Abstract

Conventional transflective liquid crystal displays (LCDs) with single cell-gap requires optical compensation films or patterned retarders to balance the optical path-length difference between transmissive and reflective regions. In this paper, novel single cell-gap transflective LCDs driven by fringe electric field without using the compensation film or in-cell retarder have been proposed. The liquid crystal director is aligned parallel to analyzer but makes an angle of 45° with respect to analyzer in reflective region. In addition, the surface pretilt angle in the reflective region is controlled by vertical field and polymerization of an UV curable reactive mesogen at the same time and thus, the effective cell retardation in the reflective region becomes smaller than that in transmissive region. Consequently, without using any compensation film or in-cell retarder, the single cell-gap and single-gamma transflective LCD with high performance is realized.

© 2010 OSA

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2009

Y. Kizu, R. Hasegawa, I. Amemiya, S. Uchikoga, and H. Wakemoto, “Analysis of electro-optical properties of polymer-stabilized OCB and the application to TFT-LCDs,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 17(8), 647–657 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Lim, M. H. Chin, J. H. Kim, J. H. Her, H. S. Jin, B. K. Kim, and S. H. Lee, “A single-gap transflective liquid crystal driven by fringe and vertical electric fields,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 42(14), 145412 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

T.-J. Chen and K.-L. Chu, “Pretilt angle control for single-cell-gap transflective liquid crystal cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(9), 091102–091104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

H. Y. Kim, Z. Ge, S.-T. Wu, and S. H. Lee, “Wide-view transflective liquid crystal display for mobile applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(23), 231108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005

J. H. Song, Y. J. Lim, M.-H. Lee, S. H. Lee, and S.-T. Shin, “Electro-optic characteristics and switching principle of a single-cell-gap transflective liquid-crystal display associated with in-plane rotation of a liquid crystal driven by a fringe-field,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(1), 011108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

J. H. Song and S. H. Lee, “A single Gap transflective Display using In-Plane Switching Mode,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(No. 9A/B), L1130–L1132 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Jung, H. Y. Kim, S. H. Song, J.-H. Kim, S.-H. Nam, and S. H. Lee, “Analysis of optimal phase retardation of a fringe field- driven homogeneously aligned nematic liquid crystal cell,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(3), 1028–1031 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

T. B. Jung, J. C. Kim, and S. H. Lee, “Wide-Viewing-Angle Transflective Display Associated with Fringe-Field Driven Homogeneously Aligned Nematic Liquid Crystal Display,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42(Part 2, No. 5A), L464–L467 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001

P. Chaudhari, J. Lacey, J. Doyle, E. Galligan, S. C. A. Lien, A. Callegari, G. Hougham, N. D. Lang, P. S. Andry, R. John, K. H. Yang, M. H. Lu, C. Cai, J. Speidell, S. Purushothaman, J. Ritsko, M. Samant, J. Stöhr, Y. Nakagawa, Y. Katoh, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, S. Odahara, H. Nakano, J. Nakagaki, and Y. Shiota, “Atomic-beam alignment of inorganic materials for liquid-crystal displays,” Nature 411(6833), 56–59 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000

G.-D. Lee, G.-H. Kim, S.-H. Moon, J.-D. Noh, S.-C. Kim, W. S. Park, T.-H. Yoon, J. C. Kim, S. H. Hong, and S. H. Lee, “Reflective liquid crystal display using a non-twist half-wave cell,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39(Part 2, No. 3A/B), L221–L224 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1992

M. Schadt, K. Schmitt, V. Kozinkov, and V. Chigrinov, “Surface-induced parallel alignment of liquid crystals by linearly polymerized photopolymers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31(Part 1, No. 7), 2155–2164 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1990

A. Lien, “Extended Jones matrix representation for the twisted nematic liquid-crystal display at oblique incidence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57(26), 2767 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Amemiya, I.

Y. Kizu, R. Hasegawa, I. Amemiya, S. Uchikoga, and H. Wakemoto, “Analysis of electro-optical properties of polymer-stabilized OCB and the application to TFT-LCDs,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 17(8), 647–657 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Andry, P. S.

P. Chaudhari, J. Lacey, J. Doyle, E. Galligan, S. C. A. Lien, A. Callegari, G. Hougham, N. D. Lang, P. S. Andry, R. John, K. H. Yang, M. H. Lu, C. Cai, J. Speidell, S. Purushothaman, J. Ritsko, M. Samant, J. Stöhr, Y. Nakagawa, Y. Katoh, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, S. Odahara, H. Nakano, J. Nakagaki, and Y. Shiota, “Atomic-beam alignment of inorganic materials for liquid-crystal displays,” Nature 411(6833), 56–59 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cai, C.

P. Chaudhari, J. Lacey, J. Doyle, E. Galligan, S. C. A. Lien, A. Callegari, G. Hougham, N. D. Lang, P. S. Andry, R. John, K. H. Yang, M. H. Lu, C. Cai, J. Speidell, S. Purushothaman, J. Ritsko, M. Samant, J. Stöhr, Y. Nakagawa, Y. Katoh, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, S. Odahara, H. Nakano, J. Nakagaki, and Y. Shiota, “Atomic-beam alignment of inorganic materials for liquid-crystal displays,” Nature 411(6833), 56–59 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Callegari, A.

P. Chaudhari, J. Lacey, J. Doyle, E. Galligan, S. C. A. Lien, A. Callegari, G. Hougham, N. D. Lang, P. S. Andry, R. John, K. H. Yang, M. H. Lu, C. Cai, J. Speidell, S. Purushothaman, J. Ritsko, M. Samant, J. Stöhr, Y. Nakagawa, Y. Katoh, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, S. Odahara, H. Nakano, J. Nakagaki, and Y. Shiota, “Atomic-beam alignment of inorganic materials for liquid-crystal displays,” Nature 411(6833), 56–59 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chaudhari, P.

P. Chaudhari, J. Lacey, J. Doyle, E. Galligan, S. C. A. Lien, A. Callegari, G. Hougham, N. D. Lang, P. S. Andry, R. John, K. H. Yang, M. H. Lu, C. Cai, J. Speidell, S. Purushothaman, J. Ritsko, M. Samant, J. Stöhr, Y. Nakagawa, Y. Katoh, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, S. Odahara, H. Nakano, J. Nakagaki, and Y. Shiota, “Atomic-beam alignment of inorganic materials for liquid-crystal displays,” Nature 411(6833), 56–59 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, T.-J.

T.-J. Chen and K.-L. Chu, “Pretilt angle control for single-cell-gap transflective liquid crystal cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(9), 091102–091104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chigrinov, V.

M. Schadt, K. Schmitt, V. Kozinkov, and V. Chigrinov, “Surface-induced parallel alignment of liquid crystals by linearly polymerized photopolymers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31(Part 1, No. 7), 2155–2164 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Chin, M. H.

Y. J. Lim, M. H. Chin, J. H. Kim, J. H. Her, H. S. Jin, B. K. Kim, and S. H. Lee, “A single-gap transflective liquid crystal driven by fringe and vertical electric fields,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 42(14), 145412 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chu, K.-L.

T.-J. Chen and K.-L. Chu, “Pretilt angle control for single-cell-gap transflective liquid crystal cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(9), 091102–091104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Doyle, J.

P. Chaudhari, J. Lacey, J. Doyle, E. Galligan, S. C. A. Lien, A. Callegari, G. Hougham, N. D. Lang, P. S. Andry, R. John, K. H. Yang, M. H. Lu, C. Cai, J. Speidell, S. Purushothaman, J. Ritsko, M. Samant, J. Stöhr, Y. Nakagawa, Y. Katoh, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, S. Odahara, H. Nakano, J. Nakagaki, and Y. Shiota, “Atomic-beam alignment of inorganic materials for liquid-crystal displays,” Nature 411(6833), 56–59 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Galligan, E.

P. Chaudhari, J. Lacey, J. Doyle, E. Galligan, S. C. A. Lien, A. Callegari, G. Hougham, N. D. Lang, P. S. Andry, R. John, K. H. Yang, M. H. Lu, C. Cai, J. Speidell, S. Purushothaman, J. Ritsko, M. Samant, J. Stöhr, Y. Nakagawa, Y. Katoh, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, S. Odahara, H. Nakano, J. Nakagaki, and Y. Shiota, “Atomic-beam alignment of inorganic materials for liquid-crystal displays,” Nature 411(6833), 56–59 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ge, Z.

H. Y. Kim, Z. Ge, S.-T. Wu, and S. H. Lee, “Wide-view transflective liquid crystal display for mobile applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(23), 231108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hasegawa, R.

Y. Kizu, R. Hasegawa, I. Amemiya, S. Uchikoga, and H. Wakemoto, “Analysis of electro-optical properties of polymer-stabilized OCB and the application to TFT-LCDs,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 17(8), 647–657 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Her, J. H.

Y. J. Lim, M. H. Chin, J. H. Kim, J. H. Her, H. S. Jin, B. K. Kim, and S. H. Lee, “A single-gap transflective liquid crystal driven by fringe and vertical electric fields,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 42(14), 145412 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hong, S. H.

G.-D. Lee, G.-H. Kim, S.-H. Moon, J.-D. Noh, S.-C. Kim, W. S. Park, T.-H. Yoon, J. C. Kim, S. H. Hong, and S. H. Lee, “Reflective liquid crystal display using a non-twist half-wave cell,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39(Part 2, No. 3A/B), L221–L224 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hougham, G.

P. Chaudhari, J. Lacey, J. Doyle, E. Galligan, S. C. A. Lien, A. Callegari, G. Hougham, N. D. Lang, P. S. Andry, R. John, K. H. Yang, M. H. Lu, C. Cai, J. Speidell, S. Purushothaman, J. Ritsko, M. Samant, J. Stöhr, Y. Nakagawa, Y. Katoh, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, S. Odahara, H. Nakano, J. Nakagaki, and Y. Shiota, “Atomic-beam alignment of inorganic materials for liquid-crystal displays,” Nature 411(6833), 56–59 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jin, H. S.

Y. J. Lim, M. H. Chin, J. H. Kim, J. H. Her, H. S. Jin, B. K. Kim, and S. H. Lee, “A single-gap transflective liquid crystal driven by fringe and vertical electric fields,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 42(14), 145412 (2009).
[CrossRef]

John, R.

P. Chaudhari, J. Lacey, J. Doyle, E. Galligan, S. C. A. Lien, A. Callegari, G. Hougham, N. D. Lang, P. S. Andry, R. John, K. H. Yang, M. H. Lu, C. Cai, J. Speidell, S. Purushothaman, J. Ritsko, M. Samant, J. Stöhr, Y. Nakagawa, Y. Katoh, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, S. Odahara, H. Nakano, J. Nakagaki, and Y. Shiota, “Atomic-beam alignment of inorganic materials for liquid-crystal displays,” Nature 411(6833), 56–59 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jung, S. H.

S. H. Jung, H. Y. Kim, S. H. Song, J.-H. Kim, S.-H. Nam, and S. H. Lee, “Analysis of optimal phase retardation of a fringe field- driven homogeneously aligned nematic liquid crystal cell,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(3), 1028–1031 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jung, T. B.

T. B. Jung, J. C. Kim, and S. H. Lee, “Wide-Viewing-Angle Transflective Display Associated with Fringe-Field Driven Homogeneously Aligned Nematic Liquid Crystal Display,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42(Part 2, No. 5A), L464–L467 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Katoh, Y.

P. Chaudhari, J. Lacey, J. Doyle, E. Galligan, S. C. A. Lien, A. Callegari, G. Hougham, N. D. Lang, P. S. Andry, R. John, K. H. Yang, M. H. Lu, C. Cai, J. Speidell, S. Purushothaman, J. Ritsko, M. Samant, J. Stöhr, Y. Nakagawa, Y. Katoh, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, S. Odahara, H. Nakano, J. Nakagaki, and Y. Shiota, “Atomic-beam alignment of inorganic materials for liquid-crystal displays,” Nature 411(6833), 56–59 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, B. K.

Y. J. Lim, M. H. Chin, J. H. Kim, J. H. Her, H. S. Jin, B. K. Kim, and S. H. Lee, “A single-gap transflective liquid crystal driven by fringe and vertical electric fields,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 42(14), 145412 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kim, G.-H.

G.-D. Lee, G.-H. Kim, S.-H. Moon, J.-D. Noh, S.-C. Kim, W. S. Park, T.-H. Yoon, J. C. Kim, S. H. Hong, and S. H. Lee, “Reflective liquid crystal display using a non-twist half-wave cell,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39(Part 2, No. 3A/B), L221–L224 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H. Y.

H. Y. Kim, Z. Ge, S.-T. Wu, and S. H. Lee, “Wide-view transflective liquid crystal display for mobile applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(23), 231108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Jung, H. Y. Kim, S. H. Song, J.-H. Kim, S.-H. Nam, and S. H. Lee, “Analysis of optimal phase retardation of a fringe field- driven homogeneously aligned nematic liquid crystal cell,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(3), 1028–1031 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. C.

T. B. Jung, J. C. Kim, and S. H. Lee, “Wide-Viewing-Angle Transflective Display Associated with Fringe-Field Driven Homogeneously Aligned Nematic Liquid Crystal Display,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42(Part 2, No. 5A), L464–L467 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G.-D. Lee, G.-H. Kim, S.-H. Moon, J.-D. Noh, S.-C. Kim, W. S. Park, T.-H. Yoon, J. C. Kim, S. H. Hong, and S. H. Lee, “Reflective liquid crystal display using a non-twist half-wave cell,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39(Part 2, No. 3A/B), L221–L224 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. H.

Y. J. Lim, M. H. Chin, J. H. Kim, J. H. Her, H. S. Jin, B. K. Kim, and S. H. Lee, “A single-gap transflective liquid crystal driven by fringe and vertical electric fields,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 42(14), 145412 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J.-H.

S. H. Jung, H. Y. Kim, S. H. Song, J.-H. Kim, S.-H. Nam, and S. H. Lee, “Analysis of optimal phase retardation of a fringe field- driven homogeneously aligned nematic liquid crystal cell,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(3), 1028–1031 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S.-C.

G.-D. Lee, G.-H. Kim, S.-H. Moon, J.-D. Noh, S.-C. Kim, W. S. Park, T.-H. Yoon, J. C. Kim, S. H. Hong, and S. H. Lee, “Reflective liquid crystal display using a non-twist half-wave cell,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39(Part 2, No. 3A/B), L221–L224 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kizu, Y.

Y. Kizu, R. Hasegawa, I. Amemiya, S. Uchikoga, and H. Wakemoto, “Analysis of electro-optical properties of polymer-stabilized OCB and the application to TFT-LCDs,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 17(8), 647–657 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kozinkov, V.

M. Schadt, K. Schmitt, V. Kozinkov, and V. Chigrinov, “Surface-induced parallel alignment of liquid crystals by linearly polymerized photopolymers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31(Part 1, No. 7), 2155–2164 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Lacey, J.

P. Chaudhari, J. Lacey, J. Doyle, E. Galligan, S. C. A. Lien, A. Callegari, G. Hougham, N. D. Lang, P. S. Andry, R. John, K. H. Yang, M. H. Lu, C. Cai, J. Speidell, S. Purushothaman, J. Ritsko, M. Samant, J. Stöhr, Y. Nakagawa, Y. Katoh, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, S. Odahara, H. Nakano, J. Nakagaki, and Y. Shiota, “Atomic-beam alignment of inorganic materials for liquid-crystal displays,” Nature 411(6833), 56–59 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lang, N. D.

P. Chaudhari, J. Lacey, J. Doyle, E. Galligan, S. C. A. Lien, A. Callegari, G. Hougham, N. D. Lang, P. S. Andry, R. John, K. H. Yang, M. H. Lu, C. Cai, J. Speidell, S. Purushothaman, J. Ritsko, M. Samant, J. Stöhr, Y. Nakagawa, Y. Katoh, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, S. Odahara, H. Nakano, J. Nakagaki, and Y. Shiota, “Atomic-beam alignment of inorganic materials for liquid-crystal displays,” Nature 411(6833), 56–59 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, G.-D.

G.-D. Lee, G.-H. Kim, S.-H. Moon, J.-D. Noh, S.-C. Kim, W. S. Park, T.-H. Yoon, J. C. Kim, S. H. Hong, and S. H. Lee, “Reflective liquid crystal display using a non-twist half-wave cell,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39(Part 2, No. 3A/B), L221–L224 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lee, M.-H.

J. H. Song, Y. J. Lim, M.-H. Lee, S. H. Lee, and S.-T. Shin, “Electro-optic characteristics and switching principle of a single-cell-gap transflective liquid-crystal display associated with in-plane rotation of a liquid crystal driven by a fringe-field,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(1), 011108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. H.

Y. J. Lim, M. H. Chin, J. H. Kim, J. H. Her, H. S. Jin, B. K. Kim, and S. H. Lee, “A single-gap transflective liquid crystal driven by fringe and vertical electric fields,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 42(14), 145412 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Y. Kim, Z. Ge, S.-T. Wu, and S. H. Lee, “Wide-view transflective liquid crystal display for mobile applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(23), 231108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Song, Y. J. Lim, M.-H. Lee, S. H. Lee, and S.-T. Shin, “Electro-optic characteristics and switching principle of a single-cell-gap transflective liquid-crystal display associated with in-plane rotation of a liquid crystal driven by a fringe-field,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(1), 011108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Song and S. H. Lee, “A single Gap transflective Display using In-Plane Switching Mode,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(No. 9A/B), L1130–L1132 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Jung, H. Y. Kim, S. H. Song, J.-H. Kim, S.-H. Nam, and S. H. Lee, “Analysis of optimal phase retardation of a fringe field- driven homogeneously aligned nematic liquid crystal cell,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(3), 1028–1031 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. B. Jung, J. C. Kim, and S. H. Lee, “Wide-Viewing-Angle Transflective Display Associated with Fringe-Field Driven Homogeneously Aligned Nematic Liquid Crystal Display,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42(Part 2, No. 5A), L464–L467 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G.-D. Lee, G.-H. Kim, S.-H. Moon, J.-D. Noh, S.-C. Kim, W. S. Park, T.-H. Yoon, J. C. Kim, S. H. Hong, and S. H. Lee, “Reflective liquid crystal display using a non-twist half-wave cell,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39(Part 2, No. 3A/B), L221–L224 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lien, A.

A. Lien, “Extended Jones matrix representation for the twisted nematic liquid-crystal display at oblique incidence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57(26), 2767 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Lien, S. C. A.

P. Chaudhari, J. Lacey, J. Doyle, E. Galligan, S. C. A. Lien, A. Callegari, G. Hougham, N. D. Lang, P. S. Andry, R. John, K. H. Yang, M. H. Lu, C. Cai, J. Speidell, S. Purushothaman, J. Ritsko, M. Samant, J. Stöhr, Y. Nakagawa, Y. Katoh, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, S. Odahara, H. Nakano, J. Nakagaki, and Y. Shiota, “Atomic-beam alignment of inorganic materials for liquid-crystal displays,” Nature 411(6833), 56–59 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lim, Y. J.

Y. J. Lim, M. H. Chin, J. H. Kim, J. H. Her, H. S. Jin, B. K. Kim, and S. H. Lee, “A single-gap transflective liquid crystal driven by fringe and vertical electric fields,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 42(14), 145412 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Song, Y. J. Lim, M.-H. Lee, S. H. Lee, and S.-T. Shin, “Electro-optic characteristics and switching principle of a single-cell-gap transflective liquid-crystal display associated with in-plane rotation of a liquid crystal driven by a fringe-field,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(1), 011108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lu, M. H.

P. Chaudhari, J. Lacey, J. Doyle, E. Galligan, S. C. A. Lien, A. Callegari, G. Hougham, N. D. Lang, P. S. Andry, R. John, K. H. Yang, M. H. Lu, C. Cai, J. Speidell, S. Purushothaman, J. Ritsko, M. Samant, J. Stöhr, Y. Nakagawa, Y. Katoh, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, S. Odahara, H. Nakano, J. Nakagaki, and Y. Shiota, “Atomic-beam alignment of inorganic materials for liquid-crystal displays,” Nature 411(6833), 56–59 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moon, S.-H.

G.-D. Lee, G.-H. Kim, S.-H. Moon, J.-D. Noh, S.-C. Kim, W. S. Park, T.-H. Yoon, J. C. Kim, S. H. Hong, and S. H. Lee, “Reflective liquid crystal display using a non-twist half-wave cell,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39(Part 2, No. 3A/B), L221–L224 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nakagaki, J.

P. Chaudhari, J. Lacey, J. Doyle, E. Galligan, S. C. A. Lien, A. Callegari, G. Hougham, N. D. Lang, P. S. Andry, R. John, K. H. Yang, M. H. Lu, C. Cai, J. Speidell, S. Purushothaman, J. Ritsko, M. Samant, J. Stöhr, Y. Nakagawa, Y. Katoh, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, S. Odahara, H. Nakano, J. Nakagaki, and Y. Shiota, “Atomic-beam alignment of inorganic materials for liquid-crystal displays,” Nature 411(6833), 56–59 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nakagawa, Y.

P. Chaudhari, J. Lacey, J. Doyle, E. Galligan, S. C. A. Lien, A. Callegari, G. Hougham, N. D. Lang, P. S. Andry, R. John, K. H. Yang, M. H. Lu, C. Cai, J. Speidell, S. Purushothaman, J. Ritsko, M. Samant, J. Stöhr, Y. Nakagawa, Y. Katoh, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, S. Odahara, H. Nakano, J. Nakagaki, and Y. Shiota, “Atomic-beam alignment of inorganic materials for liquid-crystal displays,” Nature 411(6833), 56–59 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nakano, H.

P. Chaudhari, J. Lacey, J. Doyle, E. Galligan, S. C. A. Lien, A. Callegari, G. Hougham, N. D. Lang, P. S. Andry, R. John, K. H. Yang, M. H. Lu, C. Cai, J. Speidell, S. Purushothaman, J. Ritsko, M. Samant, J. Stöhr, Y. Nakagawa, Y. Katoh, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, S. Odahara, H. Nakano, J. Nakagaki, and Y. Shiota, “Atomic-beam alignment of inorganic materials for liquid-crystal displays,” Nature 411(6833), 56–59 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nam, S.-H.

S. H. Jung, H. Y. Kim, S. H. Song, J.-H. Kim, S.-H. Nam, and S. H. Lee, “Analysis of optimal phase retardation of a fringe field- driven homogeneously aligned nematic liquid crystal cell,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(3), 1028–1031 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Noh, J.-D.

G.-D. Lee, G.-H. Kim, S.-H. Moon, J.-D. Noh, S.-C. Kim, W. S. Park, T.-H. Yoon, J. C. Kim, S. H. Hong, and S. H. Lee, “Reflective liquid crystal display using a non-twist half-wave cell,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39(Part 2, No. 3A/B), L221–L224 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Odahara, S.

P. Chaudhari, J. Lacey, J. Doyle, E. Galligan, S. C. A. Lien, A. Callegari, G. Hougham, N. D. Lang, P. S. Andry, R. John, K. H. Yang, M. H. Lu, C. Cai, J. Speidell, S. Purushothaman, J. Ritsko, M. Samant, J. Stöhr, Y. Nakagawa, Y. Katoh, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, S. Odahara, H. Nakano, J. Nakagaki, and Y. Shiota, “Atomic-beam alignment of inorganic materials for liquid-crystal displays,” Nature 411(6833), 56–59 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, W. S.

G.-D. Lee, G.-H. Kim, S.-H. Moon, J.-D. Noh, S.-C. Kim, W. S. Park, T.-H. Yoon, J. C. Kim, S. H. Hong, and S. H. Lee, “Reflective liquid crystal display using a non-twist half-wave cell,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39(Part 2, No. 3A/B), L221–L224 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Purushothaman, S.

P. Chaudhari, J. Lacey, J. Doyle, E. Galligan, S. C. A. Lien, A. Callegari, G. Hougham, N. D. Lang, P. S. Andry, R. John, K. H. Yang, M. H. Lu, C. Cai, J. Speidell, S. Purushothaman, J. Ritsko, M. Samant, J. Stöhr, Y. Nakagawa, Y. Katoh, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, S. Odahara, H. Nakano, J. Nakagaki, and Y. Shiota, “Atomic-beam alignment of inorganic materials for liquid-crystal displays,” Nature 411(6833), 56–59 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ritsko, J.

P. Chaudhari, J. Lacey, J. Doyle, E. Galligan, S. C. A. Lien, A. Callegari, G. Hougham, N. D. Lang, P. S. Andry, R. John, K. H. Yang, M. H. Lu, C. Cai, J. Speidell, S. Purushothaman, J. Ritsko, M. Samant, J. Stöhr, Y. Nakagawa, Y. Katoh, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, S. Odahara, H. Nakano, J. Nakagaki, and Y. Shiota, “Atomic-beam alignment of inorganic materials for liquid-crystal displays,” Nature 411(6833), 56–59 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Saitoh, Y.

P. Chaudhari, J. Lacey, J. Doyle, E. Galligan, S. C. A. Lien, A. Callegari, G. Hougham, N. D. Lang, P. S. Andry, R. John, K. H. Yang, M. H. Lu, C. Cai, J. Speidell, S. Purushothaman, J. Ritsko, M. Samant, J. Stöhr, Y. Nakagawa, Y. Katoh, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, S. Odahara, H. Nakano, J. Nakagaki, and Y. Shiota, “Atomic-beam alignment of inorganic materials for liquid-crystal displays,” Nature 411(6833), 56–59 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sakai, K.

P. Chaudhari, J. Lacey, J. Doyle, E. Galligan, S. C. A. Lien, A. Callegari, G. Hougham, N. D. Lang, P. S. Andry, R. John, K. H. Yang, M. H. Lu, C. Cai, J. Speidell, S. Purushothaman, J. Ritsko, M. Samant, J. Stöhr, Y. Nakagawa, Y. Katoh, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, S. Odahara, H. Nakano, J. Nakagaki, and Y. Shiota, “Atomic-beam alignment of inorganic materials for liquid-crystal displays,” Nature 411(6833), 56–59 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Samant, M.

P. Chaudhari, J. Lacey, J. Doyle, E. Galligan, S. C. A. Lien, A. Callegari, G. Hougham, N. D. Lang, P. S. Andry, R. John, K. H. Yang, M. H. Lu, C. Cai, J. Speidell, S. Purushothaman, J. Ritsko, M. Samant, J. Stöhr, Y. Nakagawa, Y. Katoh, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, S. Odahara, H. Nakano, J. Nakagaki, and Y. Shiota, “Atomic-beam alignment of inorganic materials for liquid-crystal displays,” Nature 411(6833), 56–59 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Satoh, H.

P. Chaudhari, J. Lacey, J. Doyle, E. Galligan, S. C. A. Lien, A. Callegari, G. Hougham, N. D. Lang, P. S. Andry, R. John, K. H. Yang, M. H. Lu, C. Cai, J. Speidell, S. Purushothaman, J. Ritsko, M. Samant, J. Stöhr, Y. Nakagawa, Y. Katoh, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, S. Odahara, H. Nakano, J. Nakagaki, and Y. Shiota, “Atomic-beam alignment of inorganic materials for liquid-crystal displays,” Nature 411(6833), 56–59 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schadt, M.

M. Schadt, K. Schmitt, V. Kozinkov, and V. Chigrinov, “Surface-induced parallel alignment of liquid crystals by linearly polymerized photopolymers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31(Part 1, No. 7), 2155–2164 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Schmitt, K.

M. Schadt, K. Schmitt, V. Kozinkov, and V. Chigrinov, “Surface-induced parallel alignment of liquid crystals by linearly polymerized photopolymers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31(Part 1, No. 7), 2155–2164 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Shin, S.-T.

J. H. Song, Y. J. Lim, M.-H. Lee, S. H. Lee, and S.-T. Shin, “Electro-optic characteristics and switching principle of a single-cell-gap transflective liquid-crystal display associated with in-plane rotation of a liquid crystal driven by a fringe-field,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(1), 011108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shiota, Y.

P. Chaudhari, J. Lacey, J. Doyle, E. Galligan, S. C. A. Lien, A. Callegari, G. Hougham, N. D. Lang, P. S. Andry, R. John, K. H. Yang, M. H. Lu, C. Cai, J. Speidell, S. Purushothaman, J. Ritsko, M. Samant, J. Stöhr, Y. Nakagawa, Y. Katoh, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, S. Odahara, H. Nakano, J. Nakagaki, and Y. Shiota, “Atomic-beam alignment of inorganic materials for liquid-crystal displays,” Nature 411(6833), 56–59 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Song, J. H.

J. H. Song, Y. J. Lim, M.-H. Lee, S. H. Lee, and S.-T. Shin, “Electro-optic characteristics and switching principle of a single-cell-gap transflective liquid-crystal display associated with in-plane rotation of a liquid crystal driven by a fringe-field,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(1), 011108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Song and S. H. Lee, “A single Gap transflective Display using In-Plane Switching Mode,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(No. 9A/B), L1130–L1132 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Song, S. H.

S. H. Jung, H. Y. Kim, S. H. Song, J.-H. Kim, S.-H. Nam, and S. H. Lee, “Analysis of optimal phase retardation of a fringe field- driven homogeneously aligned nematic liquid crystal cell,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(3), 1028–1031 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Speidell, J.

P. Chaudhari, J. Lacey, J. Doyle, E. Galligan, S. C. A. Lien, A. Callegari, G. Hougham, N. D. Lang, P. S. Andry, R. John, K. H. Yang, M. H. Lu, C. Cai, J. Speidell, S. Purushothaman, J. Ritsko, M. Samant, J. Stöhr, Y. Nakagawa, Y. Katoh, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, S. Odahara, H. Nakano, J. Nakagaki, and Y. Shiota, “Atomic-beam alignment of inorganic materials for liquid-crystal displays,” Nature 411(6833), 56–59 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stöhr, J.

P. Chaudhari, J. Lacey, J. Doyle, E. Galligan, S. C. A. Lien, A. Callegari, G. Hougham, N. D. Lang, P. S. Andry, R. John, K. H. Yang, M. H. Lu, C. Cai, J. Speidell, S. Purushothaman, J. Ritsko, M. Samant, J. Stöhr, Y. Nakagawa, Y. Katoh, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, S. Odahara, H. Nakano, J. Nakagaki, and Y. Shiota, “Atomic-beam alignment of inorganic materials for liquid-crystal displays,” Nature 411(6833), 56–59 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Uchikoga, S.

Y. Kizu, R. Hasegawa, I. Amemiya, S. Uchikoga, and H. Wakemoto, “Analysis of electro-optical properties of polymer-stabilized OCB and the application to TFT-LCDs,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 17(8), 647–657 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wakemoto, H.

Y. Kizu, R. Hasegawa, I. Amemiya, S. Uchikoga, and H. Wakemoto, “Analysis of electro-optical properties of polymer-stabilized OCB and the application to TFT-LCDs,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 17(8), 647–657 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wu, S.-T.

H. Y. Kim, Z. Ge, S.-T. Wu, and S. H. Lee, “Wide-view transflective liquid crystal display for mobile applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(23), 231108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yang, K. H.

P. Chaudhari, J. Lacey, J. Doyle, E. Galligan, S. C. A. Lien, A. Callegari, G. Hougham, N. D. Lang, P. S. Andry, R. John, K. H. Yang, M. H. Lu, C. Cai, J. Speidell, S. Purushothaman, J. Ritsko, M. Samant, J. Stöhr, Y. Nakagawa, Y. Katoh, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, S. Odahara, H. Nakano, J. Nakagaki, and Y. Shiota, “Atomic-beam alignment of inorganic materials for liquid-crystal displays,” Nature 411(6833), 56–59 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yoon, T.-H.

G.-D. Lee, G.-H. Kim, S.-H. Moon, J.-D. Noh, S.-C. Kim, W. S. Park, T.-H. Yoon, J. C. Kim, S. H. Hong, and S. H. Lee, “Reflective liquid crystal display using a non-twist half-wave cell,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39(Part 2, No. 3A/B), L221–L224 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

J. H. Song, Y. J. Lim, M.-H. Lee, S. H. Lee, and S.-T. Shin, “Electro-optic characteristics and switching principle of a single-cell-gap transflective liquid-crystal display associated with in-plane rotation of a liquid crystal driven by a fringe-field,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(1), 011108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Y. Kim, Z. Ge, S.-T. Wu, and S. H. Lee, “Wide-view transflective liquid crystal display for mobile applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(23), 231108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T.-J. Chen and K.-L. Chu, “Pretilt angle control for single-cell-gap transflective liquid crystal cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(9), 091102–091104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Lien, “Extended Jones matrix representation for the twisted nematic liquid-crystal display at oblique incidence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57(26), 2767 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.

Y. J. Lim, M. H. Chin, J. H. Kim, J. H. Her, H. S. Jin, B. K. Kim, and S. H. Lee, “A single-gap transflective liquid crystal driven by fringe and vertical electric fields,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 42(14), 145412 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Soc. Inf. Disp.

Y. Kizu, R. Hasegawa, I. Amemiya, S. Uchikoga, and H. Wakemoto, “Analysis of electro-optical properties of polymer-stabilized OCB and the application to TFT-LCDs,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 17(8), 647–657 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

S. H. Jung, H. Y. Kim, S. H. Song, J.-H. Kim, S.-H. Nam, and S. H. Lee, “Analysis of optimal phase retardation of a fringe field- driven homogeneously aligned nematic liquid crystal cell,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(3), 1028–1031 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. B. Jung, J. C. Kim, and S. H. Lee, “Wide-Viewing-Angle Transflective Display Associated with Fringe-Field Driven Homogeneously Aligned Nematic Liquid Crystal Display,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42(Part 2, No. 5A), L464–L467 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Song and S. H. Lee, “A single Gap transflective Display using In-Plane Switching Mode,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(No. 9A/B), L1130–L1132 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Schadt, K. Schmitt, V. Kozinkov, and V. Chigrinov, “Surface-induced parallel alignment of liquid crystals by linearly polymerized photopolymers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31(Part 1, No. 7), 2155–2164 (1992).
[CrossRef]

G.-D. Lee, G.-H. Kim, S.-H. Moon, J.-D. Noh, S.-C. Kim, W. S. Park, T.-H. Yoon, J. C. Kim, S. H. Hong, and S. H. Lee, “Reflective liquid crystal display using a non-twist half-wave cell,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39(Part 2, No. 3A/B), L221–L224 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nature

P. Chaudhari, J. Lacey, J. Doyle, E. Galligan, S. C. A. Lien, A. Callegari, G. Hougham, N. D. Lang, P. S. Andry, R. John, K. H. Yang, M. H. Lu, C. Cai, J. Speidell, S. Purushothaman, J. Ritsko, M. Samant, J. Stöhr, Y. Nakagawa, Y. Katoh, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, S. Odahara, H. Nakano, J. Nakagaki, and Y. Shiota, “Atomic-beam alignment of inorganic materials for liquid-crystal displays,” Nature 411(6833), 56–59 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

I. H. Yu, J. H. Song, Y. J. Lim, S. H. Lee, D. S. Kim, H.-S. Soh, W. Y. Kim, and S. D. Yeo, “Electro-optic characteristics of in-plane driven transflective LCD,” Proc. Int. Disp. Workshops, 167–170 (2004).

J. Tanno, M. Morimoto, K. Igeta, H. Imayama, S. Komura, and T. Nagata, “A new transflective IPS-LCD with high contrast ratio and wide viewing angle performance,” Proc. of the 13th International Display Workshop (Society for Information Display, Otsu, Japan), 635–638 (2006).

Y. Li, Z. Ge, and S.-T. Wu, “A simple transflective LCD for mobile display,” SID Symposium Digest 15, 1655–1657 (2009).

Y. P. Huang, M. J. Su, and H. P. David Shieh, “A single gap transflective color TFT-LCD by using image enhanced reflector,” SID Symposium Digest 34, 86–89 (2003).

H-I. Baek, Y-B. Kim, K-S. Ha, D-G. Kim, and S-B. Kwon, “New design of transflective LCD with single retardation film,” Proc. Int. Disp. Workshops, 41–44 (2000).

K. Fujimori, Y. Narutaki, Y. Itoh, N. Kimura, S. Mizushima, Y. Ishii, and M. Hijikigawa, “New color filter structures for transflective TFT-LCD,” SID Symposium Digest 33, 1382–1395 (2002).

M. Jisaki, and H. Yamaguchi, “Development of transflective LCD for high contrast and wide viewing angle by using homeotropic alignment,” Proc. Int. Disp. Workshops, 133–136 (2001).

Ch. Lo, T.-Ch. Yang, Ch.-J. Hu, Ch.-Sh. Cheng, Ch.-M. Chang, and F.-Y. Gan, “High Efficiency MVA-mode TR LCD,” SID Symposium Digest 38, 714–716 (2007).

J.-H. Lee, W.-H. Lee, D.-C. Shin, J.-H. Lim, K.-B. Park, J.-D. Lee, W.-S. Kim, M.-S. Yang, Y.-K. Hwang and I.-J. Chung, “The Advanced Transflective IPS LCD by Photo Alignment Technology,” SID Symposium Digest 41, 1791–1793 (2010).

M. O. Choi, J. H. Song, Y. J. Lim and S. H. Lee, “A Single Gap Transflective Display using a Fringe-Field Driven Homogeneously Aligned Nematic Liquid Crystal Display,” SID symposium Digest 36, 719–721 (2005).

Y. J. Lim, E. Jeong, M. H. Chin, J. H. Kim, S. S. Kim, and S. H. Lee, “Transflective liquid crystal display using UV curable reactive mesogen,” Proc. of Spring Symposium KIEEME’08, 51–52 (2008).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Cell structure of two kinds of transflective LCDs associated with FFS mode having common electrode on top substrate only in reflective region. Electrode structures in reflective region are the same as that in the transmissive region (a) and a plane shape (b), respectively. (c) and (d) top view of electrode structure of bottom substrate of Fig. 1(a) and Fig. 1(b), respectively, in which the initial LC director in reflective region makes an angle of 45° with respect to that in transmissive region. Considering electric field direction given in the electrode structure of the reflective part in Fig. 1(a), both fringe and vertical fields control reorientation of LC director while only vertical field involves in Fig. 1(b).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Optical configurations of the proposed single cell-gap transflective LCDs in initial state: (a) transmissive region and (b) reflective region.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Voltage-dependent reflectance and transmittance curves according to the thickness of insulator layer in the reflective region for the electrode structure (i) (a) and the electrode structure (ii) (b).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Normalized voltage-dependent reflectance and transmittance curves when the thickness of insulator layer is 2μm and 2.5μm, respectively in the reflective region for the electrode structure (i) (a) and the electrode structure (ii) (b)

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Schematic cell structures of single cell-gap transflective LCD with different surface pretilt angles in R, G, and B pixels in electrode structure (i) (a) and electrode structure (ii) (b).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Light leakage according to surface tilt angles at three different incident wavelengths R, G, and B.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

T / T o =  sin 2 2 ψ ( V ) sin 2 ( δ / 2 )
R i ) > c o s 2 2 ψ ( V )   and R ii ) c o s 2 δ ( V )

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