Abstract

Quest for photo-stable amorphous thin films in ternary GexAsySe100-x-y chalcogenide system is reported. Studied layers were fabricated using pulsed laser deposition technique. Scanning electron microscope with energy dispersive X-ray analyzer, Raman scattering spectroscopy, transmittance measurements, variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry, and non-linear imaging technique with phase object inside the 4f imaging system were employed to characterize prepared thin films. Their photo-stability/photo-induced phenomena in as-deposited and relaxed states were also investigated, respectively. In linear regime, we found intrinsically photo-stable relaxed layers within Ge20As20Se60 composition. This composition presents also the highest optical damage threshold under non-linear optical conditions.

© 2010 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  29. M. Frumar, B. Frumarova, P. Nemec, T. Wagner, J. Jedelsky, and M. Hrdlicka, “Thin chalcogenide films prepared by pulsed laser deposition - new amorphous materials applicable in optoelectronics and chemical sensors,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352(6-7), 544–561 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  30. J. Tauc, “Absorption edge and internal electric fields in amorphous semiconductors,” Mater. Res. Bull. 5(8), 721–729 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  31. G. Boudebs and S. Cherukulappurath, “Nonlinear optical measurements using a 4f coherent imaging system with phase objects,” Phys. Rev. A 69(5), 053813–053818 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  32. G. Boudebs and C. B. de Araujo, “Characterization of light-induced modification of the nonlinear refractive index using a one-laser-shot nonlinear imaging technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(17), 3740–3742 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  36. T. Mori, S. Onari, and T. Arai, “Raman-scattering in amorphous As-Se system,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 19(6), 1027–1031 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  37. M. Ystenes, W. Brockner, and F. Menzel, “Scaled quantum-mechanical (Sqm) calculations and vibrational analyses of the cage-like molecules P4S3, As4Se3, P4Se3, As4S3, and PAs3S3,” Vib. Spectrosc. 5(2), 195–204 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  38. M. Ystenes, F. Menzel, and W. Brockner, “Ab-initio quantum-mechanical calculations of energy, geometry, vibrational frequencies and IR intensities of tetraphosphorus tetrasulfide, alpha-P4S4(D2d), and vibrational analysis of As4S4 and As4Se4,” Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc. 50(2), 225–231 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  39. M. Wihl, M. Cardona, and J. Tauc, “Raman scattering in amorphous Ge and III-V compounds,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 8–10, 172–178 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  40. L. Petit, N. Carlie, R. Villeneuve, J. Massera, M. Couzi, A. Humeau, G. Boudebs, and K. Richardson, “Effect of the substitution of S for Se on the structure and non-linear optical properties of the glasses in the system Ge0.18Ga0.05Sb0.07S0.70-xSex,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352(50-51), 5413–5420 (2006).
    [CrossRef]

2009

M. Chauvet, G. Fanjoux, K. P. Huy, V. Nazabal, F. Charpentier, T. Billeton, G. Boudebs, M. Cathelinaud, and S. P. Gorza, “Kerr spatial solitons in chalcogenide waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 34(12), 1804–1806 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Němec, V. Nazabal, and M. Frumar, “Photoinduced phenomena in amorphous As4Se3 pulsed laser deposited thin films studied by spectroscopic ellipsometry,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(2), 023509 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Calvez, Z. Yang, and P. Lucas, “Reversible giant photocontraction in chalcogenide glass,” Opt. Express 17(21), 18581–18589 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. A. P. Bulla, R. P. Wang, A. Prasad, A. V. Rode, S. J. Madden, and B. Luther-Davies, “On the properties and stability of thermally evaporated Ge-As-Se thin films,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 96(3), 615–625 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

2007

E. Vateva, “Giant photo- and thermo-induced effects in chalcogenides,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. 9, 3108–3114 (2007).

C. J. Zha, R. P. Wang, A. Smith, A. Prasad, R. A. Jarvis, and B. Luther-Davies, “Optical properties and structural correlations of GeAsSe chalcogenide glasses,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 18(S1), S389–S392 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Jarvis, R. P. Wang, A. V. Rode, C. Zha, and B. Luther-Davies, “Thin film deposition of Ge33As12Se55 by pulsed laser deposition and thermal evaporation: Comparison of properties,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 353(8-10), 947–949 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Y. Choi, S. Madden, A. Rode, R. Wang, and B. Luther-Davies, “Fabrication of low loss Ge33As12Se55 (AMTIR-1) planar waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(1), 011115 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

M. Frumar, B. Frumarova, P. Nemec, T. Wagner, J. Jedelsky, and M. Hrdlicka, “Thin chalcogenide films prepared by pulsed laser deposition - new amorphous materials applicable in optoelectronics and chemical sensors,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352(6-7), 544–561 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. Petit, N. Carlie, R. Villeneuve, J. Massera, M. Couzi, A. Humeau, G. Boudebs, and K. Richardson, “Effect of the substitution of S for Se on the structure and non-linear optical properties of the glasses in the system Ge0.18Ga0.05Sb0.07S0.70-xSex,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352(50-51), 5413–5420 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Guignard, V. Nazabal, F. Smektala, H. Zeghlache, A. Kudlinski, Y. Quiquempois, and G. Martinelli, “High second-order nonlinear susceptibility induced in chalcogenide glasses by thermal poling,” Opt. Express 14(4), 1524–1532 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

2004

D. A. Turnbull, J. S. Sanghera, V. Nguyen, and I. D. Aggarwal, “Fabrication of waveguides in sputtered films of GeAsSe glass via photodarkening with above bandgap light,” Mater. Lett. 58(1-2), 51–54 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Boudebs and S. Cherukulappurath, “Nonlinear optical measurements using a 4f coherent imaging system with phase objects,” Phys. Rev. A 69(5), 053813–053818 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Boudebs and C. B. de Araujo, “Characterization of light-induced modification of the nonlinear refractive index using a one-laser-shot nonlinear imaging technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(17), 3740–3742 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Gopinath, M. Soljacic, E. P. Ippen, V. N. Fuflyigin, W. A. King, and M. Shurgalin, “Third order nonlinearities in Ge-As-Se-based glasses for telecommunications applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(11), 6931–6933 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

M. S. Iovu, S. D. Shutov, P. Boolchand, D. G. Georgiev, and E. P. Colomeico, “The relaxation of photodarkening in Sn doped amorphous As2Se3 films,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. 5, 389–395 (2003).

A. Zakery and S. R. Elliott, “Optical properties and applications of chalcogenide glasses: a review,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 330(1-3), 1–12 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

A. Ganjoo, K. Shimakawa, K. Kitano, and E. A. Davis, “Transient photodarkening in amorphous chalcogenides,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 299–302, 917–923 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

C. Quémard, F. Smektala, V. Couderc, A. Barthelemy, and J. Lucas, “Chalcogenide glasses with high non linear optical properties for telecommunications,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 62(8), 1435–1440 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1998

1997

A. Masuda, Y. Yonezawa, A. Morimoto, M. Kumeda, and T. Shimizu, “Influence of Pb incorporation on light-induced phenomena in amorphous Ge100-x-yPbxSy thin films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 217(2-3), 121–135 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

E. Sleeckx, L. Tichy, P. Nagels, and R. Callaerts, “Thermally and photo-induced irreversible changes in the optical properties of amorphous GexSe100-x films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 198–200, 723–727 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

K. Shimakawa, A. Kolobov, and S. R. Elliott, “Photoinduced effects and metastability in amorphous semiconductors and insulators,” Adv. Phys. 44(6), 475–588 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

M. Ystenes, F. Menzel, and W. Brockner, “Ab-initio quantum-mechanical calculations of energy, geometry, vibrational frequencies and IR intensities of tetraphosphorus tetrasulfide, alpha-P4S4(D2d), and vibrational analysis of As4S4 and As4Se4,” Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc. 50(2), 225–231 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

M. Ystenes, W. Brockner, and F. Menzel, “Scaled quantum-mechanical (Sqm) calculations and vibrational analyses of the cage-like molecules P4S3, As4Se3, P4Se3, As4S3, and PAs3S3,” Vib. Spectrosc. 5(2), 195–204 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1987

S. Sugai, “Stochastic random network model in Ge and Si chalcogenide glasses,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 35(3), 1345–1361 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Z. Liu and P. C. Taylor, “Absence of photodarkening in bulk, glassy As2S3 and As2Se3 alloyed with copper,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59(17), 1938–1941 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1983

K. Murase, T. Fukunaga, K. Yakushiji, T. Yoshimi, and I. Yunoki, “Investigation of stability of (Ge,Sn)-(S, or Se)4/2 cluster by vibrational-spectra,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 59–6, 883–886 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1980

T. Mori, S. Onari, and T. Arai, “Raman-scattering in amorphous As-Se system,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 19(6), 1027–1031 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1972

M. Wihl, M. Cardona, and J. Tauc, “Raman scattering in amorphous Ge and III-V compounds,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 8–10, 172–178 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1970

J. Tauc, “Absorption edge and internal electric fields in amorphous semiconductors,” Mater. Res. Bull. 5(8), 721–729 (1970).
[CrossRef]

1950

T. S. Moss, “A relationship between the refractive index and the infra-red threshold of sensitivity for photoconductors,” Proc. Phys. Soc. London, Sect. B 63(3), 167–176 (1950).
[CrossRef]

Aggarwal, I. D.

D. A. Turnbull, J. S. Sanghera, V. Nguyen, and I. D. Aggarwal, “Fabrication of waveguides in sputtered films of GeAsSe glass via photodarkening with above bandgap light,” Mater. Lett. 58(1-2), 51–54 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Arai, T.

T. Mori, S. Onari, and T. Arai, “Raman-scattering in amorphous As-Se system,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 19(6), 1027–1031 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Barthelemy, A.

C. Quémard, F. Smektala, V. Couderc, A. Barthelemy, and J. Lucas, “Chalcogenide glasses with high non linear optical properties for telecommunications,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 62(8), 1435–1440 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Billeton, T.

Boolchand, P.

M. S. Iovu, S. D. Shutov, P. Boolchand, D. G. Georgiev, and E. P. Colomeico, “The relaxation of photodarkening in Sn doped amorphous As2Se3 films,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. 5, 389–395 (2003).

Boudebs, G.

M. Chauvet, G. Fanjoux, K. P. Huy, V. Nazabal, F. Charpentier, T. Billeton, G. Boudebs, M. Cathelinaud, and S. P. Gorza, “Kerr spatial solitons in chalcogenide waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 34(12), 1804–1806 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Petit, N. Carlie, R. Villeneuve, J. Massera, M. Couzi, A. Humeau, G. Boudebs, and K. Richardson, “Effect of the substitution of S for Se on the structure and non-linear optical properties of the glasses in the system Ge0.18Ga0.05Sb0.07S0.70-xSex,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352(50-51), 5413–5420 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Boudebs and S. Cherukulappurath, “Nonlinear optical measurements using a 4f coherent imaging system with phase objects,” Phys. Rev. A 69(5), 053813–053818 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Boudebs and C. B. de Araujo, “Characterization of light-induced modification of the nonlinear refractive index using a one-laser-shot nonlinear imaging technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(17), 3740–3742 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Brockner, W.

M. Ystenes, F. Menzel, and W. Brockner, “Ab-initio quantum-mechanical calculations of energy, geometry, vibrational frequencies and IR intensities of tetraphosphorus tetrasulfide, alpha-P4S4(D2d), and vibrational analysis of As4S4 and As4Se4,” Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc. 50(2), 225–231 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Ystenes, W. Brockner, and F. Menzel, “Scaled quantum-mechanical (Sqm) calculations and vibrational analyses of the cage-like molecules P4S3, As4Se3, P4Se3, As4S3, and PAs3S3,” Vib. Spectrosc. 5(2), 195–204 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Bulla, D. A. P.

D. A. P. Bulla, R. P. Wang, A. Prasad, A. V. Rode, S. J. Madden, and B. Luther-Davies, “On the properties and stability of thermally evaporated Ge-As-Se thin films,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 96(3), 615–625 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Callaerts, R.

E. Sleeckx, L. Tichy, P. Nagels, and R. Callaerts, “Thermally and photo-induced irreversible changes in the optical properties of amorphous GexSe100-x films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 198–200, 723–727 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Calvez, L.

L. Calvez, Z. Yang, and P. Lucas, “Reversible giant photocontraction in chalcogenide glass,” Opt. Express 17(21), 18581–18589 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Calvez, Z. Y. Yang, and P. Lucas, “Light-induced matrix softening of Ge-As-Se network glasses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(17), 177402 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cardona, M.

M. Wihl, M. Cardona, and J. Tauc, “Raman scattering in amorphous Ge and III-V compounds,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 8–10, 172–178 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Carlie, N.

L. Petit, N. Carlie, R. Villeneuve, J. Massera, M. Couzi, A. Humeau, G. Boudebs, and K. Richardson, “Effect of the substitution of S for Se on the structure and non-linear optical properties of the glasses in the system Ge0.18Ga0.05Sb0.07S0.70-xSex,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352(50-51), 5413–5420 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cathelinaud, M.

Charpentier, F.

Chauvet, M.

Chen, G. R.

Cherukulappurath, S.

G. Boudebs and S. Cherukulappurath, “Nonlinear optical measurements using a 4f coherent imaging system with phase objects,” Phys. Rev. A 69(5), 053813–053818 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Choi, D. Y.

R. P. Wang, A. V. Rode, D. Y. Choi, and B. Luther-Davies, “Investigation of the structure of GexAsySe1-x-y glasses by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(8), 083537 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Y. Choi, S. Madden, A. Rode, R. Wang, and B. Luther-Davies, “Fabrication of low loss Ge33As12Se55 (AMTIR-1) planar waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(1), 011115 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Colomeico, E. P.

M. S. Iovu, S. D. Shutov, P. Boolchand, D. G. Georgiev, and E. P. Colomeico, “The relaxation of photodarkening in Sn doped amorphous As2Se3 films,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. 5, 389–395 (2003).

Couderc, V.

C. Quémard, F. Smektala, V. Couderc, A. Barthelemy, and J. Lucas, “Chalcogenide glasses with high non linear optical properties for telecommunications,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 62(8), 1435–1440 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Couzi, M.

L. Petit, N. Carlie, R. Villeneuve, J. Massera, M. Couzi, A. Humeau, G. Boudebs, and K. Richardson, “Effect of the substitution of S for Se on the structure and non-linear optical properties of the glasses in the system Ge0.18Ga0.05Sb0.07S0.70-xSex,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352(50-51), 5413–5420 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Davis, E. A.

A. Ganjoo, K. Shimakawa, K. Kitano, and E. A. Davis, “Transient photodarkening in amorphous chalcogenides,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 299–302, 917–923 (2002).
[CrossRef]

de Araujo, C. B.

G. Boudebs and C. B. de Araujo, “Characterization of light-induced modification of the nonlinear refractive index using a one-laser-shot nonlinear imaging technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(17), 3740–3742 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Elliott, S. R.

A. Zakery and S. R. Elliott, “Optical properties and applications of chalcogenide glasses: a review,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 330(1-3), 1–12 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. Shimakawa, A. Kolobov, and S. R. Elliott, “Photoinduced effects and metastability in amorphous semiconductors and insulators,” Adv. Phys. 44(6), 475–588 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Fanjoux, G.

Frumar, M.

P. Němec, V. Nazabal, and M. Frumar, “Photoinduced phenomena in amorphous As4Se3 pulsed laser deposited thin films studied by spectroscopic ellipsometry,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(2), 023509 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Frumar, B. Frumarova, P. Nemec, T. Wagner, J. Jedelsky, and M. Hrdlicka, “Thin chalcogenide films prepared by pulsed laser deposition - new amorphous materials applicable in optoelectronics and chemical sensors,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352(6-7), 544–561 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Frumarova, B.

M. Frumar, B. Frumarova, P. Nemec, T. Wagner, J. Jedelsky, and M. Hrdlicka, “Thin chalcogenide films prepared by pulsed laser deposition - new amorphous materials applicable in optoelectronics and chemical sensors,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352(6-7), 544–561 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fuflyigin, V. N.

J. T. Gopinath, M. Soljacic, E. P. Ippen, V. N. Fuflyigin, W. A. King, and M. Shurgalin, “Third order nonlinearities in Ge-As-Se-based glasses for telecommunications applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(11), 6931–6933 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fukunaga, T.

K. Murase, T. Fukunaga, K. Yakushiji, T. Yoshimi, and I. Yunoki, “Investigation of stability of (Ge,Sn)-(S, or Se)4/2 cluster by vibrational-spectra,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 59–6, 883–886 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Ganjoo, A.

A. Ganjoo, K. Shimakawa, K. Kitano, and E. A. Davis, “Transient photodarkening in amorphous chalcogenides,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 299–302, 917–923 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ganjoo, A. T.

Georgiev, D. G.

M. S. Iovu, S. D. Shutov, P. Boolchand, D. G. Georgiev, and E. P. Colomeico, “The relaxation of photodarkening in Sn doped amorphous As2Se3 films,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. 5, 389–395 (2003).

Gopinath, J. T.

J. T. Gopinath, M. Soljacic, E. P. Ippen, V. N. Fuflyigin, W. A. King, and M. Shurgalin, “Third order nonlinearities in Ge-As-Se-based glasses for telecommunications applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(11), 6931–6933 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gorza, S. P.

Guignard, M.

Hatami, M.

Hrdlicka, M.

M. Frumar, B. Frumarova, P. Nemec, T. Wagner, J. Jedelsky, and M. Hrdlicka, “Thin chalcogenide films prepared by pulsed laser deposition - new amorphous materials applicable in optoelectronics and chemical sensors,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352(6-7), 544–561 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Humeau, A.

L. Petit, N. Carlie, R. Villeneuve, J. Massera, M. Couzi, A. Humeau, G. Boudebs, and K. Richardson, “Effect of the substitution of S for Se on the structure and non-linear optical properties of the glasses in the system Ge0.18Ga0.05Sb0.07S0.70-xSex,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352(50-51), 5413–5420 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Huy, K. P.

Iovu, M. S.

M. S. Iovu, S. D. Shutov, P. Boolchand, D. G. Georgiev, and E. P. Colomeico, “The relaxation of photodarkening in Sn doped amorphous As2Se3 films,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. 5, 389–395 (2003).

Ippen, E. P.

J. T. Gopinath, M. Soljacic, E. P. Ippen, V. N. Fuflyigin, W. A. King, and M. Shurgalin, “Third order nonlinearities in Ge-As-Se-based glasses for telecommunications applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(11), 6931–6933 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jain, H. S.

Jarvis, R. A.

C. J. Zha, R. P. Wang, A. Smith, A. Prasad, R. A. Jarvis, and B. Luther-Davies, “Optical properties and structural correlations of GeAsSe chalcogenide glasses,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 18(S1), S389–S392 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Jarvis, R. P. Wang, A. V. Rode, C. Zha, and B. Luther-Davies, “Thin film deposition of Ge33As12Se55 by pulsed laser deposition and thermal evaporation: Comparison of properties,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 353(8-10), 947–949 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jedelsky, J.

M. Frumar, B. Frumarova, P. Nemec, T. Wagner, J. Jedelsky, and M. Hrdlicka, “Thin chalcogenide films prepared by pulsed laser deposition - new amorphous materials applicable in optoelectronics and chemical sensors,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352(6-7), 544–561 (2006).
[CrossRef]

King, W. A.

J. T. Gopinath, M. Soljacic, E. P. Ippen, V. N. Fuflyigin, W. A. King, and M. Shurgalin, “Third order nonlinearities in Ge-As-Se-based glasses for telecommunications applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(11), 6931–6933 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kitano, K.

A. Ganjoo, K. Shimakawa, K. Kitano, and E. A. Davis, “Transient photodarkening in amorphous chalcogenides,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 299–302, 917–923 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kolobov, A.

K. Shimakawa, A. Kolobov, and S. R. Elliott, “Photoinduced effects and metastability in amorphous semiconductors and insulators,” Adv. Phys. 44(6), 475–588 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kudlinski, A.

Kumeda, M.

A. Masuda, Y. Yonezawa, A. Morimoto, M. Kumeda, and T. Shimizu, “Influence of Pb incorporation on light-induced phenomena in amorphous Ge100-x-yPbxSy thin films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 217(2-3), 121–135 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lequime, M. D.

Liu, J. Z.

J. Z. Liu and P. C. Taylor, “Absence of photodarkening in bulk, glassy As2S3 and As2Se3 alloyed with copper,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59(17), 1938–1941 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lucas, J.

C. Quémard, F. Smektala, V. Couderc, A. Barthelemy, and J. Lucas, “Chalcogenide glasses with high non linear optical properties for telecommunications,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 62(8), 1435–1440 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lucas, P.

L. Calvez, Z. Yang, and P. Lucas, “Reversible giant photocontraction in chalcogenide glass,” Opt. Express 17(21), 18581–18589 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Calvez, Z. Y. Yang, and P. Lucas, “Light-induced matrix softening of Ge-As-Se network glasses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(17), 177402 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Luther-Davies, B.

D. A. P. Bulla, R. P. Wang, A. Prasad, A. V. Rode, S. J. Madden, and B. Luther-Davies, “On the properties and stability of thermally evaporated Ge-As-Se thin films,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 96(3), 615–625 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Prasad, C. J. Zha, R. P. Wang, A. Smith, S. Madden, and B. Luther-Davies, “Properties of GexAsySe1-x-y glasses for all-optical signal processing,” Opt. Express 16(4), 2804–2815 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. P. Wang, A. V. Rode, D. Y. Choi, and B. Luther-Davies, “Investigation of the structure of GexAsySe1-x-y glasses by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(8), 083537 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Zha, R. P. Wang, A. Smith, A. Prasad, R. A. Jarvis, and B. Luther-Davies, “Optical properties and structural correlations of GeAsSe chalcogenide glasses,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 18(S1), S389–S392 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Jarvis, R. P. Wang, A. V. Rode, C. Zha, and B. Luther-Davies, “Thin film deposition of Ge33As12Se55 by pulsed laser deposition and thermal evaporation: Comparison of properties,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 353(8-10), 947–949 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Y. Choi, S. Madden, A. Rode, R. Wang, and B. Luther-Davies, “Fabrication of low loss Ge33As12Se55 (AMTIR-1) planar waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(1), 011115 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Madden, S.

A. Prasad, C. J. Zha, R. P. Wang, A. Smith, S. Madden, and B. Luther-Davies, “Properties of GexAsySe1-x-y glasses for all-optical signal processing,” Opt. Express 16(4), 2804–2815 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Y. Choi, S. Madden, A. Rode, R. Wang, and B. Luther-Davies, “Fabrication of low loss Ge33As12Se55 (AMTIR-1) planar waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(1), 011115 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Madden, S. J.

D. A. P. Bulla, R. P. Wang, A. Prasad, A. V. Rode, S. J. Madden, and B. Luther-Davies, “On the properties and stability of thermally evaporated Ge-As-Se thin films,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 96(3), 615–625 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Martinelli, G.

Massera, J.

L. Petit, N. Carlie, R. Villeneuve, J. Massera, M. Couzi, A. Humeau, G. Boudebs, and K. Richardson, “Effect of the substitution of S for Se on the structure and non-linear optical properties of the glasses in the system Ge0.18Ga0.05Sb0.07S0.70-xSex,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352(50-51), 5413–5420 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Masuda, A.

A. Masuda, Y. Yonezawa, A. Morimoto, M. Kumeda, and T. Shimizu, “Influence of Pb incorporation on light-induced phenomena in amorphous Ge100-x-yPbxSy thin films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 217(2-3), 121–135 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Meneghini, C.

Menzel, F.

M. Ystenes, F. Menzel, and W. Brockner, “Ab-initio quantum-mechanical calculations of energy, geometry, vibrational frequencies and IR intensities of tetraphosphorus tetrasulfide, alpha-P4S4(D2d), and vibrational analysis of As4S4 and As4Se4,” Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc. 50(2), 225–231 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Ystenes, W. Brockner, and F. Menzel, “Scaled quantum-mechanical (Sqm) calculations and vibrational analyses of the cage-like molecules P4S3, As4Se3, P4Se3, As4S3, and PAs3S3,” Vib. Spectrosc. 5(2), 195–204 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Mori, T.

T. Mori, S. Onari, and T. Arai, “Raman-scattering in amorphous As-Se system,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 19(6), 1027–1031 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Morimoto, A.

A. Masuda, Y. Yonezawa, A. Morimoto, M. Kumeda, and T. Shimizu, “Influence of Pb incorporation on light-induced phenomena in amorphous Ge100-x-yPbxSy thin films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 217(2-3), 121–135 (1997).
[CrossRef]

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T. S. Moss, “A relationship between the refractive index and the infra-red threshold of sensitivity for photoconductors,” Proc. Phys. Soc. London, Sect. B 63(3), 167–176 (1950).
[CrossRef]

Murase, K.

K. Murase, T. Fukunaga, K. Yakushiji, T. Yoshimi, and I. Yunoki, “Investigation of stability of (Ge,Sn)-(S, or Se)4/2 cluster by vibrational-spectra,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 59–6, 883–886 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Nagels, P.

E. Sleeckx, L. Tichy, P. Nagels, and R. Callaerts, “Thermally and photo-induced irreversible changes in the optical properties of amorphous GexSe100-x films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 198–200, 723–727 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Nazabal, V.

Nemec, P.

P. Němec, V. Nazabal, and M. Frumar, “Photoinduced phenomena in amorphous As4Se3 pulsed laser deposited thin films studied by spectroscopic ellipsometry,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(2), 023509 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Frumar, B. Frumarova, P. Nemec, T. Wagner, J. Jedelsky, and M. Hrdlicka, “Thin chalcogenide films prepared by pulsed laser deposition - new amorphous materials applicable in optoelectronics and chemical sensors,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352(6-7), 544–561 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nguyen, V.

D. A. Turnbull, J. S. Sanghera, V. Nguyen, and I. D. Aggarwal, “Fabrication of waveguides in sputtered films of GeAsSe glass via photodarkening with above bandgap light,” Mater. Lett. 58(1-2), 51–54 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Onari, S.

T. Mori, S. Onari, and T. Arai, “Raman-scattering in amorphous As-Se system,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 19(6), 1027–1031 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Petit, L.

L. Petit, N. Carlie, R. Villeneuve, J. Massera, M. Couzi, A. Humeau, G. Boudebs, and K. Richardson, “Effect of the substitution of S for Se on the structure and non-linear optical properties of the glasses in the system Ge0.18Ga0.05Sb0.07S0.70-xSex,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352(50-51), 5413–5420 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Prasad, A.

D. A. P. Bulla, R. P. Wang, A. Prasad, A. V. Rode, S. J. Madden, and B. Luther-Davies, “On the properties and stability of thermally evaporated Ge-As-Se thin films,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 96(3), 615–625 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Prasad, C. J. Zha, R. P. Wang, A. Smith, S. Madden, and B. Luther-Davies, “Properties of GexAsySe1-x-y glasses for all-optical signal processing,” Opt. Express 16(4), 2804–2815 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. J. Zha, R. P. Wang, A. Smith, A. Prasad, R. A. Jarvis, and B. Luther-Davies, “Optical properties and structural correlations of GeAsSe chalcogenide glasses,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 18(S1), S389–S392 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Quémard, C.

C. Quémard, F. Smektala, V. Couderc, A. Barthelemy, and J. Lucas, “Chalcogenide glasses with high non linear optical properties for telecommunications,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 62(8), 1435–1440 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Quiquempois, Y.

Richardson, K.

L. Petit, N. Carlie, R. Villeneuve, J. Massera, M. Couzi, A. Humeau, G. Boudebs, and K. Richardson, “Effect of the substitution of S for Se on the structure and non-linear optical properties of the glasses in the system Ge0.18Ga0.05Sb0.07S0.70-xSex,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352(50-51), 5413–5420 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rode, A.

D. Y. Choi, S. Madden, A. Rode, R. Wang, and B. Luther-Davies, “Fabrication of low loss Ge33As12Se55 (AMTIR-1) planar waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(1), 011115 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rode, A. V.

D. A. P. Bulla, R. P. Wang, A. Prasad, A. V. Rode, S. J. Madden, and B. Luther-Davies, “On the properties and stability of thermally evaporated Ge-As-Se thin films,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 96(3), 615–625 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. P. Wang, A. V. Rode, D. Y. Choi, and B. Luther-Davies, “Investigation of the structure of GexAsySe1-x-y glasses by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(8), 083537 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Jarvis, R. P. Wang, A. V. Rode, C. Zha, and B. Luther-Davies, “Thin film deposition of Ge33As12Se55 by pulsed laser deposition and thermal evaporation: Comparison of properties,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 353(8-10), 947–949 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sanghera, J. S.

D. A. Turnbull, J. S. Sanghera, V. Nguyen, and I. D. Aggarwal, “Fabrication of waveguides in sputtered films of GeAsSe glass via photodarkening with above bandgap light,” Mater. Lett. 58(1-2), 51–54 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shen, W. D.

Shimakawa, K.

A. Ganjoo, K. Shimakawa, K. Kitano, and E. A. Davis, “Transient photodarkening in amorphous chalcogenides,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 299–302, 917–923 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. Shimakawa, A. Kolobov, and S. R. Elliott, “Photoinduced effects and metastability in amorphous semiconductors and insulators,” Adv. Phys. 44(6), 475–588 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Shimizu, T.

A. Masuda, Y. Yonezawa, A. Morimoto, M. Kumeda, and T. Shimizu, “Influence of Pb incorporation on light-induced phenomena in amorphous Ge100-x-yPbxSy thin films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 217(2-3), 121–135 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Shurgalin, M.

J. T. Gopinath, M. Soljacic, E. P. Ippen, V. N. Fuflyigin, W. A. King, and M. Shurgalin, “Third order nonlinearities in Ge-As-Se-based glasses for telecommunications applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(11), 6931–6933 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shutov, S. D.

M. S. Iovu, S. D. Shutov, P. Boolchand, D. G. Georgiev, and E. P. Colomeico, “The relaxation of photodarkening in Sn doped amorphous As2Se3 films,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. 5, 389–395 (2003).

Sleeckx, E.

E. Sleeckx, L. Tichy, P. Nagels, and R. Callaerts, “Thermally and photo-induced irreversible changes in the optical properties of amorphous GexSe100-x films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 198–200, 723–727 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Smektala, F.

M. Guignard, V. Nazabal, F. Smektala, H. Zeghlache, A. Kudlinski, Y. Quiquempois, and G. Martinelli, “High second-order nonlinear susceptibility induced in chalcogenide glasses by thermal poling,” Opt. Express 14(4), 1524–1532 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Quémard, F. Smektala, V. Couderc, A. Barthelemy, and J. Lucas, “Chalcogenide glasses with high non linear optical properties for telecommunications,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 62(8), 1435–1440 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Smith, A.

A. Prasad, C. J. Zha, R. P. Wang, A. Smith, S. Madden, and B. Luther-Davies, “Properties of GexAsySe1-x-y glasses for all-optical signal processing,” Opt. Express 16(4), 2804–2815 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. J. Zha, R. P. Wang, A. Smith, A. Prasad, R. A. Jarvis, and B. Luther-Davies, “Optical properties and structural correlations of GeAsSe chalcogenide glasses,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 18(S1), S389–S392 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Soljacic, M.

J. T. Gopinath, M. Soljacic, E. P. Ippen, V. N. Fuflyigin, W. A. King, and M. Shurgalin, “Third order nonlinearities in Ge-As-Se-based glasses for telecommunications applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(11), 6931–6933 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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S. Sugai, “Stochastic random network model in Ge and Si chalcogenide glasses,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 35(3), 1345–1361 (1987).
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Tauc, J.

M. Wihl, M. Cardona, and J. Tauc, “Raman scattering in amorphous Ge and III-V compounds,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 8–10, 172–178 (1972).
[CrossRef]

J. Tauc, “Absorption edge and internal electric fields in amorphous semiconductors,” Mater. Res. Bull. 5(8), 721–729 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, P. C.

J. Z. Liu and P. C. Taylor, “Absence of photodarkening in bulk, glassy As2S3 and As2Se3 alloyed with copper,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59(17), 1938–1941 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tichy, L.

E. Sleeckx, L. Tichy, P. Nagels, and R. Callaerts, “Thermally and photo-induced irreversible changes in the optical properties of amorphous GexSe100-x films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 198–200, 723–727 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Turnbull, D. A.

D. A. Turnbull, J. S. Sanghera, V. Nguyen, and I. D. Aggarwal, “Fabrication of waveguides in sputtered films of GeAsSe glass via photodarkening with above bandgap light,” Mater. Lett. 58(1-2), 51–54 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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E. Vateva, “Giant photo- and thermo-induced effects in chalcogenides,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. 9, 3108–3114 (2007).

Villeneuve, A.

Villeneuve, R.

L. Petit, N. Carlie, R. Villeneuve, J. Massera, M. Couzi, A. Humeau, G. Boudebs, and K. Richardson, “Effect of the substitution of S for Se on the structure and non-linear optical properties of the glasses in the system Ge0.18Ga0.05Sb0.07S0.70-xSex,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352(50-51), 5413–5420 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wagner, T.

M. Frumar, B. Frumarova, P. Nemec, T. Wagner, J. Jedelsky, and M. Hrdlicka, “Thin chalcogenide films prepared by pulsed laser deposition - new amorphous materials applicable in optoelectronics and chemical sensors,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352(6-7), 544–561 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wang, R.

D. Y. Choi, S. Madden, A. Rode, R. Wang, and B. Luther-Davies, “Fabrication of low loss Ge33As12Se55 (AMTIR-1) planar waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(1), 011115 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wang, R. P.

D. A. P. Bulla, R. P. Wang, A. Prasad, A. V. Rode, S. J. Madden, and B. Luther-Davies, “On the properties and stability of thermally evaporated Ge-As-Se thin films,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 96(3), 615–625 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Prasad, C. J. Zha, R. P. Wang, A. Smith, S. Madden, and B. Luther-Davies, “Properties of GexAsySe1-x-y glasses for all-optical signal processing,” Opt. Express 16(4), 2804–2815 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. P. Wang, A. V. Rode, D. Y. Choi, and B. Luther-Davies, “Investigation of the structure of GexAsySe1-x-y glasses by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(8), 083537 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Jarvis, R. P. Wang, A. V. Rode, C. Zha, and B. Luther-Davies, “Thin film deposition of Ge33As12Se55 by pulsed laser deposition and thermal evaporation: Comparison of properties,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 353(8-10), 947–949 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Zha, R. P. Wang, A. Smith, A. Prasad, R. A. Jarvis, and B. Luther-Davies, “Optical properties and structural correlations of GeAsSe chalcogenide glasses,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 18(S1), S389–S392 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wihl, M.

M. Wihl, M. Cardona, and J. Tauc, “Raman scattering in amorphous Ge and III-V compounds,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 8–10, 172–178 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Y. S.

Yakushiji, K.

K. Murase, T. Fukunaga, K. Yakushiji, T. Yoshimi, and I. Yunoki, “Investigation of stability of (Ge,Sn)-(S, or Se)4/2 cluster by vibrational-spectra,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 59–6, 883–886 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Yang, G.

Yang, Z.

Yang, Z. Y.

L. Calvez, Z. Y. Yang, and P. Lucas, “Light-induced matrix softening of Ge-As-Se network glasses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(17), 177402 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yonezawa, Y.

A. Masuda, Y. Yonezawa, A. Morimoto, M. Kumeda, and T. Shimizu, “Influence of Pb incorporation on light-induced phenomena in amorphous Ge100-x-yPbxSy thin films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 217(2-3), 121–135 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Yoshimi, T.

K. Murase, T. Fukunaga, K. Yakushiji, T. Yoshimi, and I. Yunoki, “Investigation of stability of (Ge,Sn)-(S, or Se)4/2 cluster by vibrational-spectra,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 59–6, 883–886 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Ystenes, M.

M. Ystenes, F. Menzel, and W. Brockner, “Ab-initio quantum-mechanical calculations of energy, geometry, vibrational frequencies and IR intensities of tetraphosphorus tetrasulfide, alpha-P4S4(D2d), and vibrational analysis of As4S4 and As4Se4,” Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc. 50(2), 225–231 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Ystenes, W. Brockner, and F. Menzel, “Scaled quantum-mechanical (Sqm) calculations and vibrational analyses of the cage-like molecules P4S3, As4Se3, P4Se3, As4S3, and PAs3S3,” Vib. Spectrosc. 5(2), 195–204 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Yunoki, I.

K. Murase, T. Fukunaga, K. Yakushiji, T. Yoshimi, and I. Yunoki, “Investigation of stability of (Ge,Sn)-(S, or Se)4/2 cluster by vibrational-spectra,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 59–6, 883–886 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Zakery, A.

A. Zakery and M. Hatami, “Nonlinear optical properties of pulsed-laser-deposited GeAsSe films and simulation of a nonlinear directional coupler switch,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22(3), 591–597 (2005).
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A. Zakery and S. R. Elliott, “Optical properties and applications of chalcogenide glasses: a review,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 330(1-3), 1–12 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zeghlache, H.

Zeng, H. D.

Zha, C.

R. A. Jarvis, R. P. Wang, A. V. Rode, C. Zha, and B. Luther-Davies, “Thin film deposition of Ge33As12Se55 by pulsed laser deposition and thermal evaporation: Comparison of properties,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 353(8-10), 947–949 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zha, C. J.

A. Prasad, C. J. Zha, R. P. Wang, A. Smith, S. Madden, and B. Luther-Davies, “Properties of GexAsySe1-x-y glasses for all-optical signal processing,” Opt. Express 16(4), 2804–2815 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. J. Zha, R. P. Wang, A. Smith, A. Prasad, R. A. Jarvis, and B. Luther-Davies, “Optical properties and structural correlations of GeAsSe chalcogenide glasses,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 18(S1), S389–S392 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, D. H.

Adv. Phys.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Ge-As-Se ternary diagram: glass-forming region and compositions studied in this work (circle - Ge10As30Se60, square - Ge10As35Se55, triangles (from top) - Ge10As40Se50, Ge15As30Se55, and Ge20As20Se60). MCN corresponds to the mean coordination numbers calculated from nominal composition.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

SEM micrographs of Ge10As40Se50 (left) and Ge20As20Se60 PLD films (right).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

As-deposited Ge10As35Se55 thin film (αhν)1/2 spectral dependence (line shows determination of Eg opt value via extrapolation). Inset shows corresponding transmission spectrum.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Refractive index ( ± 0.01) spectral dependencies of Ge10As30Se60 (a), Ge10As35Se55 (b), and Ge20As20Se60 (c) PLD thin films determined by VASE data analysis.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Raman scattering spectra of Ge-As-Se bulk glasses (a) and annealed PLD films (b).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Raman scattering spectra of Ge10As35Se55 (a) and Ge20As20Se60 (b) PLD films (as-deposited, exposed, annealed and exposed after annealing).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

The time evolution of the η signal for the intensities equal to the threshold value (full circles) and above the threshold (open circles): Ge10As40Se50 (right), Ge20As20Se60 (left).

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Nominal/real chemical composition ( ± 0.5 at. %), and thicknesses of GexAsySe100-x-y bulk glasses and PLD thin films. MCN and MCN* stand for the mean coordination numbers calculated from nominal composition and EDS results, respectively. The glass transition temperatures (Tg, ± 2 °C) shown here are for bulk glasses. Note that thicknesses of the thin films are determined from VASE data analysis ( ± 1 nm)

Tables Icon

Table 2 Ge-As-Se thin films optical parameters in different stages (as-deposited, exposed, annealed, and exposed after annealing): band gap values (estimated by VASE data analysis and from Tauc plots), refractive indices at 1.54 µm (determined via VASE). For a comparison, bulk data for refractive indices are also shown

Tables Icon

Table 3 Selected characteristics of as-deposited Ge-As-Se layers: optical band gap values (Eg opt ) from Tauc plots, refractive indices at 1064 nm and thicknesses (determined via VASE), non-linear photo-induced threshold values I0T ( ± 20%), and corresponding laser pulse energies εpulse ( ± 10%)

Equations (4)

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ε 2 C L ( E ) = { E 1 E e x p { ( E E t ) E u } ;                       0 < E E t ; G ( E ) L ( E ) = ( E E g o p t ) 2 ( E E g o p t ) 2 + E p 2 A E 0 Γ E [ ( E 2 E 0 2 ) 2 + Γ 2 E 2 ] ;                     E > E t ,
n ( E ) = { [ ( ε 1 2 + ε 2 2 ) 1 / 2 + ε 1 ] / 2 } 1 / 2
k ( E ) = { [ ( ε 1 2 + ε 2 2 ) 1 / 2 ε 1 ] / 2 } 1 / 2
M S E =   1 2 N M i = 1 N [ ( Ψ i m o d   Ψ i e x p σ Ψ , i e x p ) 2 + ( Δ i m o d  Δ i e x p σ Δ , i e x p ) 2 ] ,

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