fukuzawa, H. Okada, and K. Oe, “Device parameter analyses of solid-state organic laser made by self-written active waveguide technique,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(20), 4570–4574 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Yamashita, E. Fukuzawa, H. Okada, and K. Oe, “Fiber-to-fiber optical gain of polymer-based amplifier with self-written active waveguide,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(10), 102406 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Yamashita, E. Fukuzawa, A. Kitanobou, and K. Oe, “Self-written active waveguide for integrated optical amplifier,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(5), 051102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Yamashita, A. Kitanobou, M. Ito, E. Fukuzawa, and K. Oe, “Solid-state organic laser using self-written active waveguide with in-line Fabry-Pérot cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(14), 143305 (2008).
[CrossRef]

García-Moreno, I.

A. Costela, I. García-Moreno, and R. Sastre, “Polymeric solid-state dye laser: Recent developments,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 5, 4745–4763 (2003) (and references therein).
[CrossRef]

Ge, C.

C. Ge, M. Lu, W. Zhang, and B. T. Cunningham, “Distributed feedback laser biosensor incorporating a titanium dioxide nanorod surface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(16), 163702 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gindre, D.

F. Sobel, D. Gindre, J.-M. Nunzi, C. Denis, V. Dumarcher, C. Fiorini-Debuisschert, K. P. Kretsch, and L. Rocha, “Multimode distributed feedback laser emission in a dye-doped optically pumped polymer thin-film,” Opt. Mater. 27(2), 199–201 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Grivas, C.

Hayashi, D.

Hikita, T.

K. Yamashita, T. Kuro, K. Oe, K. Mune, T. Hikita, and A. Mochizuki, “Propagation-mode-controlled fabrication of self-written waveguide in photosensitive polyimide for single-mode operation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(4), 786–788 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ito, H.

M. Kagami, T. Yamashita, and H. Ito, “Light-induced self-written three-dimensional optical waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(8), 1079 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ito, M.

K. Yamashita, M. Ito, E. Fukuzawa, H. Okada, and K. Oe, “Device parameter analyses of solid-state organic laser made by self-written active waveguide technique,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(20), 4570–4574 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Yamashita, A. Kitanobou, M. Ito, E. Fukuzawa, and K. Oe, “Solid-state organic laser using self-written active waveguide with in-line Fabry-Pérot cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(14), 143305 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kagami, M.

O. Sugihara, H. Tsuchie, H. Endo, N. Okamoto, T. Yamashita, M. Kagami, and T. Kaino, “Light-induced self-written polymeric optical waveguides for single-mode propagation and for optical interconnections,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(3), 804–806 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Kagami, T. Yamashita, and H. Ito, “Light-induced self-written three-dimensional optical waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(8), 1079 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kaino, T.

O. Sugihara, H. Tsuchie, H. Endo, N. Okamoto, T. Yamashita, M. Kagami, and T. Kaino, “Light-induced self-written polymeric optical waveguides for single-mode propagation and for optical interconnections,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(3), 804–806 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kawata, S.

Kewitsch, A. S.

Kitanobou, A.

K. Yamashita, E. Fukuzawa, A. Kitanobou, and K. Oe, “Self-written active waveguide for integrated optical amplifier,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(5), 051102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Yamashita, A. Kitanobou, M. Ito, E. Fukuzawa, and K. Oe, “Solid-state organic laser using self-written active waveguide with in-line Fabry-Pérot cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(14), 143305 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kivshar, Y. S.

Kogelnik, H.

H. Kogelnik and C. V. Shank, “Stimulated emission in a periodic structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 18(4), 152–154 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Kozlov, V. G.

V. G. Kozlov, V. Bulovic, P. E. Burrows, and S. R. Forrest, “Laser action in organic semiconductor waveguide and double-heterostructure devices,” Nature 389(6649), 362–364 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kretsch, K. P.

F. Sobel, D. Gindre, J.-M. Nunzi, C. Denis, V. Dumarcher, C. Fiorini-Debuisschert, K. P. Kretsch, and L. Rocha, “Multimode distributed feedback laser emission in a dye-doped optically pumped polymer thin-film,” Opt. Mater. 27(2), 199–201 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kristensen, A.

Kuro, T.

K. Yamashita, T. Kuro, K. Oe, K. Mune, T. Hikita, and A. Mochizuki, “Propagation-mode-controlled fabrication of self-written waveguide in photosensitive polyimide for single-mode operation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(4), 786–788 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lawrence, J. R.

J. R. Lawrence, G. A. Turnbull, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Polymer laser fabricated by a simple micromolding process,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(23), 4023–4025 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Li, Z.

Y. Chen, Z. Li, Z. Zhang, D. Psaltis, and A. Scherer, “Nanoimprinted circular grating distributed feedback dye laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(5), 051109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lu, M.

C. Ge, M. Lu, W. Zhang, and B. T. Cunningham, “Distributed feedback laser biosensor incorporating a titanium dioxide nanorod surface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(16), 163702 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Madigan, C. F.

A. Rose, Z. Zhu, C. F. Madigan, T. M. Swager, and V. Bulović, “Sensitivity gains in chemosensing by lasing action in organic polymers,” Nature 434(7035), 876–879 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maeda, M.

Y. Oki, Y. Ogawa, K. Yamashita, M. Miyazaki, and M. Maeda, “Integration of optical pumped dye laser on organic microflowcytometry chip,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 463(1), 131–140 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mataki, H.

K. Yamashita, H. Taniguchi, S. Yuyama, K. Oe, J. Sun, and H. Mataki, “Continuous-wave stimulated emission and optical amplification in europium (III)-aluminum nanocluster-doped polymeric waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(8), 081115 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mito, K.

M. Fukuda and K. Mito, “Solid-state dye laser with photo-induced distributed feedback,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39(Part 1, No. 10), 5859–5863 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Miyazaki, M.

Y. Oki, Y. Ogawa, K. Yamashita, M. Miyazaki, and M. Maeda, “Integration of optical pumped dye laser on organic microflowcytometry chip,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 463(1), 131–140 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mochizuki, A.

K. Yamashita, T. Kuro, K. Oe, K. Mune, T. Hikita, and A. Mochizuki, “Propagation-mode-controlled fabrication of self-written waveguide in photosensitive polyimide for single-mode operation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(4), 786–788 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mune, K.

K. Yamashita, T. Kuro, K. Oe, K. Mune, T. Hikita, and A. Mochizuki, “Propagation-mode-controlled fabrication of self-written waveguide in photosensitive polyimide for single-mode operation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(4), 786–788 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nakajima, T.

S. Yuyama, T. Nakajima, K. Yamashita, and K. Oe, “Solid state organic laser emission at 970 nm from dye-doped fluorinated-polyimide planar waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(2), 023306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nalamsu, O.

M. Berggren, A. Dodabalapur, R. E. Slusher, A. Timko, and O. Nalamsu, “Organic solid-state laser with imprinted gratings on plastic substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(4), 410–411 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nunzi, J.-M.

F. Sobel, D. Gindre, J.-M. Nunzi, C. Denis, V. Dumarcher, C. Fiorini-Debuisschert, K. P. Kretsch, and L. Rocha, “Multimode distributed feedback laser emission in a dye-doped optically pumped polymer thin-film,” Opt. Mater. 27(2), 199–201 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Oe, K.

K. Yamashita, N. Takeuchi, K. Oe, and H. Yanagi, “Simultaneous RGB lasing from a single-chip polymer device,” Opt. Lett. 35(14), 2451–2453 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Yamashita, M. Ito, E. Fukuzawa, H. Okada, and K. Oe, “Device parameter analyses of solid-state organic laser made by self-written active waveguide technique,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(20), 4570–4574 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Yamashita, E. Fukuzawa, H. Okada, and K. Oe, “Fiber-to-fiber optical gain of polymer-based amplifier with self-written active waveguide,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(10), 102406 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Yamashita, E. Fukuzawa, A. Kitanobou, and K. Oe, “Self-written active waveguide for integrated optical amplifier,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(5), 051102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Yamashita, A. Kitanobou, M. Ito, E. Fukuzawa, and K. Oe, “Solid-state organic laser using self-written active waveguide with in-line Fabry-Pérot cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(14), 143305 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Yuyama, T. Nakajima, K. Yamashita, and K. Oe, “Solid state organic laser emission at 970 nm from dye-doped fluorinated-polyimide planar waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(2), 023306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Yamashita, M. Arimatsu, M. Takayama, K. Oe, and H. Yanagi, “Simple fabrication technique of distributed-feedback polymer laser by direct photonanoimprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(24), 243306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Yamashita, H. Taniguchi, S. Yuyama, K. Oe, J. Sun, and H. Mataki, “Continuous-wave stimulated emission and optical amplification in europium (III)-aluminum nanocluster-doped polymeric waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(8), 081115 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Yamashita, T. Kuro, K. Oe, K. Mune, T. Hikita, and A. Mochizuki, “Propagation-mode-controlled fabrication of self-written waveguide in photosensitive polyimide for single-mode operation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(4), 786–788 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ogawa, Y.

Y. Oki, Y. Ogawa, K. Yamashita, M. Miyazaki, and M. Maeda, “Integration of optical pumped dye laser on organic microflowcytometry chip,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 463(1), 131–140 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Okada, H.

K. Yamashita, E. Fukuzawa, H. Okada, and K. Oe, “Fiber-to-fiber optical gain of polymer-based amplifier with self-written active waveguide,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(10), 102406 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Yamashita, M. Ito, E. Fukuzawa, H. Okada, and K. Oe, “Device parameter analyses of solid-state organic laser made by self-written active waveguide technique,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(20), 4570–4574 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Okamoto, N.

O. Sugihara, H. Tsuchie, H. Endo, N. Okamoto, T. Yamashita, M. Kagami, and T. Kaino, “Light-induced self-written polymeric optical waveguides for single-mode propagation and for optical interconnections,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(3), 804–806 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Oki, Y.

Y. Oki, Y. Ogawa, K. Yamashita, M. Miyazaki, and M. Maeda, “Integration of optical pumped dye laser on organic microflowcytometry chip,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 463(1), 131–140 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pollnau, M.

Psaltis, D.

Y. Chen, Z. Li, Z. Zhang, D. Psaltis, and A. Scherer, “Nanoimprinted circular grating distributed feedback dye laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(5), 051109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rocha, L.

F. Sobel, D. Gindre, J.-M. Nunzi, C. Denis, V. Dumarcher, C. Fiorini-Debuisschert, K. P. Kretsch, and L. Rocha, “Multimode distributed feedback laser emission in a dye-doped optically pumped polymer thin-film,” Opt. Mater. 27(2), 199–201 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rose, A.

A. Rose, Z. Zhu, C. F. Madigan, T. M. Swager, and V. Bulović, “Sensitivity gains in chemosensing by lasing action in organic polymers,” Nature 434(7035), 876–879 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Samuel, I. D. W.

J. R. Lawrence, G. A. Turnbull, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Polymer laser fabricated by a simple micromolding process,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(23), 4023–4025 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Saravanamuttu, K.

Sastre, R.

A. Costela, I. García-Moreno, and R. Sastre, “Polymeric solid-state dye laser: Recent developments,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 5, 4745–4763 (2003) (and references therein).
[CrossRef]

Scherer, A.

Y. Chen, Z. Li, Z. Zhang, D. Psaltis, and A. Scherer, “Nanoimprinted circular grating distributed feedback dye laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(5), 051109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schmidtke, J.

J. Schmidtke and E. M. Terentjev, “Polydimethylsiloxane-enclosed liquid crystal lasers for lab-on-a-chip applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(15), 151111 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Schøler, M.

Shank, C. V.

H. Kogelnik and C. V. Shank, “Stimulated emission in a periodic structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 18(4), 152–154 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Shoji, S.

Slusher, R. E.

M. Berggren, A. Dodabalapur, R. E. Slusher, A. Timko, and O. Nalamsu, “Organic solid-state laser with imprinted gratings on plastic substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(4), 410–411 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sobel, F.

F. Sobel, D. Gindre, J.-M. Nunzi, C. Denis, V. Dumarcher, C. Fiorini-Debuisschert, K. P. Kretsch, and L. Rocha, “Multimode distributed feedback laser emission in a dye-doped optically pumped polymer thin-film,” Opt. Mater. 27(2), 199–201 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sugihara, O.

O. Sugihara, H. Tsuchie, H. Endo, N. Okamoto, T. Yamashita, M. Kagami, and T. Kaino, “Light-induced self-written polymeric optical waveguides for single-mode propagation and for optical interconnections,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(3), 804–806 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sukhorukov, A. A.

Sun, J.

K. Yamashita, H. Taniguchi, S. Yuyama, K. Oe, J. Sun, and H. Mataki, “Continuous-wave stimulated emission and optical amplification in europium (III)-aluminum nanocluster-doped polymeric waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(8), 081115 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Swager, T. M.

A. Rose, Z. Zhu, C. F. Madigan, T. M. Swager, and V. Bulović, “Sensitivity gains in chemosensing by lasing action in organic polymers,” Nature 434(7035), 876–879 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Takayama, M.

K. Yamashita, M. Arimatsu, M. Takayama, K. Oe, and H. Yanagi, “Simple fabrication technique of distributed-feedback polymer laser by direct photonanoimprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(24), 243306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Takeuchi, N.

Taniguchi, H.

K. Yamashita, H. Taniguchi, S. Yuyama, K. Oe, J. Sun, and H. Mataki, “Continuous-wave stimulated emission and optical amplification in europium (III)-aluminum nanocluster-doped polymeric waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(8), 081115 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Terentjev, E. M.

J. Schmidtke and E. M. Terentjev, “Polydimethylsiloxane-enclosed liquid crystal lasers for lab-on-a-chip applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(15), 151111 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Timko, A.

M. Berggren, A. Dodabalapur, R. E. Slusher, A. Timko, and O. Nalamsu, “Organic solid-state laser with imprinted gratings on plastic substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(4), 410–411 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tsuchie, H.

O. Sugihara, H. Tsuchie, H. Endo, N. Okamoto, T. Yamashita, M. Kagami, and T. Kaino, “Light-induced self-written polymeric optical waveguides for single-mode propagation and for optical interconnections,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(3), 804–806 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tsutsumi, N.

Turnbull, G. A.

J. R. Lawrence, G. A. Turnbull, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Polymer laser fabricated by a simple micromolding process,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(23), 4023–4025 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yamashita, K.

K. Yamashita, N. Takeuchi, K. Oe, and H. Yanagi, “Simultaneous RGB lasing from a single-chip polymer device,” Opt. Lett. 35(14), 2451–2453 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Yamashita, M. Ito, E. Fukuzawa, H. Okada, and K. Oe, “Device parameter analyses of solid-state organic laser made by self-written active waveguide technique,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(20), 4570–4574 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Yamashita, E. Fukuzawa, H. Okada, and K. Oe, “Fiber-to-fiber optical gain of polymer-based amplifier with self-written active waveguide,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(10), 102406 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Yamashita, A. Kitanobou, M. Ito, E. Fukuzawa, and K. Oe, “Solid-state organic laser using self-written active waveguide with in-line Fabry-Pérot cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(14), 143305 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Yamashita, E. Fukuzawa, A. Kitanobou, and K. Oe, “Self-written active waveguide for integrated optical amplifier,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(5), 051102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Yamashita, M. Arimatsu, M. Takayama, K. Oe, and H. Yanagi, “Simple fabrication technique of distributed-feedback polymer laser by direct photonanoimprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(24), 243306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Yuyama, T. Nakajima, K. Yamashita, and K. Oe, “Solid state organic laser emission at 970 nm from dye-doped fluorinated-polyimide planar waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(2), 023306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Oki, Y. Ogawa, K. Yamashita, M. Miyazaki, and M. Maeda, “Integration of optical pumped dye laser on organic microflowcytometry chip,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 463(1), 131–140 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Yamashita, H. Taniguchi, S. Yuyama, K. Oe, J. Sun, and H. Mataki, “Continuous-wave stimulated emission and optical amplification in europium (III)-aluminum nanocluster-doped polymeric waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(8), 081115 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Yamashita, T. Kuro, K. Oe, K. Mune, T. Hikita, and A. Mochizuki, “Propagation-mode-controlled fabrication of self-written waveguide in photosensitive polyimide for single-mode operation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(4), 786–788 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yamashita, T.

O. Sugihara, H. Tsuchie, H. Endo, N. Okamoto, T. Yamashita, M. Kagami, and T. Kaino, “Light-induced self-written polymeric optical waveguides for single-mode propagation and for optical interconnections,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(3), 804–806 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Kagami, T. Yamashita, and H. Ito, “Light-induced self-written three-dimensional optical waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(8), 1079 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yanagi, H.

K. Yamashita, N. Takeuchi, K. Oe, and H. Yanagi, “Simultaneous RGB lasing from a single-chip polymer device,” Opt. Lett. 35(14), 2451–2453 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Yamashita, M. Arimatsu, M. Takayama, K. Oe, and H. Yanagi, “Simple fabrication technique of distributed-feedback polymer laser by direct photonanoimprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(24), 243306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yang, J.

Yariv, A.

Yuyama, S.

S. Yuyama, T. Nakajima, K. Yamashita, and K. Oe, “Solid state organic laser emission at 970 nm from dye-doped fluorinated-polyimide planar waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(2), 023306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Yamashita, H. Taniguchi, S. Yuyama, K. Oe, J. Sun, and H. Mataki, “Continuous-wave stimulated emission and optical amplification in europium (III)-aluminum nanocluster-doped polymeric waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(8), 081115 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, W.

C. Ge, M. Lu, W. Zhang, and B. T. Cunningham, “Distributed feedback laser biosensor incorporating a titanium dioxide nanorod surface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(16), 163702 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Z.

Y. Chen, Z. Li, Z. Zhang, D. Psaltis, and A. Scherer, “Nanoimprinted circular grating distributed feedback dye laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(5), 051109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, Z.

A. Rose, Z. Zhu, C. F. Madigan, T. M. Swager, and V. Bulović, “Sensitivity gains in chemosensing by lasing action in organic polymers,” Nature 434(7035), 876–879 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

M. Berggren, A. Dodabalapur, R. E. Slusher, A. Timko, and O. Nalamsu, “Organic solid-state laser with imprinted gratings on plastic substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(4), 410–411 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Lawrence, G. A. Turnbull, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Polymer laser fabricated by a simple micromolding process,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(23), 4023–4025 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. Chen, Z. Li, Z. Zhang, D. Psaltis, and A. Scherer, “Nanoimprinted circular grating distributed feedback dye laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(5), 051109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Yamashita, E. Fukuzawa, A. Kitanobou, and K. Oe, “Self-written active waveguide for integrated optical amplifier,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(5), 051102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Kagami, T. Yamashita, and H. Ito, “Light-induced self-written three-dimensional optical waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(8), 1079 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. Yamashita, A. Kitanobou, M. Ito, E. Fukuzawa, and K. Oe, “Solid-state organic laser using self-written active waveguide with in-line Fabry-Pérot cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(14), 143305 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Schmidtke and E. M. Terentjev, “Polydimethylsiloxane-enclosed liquid crystal lasers for lab-on-a-chip applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(15), 151111 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. Yamashita, M. Arimatsu, M. Takayama, K. Oe, and H. Yanagi, “Simple fabrication technique of distributed-feedback polymer laser by direct photonanoimprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(24), 243306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Yuyama, T. Nakajima, K. Yamashita, and K. Oe, “Solid state organic laser emission at 970 nm from dye-doped fluorinated-polyimide planar waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(2), 023306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Ge, M. Lu, W. Zhang, and B. T. Cunningham, “Distributed feedback laser biosensor incorporating a titanium dioxide nanorod surface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(16), 163702 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. Yamashita, H. Taniguchi, S. Yuyama, K. Oe, J. Sun, and H. Mataki, “Continuous-wave stimulated emission and optical amplification in europium (III)-aluminum nanocluster-doped polymeric waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(8), 081115 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Kogelnik and C. V. Shank, “Stimulated emission in a periodic structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 18(4), 152–154 (1971).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

O. Sugihara, H. Tsuchie, H. Endo, N. Okamoto, T. Yamashita, M. Kagami, and T. Kaino, “Light-induced self-written polymeric optical waveguides for single-mode propagation and for optical interconnections,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(3), 804–806 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Yamashita, T. Kuro, K. Oe, K. Mune, T. Hikita, and A. Mochizuki, “Propagation-mode-controlled fabrication of self-written waveguide in photosensitive polyimide for single-mode operation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(4), 786–788 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

K. Yamashita, E. Fukuzawa, H. Okada, and K. Oe, “Fiber-to-fiber optical gain of polymer-based amplifier with self-written active waveguide,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(10), 102406 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Fukuda and K. Mito, “Solid-state dye laser with photo-induced distributed feedback,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39(Part 1, No. 10), 5859–5863 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.)

Y. Oki, Y. Ogawa, K. Yamashita, M. Miyazaki, and M. Maeda, “Integration of optical pumped dye laser on organic microflowcytometry chip,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 463(1), 131–140 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nature

A. Rose, Z. Zhu, C. F. Madigan, T. M. Swager, and V. Bulović, “Sensitivity gains in chemosensing by lasing action in organic polymers,” Nature 434(7035), 876–879 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. G. Kozlov, V. Bulovic, P. E. Burrows, and S. R. Forrest, “Laser action in organic semiconductor waveguide and double-heterostructure devices,” Nature 389(6649), 362–364 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Opt. Mater.

F. Sobel, D. Gindre, J.-M. Nunzi, C. Denis, V. Dumarcher, C. Fiorini-Debuisschert, K. P. Kretsch, and L. Rocha, “Multimode distributed feedback laser emission in a dye-doped optically pumped polymer thin-film,” Opt. Mater. 27(2), 199–201 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys.

A. Costela, I. García-Moreno, and R. Sastre, “Polymeric solid-state dye laser: Recent developments,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 5, 4745–4763 (2003) (and references therein).
[CrossRef]

Other

D. Schneider, U. Lemmer, W. Kowalsky, and T. Riedl, “Low-threshold organic semiconductor lasers” in Organic Light Emitting Devices, K. Müllen and U. Scherf ed. (Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, 2006), p. 369–395, and references therein.

U. Brackmann, Lambdachrome® Laser Dyes (Lambda Physik, 1994).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic illustration for fabrication of plastic waveguide laser with FP resonator. Two optical fibers, which have GI-type waveguide cores with a diameter of 62.5 μm, were placed on a grooved silica substrate. A pair of DBR mirrors, which was SiO2/TiO2 dielectric multilayer on 150-μm thick silica plates, was set up between the fiber tips. The mixture of the PETA and BA monomer resins doped with LDS798 was cast into the groove. After that, to fabricate SWA waveguide, 405-nm laser light was introduced from the fibers. (b) Transmission spectrum of the DBR mirrors used for the FP resonator. The DBR mirrors have reflectivity of > ~99.8% at the region of 740 – 840 nm. This reflection band includes the emission band of LDS798 (770 – 830 nm), and excludes the wavelengths for the device fabrication (405 nm) and optical pumping (520 – 610 nm).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Lasing emission spectrum of plastic waveguide laser fabricated with SWA waveguide technique. The cavity length and the dye concentration of this device were 1.14 mm and 0.3 wt%, respectively. The device was pumped from the side surface by 610-nm pulsed light. Inset shows variation of the emission intensity with the pumping density.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Lasing threshold at various cavity lengths. Circles and triangle show the data for the sample with DBR mirrors and Al-coated half-mirrors, respectively. Closed and open symbols reveal the dye concentrations of 0.3 and 0.6 wt%, respectively. All data were obtained at the side-pump configuration.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Lasing emission spectra at end-pump configuration with various pumping energies. The pump wavelength was 610 nm. The cavity length and the dye concentration of this device were 1.24 mm and 0.1 wt%, respectively.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Comparison of lasing thresholds between the side-pump (closed circles) and end-pump (open circles) configurations. The horizontal axis shows the energy of the pulsed light used for pumping.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Dependence of lasing threshold on pump wavelength. Circle, triangle, and square indicate the cavity length of 0.72, 1.01, and 1.24 mm, respectively. (b) Spectrum for molar absorptivity of LDS798. This was cited from Ref. 30.

Equations (1)

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g t h = α ( ln R ) / L

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