Abstract

We introduce optical fiber illumination for real-time tracking of optically trapped micrometer-sized particles with microsecond time resolution. Our light source is a high-radiance mercury arc lamp and a 600μm optical fiber for short-distance illumination of the sample cell. Particle tracking is carried out with a software implemented cross-correlation algorithm following image acquisition from a CMOS camera. Our image data reveals that fiber illumination results in a signal-to-noise ratio usually one order of magnitude higher compared to standard Köhler illumination. We demonstrate position determination of a single optically trapped colloid with up to 10,000 frames per second over hours. We calibrate our optical tweezers and compare the results with quadrant photo diode measurements. Finally, we determine the positional accuracy of our setup to 2 nm by calculating the Allan variance. Our results show that neither illumination nor software algorithms limit the speed of real-time particle tracking with CMOS technology.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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  1. K. Bacia, S. A. Kim, and P. Schwille, "Fluorescence cross-correlation spectroscopy in living cells," Nat. Methods 3, 83-89 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. E. Betzig, G. H. Patterson, R. Sougrat, O. W. Lindwasser, S. Olenych, J. S. Bonifacino, M. W. Davidson, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, and H. F. Hess, "Imaging intracellular fluorescent proteins at nanometer resolution," Science 313, 1642-1645 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. M. K. Cheezum, W. F. Walker, and W. H. Guilford, "Quantitative Comparison of Algorithms for Tracking Single Fluorescent Particles," Biophys. J. 81, 2378-2388 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. U. F. Keyser, B. N. Koeleman, S. van Dorp, D. Krapf, R. M. M. Smeets, S. G. Lemay, N. H. Dekker, and C. Dekker, "Direct force measurements on DNA in a solid-state nanopore," Nat. Phys. 2, 473-477 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  5. H. Salman, D. Zbaida, Y. Rabin, D. Chatenay, and M. Elbaum, "Kinetics and mechanism of DNA uptake into the cell nucleus," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 98, 7247-7252 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. J. Wen, L. Lancaster, C. Hodges, A. Zeri, S. H. Yoshimura, H. F. Noller, C. Bustamante, and I. Tinoco, "Following translation by single ribosomes one codon at a time," Nature 452, 598-603 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. S. Keen, J. Leach, G. Gibson, and M. J. Padgett, "Comparison of a high-speed camera and a quadrant detector for measuring displacements in optical tweezers," J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 9, 264-266 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  15. R. Bowman, G. Gibson, and M. Padgett, "Particle tracking stereomicroscopy in optical tweezers: control of trap shape," Opt. Express 18, 11785-11790 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. M. Towrie, S. W. Botchway, A. Clark, E. Freeman, R. Halsall, A. W. Parker, M. Prydderch, R. Turchetta, A. D. Ward, and M. R. Pollard, "Dynamic position and force measurement for multiple optically trapped particles using a high-speed active pixel sensor," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80, 103704 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. P. L. Biancaniello and J. C. Crocker, "Line optical tweezers instrument for measuring nanoscale interactions and kinetics," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 113702 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. U. F. Keyser, D. Krapf, B. N. Koeleman, R. M. M. Smeets, N. H. Dekker, and C. Dekker, "Nanopore tomography of a laser focus," Nano Lett. 5, 2253-2256 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. I. Semenov, O. Otto, G. Stober, P. Papadopoulos, U. F. Keyser, and F. Kremer, "Single colloid electrophoresis," J. Colloid Interface Sci. 337, 260-264 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. F. Czerwinski, A. C. Richardson, and L. B. Oddershede, "Quantifying Noise in Optical Tweezers by Allan Variance," Opt. Express 17, 13255-13269 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. F. Czerwinski and L. B. Oddershede, "TIMESERIESSTREAMING.VI: LabVIEW program for reliable data streaming of large analog time series," Comput. Phys. Commun. (accepted for publication).
  24. K. Berg-Sørensen and H. Flyvbjerg, "Power spectrum analysis for optical tweezers," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 594-612 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  25. C. Gosse and V. Croquette, "Magnetic Tweezers: Micromanipulation and Force Measurement at the Molecular Level," Biophys. J. 82, 3314-3329 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. O. Otto, J. L. Gornall, G. Stober, F. Czerwinski, R. Seidel, and U. F. Keyser, "High-Speed Video-Based Tracking of Optically Trapped Colloids," J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. (accepted for publication).
  27. M. Andersson, F. Czerwinski, and L. B. Oddershede, "Allan variance for optimizing optical tweezers calibration," under review (2010).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (3)

2009 (4)

F. Czerwinski, A. C. Richardson, and L. B. Oddershede, "Quantifying Noise in Optical Tweezers by Allan Variance," Opt. Express 17, 13255-13269 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Semenov, O. Otto, G. Stober, P. Papadopoulos, U. F. Keyser, and F. Kremer, "Single colloid electrophoresis," J. Colloid Interface Sci. 337, 260-264 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Czerwinski, A. C. Richardson, C. Selhuber-Unkel, and L. B. Oddershede, "Allan Variance Analysis as Useful Tool to Determine Noise in Various Single-Molecule Setups," Proc. SPIE 7400, 740004 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Towrie, S. W. Botchway, A. Clark, E. Freeman, R. Halsall, A. W. Parker, M. Prydderch, R. Turchetta, A. D. Ward, and M. R. Pollard, "Dynamic position and force measurement for multiple optically trapped particles using a high-speed active pixel sensor," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80, 103704 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (3)

O. Otto, C. Gutsche, F. Kremer, and U. F. Keyser, "Optical tweezers with 2.5 kHz bandwidth video detection for single-colloid electrophoresis," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79, 023710 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Wen, L. Lancaster, C. Hodges, A. Zeri, S. H. Yoshimura, H. F. Noller, C. Bustamante, and I. Tinoco, "Following translation by single ribosomes one codon at a time," Nature 452, 598-603 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. M. Gibson, J. Leach, S. Keen, A. J. Wright, and M. J. Padgett, "Measuring the accuracy of particle position and force in optical tweezers using high-speed video microscopy," Opt. Express 16, 14561-14570 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

S. Keen, J. Leach, G. Gibson, and M. J. Padgett, "Comparison of a high-speed camera and a quadrant detector for measuring displacements in optical tweezers," J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 9, 264-266 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (5)

P. L. Biancaniello and J. C. Crocker, "Line optical tweezers instrument for measuring nanoscale interactions and kinetics," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 113702 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. Bacia, S. A. Kim, and P. Schwille, "Fluorescence cross-correlation spectroscopy in living cells," Nat. Methods 3, 83-89 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Betzig, G. H. Patterson, R. Sougrat, O. W. Lindwasser, S. Olenych, J. S. Bonifacino, M. W. Davidson, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, and H. F. Hess, "Imaging intracellular fluorescent proteins at nanometer resolution," Science 313, 1642-1645 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. F. Keyser, B. N. Koeleman, S. van Dorp, D. Krapf, R. M. M. Smeets, S. G. Lemay, N. H. Dekker, and C. Dekker, "Direct force measurements on DNA in a solid-state nanopore," Nat. Phys. 2, 473-477 (2006).
[CrossRef]

W. P. Wong and K. Halvorsen, "The effect of integration time on fluctuation measurements: calibrating an optical trap in the presence of motion blur," Opt. Express 14, 12517-12531 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

U. F. Keyser, D. Krapf, B. N. Koeleman, R. M. M. Smeets, N. H. Dekker, and C. Dekker, "Nanopore tomography of a laser focus," Nano Lett. 5, 2253-2256 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

K. C. Neuman and S. M. Block, "Optical trapping," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 2787-2809 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Berg-Sørensen and H. Flyvbjerg, "Power spectrum analysis for optical tweezers," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 594-612 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

C. Gosse and V. Croquette, "Magnetic Tweezers: Micromanipulation and Force Measurement at the Molecular Level," Biophys. J. 82, 3314-3329 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. E. Curtis, B. A. Koss, and D. G. Grier, "Dynamic holographic optical tweezers," Opt. Commun. 207, 169-175 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

H. Salman, D. Zbaida, Y. Rabin, D. Chatenay, and M. Elbaum, "Kinetics and mechanism of DNA uptake into the cell nucleus," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 98, 7247-7252 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. K. Cheezum, W. F. Walker, and W. H. Guilford, "Quantitative Comparison of Algorithms for Tracking Single Fluorescent Particles," Biophys. J. 81, 2378-2388 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

Y. Liu, D. K. Cheng, G. J. Sonek, M. W. Berns, C. F. Chapman, and B. J. Tromberg, "Evidence for localized cell heating induced by infrared optical tweezers," Biophys. J. 68, 2137-2144 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1973 (1)

1970 (1)

A. Ashkin, "Acceleration and Trapping of Particles by Radiation Pressure," Phys. Rev. Lett. 24, 156-159 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Ashkin, A.

A. Ashkin, "Acceleration and Trapping of Particles by Radiation Pressure," Phys. Rev. Lett. 24, 156-159 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Bacia, K.

K. Bacia, S. A. Kim, and P. Schwille, "Fluorescence cross-correlation spectroscopy in living cells," Nat. Methods 3, 83-89 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Berg-Sørensen, K.

K. Berg-Sørensen and H. Flyvbjerg, "Power spectrum analysis for optical tweezers," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 594-612 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Berns, M. W.

Y. Liu, D. K. Cheng, G. J. Sonek, M. W. Berns, C. F. Chapman, and B. J. Tromberg, "Evidence for localized cell heating induced by infrared optical tweezers," Biophys. J. 68, 2137-2144 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Betzig, E.

E. Betzig, G. H. Patterson, R. Sougrat, O. W. Lindwasser, S. Olenych, J. S. Bonifacino, M. W. Davidson, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, and H. F. Hess, "Imaging intracellular fluorescent proteins at nanometer resolution," Science 313, 1642-1645 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biancaniello, P. L.

P. L. Biancaniello and J. C. Crocker, "Line optical tweezers instrument for measuring nanoscale interactions and kinetics," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 113702 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Block, S. M.

K. C. Neuman and S. M. Block, "Optical trapping," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 2787-2809 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bonifacino, J. S.

E. Betzig, G. H. Patterson, R. Sougrat, O. W. Lindwasser, S. Olenych, J. S. Bonifacino, M. W. Davidson, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, and H. F. Hess, "Imaging intracellular fluorescent proteins at nanometer resolution," Science 313, 1642-1645 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Botchway, S. W.

M. Towrie, S. W. Botchway, A. Clark, E. Freeman, R. Halsall, A. W. Parker, M. Prydderch, R. Turchetta, A. D. Ward, and M. R. Pollard, "Dynamic position and force measurement for multiple optically trapped particles using a high-speed active pixel sensor," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80, 103704 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bowman, R.

Bustamante, C.

J. Wen, L. Lancaster, C. Hodges, A. Zeri, S. H. Yoshimura, H. F. Noller, C. Bustamante, and I. Tinoco, "Following translation by single ribosomes one codon at a time," Nature 452, 598-603 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chapman, C. F.

Y. Liu, D. K. Cheng, G. J. Sonek, M. W. Berns, C. F. Chapman, and B. J. Tromberg, "Evidence for localized cell heating induced by infrared optical tweezers," Biophys. J. 68, 2137-2144 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chatenay, D.

H. Salman, D. Zbaida, Y. Rabin, D. Chatenay, and M. Elbaum, "Kinetics and mechanism of DNA uptake into the cell nucleus," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 98, 7247-7252 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cheezum, M. K.

M. K. Cheezum, W. F. Walker, and W. H. Guilford, "Quantitative Comparison of Algorithms for Tracking Single Fluorescent Particles," Biophys. J. 81, 2378-2388 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cheng, D. K.

Y. Liu, D. K. Cheng, G. J. Sonek, M. W. Berns, C. F. Chapman, and B. J. Tromberg, "Evidence for localized cell heating induced by infrared optical tweezers," Biophys. J. 68, 2137-2144 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cheong, F. C.

Clark, A.

M. Towrie, S. W. Botchway, A. Clark, E. Freeman, R. Halsall, A. W. Parker, M. Prydderch, R. Turchetta, A. D. Ward, and M. R. Pollard, "Dynamic position and force measurement for multiple optically trapped particles using a high-speed active pixel sensor," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80, 103704 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Crocker, J. C.

P. L. Biancaniello and J. C. Crocker, "Line optical tweezers instrument for measuring nanoscale interactions and kinetics," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 113702 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Croquette, V.

C. Gosse and V. Croquette, "Magnetic Tweezers: Micromanipulation and Force Measurement at the Molecular Level," Biophys. J. 82, 3314-3329 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Curtis, J. E.

J. E. Curtis, B. A. Koss, and D. G. Grier, "Dynamic holographic optical tweezers," Opt. Commun. 207, 169-175 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Czerwinski, F.

F. Czerwinski, A. C. Richardson, C. Selhuber-Unkel, and L. B. Oddershede, "Allan Variance Analysis as Useful Tool to Determine Noise in Various Single-Molecule Setups," Proc. SPIE 7400, 740004 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Czerwinski, A. C. Richardson, and L. B. Oddershede, "Quantifying Noise in Optical Tweezers by Allan Variance," Opt. Express 17, 13255-13269 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Otto, J. L. Gornall, G. Stober, F. Czerwinski, R. Seidel, and U. F. Keyser, "High-Speed Video-Based Tracking of Optically Trapped Colloids," J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. (accepted for publication).

F. Czerwinski and L. B. Oddershede, "TIMESERIESSTREAMING.VI: LabVIEW program for reliable data streaming of large analog time series," Comput. Phys. Commun. (accepted for publication).

Davidson, M. W.

E. Betzig, G. H. Patterson, R. Sougrat, O. W. Lindwasser, S. Olenych, J. S. Bonifacino, M. W. Davidson, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, and H. F. Hess, "Imaging intracellular fluorescent proteins at nanometer resolution," Science 313, 1642-1645 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dekker, C.

U. F. Keyser, B. N. Koeleman, S. van Dorp, D. Krapf, R. M. M. Smeets, S. G. Lemay, N. H. Dekker, and C. Dekker, "Direct force measurements on DNA in a solid-state nanopore," Nat. Phys. 2, 473-477 (2006).
[CrossRef]

U. F. Keyser, D. Krapf, B. N. Koeleman, R. M. M. Smeets, N. H. Dekker, and C. Dekker, "Nanopore tomography of a laser focus," Nano Lett. 5, 2253-2256 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dekker, N. H.

U. F. Keyser, B. N. Koeleman, S. van Dorp, D. Krapf, R. M. M. Smeets, S. G. Lemay, N. H. Dekker, and C. Dekker, "Direct force measurements on DNA in a solid-state nanopore," Nat. Phys. 2, 473-477 (2006).
[CrossRef]

U. F. Keyser, D. Krapf, B. N. Koeleman, R. M. M. Smeets, N. H. Dekker, and C. Dekker, "Nanopore tomography of a laser focus," Nano Lett. 5, 2253-2256 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Elbaum, M.

H. Salman, D. Zbaida, Y. Rabin, D. Chatenay, and M. Elbaum, "Kinetics and mechanism of DNA uptake into the cell nucleus," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 98, 7247-7252 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Flyvbjerg, H.

K. Berg-Sørensen and H. Flyvbjerg, "Power spectrum analysis for optical tweezers," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 594-612 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Forde, N. R.

Freeman, E.

M. Towrie, S. W. Botchway, A. Clark, E. Freeman, R. Halsall, A. W. Parker, M. Prydderch, R. Turchetta, A. D. Ward, and M. R. Pollard, "Dynamic position and force measurement for multiple optically trapped particles using a high-speed active pixel sensor," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80, 103704 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gibson, G.

R. Bowman, G. Gibson, and M. Padgett, "Particle tracking stereomicroscopy in optical tweezers: control of trap shape," Opt. Express 18, 11785-11790 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Keen, J. Leach, G. Gibson, and M. J. Padgett, "Comparison of a high-speed camera and a quadrant detector for measuring displacements in optical tweezers," J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 9, 264-266 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gibson, G. M.

Gornall, J. L.

O. Otto, J. L. Gornall, G. Stober, F. Czerwinski, R. Seidel, and U. F. Keyser, "High-Speed Video-Based Tracking of Optically Trapped Colloids," J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. (accepted for publication).

Gosse, C.

C. Gosse and V. Croquette, "Magnetic Tweezers: Micromanipulation and Force Measurement at the Molecular Level," Biophys. J. 82, 3314-3329 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grier, D. G.

Guilford, W. H.

M. K. Cheezum, W. F. Walker, and W. H. Guilford, "Quantitative Comparison of Algorithms for Tracking Single Fluorescent Particles," Biophys. J. 81, 2378-2388 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gutsche, C.

O. Otto, C. Gutsche, F. Kremer, and U. F. Keyser, "Optical tweezers with 2.5 kHz bandwidth video detection for single-colloid electrophoresis," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79, 023710 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hale, G. M.

Halsall, R.

M. Towrie, S. W. Botchway, A. Clark, E. Freeman, R. Halsall, A. W. Parker, M. Prydderch, R. Turchetta, A. D. Ward, and M. R. Pollard, "Dynamic position and force measurement for multiple optically trapped particles using a high-speed active pixel sensor," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80, 103704 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Halvorsen, K.

Hess, H. F.

E. Betzig, G. H. Patterson, R. Sougrat, O. W. Lindwasser, S. Olenych, J. S. Bonifacino, M. W. Davidson, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, and H. F. Hess, "Imaging intracellular fluorescent proteins at nanometer resolution," Science 313, 1642-1645 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hodges, C.

J. Wen, L. Lancaster, C. Hodges, A. Zeri, S. H. Yoshimura, H. F. Noller, C. Bustamante, and I. Tinoco, "Following translation by single ribosomes one codon at a time," Nature 452, 598-603 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Keen, S.

G. M. Gibson, J. Leach, S. Keen, A. J. Wright, and M. J. Padgett, "Measuring the accuracy of particle position and force in optical tweezers using high-speed video microscopy," Opt. Express 16, 14561-14570 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Keen, J. Leach, G. Gibson, and M. J. Padgett, "Comparison of a high-speed camera and a quadrant detector for measuring displacements in optical tweezers," J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 9, 264-266 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Keyser, U. F.

I. Semenov, O. Otto, G. Stober, P. Papadopoulos, U. F. Keyser, and F. Kremer, "Single colloid electrophoresis," J. Colloid Interface Sci. 337, 260-264 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Otto, C. Gutsche, F. Kremer, and U. F. Keyser, "Optical tweezers with 2.5 kHz bandwidth video detection for single-colloid electrophoresis," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79, 023710 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. F. Keyser, B. N. Koeleman, S. van Dorp, D. Krapf, R. M. M. Smeets, S. G. Lemay, N. H. Dekker, and C. Dekker, "Direct force measurements on DNA in a solid-state nanopore," Nat. Phys. 2, 473-477 (2006).
[CrossRef]

U. F. Keyser, D. Krapf, B. N. Koeleman, R. M. M. Smeets, N. H. Dekker, and C. Dekker, "Nanopore tomography of a laser focus," Nano Lett. 5, 2253-2256 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Otto, J. L. Gornall, G. Stober, F. Czerwinski, R. Seidel, and U. F. Keyser, "High-Speed Video-Based Tracking of Optically Trapped Colloids," J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. (accepted for publication).

Kim, S. A.

K. Bacia, S. A. Kim, and P. Schwille, "Fluorescence cross-correlation spectroscopy in living cells," Nat. Methods 3, 83-89 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koeleman, B. N.

U. F. Keyser, B. N. Koeleman, S. van Dorp, D. Krapf, R. M. M. Smeets, S. G. Lemay, N. H. Dekker, and C. Dekker, "Direct force measurements on DNA in a solid-state nanopore," Nat. Phys. 2, 473-477 (2006).
[CrossRef]

U. F. Keyser, D. Krapf, B. N. Koeleman, R. M. M. Smeets, N. H. Dekker, and C. Dekker, "Nanopore tomography of a laser focus," Nano Lett. 5, 2253-2256 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koss, B. A.

J. E. Curtis, B. A. Koss, and D. G. Grier, "Dynamic holographic optical tweezers," Opt. Commun. 207, 169-175 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Krapf, D.

U. F. Keyser, B. N. Koeleman, S. van Dorp, D. Krapf, R. M. M. Smeets, S. G. Lemay, N. H. Dekker, and C. Dekker, "Direct force measurements on DNA in a solid-state nanopore," Nat. Phys. 2, 473-477 (2006).
[CrossRef]

U. F. Keyser, D. Krapf, B. N. Koeleman, R. M. M. Smeets, N. H. Dekker, and C. Dekker, "Nanopore tomography of a laser focus," Nano Lett. 5, 2253-2256 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kremer, F.

I. Semenov, O. Otto, G. Stober, P. Papadopoulos, U. F. Keyser, and F. Kremer, "Single colloid electrophoresis," J. Colloid Interface Sci. 337, 260-264 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Otto, C. Gutsche, F. Kremer, and U. F. Keyser, "Optical tweezers with 2.5 kHz bandwidth video detection for single-colloid electrophoresis," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79, 023710 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krishnatreya, B. J.

Lancaster, L.

J. Wen, L. Lancaster, C. Hodges, A. Zeri, S. H. Yoshimura, H. F. Noller, C. Bustamante, and I. Tinoco, "Following translation by single ribosomes one codon at a time," Nature 452, 598-603 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leach, J.

G. M. Gibson, J. Leach, S. Keen, A. J. Wright, and M. J. Padgett, "Measuring the accuracy of particle position and force in optical tweezers using high-speed video microscopy," Opt. Express 16, 14561-14570 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Keen, J. Leach, G. Gibson, and M. J. Padgett, "Comparison of a high-speed camera and a quadrant detector for measuring displacements in optical tweezers," J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 9, 264-266 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lemay, S. G.

U. F. Keyser, B. N. Koeleman, S. van Dorp, D. Krapf, R. M. M. Smeets, S. G. Lemay, N. H. Dekker, and C. Dekker, "Direct force measurements on DNA in a solid-state nanopore," Nat. Phys. 2, 473-477 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lindwasser, O. W.

E. Betzig, G. H. Patterson, R. Sougrat, O. W. Lindwasser, S. Olenych, J. S. Bonifacino, M. W. Davidson, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, and H. F. Hess, "Imaging intracellular fluorescent proteins at nanometer resolution," Science 313, 1642-1645 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lippincott-Schwartz, J.

E. Betzig, G. H. Patterson, R. Sougrat, O. W. Lindwasser, S. Olenych, J. S. Bonifacino, M. W. Davidson, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, and H. F. Hess, "Imaging intracellular fluorescent proteins at nanometer resolution," Science 313, 1642-1645 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, Y.

Y. Liu, D. K. Cheng, G. J. Sonek, M. W. Berns, C. F. Chapman, and B. J. Tromberg, "Evidence for localized cell heating induced by infrared optical tweezers," Biophys. J. 68, 2137-2144 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neuman, K. C.

K. C. Neuman and S. M. Block, "Optical trapping," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 2787-2809 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Noller, H. F.

J. Wen, L. Lancaster, C. Hodges, A. Zeri, S. H. Yoshimura, H. F. Noller, C. Bustamante, and I. Tinoco, "Following translation by single ribosomes one codon at a time," Nature 452, 598-603 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oddershede, L. B.

F. Czerwinski, A. C. Richardson, C. Selhuber-Unkel, and L. B. Oddershede, "Allan Variance Analysis as Useful Tool to Determine Noise in Various Single-Molecule Setups," Proc. SPIE 7400, 740004 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Czerwinski, A. C. Richardson, and L. B. Oddershede, "Quantifying Noise in Optical Tweezers by Allan Variance," Opt. Express 17, 13255-13269 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Czerwinski and L. B. Oddershede, "TIMESERIESSTREAMING.VI: LabVIEW program for reliable data streaming of large analog time series," Comput. Phys. Commun. (accepted for publication).

Olenych, S.

E. Betzig, G. H. Patterson, R. Sougrat, O. W. Lindwasser, S. Olenych, J. S. Bonifacino, M. W. Davidson, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, and H. F. Hess, "Imaging intracellular fluorescent proteins at nanometer resolution," Science 313, 1642-1645 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Otto, O.

I. Semenov, O. Otto, G. Stober, P. Papadopoulos, U. F. Keyser, and F. Kremer, "Single colloid electrophoresis," J. Colloid Interface Sci. 337, 260-264 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Otto, C. Gutsche, F. Kremer, and U. F. Keyser, "Optical tweezers with 2.5 kHz bandwidth video detection for single-colloid electrophoresis," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79, 023710 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Otto, J. L. Gornall, G. Stober, F. Czerwinski, R. Seidel, and U. F. Keyser, "High-Speed Video-Based Tracking of Optically Trapped Colloids," J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. (accepted for publication).

Padgett, M.

Padgett, M. J.

G. M. Gibson, J. Leach, S. Keen, A. J. Wright, and M. J. Padgett, "Measuring the accuracy of particle position and force in optical tweezers using high-speed video microscopy," Opt. Express 16, 14561-14570 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Keen, J. Leach, G. Gibson, and M. J. Padgett, "Comparison of a high-speed camera and a quadrant detector for measuring displacements in optical tweezers," J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 9, 264-266 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Papadopoulos, P.

I. Semenov, O. Otto, G. Stober, P. Papadopoulos, U. F. Keyser, and F. Kremer, "Single colloid electrophoresis," J. Colloid Interface Sci. 337, 260-264 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Parker, A. W.

M. Towrie, S. W. Botchway, A. Clark, E. Freeman, R. Halsall, A. W. Parker, M. Prydderch, R. Turchetta, A. D. Ward, and M. R. Pollard, "Dynamic position and force measurement for multiple optically trapped particles using a high-speed active pixel sensor," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80, 103704 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Patterson, G. H.

E. Betzig, G. H. Patterson, R. Sougrat, O. W. Lindwasser, S. Olenych, J. S. Bonifacino, M. W. Davidson, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, and H. F. Hess, "Imaging intracellular fluorescent proteins at nanometer resolution," Science 313, 1642-1645 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pollard, M. R.

M. Towrie, S. W. Botchway, A. Clark, E. Freeman, R. Halsall, A. W. Parker, M. Prydderch, R. Turchetta, A. D. Ward, and M. R. Pollard, "Dynamic position and force measurement for multiple optically trapped particles using a high-speed active pixel sensor," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80, 103704 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prydderch, M.

M. Towrie, S. W. Botchway, A. Clark, E. Freeman, R. Halsall, A. W. Parker, M. Prydderch, R. Turchetta, A. D. Ward, and M. R. Pollard, "Dynamic position and force measurement for multiple optically trapped particles using a high-speed active pixel sensor," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80, 103704 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Querry, M. R.

Rabin, Y.

H. Salman, D. Zbaida, Y. Rabin, D. Chatenay, and M. Elbaum, "Kinetics and mechanism of DNA uptake into the cell nucleus," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 98, 7247-7252 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Richardson, A. C.

F. Czerwinski, A. C. Richardson, C. Selhuber-Unkel, and L. B. Oddershede, "Allan Variance Analysis as Useful Tool to Determine Noise in Various Single-Molecule Setups," Proc. SPIE 7400, 740004 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Czerwinski, A. C. Richardson, and L. B. Oddershede, "Quantifying Noise in Optical Tweezers by Allan Variance," Opt. Express 17, 13255-13269 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Salman, H.

H. Salman, D. Zbaida, Y. Rabin, D. Chatenay, and M. Elbaum, "Kinetics and mechanism of DNA uptake into the cell nucleus," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 98, 7247-7252 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schwille, P.

K. Bacia, S. A. Kim, and P. Schwille, "Fluorescence cross-correlation spectroscopy in living cells," Nat. Methods 3, 83-89 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Seidel, R.

O. Otto, J. L. Gornall, G. Stober, F. Czerwinski, R. Seidel, and U. F. Keyser, "High-Speed Video-Based Tracking of Optically Trapped Colloids," J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. (accepted for publication).

Selhuber-Unkel, C.

F. Czerwinski, A. C. Richardson, C. Selhuber-Unkel, and L. B. Oddershede, "Allan Variance Analysis as Useful Tool to Determine Noise in Various Single-Molecule Setups," Proc. SPIE 7400, 740004 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Semenov, I.

I. Semenov, O. Otto, G. Stober, P. Papadopoulos, U. F. Keyser, and F. Kremer, "Single colloid electrophoresis," J. Colloid Interface Sci. 337, 260-264 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smeets, R. M. M.

U. F. Keyser, B. N. Koeleman, S. van Dorp, D. Krapf, R. M. M. Smeets, S. G. Lemay, N. H. Dekker, and C. Dekker, "Direct force measurements on DNA in a solid-state nanopore," Nat. Phys. 2, 473-477 (2006).
[CrossRef]

U. F. Keyser, D. Krapf, B. N. Koeleman, R. M. M. Smeets, N. H. Dekker, and C. Dekker, "Nanopore tomography of a laser focus," Nano Lett. 5, 2253-2256 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sonek, G. J.

Y. Liu, D. K. Cheng, G. J. Sonek, M. W. Berns, C. F. Chapman, and B. J. Tromberg, "Evidence for localized cell heating induced by infrared optical tweezers," Biophys. J. 68, 2137-2144 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sougrat, R.

E. Betzig, G. H. Patterson, R. Sougrat, O. W. Lindwasser, S. Olenych, J. S. Bonifacino, M. W. Davidson, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, and H. F. Hess, "Imaging intracellular fluorescent proteins at nanometer resolution," Science 313, 1642-1645 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stober, G.

I. Semenov, O. Otto, G. Stober, P. Papadopoulos, U. F. Keyser, and F. Kremer, "Single colloid electrophoresis," J. Colloid Interface Sci. 337, 260-264 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Otto, J. L. Gornall, G. Stober, F. Czerwinski, R. Seidel, and U. F. Keyser, "High-Speed Video-Based Tracking of Optically Trapped Colloids," J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. (accepted for publication).

Tinoco, I.

J. Wen, L. Lancaster, C. Hodges, A. Zeri, S. H. Yoshimura, H. F. Noller, C. Bustamante, and I. Tinoco, "Following translation by single ribosomes one codon at a time," Nature 452, 598-603 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Towrie, M.

M. Towrie, S. W. Botchway, A. Clark, E. Freeman, R. Halsall, A. W. Parker, M. Prydderch, R. Turchetta, A. D. Ward, and M. R. Pollard, "Dynamic position and force measurement for multiple optically trapped particles using a high-speed active pixel sensor," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80, 103704 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tromberg, B. J.

Y. Liu, D. K. Cheng, G. J. Sonek, M. W. Berns, C. F. Chapman, and B. J. Tromberg, "Evidence for localized cell heating induced by infrared optical tweezers," Biophys. J. 68, 2137-2144 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Turchetta, R.

M. Towrie, S. W. Botchway, A. Clark, E. Freeman, R. Halsall, A. W. Parker, M. Prydderch, R. Turchetta, A. D. Ward, and M. R. Pollard, "Dynamic position and force measurement for multiple optically trapped particles using a high-speed active pixel sensor," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80, 103704 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van der Horst, A.

van Dorp, S.

U. F. Keyser, B. N. Koeleman, S. van Dorp, D. Krapf, R. M. M. Smeets, S. G. Lemay, N. H. Dekker, and C. Dekker, "Direct force measurements on DNA in a solid-state nanopore," Nat. Phys. 2, 473-477 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Walker, W. F.

M. K. Cheezum, W. F. Walker, and W. H. Guilford, "Quantitative Comparison of Algorithms for Tracking Single Fluorescent Particles," Biophys. J. 81, 2378-2388 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ward, A. D.

M. Towrie, S. W. Botchway, A. Clark, E. Freeman, R. Halsall, A. W. Parker, M. Prydderch, R. Turchetta, A. D. Ward, and M. R. Pollard, "Dynamic position and force measurement for multiple optically trapped particles using a high-speed active pixel sensor," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80, 103704 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wen, J.

J. Wen, L. Lancaster, C. Hodges, A. Zeri, S. H. Yoshimura, H. F. Noller, C. Bustamante, and I. Tinoco, "Following translation by single ribosomes one codon at a time," Nature 452, 598-603 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wong, W. P.

Wright, A. J.

Yoshimura, S. H.

J. Wen, L. Lancaster, C. Hodges, A. Zeri, S. H. Yoshimura, H. F. Noller, C. Bustamante, and I. Tinoco, "Following translation by single ribosomes one codon at a time," Nature 452, 598-603 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zbaida, D.

H. Salman, D. Zbaida, Y. Rabin, D. Chatenay, and M. Elbaum, "Kinetics and mechanism of DNA uptake into the cell nucleus," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 98, 7247-7252 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zeri, A.

J. Wen, L. Lancaster, C. Hodges, A. Zeri, S. H. Yoshimura, H. F. Noller, C. Bustamante, and I. Tinoco, "Following translation by single ribosomes one codon at a time," Nature 452, 598-603 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Biophys. J. (3)

M. K. Cheezum, W. F. Walker, and W. H. Guilford, "Quantitative Comparison of Algorithms for Tracking Single Fluorescent Particles," Biophys. J. 81, 2378-2388 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Liu, D. K. Cheng, G. J. Sonek, M. W. Berns, C. F. Chapman, and B. J. Tromberg, "Evidence for localized cell heating induced by infrared optical tweezers," Biophys. J. 68, 2137-2144 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Gosse and V. Croquette, "Magnetic Tweezers: Micromanipulation and Force Measurement at the Molecular Level," Biophys. J. 82, 3314-3329 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Comput. Phys. Commun. (1)

F. Czerwinski and L. B. Oddershede, "TIMESERIESSTREAMING.VI: LabVIEW program for reliable data streaming of large analog time series," Comput. Phys. Commun. (accepted for publication).

J. Colloid Interface Sci. (1)

I. Semenov, O. Otto, G. Stober, P. Papadopoulos, U. F. Keyser, and F. Kremer, "Single colloid electrophoresis," J. Colloid Interface Sci. 337, 260-264 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. (2)

S. Keen, J. Leach, G. Gibson, and M. J. Padgett, "Comparison of a high-speed camera and a quadrant detector for measuring displacements in optical tweezers," J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 9, 264-266 (2007).
[CrossRef]

O. Otto, J. L. Gornall, G. Stober, F. Czerwinski, R. Seidel, and U. F. Keyser, "High-Speed Video-Based Tracking of Optically Trapped Colloids," J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. (accepted for publication).

Nano Lett. (1)

U. F. Keyser, D. Krapf, B. N. Koeleman, R. M. M. Smeets, N. H. Dekker, and C. Dekker, "Nanopore tomography of a laser focus," Nano Lett. 5, 2253-2256 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Methods (1)

K. Bacia, S. A. Kim, and P. Schwille, "Fluorescence cross-correlation spectroscopy in living cells," Nat. Methods 3, 83-89 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Phys. (1)

U. F. Keyser, B. N. Koeleman, S. van Dorp, D. Krapf, R. M. M. Smeets, S. G. Lemay, N. H. Dekker, and C. Dekker, "Direct force measurements on DNA in a solid-state nanopore," Nat. Phys. 2, 473-477 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

J. Wen, L. Lancaster, C. Hodges, A. Zeri, S. H. Yoshimura, H. F. Noller, C. Bustamante, and I. Tinoco, "Following translation by single ribosomes one codon at a time," Nature 452, 598-603 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (1)

J. E. Curtis, B. A. Koss, and D. G. Grier, "Dynamic holographic optical tweezers," Opt. Commun. 207, 169-175 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (6)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

A. Ashkin, "Acceleration and Trapping of Particles by Radiation Pressure," Phys. Rev. Lett. 24, 156-159 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1)

H. Salman, D. Zbaida, Y. Rabin, D. Chatenay, and M. Elbaum, "Kinetics and mechanism of DNA uptake into the cell nucleus," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 98, 7247-7252 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE (1)

F. Czerwinski, A. C. Richardson, C. Selhuber-Unkel, and L. B. Oddershede, "Allan Variance Analysis as Useful Tool to Determine Noise in Various Single-Molecule Setups," Proc. SPIE 7400, 740004 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (5)

M. Towrie, S. W. Botchway, A. Clark, E. Freeman, R. Halsall, A. W. Parker, M. Prydderch, R. Turchetta, A. D. Ward, and M. R. Pollard, "Dynamic position and force measurement for multiple optically trapped particles using a high-speed active pixel sensor," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80, 103704 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. L. Biancaniello and J. C. Crocker, "Line optical tweezers instrument for measuring nanoscale interactions and kinetics," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 113702 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. C. Neuman and S. M. Block, "Optical trapping," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 2787-2809 (2004).
[CrossRef]

O. Otto, C. Gutsche, F. Kremer, and U. F. Keyser, "Optical tweezers with 2.5 kHz bandwidth video detection for single-colloid electrophoresis," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79, 023710 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Berg-Sørensen and H. Flyvbjerg, "Power spectrum analysis for optical tweezers," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 594-612 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

E. Betzig, G. H. Patterson, R. Sougrat, O. W. Lindwasser, S. Olenych, J. S. Bonifacino, M. W. Davidson, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, and H. F. Hess, "Imaging intracellular fluorescent proteins at nanometer resolution," Science 313, 1642-1645 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

M. Andersson, F. Czerwinski, and L. B. Oddershede, "Allan variance for optimizing optical tweezers calibration," under review (2010).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic drawing of the custom built optical tweezers setup. The 1064 nm laser is focused into a fluidic cell by a 60× water immersion objective. Collimated light of a mercury arc lamp (not shown) illuminates the region of interest through an optical fiber. A high-speed CMOS camera captures 10,000 frames per second and is used for position determination. A slower CCD with up to 60 frames per second is used to provide a full field of view. The length of the scale bars in the colloid images are 2μm.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Implementation of the position tracking algorithm. (a) The graph shows the mean intensity profile along an 4 × 30px2 rectangular array of the 30 × 30px2 sub-ROI (inset). The intensity profile is calculated in x- and y- direction independently. (b) 1-dimensional cross-correlation transformation and 2nd-order polynomial fit of ±3px around the maxima. The inset shows a time trace for a colloid tracked for 80 s at 10,000 fps in real-time.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Calibration of optical tweezers at different acquisition rates. Determination of corner frequency fc was done at five different laser powers (top to bottom: 200 mW, 150 mW, 100 W, 50 mW, 25 mW) and compares results from Köhler (black) and 600μm fiber (red) illumination respectively. At a separate setup an additional calibration with a quadrant photo diode (blue) was performed having the laser power adjusted to the video-based measurement. The error is calculated from a series of measurements and is given by the symbol size if not explicitly indicated on the graph. At given laser power the corner frequency remains constant with increasing camera frame rate. The deviation at low frame rates can be explained by aliasing effects of the recording. The shutter time of the CMOS camera was adjusted to 162 μs (Köhler illumination) and 95 μs (optical fiber illumination). The inset shows how the corner frequency fc was obtained by power spectrum analysis of a confined colloid by numerically integrating the averaged PSD and fitting the resulting curve with an arctangent function. The corresponding time trace was recorded with the CMOS camera at 6,000 fps for 130 seconds.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Signal-to-noise ratio as a function of camera shutter time for illumination by 600μm optical fiber (red curve) and Köhler alignment (black curve). The inset shows CMOS images of colloids yielding the same signal-to-noise ratio of 16 at very different shutter times of 28μs (fiber illumination) and 995μs (Köhler illumination). The intensity of each light source was kept constant during the measurement.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Time traces of a polystyrene colloid optically trapped in a harmonic potential with a corner frequency of about 47 Hz. Data from a CMOS camera (green) was acquired in an experiment at 6,000 fps. Fluctuations with a quadrant photodiode at 50 kHz (red) and a CCD camera at 60 fps (blue) were recorded simultaneously at a separate setup. For visualization the data was shifted along the y-axis. (b) Allan deviations of all time series in a) with a total length of 130 s each. The effect of aliasing causes the undersampled CCD data to be off the thermal limit by a factor of 3.

Equations (7)

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σ x 2 ( τ ) = 1 2 ( x i + 1 x i ) 2 τ ,
S ( f ) = k B T γ π 2 ( f c 2 + f 2 ) ,
γ = 6 π η r .
k trap = 2 π γ f c .
SE x 2 k B T γ k trap 2 τ .
SNR = μ O μ R σ B ,
Δ SE x SE x = ( Δ f c f c ) 2 + 1 2 ( Δ r r ) 2 7.35 % .

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