Abstract

A comprehensive investigation of real-time temperature-induced resonance shift cancellation for silicon wire based biosensor arrays is reported for the first time. A reference resonator, protected by either a SU8 or SiO2 cladding layer, is used to track temperature changes. The temperature dependence of resonators in aqueous solutions, pertinent to biosensing applications, is measured under steady-state conditions and the operating parameters influencing these properties are discussed. Real-time measurements show that the reference resonator resonances reflect the temperature changes without noticeable time delay, enabling effective cancellation of temperature-induced shifts. Binding between complementary IgG protein pairs is monitored over 4 orders of magnitude dynamic range down to a concentration of 20 pM, demonstrating a resolvable mass of 40 attograms. Reactions are measured over time periods as long as 3 hours with high stability, showing a scatter corresponding to a fluid refractive index fluctuation of ± 4 × 10−6 in the baseline data. Sensor arrays with a SU8 protective cladding are easy to fabricate, while oxide cladding is found to provide superior stability for measurements involving long time scales.

© 2010 OSA

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2010 (3)

2009 (6)

H.-S. Lee, G.-D. Kim, and S.-S. Lee, “Temperature Compensated Refractometric Biosensor Exploiting Ring Resonators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(16), 1136–1138 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Schmid, W. Sinclair, J. García, S. Janz, J. Lapointe, D. Poitras, Y. Li, T. Mischki, G. Lopinski, P. Cheben, A. Delâge, A. Densmore, P. Waldron, and D.-X. Xu, “Silicon-on-insulator guided mode resonant grating for evanescent field molecular sensing,” Opt. Express 17(20), 18371–18380 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Jokerst, M. Royal, S. Palit, L. Luan, S. Dhar, and T. Tyler, “Chip scale integrated microresonator sensing systems,” J Biophotonics 2(4), 212–226 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L. Washburn, L. C. Gunn, and R. C. Bailey, “Label-free quantitation of a cancer biomarker in complex media using silicon photonic microring resonators,” Anal. Chem. 81(22), 9499–9506 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Densmore, M. Vachon, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, R. Ma, Y.-H. Li, G. Lopinski, A. Delâge, J. Lapointe, C. C. Luebbert, Q. Y. Liu, P. Cheben, and J. H. Schmid, “Silicon photonic wire biosensor array for multiplexed real-time and label-free molecular detection,” Opt. Lett. 34(23), 3598–3600 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. De Vos, J. Girones, T. Claes, Y. De Koninck, S. Popelka, E. Schacht, R. Baets, and P. Bienstman, “Multiplexed antibody detection with an array of silicon-on-insulator microring resonators,” IEEE Photonics J. 1(4), 225–235 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (3)

2007 (2)

2006 (2)

A. Yalcin, K. Popat, J. Aldridge, T. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. Little, O. King, V. Van, S. Chu, D. Gill, M. Anthes-Washburn, M. S. Unlu, and B. B. Goldberg “Optical sensing of biomolecules using microring resonators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(1), 148–155 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Densmore, D.-X. Xu, P. Waldron, S. Janz, P. Cheben, J. Lapointe, A. Delâge, B. Lamontagne, J. Schmid, and E. Post, “A silicon-on-insulator photonic wire based evanescent field sensor,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(23), 2520–2522 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

R. Karlsson, “SPR for molecular interaction analysis: a review of emerging application areas,” J. Mol. Recognit. 17(3), 151–161 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

F. Prieto, B. Sepulveda, A. Calle, A. Llobera, C. Dominguez, and L. Lechuga, “Integrated Mach-Zehnder interferometer based on ARROW structures for biosensor applications,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 92(1-2), 151–158 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

H. El-Kashef, “The necessary requirements imposed on polar dielectric laser dye solvents–II,” Physica B 311(3-4), 376–379 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1999 (3)

G. Cocorullo, F. Della Corte, and I. Rendina, “Temperature dependence of the thermo-optic coefficient in crystalline silicon between room temperature and 550 K at the wavelength of 1523 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(22), 3338 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Homola, S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, “Surface plasmon resonance sensors: review,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 54(1-2), 3–15 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Chu, B. Little, W. Pan, T. Kaneko, S. Sato, and Y. Kokubun, “An eight-channel add-drop filter using vertically coupled microring resonators over a cross grid,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11(6), 691–693 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

B. Luff, J. Wilkinson, J. Piehler, U. Hollenbach, J. Ingenhoff, and N. Fabricius, ““Integrated optical Mach-Zehnder biosensor,” Lightwave Technology,” Journalism 16, 583–592 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

R. Heideman, R. Kooyman, and J. Greve, “Performance of a highly sensitive optical waveguide Mach-Zehnder interferometer immunosensor,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 10(3), 209–217 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

Ahn, H.

Aldridge, J.

A. Yalcin, K. Popat, J. Aldridge, T. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. Little, O. King, V. Van, S. Chu, D. Gill, M. Anthes-Washburn, M. S. Unlu, and B. B. Goldberg “Optical sensing of biomolecules using microring resonators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(1), 148–155 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Anthes-Washburn, M.

A. Yalcin, K. Popat, J. Aldridge, T. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. Little, O. King, V. Van, S. Chu, D. Gill, M. Anthes-Washburn, M. S. Unlu, and B. B. Goldberg “Optical sensing of biomolecules using microring resonators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(1), 148–155 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Baehr-Jones, T.

M. Iqbal, M. Gleeson, B. Spaugh, F. Tybor, W. Gunn, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, R. Bailey, and L. Gunn, “Label-Free Biosensor Arrays Based on Silicon Ring Resonators and High-Speed Optical Scanning Instrumentation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(3), 654–661 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Baets, R.

K. De Vos, J. Girones, T. Claes, Y. De Koninck, S. Popelka, E. Schacht, R. Baets, and P. Bienstman, “Multiplexed antibody detection with an array of silicon-on-insulator microring resonators,” IEEE Photonics J. 1(4), 225–235 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. De Vos, I. Bartolozzi, E. Schacht, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Silicon-on-Insulator microring resonator for sensitive and label-free biosensing,” Opt. Express 15(12), 7610–7615 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bailey, R.

M. Iqbal, M. Gleeson, B. Spaugh, F. Tybor, W. Gunn, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, R. Bailey, and L. Gunn, “Label-Free Biosensor Arrays Based on Silicon Ring Resonators and High-Speed Optical Scanning Instrumentation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(3), 654–661 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bailey, R. C.

A. L. Washburn, L. C. Gunn, and R. C. Bailey, “Label-free quantitation of a cancer biomarker in complex media using silicon photonic microring resonators,” Anal. Chem. 81(22), 9499–9506 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barrios, C. A.

Bartolozzi, I.

Bienstman, P.

K. De Vos, J. Girones, T. Claes, Y. De Koninck, S. Popelka, E. Schacht, R. Baets, and P. Bienstman, “Multiplexed antibody detection with an array of silicon-on-insulator microring resonators,” IEEE Photonics J. 1(4), 225–235 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. De Vos, I. Bartolozzi, E. Schacht, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Silicon-on-Insulator microring resonator for sensitive and label-free biosensing,” Opt. Express 15(12), 7610–7615 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Calle, A.

F. Prieto, B. Sepulveda, A. Calle, A. Llobera, C. Dominguez, and L. Lechuga, “Integrated Mach-Zehnder interferometer based on ARROW structures for biosensor applications,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 92(1-2), 151–158 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Carlborg, C. F.

Chbouki, N.

A. Yalcin, K. Popat, J. Aldridge, T. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. Little, O. King, V. Van, S. Chu, D. Gill, M. Anthes-Washburn, M. S. Unlu, and B. B. Goldberg “Optical sensing of biomolecules using microring resonators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(1), 148–155 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cheben, P.

D.-X. Xu, M. Vachon, A. Densmore, R. Ma, A. Delâge, S. Janz, J. Lapointe, Y. Li, G. Lopinski, D. Zhang, Q. Y. Liu, P. Cheben, and J. H. Schmid, “Label-free biosensor array based on silicon-on-insulator ring resonators addressed using a WDM approach,” Opt. Lett. 35(16), 2771–2773 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Densmore, M. Vachon, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, R. Ma, Y.-H. Li, G. Lopinski, A. Delâge, J. Lapointe, C. C. Luebbert, Q. Y. Liu, P. Cheben, and J. H. Schmid, “Silicon photonic wire biosensor array for multiplexed real-time and label-free molecular detection,” Opt. Lett. 34(23), 3598–3600 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. H. Schmid, W. Sinclair, J. García, S. Janz, J. Lapointe, D. Poitras, Y. Li, T. Mischki, G. Lopinski, P. Cheben, A. Delâge, A. Densmore, P. Waldron, and D.-X. Xu, “Silicon-on-insulator guided mode resonant grating for evanescent field molecular sensing,” Opt. Express 17(20), 18371–18380 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D.-X. Xu, A. Densmore, A. Delâge, P. Waldron, R. McKinnon, S. Janz, J. Lapointe, G. Lopinski, T. Mischki, E. Post, P. Cheben, and J. H. Schmid, “Folded cavity SOI microring sensors for high sensitivity and real time measurement of biomolecular binding,” Opt. Express 16(19), 15137–15148 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Densmore, D.-X. Xu, P. Waldron, S. Janz, P. Cheben, J. Lapointe, A. Delâge, B. Lamontagne, J. Schmid, and E. Post, “A silicon-on-insulator photonic wire based evanescent field sensor,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(23), 2520–2522 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chu, S.

A. Yalcin, K. Popat, J. Aldridge, T. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. Little, O. King, V. Van, S. Chu, D. Gill, M. Anthes-Washburn, M. S. Unlu, and B. B. Goldberg “Optical sensing of biomolecules using microring resonators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(1), 148–155 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Chu, B. Little, W. Pan, T. Kaneko, S. Sato, and Y. Kokubun, “An eight-channel add-drop filter using vertically coupled microring resonators over a cross grid,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11(6), 691–693 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Claes, T.

K. De Vos, J. Girones, T. Claes, Y. De Koninck, S. Popelka, E. Schacht, R. Baets, and P. Bienstman, “Multiplexed antibody detection with an array of silicon-on-insulator microring resonators,” IEEE Photonics J. 1(4), 225–235 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cocorullo, G.

G. Cocorullo, F. Della Corte, and I. Rendina, “Temperature dependence of the thermo-optic coefficient in crystalline silicon between room temperature and 550 K at the wavelength of 1523 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(22), 3338 (1999).
[CrossRef]

De Koninck, Y.

K. De Vos, J. Girones, T. Claes, Y. De Koninck, S. Popelka, E. Schacht, R. Baets, and P. Bienstman, “Multiplexed antibody detection with an array of silicon-on-insulator microring resonators,” IEEE Photonics J. 1(4), 225–235 (2009).
[CrossRef]

De Vos, K.

K. De Vos, J. Girones, T. Claes, Y. De Koninck, S. Popelka, E. Schacht, R. Baets, and P. Bienstman, “Multiplexed antibody detection with an array of silicon-on-insulator microring resonators,” IEEE Photonics J. 1(4), 225–235 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. De Vos, I. Bartolozzi, E. Schacht, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Silicon-on-Insulator microring resonator for sensitive and label-free biosensing,” Opt. Express 15(12), 7610–7615 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Delâge, A.

D.-X. Xu, M. Vachon, A. Densmore, R. Ma, A. Delâge, S. Janz, J. Lapointe, Y. Li, G. Lopinski, D. Zhang, Q. Y. Liu, P. Cheben, and J. H. Schmid, “Label-free biosensor array based on silicon-on-insulator ring resonators addressed using a WDM approach,” Opt. Lett. 35(16), 2771–2773 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Densmore, M. Vachon, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, R. Ma, Y.-H. Li, G. Lopinski, A. Delâge, J. Lapointe, C. C. Luebbert, Q. Y. Liu, P. Cheben, and J. H. Schmid, “Silicon photonic wire biosensor array for multiplexed real-time and label-free molecular detection,” Opt. Lett. 34(23), 3598–3600 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. H. Schmid, W. Sinclair, J. García, S. Janz, J. Lapointe, D. Poitras, Y. Li, T. Mischki, G. Lopinski, P. Cheben, A. Delâge, A. Densmore, P. Waldron, and D.-X. Xu, “Silicon-on-insulator guided mode resonant grating for evanescent field molecular sensing,” Opt. Express 17(20), 18371–18380 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D.-X. Xu, A. Densmore, A. Delâge, P. Waldron, R. McKinnon, S. Janz, J. Lapointe, G. Lopinski, T. Mischki, E. Post, P. Cheben, and J. H. Schmid, “Folded cavity SOI microring sensors for high sensitivity and real time measurement of biomolecular binding,” Opt. Express 16(19), 15137–15148 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Densmore, D.-X. Xu, P. Waldron, S. Janz, P. Cheben, J. Lapointe, A. Delâge, B. Lamontagne, J. Schmid, and E. Post, “A silicon-on-insulator photonic wire based evanescent field sensor,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(23), 2520–2522 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Della Corte, F.

G. Cocorullo, F. Della Corte, and I. Rendina, “Temperature dependence of the thermo-optic coefficient in crystalline silicon between room temperature and 550 K at the wavelength of 1523 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(22), 3338 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Densmore, A.

D.-X. Xu, M. Vachon, A. Densmore, R. Ma, A. Delâge, S. Janz, J. Lapointe, Y. Li, G. Lopinski, D. Zhang, Q. Y. Liu, P. Cheben, and J. H. Schmid, “Label-free biosensor array based on silicon-on-insulator ring resonators addressed using a WDM approach,” Opt. Lett. 35(16), 2771–2773 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. H. Schmid, W. Sinclair, J. García, S. Janz, J. Lapointe, D. Poitras, Y. Li, T. Mischki, G. Lopinski, P. Cheben, A. Delâge, A. Densmore, P. Waldron, and D.-X. Xu, “Silicon-on-insulator guided mode resonant grating for evanescent field molecular sensing,” Opt. Express 17(20), 18371–18380 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Densmore, M. Vachon, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, R. Ma, Y.-H. Li, G. Lopinski, A. Delâge, J. Lapointe, C. C. Luebbert, Q. Y. Liu, P. Cheben, and J. H. Schmid, “Silicon photonic wire biosensor array for multiplexed real-time and label-free molecular detection,” Opt. Lett. 34(23), 3598–3600 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D.-X. Xu, A. Densmore, A. Delâge, P. Waldron, R. McKinnon, S. Janz, J. Lapointe, G. Lopinski, T. Mischki, E. Post, P. Cheben, and J. H. Schmid, “Folded cavity SOI microring sensors for high sensitivity and real time measurement of biomolecular binding,” Opt. Express 16(19), 15137–15148 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Densmore, D.-X. Xu, P. Waldron, S. Janz, P. Cheben, J. Lapointe, A. Delâge, B. Lamontagne, J. Schmid, and E. Post, “A silicon-on-insulator photonic wire based evanescent field sensor,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(23), 2520–2522 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Desai, T.

A. Yalcin, K. Popat, J. Aldridge, T. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. Little, O. King, V. Van, S. Chu, D. Gill, M. Anthes-Washburn, M. S. Unlu, and B. B. Goldberg “Optical sensing of biomolecules using microring resonators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(1), 148–155 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dhar, S.

N. Jokerst, M. Royal, S. Palit, L. Luan, S. Dhar, and T. Tyler, “Chip scale integrated microresonator sensing systems,” J Biophotonics 2(4), 212–226 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dominguez, C.

F. Prieto, B. Sepulveda, A. Calle, A. Llobera, C. Dominguez, and L. Lechuga, “Integrated Mach-Zehnder interferometer based on ARROW structures for biosensor applications,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 92(1-2), 151–158 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dortu, F.

El-Kashef, H.

H. El-Kashef, “The necessary requirements imposed on polar dielectric laser dye solvents–II,” Physica B 311(3-4), 376–379 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fabricius, N.

B. Luff, J. Wilkinson, J. Piehler, U. Hollenbach, J. Ingenhoff, and N. Fabricius, ““Integrated optical Mach-Zehnder biosensor,” Lightwave Technology,” Journalism 16, 583–592 (1998).
[CrossRef]

García, J.

Gauglitz, G.

J. Homola, S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, “Surface plasmon resonance sensors: review,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 54(1-2), 3–15 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gill, D.

A. Yalcin, K. Popat, J. Aldridge, T. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. Little, O. King, V. Van, S. Chu, D. Gill, M. Anthes-Washburn, M. S. Unlu, and B. B. Goldberg “Optical sensing of biomolecules using microring resonators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(1), 148–155 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Girones, J.

K. De Vos, J. Girones, T. Claes, Y. De Koninck, S. Popelka, E. Schacht, R. Baets, and P. Bienstman, “Multiplexed antibody detection with an array of silicon-on-insulator microring resonators,” IEEE Photonics J. 1(4), 225–235 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gleeson, M.

M. Iqbal, M. Gleeson, B. Spaugh, F. Tybor, W. Gunn, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, R. Bailey, and L. Gunn, “Label-Free Biosensor Arrays Based on Silicon Ring Resonators and High-Speed Optical Scanning Instrumentation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(3), 654–661 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Goldberg, B. B.

A. Yalcin, K. Popat, J. Aldridge, T. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. Little, O. King, V. Van, S. Chu, D. Gill, M. Anthes-Washburn, M. S. Unlu, and B. B. Goldberg “Optical sensing of biomolecules using microring resonators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(1), 148–155 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Greve, J.

R. Heideman, R. Kooyman, and J. Greve, “Performance of a highly sensitive optical waveguide Mach-Zehnder interferometer immunosensor,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 10(3), 209–217 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Gunn, L.

M. Iqbal, M. Gleeson, B. Spaugh, F. Tybor, W. Gunn, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, R. Bailey, and L. Gunn, “Label-Free Biosensor Arrays Based on Silicon Ring Resonators and High-Speed Optical Scanning Instrumentation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(3), 654–661 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gunn, L. C.

A. L. Washburn, L. C. Gunn, and R. C. Bailey, “Label-free quantitation of a cancer biomarker in complex media using silicon photonic microring resonators,” Anal. Chem. 81(22), 9499–9506 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gunn, W.

M. Iqbal, M. Gleeson, B. Spaugh, F. Tybor, W. Gunn, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, R. Bailey, and L. Gunn, “Label-Free Biosensor Arrays Based on Silicon Ring Resonators and High-Speed Optical Scanning Instrumentation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(3), 654–661 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gylfason, K. B.

Heideman, R.

R. Heideman, R. Kooyman, and J. Greve, “Performance of a highly sensitive optical waveguide Mach-Zehnder interferometer immunosensor,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 10(3), 209–217 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hochberg, M.

M. Iqbal, M. Gleeson, B. Spaugh, F. Tybor, W. Gunn, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, R. Bailey, and L. Gunn, “Label-Free Biosensor Arrays Based on Silicon Ring Resonators and High-Speed Optical Scanning Instrumentation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(3), 654–661 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hollenbach, U.

B. Luff, J. Wilkinson, J. Piehler, U. Hollenbach, J. Ingenhoff, and N. Fabricius, ““Integrated optical Mach-Zehnder biosensor,” Lightwave Technology,” Journalism 16, 583–592 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Homola, J.

J. Homola, S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, “Surface plasmon resonance sensors: review,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 54(1-2), 3–15 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hryniewicz, J.

A. Yalcin, K. Popat, J. Aldridge, T. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. Little, O. King, V. Van, S. Chu, D. Gill, M. Anthes-Washburn, M. S. Unlu, and B. B. Goldberg “Optical sensing of biomolecules using microring resonators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(1), 148–155 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ingenhoff, J.

B. Luff, J. Wilkinson, J. Piehler, U. Hollenbach, J. Ingenhoff, and N. Fabricius, ““Integrated optical Mach-Zehnder biosensor,” Lightwave Technology,” Journalism 16, 583–592 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Iqbal, M.

M. Iqbal, M. Gleeson, B. Spaugh, F. Tybor, W. Gunn, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, R. Bailey, and L. Gunn, “Label-Free Biosensor Arrays Based on Silicon Ring Resonators and High-Speed Optical Scanning Instrumentation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(3), 654–661 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Janz, S.

D.-X. Xu, M. Vachon, A. Densmore, R. Ma, A. Delâge, S. Janz, J. Lapointe, Y. Li, G. Lopinski, D. Zhang, Q. Y. Liu, P. Cheben, and J. H. Schmid, “Label-free biosensor array based on silicon-on-insulator ring resonators addressed using a WDM approach,” Opt. Lett. 35(16), 2771–2773 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. H. Schmid, W. Sinclair, J. García, S. Janz, J. Lapointe, D. Poitras, Y. Li, T. Mischki, G. Lopinski, P. Cheben, A. Delâge, A. Densmore, P. Waldron, and D.-X. Xu, “Silicon-on-insulator guided mode resonant grating for evanescent field molecular sensing,” Opt. Express 17(20), 18371–18380 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Densmore, M. Vachon, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, R. Ma, Y.-H. Li, G. Lopinski, A. Delâge, J. Lapointe, C. C. Luebbert, Q. Y. Liu, P. Cheben, and J. H. Schmid, “Silicon photonic wire biosensor array for multiplexed real-time and label-free molecular detection,” Opt. Lett. 34(23), 3598–3600 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D.-X. Xu, A. Densmore, A. Delâge, P. Waldron, R. McKinnon, S. Janz, J. Lapointe, G. Lopinski, T. Mischki, E. Post, P. Cheben, and J. H. Schmid, “Folded cavity SOI microring sensors for high sensitivity and real time measurement of biomolecular binding,” Opt. Express 16(19), 15137–15148 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Densmore, D.-X. Xu, P. Waldron, S. Janz, P. Cheben, J. Lapointe, A. Delâge, B. Lamontagne, J. Schmid, and E. Post, “A silicon-on-insulator photonic wire based evanescent field sensor,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(23), 2520–2522 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jokerst, N.

N. Jokerst, M. Royal, S. Palit, L. Luan, S. Dhar, and T. Tyler, “Chip scale integrated microresonator sensing systems,” J Biophotonics 2(4), 212–226 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kaneko, T.

S. Chu, B. Little, W. Pan, T. Kaneko, S. Sato, and Y. Kokubun, “An eight-channel add-drop filter using vertically coupled microring resonators over a cross grid,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11(6), 691–693 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Karlsson, R.

R. Karlsson, “SPR for molecular interaction analysis: a review of emerging application areas,” J. Mol. Recognit. 17(3), 151–161 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kazmierczak, A.

Kim, D.

Kim, G.

Kim, G.-D.

H.-S. Lee, G.-D. Kim, and S.-S. Lee, “Temperature Compensated Refractometric Biosensor Exploiting Ring Resonators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(16), 1136–1138 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kimerling, L.

W. Ye, J. Michel, and L. Kimerling, “Athermal high-index-contrast waveguide design,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(11), 885–887 (2008).
[CrossRef]

King, O.

A. Yalcin, K. Popat, J. Aldridge, T. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. Little, O. King, V. Van, S. Chu, D. Gill, M. Anthes-Washburn, M. S. Unlu, and B. B. Goldberg “Optical sensing of biomolecules using microring resonators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(1), 148–155 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kokubun, Y.

S. Chu, B. Little, W. Pan, T. Kaneko, S. Sato, and Y. Kokubun, “An eight-channel add-drop filter using vertically coupled microring resonators over a cross grid,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11(6), 691–693 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kooyman, R.

R. Heideman, R. Kooyman, and J. Greve, “Performance of a highly sensitive optical waveguide Mach-Zehnder interferometer immunosensor,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 10(3), 209–217 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kwon, M.-S.

Lamontagne, B.

A. Densmore, D.-X. Xu, P. Waldron, S. Janz, P. Cheben, J. Lapointe, A. Delâge, B. Lamontagne, J. Schmid, and E. Post, “A silicon-on-insulator photonic wire based evanescent field sensor,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(23), 2520–2522 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lapointe, J.

D.-X. Xu, M. Vachon, A. Densmore, R. Ma, A. Delâge, S. Janz, J. Lapointe, Y. Li, G. Lopinski, D. Zhang, Q. Y. Liu, P. Cheben, and J. H. Schmid, “Label-free biosensor array based on silicon-on-insulator ring resonators addressed using a WDM approach,” Opt. Lett. 35(16), 2771–2773 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Densmore, M. Vachon, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, R. Ma, Y.-H. Li, G. Lopinski, A. Delâge, J. Lapointe, C. C. Luebbert, Q. Y. Liu, P. Cheben, and J. H. Schmid, “Silicon photonic wire biosensor array for multiplexed real-time and label-free molecular detection,” Opt. Lett. 34(23), 3598–3600 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. H. Schmid, W. Sinclair, J. García, S. Janz, J. Lapointe, D. Poitras, Y. Li, T. Mischki, G. Lopinski, P. Cheben, A. Delâge, A. Densmore, P. Waldron, and D.-X. Xu, “Silicon-on-insulator guided mode resonant grating for evanescent field molecular sensing,” Opt. Express 17(20), 18371–18380 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D.-X. Xu, A. Densmore, A. Delâge, P. Waldron, R. McKinnon, S. Janz, J. Lapointe, G. Lopinski, T. Mischki, E. Post, P. Cheben, and J. H. Schmid, “Folded cavity SOI microring sensors for high sensitivity and real time measurement of biomolecular binding,” Opt. Express 16(19), 15137–15148 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Densmore, D.-X. Xu, P. Waldron, S. Janz, P. Cheben, J. Lapointe, A. Delâge, B. Lamontagne, J. Schmid, and E. Post, “A silicon-on-insulator photonic wire based evanescent field sensor,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(23), 2520–2522 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lechuga, L.

F. Prieto, B. Sepulveda, A. Calle, A. Llobera, C. Dominguez, and L. Lechuga, “Integrated Mach-Zehnder interferometer based on ARROW structures for biosensor applications,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 92(1-2), 151–158 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lee, H.-S.

H.-S. Lee, G.-D. Kim, and S.-S. Lee, “Temperature Compensated Refractometric Biosensor Exploiting Ring Resonators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(16), 1136–1138 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J.

Lee, S.-S.

H.-S. Lee, G.-D. Kim, and S.-S. Lee, “Temperature Compensated Refractometric Biosensor Exploiting Ring Resonators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(16), 1136–1138 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y.

Li, Y.-H.

Little, B.

A. Yalcin, K. Popat, J. Aldridge, T. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. Little, O. King, V. Van, S. Chu, D. Gill, M. Anthes-Washburn, M. S. Unlu, and B. B. Goldberg “Optical sensing of biomolecules using microring resonators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(1), 148–155 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Chu, B. Little, W. Pan, T. Kaneko, S. Sato, and Y. Kokubun, “An eight-channel add-drop filter using vertically coupled microring resonators over a cross grid,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11(6), 691–693 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Q. Y.

Llobera, A.

F. Prieto, B. Sepulveda, A. Calle, A. Llobera, C. Dominguez, and L. Lechuga, “Integrated Mach-Zehnder interferometer based on ARROW structures for biosensor applications,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 92(1-2), 151–158 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lopinski, G.

Luan, L.

N. Jokerst, M. Royal, S. Palit, L. Luan, S. Dhar, and T. Tyler, “Chip scale integrated microresonator sensing systems,” J Biophotonics 2(4), 212–226 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Luebbert, C. C.

Luff, B.

B. Luff, J. Wilkinson, J. Piehler, U. Hollenbach, J. Ingenhoff, and N. Fabricius, ““Integrated optical Mach-Zehnder biosensor,” Lightwave Technology,” Journalism 16, 583–592 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lukosz, W.

Ma, R.

McKinnon, R.

Michel, J.

W. Ye, J. Michel, and L. Kimerling, “Athermal high-index-contrast waveguide design,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(11), 885–887 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mischki, T.

Palit, S.

N. Jokerst, M. Royal, S. Palit, L. Luan, S. Dhar, and T. Tyler, “Chip scale integrated microresonator sensing systems,” J Biophotonics 2(4), 212–226 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pan, W.

S. Chu, B. Little, W. Pan, T. Kaneko, S. Sato, and Y. Kokubun, “An eight-channel add-drop filter using vertically coupled microring resonators over a cross grid,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11(6), 691–693 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Park, S.

Piehler, J.

B. Luff, J. Wilkinson, J. Piehler, U. Hollenbach, J. Ingenhoff, and N. Fabricius, ““Integrated optical Mach-Zehnder biosensor,” Lightwave Technology,” Journalism 16, 583–592 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Poitras, D.

Popat, K.

A. Yalcin, K. Popat, J. Aldridge, T. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. Little, O. King, V. Van, S. Chu, D. Gill, M. Anthes-Washburn, M. S. Unlu, and B. B. Goldberg “Optical sensing of biomolecules using microring resonators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(1), 148–155 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Popelka, S.

K. De Vos, J. Girones, T. Claes, Y. De Koninck, S. Popelka, E. Schacht, R. Baets, and P. Bienstman, “Multiplexed antibody detection with an array of silicon-on-insulator microring resonators,” IEEE Photonics J. 1(4), 225–235 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Post, E.

D.-X. Xu, A. Densmore, A. Delâge, P. Waldron, R. McKinnon, S. Janz, J. Lapointe, G. Lopinski, T. Mischki, E. Post, P. Cheben, and J. H. Schmid, “Folded cavity SOI microring sensors for high sensitivity and real time measurement of biomolecular binding,” Opt. Express 16(19), 15137–15148 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Densmore, D.-X. Xu, P. Waldron, S. Janz, P. Cheben, J. Lapointe, A. Delâge, B. Lamontagne, J. Schmid, and E. Post, “A silicon-on-insulator photonic wire based evanescent field sensor,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(23), 2520–2522 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Prieto, F.

F. Prieto, B. Sepulveda, A. Calle, A. Llobera, C. Dominguez, and L. Lechuga, “Integrated Mach-Zehnder interferometer based on ARROW structures for biosensor applications,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 92(1-2), 151–158 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rendina, I.

G. Cocorullo, F. Della Corte, and I. Rendina, “Temperature dependence of the thermo-optic coefficient in crystalline silicon between room temperature and 550 K at the wavelength of 1523 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(22), 3338 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Royal, M.

N. Jokerst, M. Royal, S. Palit, L. Luan, S. Dhar, and T. Tyler, “Chip scale integrated microresonator sensing systems,” J Biophotonics 2(4), 212–226 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sato, S.

S. Chu, B. Little, W. Pan, T. Kaneko, S. Sato, and Y. Kokubun, “An eight-channel add-drop filter using vertically coupled microring resonators over a cross grid,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11(6), 691–693 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Schacht, E.

K. De Vos, J. Girones, T. Claes, Y. De Koninck, S. Popelka, E. Schacht, R. Baets, and P. Bienstman, “Multiplexed antibody detection with an array of silicon-on-insulator microring resonators,” IEEE Photonics J. 1(4), 225–235 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. De Vos, I. Bartolozzi, E. Schacht, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Silicon-on-Insulator microring resonator for sensitive and label-free biosensing,” Opt. Express 15(12), 7610–7615 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmid, J.

A. Densmore, D.-X. Xu, P. Waldron, S. Janz, P. Cheben, J. Lapointe, A. Delâge, B. Lamontagne, J. Schmid, and E. Post, “A silicon-on-insulator photonic wire based evanescent field sensor,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(23), 2520–2522 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schmid, J. H.

Sepulveda, B.

F. Prieto, B. Sepulveda, A. Calle, A. Llobera, C. Dominguez, and L. Lechuga, “Integrated Mach-Zehnder interferometer based on ARROW structures for biosensor applications,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 92(1-2), 151–158 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sinclair, W.

Sohlström, H.

Spaugh, B.

M. Iqbal, M. Gleeson, B. Spaugh, F. Tybor, W. Gunn, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, R. Bailey, and L. Gunn, “Label-Free Biosensor Arrays Based on Silicon Ring Resonators and High-Speed Optical Scanning Instrumentation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(3), 654–661 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Steier, W. H.

Stemme, G.

Tiefenthaler, K.

Tybor, F.

M. Iqbal, M. Gleeson, B. Spaugh, F. Tybor, W. Gunn, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, R. Bailey, and L. Gunn, “Label-Free Biosensor Arrays Based on Silicon Ring Resonators and High-Speed Optical Scanning Instrumentation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(3), 654–661 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tyler, T.

N. Jokerst, M. Royal, S. Palit, L. Luan, S. Dhar, and T. Tyler, “Chip scale integrated microresonator sensing systems,” J Biophotonics 2(4), 212–226 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Unlu, M. S.

A. Yalcin, K. Popat, J. Aldridge, T. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. Little, O. King, V. Van, S. Chu, D. Gill, M. Anthes-Washburn, M. S. Unlu, and B. B. Goldberg “Optical sensing of biomolecules using microring resonators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(1), 148–155 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Vachon, M.

Van, V.

A. Yalcin, K. Popat, J. Aldridge, T. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. Little, O. King, V. Van, S. Chu, D. Gill, M. Anthes-Washburn, M. S. Unlu, and B. B. Goldberg “Optical sensing of biomolecules using microring resonators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(1), 148–155 (2006).
[CrossRef]

van der Wijngaart, W.

Vivien, L.

Waldron, P.

Washburn, A. L.

A. L. Washburn, L. C. Gunn, and R. C. Bailey, “Label-free quantitation of a cancer biomarker in complex media using silicon photonic microring resonators,” Anal. Chem. 81(22), 9499–9506 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wilkinson, J.

B. Luff, J. Wilkinson, J. Piehler, U. Hollenbach, J. Ingenhoff, and N. Fabricius, ““Integrated optical Mach-Zehnder biosensor,” Lightwave Technology,” Journalism 16, 583–592 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Xu, D.-X.

D.-X. Xu, M. Vachon, A. Densmore, R. Ma, A. Delâge, S. Janz, J. Lapointe, Y. Li, G. Lopinski, D. Zhang, Q. Y. Liu, P. Cheben, and J. H. Schmid, “Label-free biosensor array based on silicon-on-insulator ring resonators addressed using a WDM approach,” Opt. Lett. 35(16), 2771–2773 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. H. Schmid, W. Sinclair, J. García, S. Janz, J. Lapointe, D. Poitras, Y. Li, T. Mischki, G. Lopinski, P. Cheben, A. Delâge, A. Densmore, P. Waldron, and D.-X. Xu, “Silicon-on-insulator guided mode resonant grating for evanescent field molecular sensing,” Opt. Express 17(20), 18371–18380 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Densmore, M. Vachon, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, R. Ma, Y.-H. Li, G. Lopinski, A. Delâge, J. Lapointe, C. C. Luebbert, Q. Y. Liu, P. Cheben, and J. H. Schmid, “Silicon photonic wire biosensor array for multiplexed real-time and label-free molecular detection,” Opt. Lett. 34(23), 3598–3600 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D.-X. Xu, A. Densmore, A. Delâge, P. Waldron, R. McKinnon, S. Janz, J. Lapointe, G. Lopinski, T. Mischki, E. Post, P. Cheben, and J. H. Schmid, “Folded cavity SOI microring sensors for high sensitivity and real time measurement of biomolecular binding,” Opt. Express 16(19), 15137–15148 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Densmore, D.-X. Xu, P. Waldron, S. Janz, P. Cheben, J. Lapointe, A. Delâge, B. Lamontagne, J. Schmid, and E. Post, “A silicon-on-insulator photonic wire based evanescent field sensor,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(23), 2520–2522 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yalcin, A.

A. Yalcin, K. Popat, J. Aldridge, T. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. Little, O. King, V. Van, S. Chu, D. Gill, M. Anthes-Washburn, M. S. Unlu, and B. B. Goldberg “Optical sensing of biomolecules using microring resonators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(1), 148–155 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ye, W.

W. Ye, J. Michel, and L. Kimerling, “Athermal high-index-contrast waveguide design,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(11), 885–887 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yee, S.

J. Homola, S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, “Surface plasmon resonance sensors: review,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 54(1-2), 3–15 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, D.

Anal. Chem. (1)

A. L. Washburn, L. C. Gunn, and R. C. Bailey, “Label-free quantitation of a cancer biomarker in complex media using silicon photonic microring resonators,” Anal. Chem. 81(22), 9499–9506 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

G. Cocorullo, F. Della Corte, and I. Rendina, “Temperature dependence of the thermo-optic coefficient in crystalline silicon between room temperature and 550 K at the wavelength of 1523 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(22), 3338 (1999).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (2)

A. Yalcin, K. Popat, J. Aldridge, T. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. Little, O. King, V. Van, S. Chu, D. Gill, M. Anthes-Washburn, M. S. Unlu, and B. B. Goldberg “Optical sensing of biomolecules using microring resonators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(1), 148–155 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Iqbal, M. Gleeson, B. Spaugh, F. Tybor, W. Gunn, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, R. Bailey, and L. Gunn, “Label-Free Biosensor Arrays Based on Silicon Ring Resonators and High-Speed Optical Scanning Instrumentation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(3), 654–661 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (4)

A. Densmore, D.-X. Xu, P. Waldron, S. Janz, P. Cheben, J. Lapointe, A. Delâge, B. Lamontagne, J. Schmid, and E. Post, “A silicon-on-insulator photonic wire based evanescent field sensor,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(23), 2520–2522 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H.-S. Lee, G.-D. Kim, and S.-S. Lee, “Temperature Compensated Refractometric Biosensor Exploiting Ring Resonators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(16), 1136–1138 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Chu, B. Little, W. Pan, T. Kaneko, S. Sato, and Y. Kokubun, “An eight-channel add-drop filter using vertically coupled microring resonators over a cross grid,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11(6), 691–693 (1999).
[CrossRef]

W. Ye, J. Michel, and L. Kimerling, “Athermal high-index-contrast waveguide design,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(11), 885–887 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photonics J. (1)

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R. Karlsson, “SPR for molecular interaction analysis: a review of emerging application areas,” J. Mol. Recognit. 17(3), 151–161 (2004).
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B. Luff, J. Wilkinson, J. Piehler, U. Hollenbach, J. Ingenhoff, and N. Fabricius, ““Integrated optical Mach-Zehnder biosensor,” Lightwave Technology,” Journalism 16, 583–592 (1998).
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H. El-Kashef, “The necessary requirements imposed on polar dielectric laser dye solvents–II,” Physica B 311(3-4), 376–379 (2002).
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R. Heideman, R. Kooyman, and J. Greve, “Performance of a highly sensitive optical waveguide Mach-Zehnder interferometer immunosensor,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 10(3), 209–217 (1993).
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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic of the ring resonator sensor array with a reference ring for tracking sensor temperature changes. The reference is protected by a2 μm thick SU8 or SiO2 cladding layer. The resonators are coupled in series and addressed using WDM; (b) Schematic of the device cross-section; (c) Fabricated sensor array with one reference and four sensing resonators; (d) Sensor array integrated with a microfluidic channel made in a SU8 film.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Transmission spectra of a reference (protected by SiO2) and a sensing (in water) resonator from a type B sample at several steady-state temperatures with water in the fluidic channel. (b) Repeated measurements of the resonance wavelength. (c) Resonance wavelength shift as a function of temperature for data shown in (b). The slopes indicate the values of ∂λ∕∂T for this wavelength range. (d) The values of ∂λ∕∂T as a function of wavelength for type A and B samples with the reference resonator under different protective claddings. The lines are there to guide the eye.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Modal electric field profile of a SOI waveguide with a 450 nm × 238 nm cross-section immersed in water. (b) Modal field line profile across the dashed line in (a), for waveguides with SU8 and water upper cladding, respectively.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Reference ring resonance wavelength shift as a function of fluid exposure time for a type A sample (SU8 cladding), and the stage temperature reading when it is set at 25 °C. (b) As-measured response of the reference resonator Δ λ r e f ' (green symbols) for another sample exposed to the injection of 0.5%, 1% and 2% sucrose solutions (more data are shown in Fig. 5) measured without temperature control, together with the calculated SU8 drift Δ λ r e f w (red line), deduced true temperature shift Δ λ r e f T (brown line), and the stage temperature reading (cyan symbols).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) As-measured response of the reference and sensing ring resonators on sample A (SU8 cladding) to the injection of 0.5%, 1% and 2% sucrose solutions; (b) A close-up of (a), showing also the calculated true temperature induced shift by removing the water permeation contribution from the reference signal; (c) Corrected sensing signal.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) As-measured and corrected wavelength shifts of a sensor spotted with rabbit IgG upon exposure to 2 nM of anti-rabbit IgG solution, along with the reference ring response; (b) Corrected sensor response to varying concentrations of anti-rabbit IgG. Inset: A close up of the response to 0.02 nM IgG.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Reference ring resonance wavelength shift for a type B sample (SiO2 cladding) and the stage temperature reading as a function of time, when the temperature is set at 25°C.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(a) As-measured response of the reference and sensing ring resonators on a type B sample (oxide cladding) to the injection of 0.1% and 0.3% sucrose solutions, with DI water rinsing steps in between. A rise and fall in temperature was deliberately introduced. (b) Sensing signal with the temperature induced drift corrected; (c) Reference ring resonance wavelength shift and the stage temperature reading as a function of time.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Measured and simulated temperature dependence of the resonance wavelength ∂λ/∂T and group index ng for the sensing and reference resonators at λ ~1550 nm. Cross-sectional dimensions listed below and the material parameters listed in Table 2 are used for the simulations.

Tables Icon

Table 2 Material properties of the waveguide core and claddings. The numbers in brackets [ ] indicate the references. The refractive index of SU8 is measured using ellipsometry.

Equations (4)

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λ T = λ n g n e f f T
Δ λ s e n s i n g ' = Δ λ s e n s i n g 0 + Δ λ s e n s i n g T = Δ λ s e n s i n g 0 + ( λ / T ) s e n s i n g Δ T
Δ λ r e f ' = Δ λ r e f T = ( λ / T ) r e f Δ T
Δ λ s e n s i n g 0 = Δ λ s e n s i n g ' ( λ / T ) s e n s i n g ( λ / T ) r e f Δ λ r e f T

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