Abstract

We report a graphene-based transparent conductive electrode for use in ultraviolet (UV) GaN light emitting diodes (LEDs). A few-layer graphene (FLG) layer was mechanically deposited. UV light at a peak wavelength of 368nm was successfully emitted by the FLG layer as transparent contact to p-GaN. The emission of UV light through the thin graphene layer was brighter than through the thick graphene layer. The thickness of the graphene layer was characterized by micro-Raman spectroscopy. Our results indicate that this novel graphene-based transparent conductive electrode holds great promise for use in UV optoelectronics for which conventional ITO is less transparent than graphene.

© 2010 OSA

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. X. Liang, A. S. P. Chang, Y. Zhang, B. D. Harteneck, H. Choo, D. L. Olynick, and S. Cabrini, “Electrostatic force assisted exfoliation of prepatterned few-layer graphenes into device sites,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 467–472 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. G. Jo, M. Choe, C. Y. Cho, J. H. Kim, W. Park, S. Lee, W. K. Hong, T. W. Kim, S. J. Park, B. H. Hong, Y. H. Kahng, and T. Lee, “Large-scale patterned multi-layer graphene films as transparent conducting electrodes for GaN light-emitting diodes,” Nanotechnology 21(17), 175201 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  15. J. Zhang, X. Hu, A. Lunev, J. Deng, Y. Bilenko, T. M. Katona, M. S. Shur, R. Gaska, and M. A. Khan, “AlGaN Deep-Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(10), 7250–7253 (2005).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (3)

G. Jo, M. Choe, C. Y. Cho, J. H. Kim, W. Park, S. Lee, W. K. Hong, T. W. Kim, S. J. Park, B. H. Hong, Y. H. Kahng, and T. Lee, “Large-scale patterned multi-layer graphene films as transparent conducting electrodes for GaN light-emitting diodes,” Nanotechnology 21(17), 175201 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. M. Weber, D. M. Eisele, J. P. Rabe, Y. Liang, X. Feng, L. Zhi, K. Müllen, J. L. Lyon, R. Williams, D. A. Vanden Bout, and K. J. Stevenson, “Graphene-based optically transparent electrodes for spectroelectrochemistry in the UV-Vis region,” Small 6(2), 184–189 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Dresselhaus, A. Jorio, M. Hofmann, G. Dresselhaus, and R. Saito, “Perspectives on carbon nanotubes and graphene Raman spectroscopy,” Nano Lett. 10(3), 751–758 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (3)

A. Reina, X. Jia, J. Ho, D. Nezich, H. Son, V. Bulovic, M. S. Dresselhaus, and J. Kong, “Large area, few-layer graphene films on arbitrary substrates by chemical vapor deposition,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 30–35 (2009).
[CrossRef]

V. C. Tung, M. J. Allen, Y. Yang, and R. B. Kaner, “High-throughput solution processing of large-scale graphene,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 4(1), 25–29 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Liang, A. S. P. Chang, Y. Zhang, B. D. Harteneck, H. Choo, D. L. Olynick, and S. Cabrini, “Electrostatic force assisted exfoliation of prepatterned few-layer graphenes into device sites,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 467–472 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (3)

A. A. Balandin, S. Ghosh, W. Bao, I. Calizo, D. Teweldebrhan, F. Miao, and C. N. Lau, “Superior thermal conductivity of single-layer graphene,” Nano Lett. 8(3), 902–907 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Wang, L. Zhi, and K. Müllen, “Transparent, conductive graphene electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells,” Nano Lett. 8(1), 323–327 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Wu, H. A. Becerril, Z. Bao, Z. Liu, Y. Chen, and P. Peumans, “Organic solar cells with solution-processed graphene transparent electrodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(26), 263302 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

G. Gu, S. Nie, R. M. Feensta, R. P. Devaty, W. J. Choyke, W. K. Chan, and M. G. Kane, “Field effect in epitaxial graphene on a silicon carbide substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(25), 253507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

A. C. Ferrari, J. C. Meyer, V. Scardaci, C. Casiraghi, M. Lazzeri, F. Mauri, S. Piscanec, D. Jiang, K. S. Novoselov, S. Roth, and A. K. Geim, “Raman spectrum of graphene and graphene layers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(18), 187401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

J. Zhang, X. Hu, A. Lunev, J. Deng, Y. Bilenko, T. M. Katona, M. S. Shur, R. Gaska, and M. A. Khan, “AlGaN Deep-Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(10), 7250–7253 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhang, Y. W. Tan, H. L. Stormer, and P. Kim, “Experimental observation of the quantum Hall effect and Berry’s phase in graphene,” Nature 438(7065), 201–204 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science 306(5696), 666–669 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

T. Nishida, H. Saito, and N. Kobayashi, “Efficient and high-power AlGaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diode grown on bulk GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(6), 711–712 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1958 (1)

W. S. Hummers Jr and R. E. Offeman, “Preparation of Graphitic Oxide,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 80(6), 1339 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Allen, M. J.

V. C. Tung, M. J. Allen, Y. Yang, and R. B. Kaner, “High-throughput solution processing of large-scale graphene,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 4(1), 25–29 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Balandin, A. A.

A. A. Balandin, S. Ghosh, W. Bao, I. Calizo, D. Teweldebrhan, F. Miao, and C. N. Lau, “Superior thermal conductivity of single-layer graphene,” Nano Lett. 8(3), 902–907 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bao, W.

A. A. Balandin, S. Ghosh, W. Bao, I. Calizo, D. Teweldebrhan, F. Miao, and C. N. Lau, “Superior thermal conductivity of single-layer graphene,” Nano Lett. 8(3), 902–907 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bao, Z.

J. Wu, H. A. Becerril, Z. Bao, Z. Liu, Y. Chen, and P. Peumans, “Organic solar cells with solution-processed graphene transparent electrodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(26), 263302 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Becerril, H. A.

J. Wu, H. A. Becerril, Z. Bao, Z. Liu, Y. Chen, and P. Peumans, “Organic solar cells with solution-processed graphene transparent electrodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(26), 263302 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bilenko, Y.

J. Zhang, X. Hu, A. Lunev, J. Deng, Y. Bilenko, T. M. Katona, M. S. Shur, R. Gaska, and M. A. Khan, “AlGaN Deep-Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(10), 7250–7253 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bulovic, V.

A. Reina, X. Jia, J. Ho, D. Nezich, H. Son, V. Bulovic, M. S. Dresselhaus, and J. Kong, “Large area, few-layer graphene films on arbitrary substrates by chemical vapor deposition,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 30–35 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cabrini, S.

X. Liang, A. S. P. Chang, Y. Zhang, B. D. Harteneck, H. Choo, D. L. Olynick, and S. Cabrini, “Electrostatic force assisted exfoliation of prepatterned few-layer graphenes into device sites,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 467–472 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Calizo, I.

A. A. Balandin, S. Ghosh, W. Bao, I. Calizo, D. Teweldebrhan, F. Miao, and C. N. Lau, “Superior thermal conductivity of single-layer graphene,” Nano Lett. 8(3), 902–907 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Casiraghi, C.

A. C. Ferrari, J. C. Meyer, V. Scardaci, C. Casiraghi, M. Lazzeri, F. Mauri, S. Piscanec, D. Jiang, K. S. Novoselov, S. Roth, and A. K. Geim, “Raman spectrum of graphene and graphene layers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(18), 187401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chan, W. K.

G. Gu, S. Nie, R. M. Feensta, R. P. Devaty, W. J. Choyke, W. K. Chan, and M. G. Kane, “Field effect in epitaxial graphene on a silicon carbide substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(25), 253507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chang, A. S. P.

X. Liang, A. S. P. Chang, Y. Zhang, B. D. Harteneck, H. Choo, D. L. Olynick, and S. Cabrini, “Electrostatic force assisted exfoliation of prepatterned few-layer graphenes into device sites,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 467–472 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.

J. Wu, H. A. Becerril, Z. Bao, Z. Liu, Y. Chen, and P. Peumans, “Organic solar cells with solution-processed graphene transparent electrodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(26), 263302 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cho, C. Y.

G. Jo, M. Choe, C. Y. Cho, J. H. Kim, W. Park, S. Lee, W. K. Hong, T. W. Kim, S. J. Park, B. H. Hong, Y. H. Kahng, and T. Lee, “Large-scale patterned multi-layer graphene films as transparent conducting electrodes for GaN light-emitting diodes,” Nanotechnology 21(17), 175201 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choe, M.

G. Jo, M. Choe, C. Y. Cho, J. H. Kim, W. Park, S. Lee, W. K. Hong, T. W. Kim, S. J. Park, B. H. Hong, Y. H. Kahng, and T. Lee, “Large-scale patterned multi-layer graphene films as transparent conducting electrodes for GaN light-emitting diodes,” Nanotechnology 21(17), 175201 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choo, H.

X. Liang, A. S. P. Chang, Y. Zhang, B. D. Harteneck, H. Choo, D. L. Olynick, and S. Cabrini, “Electrostatic force assisted exfoliation of prepatterned few-layer graphenes into device sites,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 467–472 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Choyke, W. J.

G. Gu, S. Nie, R. M. Feensta, R. P. Devaty, W. J. Choyke, W. K. Chan, and M. G. Kane, “Field effect in epitaxial graphene on a silicon carbide substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(25), 253507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Deng, J.

J. Zhang, X. Hu, A. Lunev, J. Deng, Y. Bilenko, T. M. Katona, M. S. Shur, R. Gaska, and M. A. Khan, “AlGaN Deep-Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(10), 7250–7253 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Devaty, R. P.

G. Gu, S. Nie, R. M. Feensta, R. P. Devaty, W. J. Choyke, W. K. Chan, and M. G. Kane, “Field effect in epitaxial graphene on a silicon carbide substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(25), 253507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dresselhaus, G.

M. S. Dresselhaus, A. Jorio, M. Hofmann, G. Dresselhaus, and R. Saito, “Perspectives on carbon nanotubes and graphene Raman spectroscopy,” Nano Lett. 10(3), 751–758 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dresselhaus, M. S.

M. S. Dresselhaus, A. Jorio, M. Hofmann, G. Dresselhaus, and R. Saito, “Perspectives on carbon nanotubes and graphene Raman spectroscopy,” Nano Lett. 10(3), 751–758 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Reina, X. Jia, J. Ho, D. Nezich, H. Son, V. Bulovic, M. S. Dresselhaus, and J. Kong, “Large area, few-layer graphene films on arbitrary substrates by chemical vapor deposition,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 30–35 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dubonos, S. V.

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science 306(5696), 666–669 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eisele, D. M.

C. M. Weber, D. M. Eisele, J. P. Rabe, Y. Liang, X. Feng, L. Zhi, K. Müllen, J. L. Lyon, R. Williams, D. A. Vanden Bout, and K. J. Stevenson, “Graphene-based optically transparent electrodes for spectroelectrochemistry in the UV-Vis region,” Small 6(2), 184–189 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Feensta, R. M.

G. Gu, S. Nie, R. M. Feensta, R. P. Devaty, W. J. Choyke, W. K. Chan, and M. G. Kane, “Field effect in epitaxial graphene on a silicon carbide substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(25), 253507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Feng, X.

C. M. Weber, D. M. Eisele, J. P. Rabe, Y. Liang, X. Feng, L. Zhi, K. Müllen, J. L. Lyon, R. Williams, D. A. Vanden Bout, and K. J. Stevenson, “Graphene-based optically transparent electrodes for spectroelectrochemistry in the UV-Vis region,” Small 6(2), 184–189 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ferrari, A. C.

A. C. Ferrari, J. C. Meyer, V. Scardaci, C. Casiraghi, M. Lazzeri, F. Mauri, S. Piscanec, D. Jiang, K. S. Novoselov, S. Roth, and A. K. Geim, “Raman spectrum of graphene and graphene layers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(18), 187401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Firsov, A. A.

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science 306(5696), 666–669 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gaska, R.

J. Zhang, X. Hu, A. Lunev, J. Deng, Y. Bilenko, T. M. Katona, M. S. Shur, R. Gaska, and M. A. Khan, “AlGaN Deep-Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(10), 7250–7253 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Geim, A. K.

A. C. Ferrari, J. C. Meyer, V. Scardaci, C. Casiraghi, M. Lazzeri, F. Mauri, S. Piscanec, D. Jiang, K. S. Novoselov, S. Roth, and A. K. Geim, “Raman spectrum of graphene and graphene layers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(18), 187401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science 306(5696), 666–669 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ghosh, S.

A. A. Balandin, S. Ghosh, W. Bao, I. Calizo, D. Teweldebrhan, F. Miao, and C. N. Lau, “Superior thermal conductivity of single-layer graphene,” Nano Lett. 8(3), 902–907 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grigorieva, I. V.

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science 306(5696), 666–669 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gu, G.

G. Gu, S. Nie, R. M. Feensta, R. P. Devaty, W. J. Choyke, W. K. Chan, and M. G. Kane, “Field effect in epitaxial graphene on a silicon carbide substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(25), 253507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Harteneck, B. D.

X. Liang, A. S. P. Chang, Y. Zhang, B. D. Harteneck, H. Choo, D. L. Olynick, and S. Cabrini, “Electrostatic force assisted exfoliation of prepatterned few-layer graphenes into device sites,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 467–472 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ho, J.

A. Reina, X. Jia, J. Ho, D. Nezich, H. Son, V. Bulovic, M. S. Dresselhaus, and J. Kong, “Large area, few-layer graphene films on arbitrary substrates by chemical vapor deposition,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 30–35 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hofmann, M.

M. S. Dresselhaus, A. Jorio, M. Hofmann, G. Dresselhaus, and R. Saito, “Perspectives on carbon nanotubes and graphene Raman spectroscopy,” Nano Lett. 10(3), 751–758 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hong, B. H.

G. Jo, M. Choe, C. Y. Cho, J. H. Kim, W. Park, S. Lee, W. K. Hong, T. W. Kim, S. J. Park, B. H. Hong, Y. H. Kahng, and T. Lee, “Large-scale patterned multi-layer graphene films as transparent conducting electrodes for GaN light-emitting diodes,” Nanotechnology 21(17), 175201 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hong, W. K.

G. Jo, M. Choe, C. Y. Cho, J. H. Kim, W. Park, S. Lee, W. K. Hong, T. W. Kim, S. J. Park, B. H. Hong, Y. H. Kahng, and T. Lee, “Large-scale patterned multi-layer graphene films as transparent conducting electrodes for GaN light-emitting diodes,” Nanotechnology 21(17), 175201 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hu, X.

J. Zhang, X. Hu, A. Lunev, J. Deng, Y. Bilenko, T. M. Katona, M. S. Shur, R. Gaska, and M. A. Khan, “AlGaN Deep-Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(10), 7250–7253 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hummers Jr, W. S.

W. S. Hummers Jr and R. E. Offeman, “Preparation of Graphitic Oxide,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 80(6), 1339 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Jia, X.

A. Reina, X. Jia, J. Ho, D. Nezich, H. Son, V. Bulovic, M. S. Dresselhaus, and J. Kong, “Large area, few-layer graphene films on arbitrary substrates by chemical vapor deposition,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 30–35 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, D.

A. C. Ferrari, J. C. Meyer, V. Scardaci, C. Casiraghi, M. Lazzeri, F. Mauri, S. Piscanec, D. Jiang, K. S. Novoselov, S. Roth, and A. K. Geim, “Raman spectrum of graphene and graphene layers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(18), 187401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science 306(5696), 666–669 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jo, G.

G. Jo, M. Choe, C. Y. Cho, J. H. Kim, W. Park, S. Lee, W. K. Hong, T. W. Kim, S. J. Park, B. H. Hong, Y. H. Kahng, and T. Lee, “Large-scale patterned multi-layer graphene films as transparent conducting electrodes for GaN light-emitting diodes,” Nanotechnology 21(17), 175201 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jorio, A.

M. S. Dresselhaus, A. Jorio, M. Hofmann, G. Dresselhaus, and R. Saito, “Perspectives on carbon nanotubes and graphene Raman spectroscopy,” Nano Lett. 10(3), 751–758 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kahng, Y. H.

G. Jo, M. Choe, C. Y. Cho, J. H. Kim, W. Park, S. Lee, W. K. Hong, T. W. Kim, S. J. Park, B. H. Hong, Y. H. Kahng, and T. Lee, “Large-scale patterned multi-layer graphene films as transparent conducting electrodes for GaN light-emitting diodes,” Nanotechnology 21(17), 175201 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kane, M. G.

G. Gu, S. Nie, R. M. Feensta, R. P. Devaty, W. J. Choyke, W. K. Chan, and M. G. Kane, “Field effect in epitaxial graphene on a silicon carbide substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(25), 253507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kaner, R. B.

V. C. Tung, M. J. Allen, Y. Yang, and R. B. Kaner, “High-throughput solution processing of large-scale graphene,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 4(1), 25–29 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Katona, T. M.

J. Zhang, X. Hu, A. Lunev, J. Deng, Y. Bilenko, T. M. Katona, M. S. Shur, R. Gaska, and M. A. Khan, “AlGaN Deep-Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(10), 7250–7253 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Khan, M. A.

J. Zhang, X. Hu, A. Lunev, J. Deng, Y. Bilenko, T. M. Katona, M. S. Shur, R. Gaska, and M. A. Khan, “AlGaN Deep-Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(10), 7250–7253 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. H.

G. Jo, M. Choe, C. Y. Cho, J. H. Kim, W. Park, S. Lee, W. K. Hong, T. W. Kim, S. J. Park, B. H. Hong, Y. H. Kahng, and T. Lee, “Large-scale patterned multi-layer graphene films as transparent conducting electrodes for GaN light-emitting diodes,” Nanotechnology 21(17), 175201 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, P.

Y. Zhang, Y. W. Tan, H. L. Stormer, and P. Kim, “Experimental observation of the quantum Hall effect and Berry’s phase in graphene,” Nature 438(7065), 201–204 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, T. W.

G. Jo, M. Choe, C. Y. Cho, J. H. Kim, W. Park, S. Lee, W. K. Hong, T. W. Kim, S. J. Park, B. H. Hong, Y. H. Kahng, and T. Lee, “Large-scale patterned multi-layer graphene films as transparent conducting electrodes for GaN light-emitting diodes,” Nanotechnology 21(17), 175201 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kobayashi, N.

T. Nishida, H. Saito, and N. Kobayashi, “Efficient and high-power AlGaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diode grown on bulk GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(6), 711–712 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kong, J.

A. Reina, X. Jia, J. Ho, D. Nezich, H. Son, V. Bulovic, M. S. Dresselhaus, and J. Kong, “Large area, few-layer graphene films on arbitrary substrates by chemical vapor deposition,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 30–35 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lau, C. N.

A. A. Balandin, S. Ghosh, W. Bao, I. Calizo, D. Teweldebrhan, F. Miao, and C. N. Lau, “Superior thermal conductivity of single-layer graphene,” Nano Lett. 8(3), 902–907 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lazzeri, M.

A. C. Ferrari, J. C. Meyer, V. Scardaci, C. Casiraghi, M. Lazzeri, F. Mauri, S. Piscanec, D. Jiang, K. S. Novoselov, S. Roth, and A. K. Geim, “Raman spectrum of graphene and graphene layers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(18), 187401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, S.

G. Jo, M. Choe, C. Y. Cho, J. H. Kim, W. Park, S. Lee, W. K. Hong, T. W. Kim, S. J. Park, B. H. Hong, Y. H. Kahng, and T. Lee, “Large-scale patterned multi-layer graphene films as transparent conducting electrodes for GaN light-emitting diodes,” Nanotechnology 21(17), 175201 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, T.

G. Jo, M. Choe, C. Y. Cho, J. H. Kim, W. Park, S. Lee, W. K. Hong, T. W. Kim, S. J. Park, B. H. Hong, Y. H. Kahng, and T. Lee, “Large-scale patterned multi-layer graphene films as transparent conducting electrodes for GaN light-emitting diodes,” Nanotechnology 21(17), 175201 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liang, X.

X. Liang, A. S. P. Chang, Y. Zhang, B. D. Harteneck, H. Choo, D. L. Olynick, and S. Cabrini, “Electrostatic force assisted exfoliation of prepatterned few-layer graphenes into device sites,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 467–472 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Liang, Y.

C. M. Weber, D. M. Eisele, J. P. Rabe, Y. Liang, X. Feng, L. Zhi, K. Müllen, J. L. Lyon, R. Williams, D. A. Vanden Bout, and K. J. Stevenson, “Graphene-based optically transparent electrodes for spectroelectrochemistry in the UV-Vis region,” Small 6(2), 184–189 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Z.

J. Wu, H. A. Becerril, Z. Bao, Z. Liu, Y. Chen, and P. Peumans, “Organic solar cells with solution-processed graphene transparent electrodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(26), 263302 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lunev, A.

J. Zhang, X. Hu, A. Lunev, J. Deng, Y. Bilenko, T. M. Katona, M. S. Shur, R. Gaska, and M. A. Khan, “AlGaN Deep-Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(10), 7250–7253 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lyon, J. L.

C. M. Weber, D. M. Eisele, J. P. Rabe, Y. Liang, X. Feng, L. Zhi, K. Müllen, J. L. Lyon, R. Williams, D. A. Vanden Bout, and K. J. Stevenson, “Graphene-based optically transparent electrodes for spectroelectrochemistry in the UV-Vis region,” Small 6(2), 184–189 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Mauri, F.

A. C. Ferrari, J. C. Meyer, V. Scardaci, C. Casiraghi, M. Lazzeri, F. Mauri, S. Piscanec, D. Jiang, K. S. Novoselov, S. Roth, and A. K. Geim, “Raman spectrum of graphene and graphene layers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(18), 187401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meyer, J. C.

A. C. Ferrari, J. C. Meyer, V. Scardaci, C. Casiraghi, M. Lazzeri, F. Mauri, S. Piscanec, D. Jiang, K. S. Novoselov, S. Roth, and A. K. Geim, “Raman spectrum of graphene and graphene layers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(18), 187401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miao, F.

A. A. Balandin, S. Ghosh, W. Bao, I. Calizo, D. Teweldebrhan, F. Miao, and C. N. Lau, “Superior thermal conductivity of single-layer graphene,” Nano Lett. 8(3), 902–907 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Morozov, S. V.

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science 306(5696), 666–669 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Müllen, K.

C. M. Weber, D. M. Eisele, J. P. Rabe, Y. Liang, X. Feng, L. Zhi, K. Müllen, J. L. Lyon, R. Williams, D. A. Vanden Bout, and K. J. Stevenson, “Graphene-based optically transparent electrodes for spectroelectrochemistry in the UV-Vis region,” Small 6(2), 184–189 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X. Wang, L. Zhi, and K. Müllen, “Transparent, conductive graphene electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells,” Nano Lett. 8(1), 323–327 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nezich, D.

A. Reina, X. Jia, J. Ho, D. Nezich, H. Son, V. Bulovic, M. S. Dresselhaus, and J. Kong, “Large area, few-layer graphene films on arbitrary substrates by chemical vapor deposition,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 30–35 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nie, S.

G. Gu, S. Nie, R. M. Feensta, R. P. Devaty, W. J. Choyke, W. K. Chan, and M. G. Kane, “Field effect in epitaxial graphene on a silicon carbide substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(25), 253507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nishida, T.

T. Nishida, H. Saito, and N. Kobayashi, “Efficient and high-power AlGaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diode grown on bulk GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(6), 711–712 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Novoselov, K. S.

A. C. Ferrari, J. C. Meyer, V. Scardaci, C. Casiraghi, M. Lazzeri, F. Mauri, S. Piscanec, D. Jiang, K. S. Novoselov, S. Roth, and A. K. Geim, “Raman spectrum of graphene and graphene layers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(18), 187401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science 306(5696), 666–669 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Offeman, R. E.

W. S. Hummers Jr and R. E. Offeman, “Preparation of Graphitic Oxide,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 80(6), 1339 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Olynick, D. L.

X. Liang, A. S. P. Chang, Y. Zhang, B. D. Harteneck, H. Choo, D. L. Olynick, and S. Cabrini, “Electrostatic force assisted exfoliation of prepatterned few-layer graphenes into device sites,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 467–472 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Park, S. J.

G. Jo, M. Choe, C. Y. Cho, J. H. Kim, W. Park, S. Lee, W. K. Hong, T. W. Kim, S. J. Park, B. H. Hong, Y. H. Kahng, and T. Lee, “Large-scale patterned multi-layer graphene films as transparent conducting electrodes for GaN light-emitting diodes,” Nanotechnology 21(17), 175201 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, W.

G. Jo, M. Choe, C. Y. Cho, J. H. Kim, W. Park, S. Lee, W. K. Hong, T. W. Kim, S. J. Park, B. H. Hong, Y. H. Kahng, and T. Lee, “Large-scale patterned multi-layer graphene films as transparent conducting electrodes for GaN light-emitting diodes,” Nanotechnology 21(17), 175201 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Peumans, P.

J. Wu, H. A. Becerril, Z. Bao, Z. Liu, Y. Chen, and P. Peumans, “Organic solar cells with solution-processed graphene transparent electrodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(26), 263302 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Piscanec, S.

A. C. Ferrari, J. C. Meyer, V. Scardaci, C. Casiraghi, M. Lazzeri, F. Mauri, S. Piscanec, D. Jiang, K. S. Novoselov, S. Roth, and A. K. Geim, “Raman spectrum of graphene and graphene layers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(18), 187401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rabe, J. P.

C. M. Weber, D. M. Eisele, J. P. Rabe, Y. Liang, X. Feng, L. Zhi, K. Müllen, J. L. Lyon, R. Williams, D. A. Vanden Bout, and K. J. Stevenson, “Graphene-based optically transparent electrodes for spectroelectrochemistry in the UV-Vis region,” Small 6(2), 184–189 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Reina, A.

A. Reina, X. Jia, J. Ho, D. Nezich, H. Son, V. Bulovic, M. S. Dresselhaus, and J. Kong, “Large area, few-layer graphene films on arbitrary substrates by chemical vapor deposition,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 30–35 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Roth, S.

A. C. Ferrari, J. C. Meyer, V. Scardaci, C. Casiraghi, M. Lazzeri, F. Mauri, S. Piscanec, D. Jiang, K. S. Novoselov, S. Roth, and A. K. Geim, “Raman spectrum of graphene and graphene layers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(18), 187401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Saito, H.

T. Nishida, H. Saito, and N. Kobayashi, “Efficient and high-power AlGaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diode grown on bulk GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(6), 711–712 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Saito, R.

M. S. Dresselhaus, A. Jorio, M. Hofmann, G. Dresselhaus, and R. Saito, “Perspectives on carbon nanotubes and graphene Raman spectroscopy,” Nano Lett. 10(3), 751–758 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scardaci, V.

A. C. Ferrari, J. C. Meyer, V. Scardaci, C. Casiraghi, M. Lazzeri, F. Mauri, S. Piscanec, D. Jiang, K. S. Novoselov, S. Roth, and A. K. Geim, “Raman spectrum of graphene and graphene layers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(18), 187401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shur, M. S.

J. Zhang, X. Hu, A. Lunev, J. Deng, Y. Bilenko, T. M. Katona, M. S. Shur, R. Gaska, and M. A. Khan, “AlGaN Deep-Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(10), 7250–7253 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Son, H.

A. Reina, X. Jia, J. Ho, D. Nezich, H. Son, V. Bulovic, M. S. Dresselhaus, and J. Kong, “Large area, few-layer graphene films on arbitrary substrates by chemical vapor deposition,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 30–35 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Stevenson, K. J.

C. M. Weber, D. M. Eisele, J. P. Rabe, Y. Liang, X. Feng, L. Zhi, K. Müllen, J. L. Lyon, R. Williams, D. A. Vanden Bout, and K. J. Stevenson, “Graphene-based optically transparent electrodes for spectroelectrochemistry in the UV-Vis region,” Small 6(2), 184–189 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Stormer, H. L.

Y. Zhang, Y. W. Tan, H. L. Stormer, and P. Kim, “Experimental observation of the quantum Hall effect and Berry’s phase in graphene,” Nature 438(7065), 201–204 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tan, Y. W.

Y. Zhang, Y. W. Tan, H. L. Stormer, and P. Kim, “Experimental observation of the quantum Hall effect and Berry’s phase in graphene,” Nature 438(7065), 201–204 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Teweldebrhan, D.

A. A. Balandin, S. Ghosh, W. Bao, I. Calizo, D. Teweldebrhan, F. Miao, and C. N. Lau, “Superior thermal conductivity of single-layer graphene,” Nano Lett. 8(3), 902–907 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tung, V. C.

V. C. Tung, M. J. Allen, Y. Yang, and R. B. Kaner, “High-throughput solution processing of large-scale graphene,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 4(1), 25–29 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vanden Bout, D. A.

C. M. Weber, D. M. Eisele, J. P. Rabe, Y. Liang, X. Feng, L. Zhi, K. Müllen, J. L. Lyon, R. Williams, D. A. Vanden Bout, and K. J. Stevenson, “Graphene-based optically transparent electrodes for spectroelectrochemistry in the UV-Vis region,” Small 6(2), 184–189 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X.

X. Wang, L. Zhi, and K. Müllen, “Transparent, conductive graphene electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells,” Nano Lett. 8(1), 323–327 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Weber, C. M.

C. M. Weber, D. M. Eisele, J. P. Rabe, Y. Liang, X. Feng, L. Zhi, K. Müllen, J. L. Lyon, R. Williams, D. A. Vanden Bout, and K. J. Stevenson, “Graphene-based optically transparent electrodes for spectroelectrochemistry in the UV-Vis region,” Small 6(2), 184–189 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Williams, R.

C. M. Weber, D. M. Eisele, J. P. Rabe, Y. Liang, X. Feng, L. Zhi, K. Müllen, J. L. Lyon, R. Williams, D. A. Vanden Bout, and K. J. Stevenson, “Graphene-based optically transparent electrodes for spectroelectrochemistry in the UV-Vis region,” Small 6(2), 184–189 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wu, J.

J. Wu, H. A. Becerril, Z. Bao, Z. Liu, Y. Chen, and P. Peumans, “Organic solar cells with solution-processed graphene transparent electrodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(26), 263302 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yang, Y.

V. C. Tung, M. J. Allen, Y. Yang, and R. B. Kaner, “High-throughput solution processing of large-scale graphene,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 4(1), 25–29 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, J.

J. Zhang, X. Hu, A. Lunev, J. Deng, Y. Bilenko, T. M. Katona, M. S. Shur, R. Gaska, and M. A. Khan, “AlGaN Deep-Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(10), 7250–7253 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y.

X. Liang, A. S. P. Chang, Y. Zhang, B. D. Harteneck, H. Choo, D. L. Olynick, and S. Cabrini, “Electrostatic force assisted exfoliation of prepatterned few-layer graphenes into device sites,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 467–472 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhang, Y. W. Tan, H. L. Stormer, and P. Kim, “Experimental observation of the quantum Hall effect and Berry’s phase in graphene,” Nature 438(7065), 201–204 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science 306(5696), 666–669 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhi, L.

C. M. Weber, D. M. Eisele, J. P. Rabe, Y. Liang, X. Feng, L. Zhi, K. Müllen, J. L. Lyon, R. Williams, D. A. Vanden Bout, and K. J. Stevenson, “Graphene-based optically transparent electrodes for spectroelectrochemistry in the UV-Vis region,” Small 6(2), 184–189 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X. Wang, L. Zhi, and K. Müllen, “Transparent, conductive graphene electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells,” Nano Lett. 8(1), 323–327 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

G. Gu, S. Nie, R. M. Feensta, R. P. Devaty, W. J. Choyke, W. K. Chan, and M. G. Kane, “Field effect in epitaxial graphene on a silicon carbide substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(25), 253507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Wu, H. A. Becerril, Z. Bao, Z. Liu, Y. Chen, and P. Peumans, “Organic solar cells with solution-processed graphene transparent electrodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(26), 263302 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Nishida, H. Saito, and N. Kobayashi, “Efficient and high-power AlGaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diode grown on bulk GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(6), 711–712 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1)

W. S. Hummers Jr and R. E. Offeman, “Preparation of Graphitic Oxide,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 80(6), 1339 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

J. Zhang, X. Hu, A. Lunev, J. Deng, Y. Bilenko, T. M. Katona, M. S. Shur, R. Gaska, and M. A. Khan, “AlGaN Deep-Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(10), 7250–7253 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (5)

M. S. Dresselhaus, A. Jorio, M. Hofmann, G. Dresselhaus, and R. Saito, “Perspectives on carbon nanotubes and graphene Raman spectroscopy,” Nano Lett. 10(3), 751–758 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Reina, X. Jia, J. Ho, D. Nezich, H. Son, V. Bulovic, M. S. Dresselhaus, and J. Kong, “Large area, few-layer graphene films on arbitrary substrates by chemical vapor deposition,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 30–35 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X. Liang, A. S. P. Chang, Y. Zhang, B. D. Harteneck, H. Choo, D. L. Olynick, and S. Cabrini, “Electrostatic force assisted exfoliation of prepatterned few-layer graphenes into device sites,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 467–472 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Balandin, S. Ghosh, W. Bao, I. Calizo, D. Teweldebrhan, F. Miao, and C. N. Lau, “Superior thermal conductivity of single-layer graphene,” Nano Lett. 8(3), 902–907 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Wang, L. Zhi, and K. Müllen, “Transparent, conductive graphene electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells,” Nano Lett. 8(1), 323–327 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nanotechnology (1)

G. Jo, M. Choe, C. Y. Cho, J. H. Kim, W. Park, S. Lee, W. K. Hong, T. W. Kim, S. J. Park, B. H. Hong, Y. H. Kahng, and T. Lee, “Large-scale patterned multi-layer graphene films as transparent conducting electrodes for GaN light-emitting diodes,” Nanotechnology 21(17), 175201 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Nanotechnol. (1)

V. C. Tung, M. J. Allen, Y. Yang, and R. B. Kaner, “High-throughput solution processing of large-scale graphene,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 4(1), 25–29 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature (1)

Y. Zhang, Y. W. Tan, H. L. Stormer, and P. Kim, “Experimental observation of the quantum Hall effect and Berry’s phase in graphene,” Nature 438(7065), 201–204 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

A. C. Ferrari, J. C. Meyer, V. Scardaci, C. Casiraghi, M. Lazzeri, F. Mauri, S. Piscanec, D. Jiang, K. S. Novoselov, S. Roth, and A. K. Geim, “Raman spectrum of graphene and graphene layers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(18), 187401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (1)

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science 306(5696), 666–669 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Small (1)

C. M. Weber, D. M. Eisele, J. P. Rabe, Y. Liang, X. Feng, L. Zhi, K. Müllen, J. L. Lyon, R. Williams, D. A. Vanden Bout, and K. J. Stevenson, “Graphene-based optically transparent electrodes for spectroelectrochemistry in the UV-Vis region,” Small 6(2), 184–189 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

M. Fukuda, Optical Semiconductor Devices (Wiley, New York, 1999).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic diagram of UV LED after deposition of FLG. Top figures are optical images of FLG (left) at zero bias under ambient lighting, (middle) under forward bias with ambient lighting and (right) under forward bias without ambient lighting.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Optical image of graphene with 2 and 4 layers, which was obtained by the mechanical exfoliation method. (b) Raman spectra of three points in the graphene layer of Fig. 2(a). Point 1 is the HOPG region, and point 2 and 3 correspond to regions containing 4 and 2 layers of graphene. (c) The G’ peak in the Raman spectra of graphene of point 1, 2 and 3.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Optical images before (a) and after (b) applying a voltage to graphene. UV light was successfully emitted through the graphene layer of Fig. 3(b). (c) The EL spectra through the graphene layer of Fig. 3(b) in UV LEDs. (d) The I-V characterization of the UV LEDs.

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