Abstract

We constructed a high speed and high-resolution Stokes vector retinal imaging polarimeter with dual electro-optical modulators based on adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope. By varying the voltages on the EO crystals line by line, we were able to measure over 500,000 Stokes vectors per second. We used this system in three human subjects demonstrating the capability of the system to be employed in vivo. The high speed effectively decreases the adverse impact of eye motion induced errors in polarization calculations, improving the contrast of retinal structures based on their polarization properties.

© 2010 OSA

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  52. R. N. Weinreb, C. Bowd, D. S. Greenfield, and L. M. Zangwill, “Measurement of the magnitude and axis of corneal polarization with scanning laser polarimetry,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 120(7), 901–906 (2002).
    [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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2010

C. Ahlers, E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, I. Golbaz, F. Prager, C. Schütze, B. Baumann, C. K. Hitzenberger, and U. Schmidt-Erfurth, “Imaging of the retinal pigment epithelium in age-related macular degeneration using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51(4), 2149–2157 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

D. A. VanNasdale, A. E. Elsner, A. Weber, M. Miura, and B. P. Haggerty, “Determination of foveal location using scanning laser polarimetry,” J. Vis. 9(3), 21, 1–17 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

A. E. Elsner, A. Weber, M. C. Cheney, and D. A. Vannasdale, “Spatial distribution of macular birefringence associated with the Henle fibers,” Vision Res. 48(26), 2578–2585 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Michels, M. Pircher, W. Geitzenauer, C. Simader, E. Götzinger, O. Findl, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Value of polarisation-sensitive optical coherence tomography in diseases affecting the retinal pigment epithelium,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 92(2), 204–209 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Miura, M. Yamanari, T. Iwasaki, A. E. Elsner, S. Makita, T. Yatagai, and Y. Yasuno, “Imaging polarimetry in age-related macular degeneration,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49(6), 2661–2667 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. M. Twietmeyer, R. A. Chipman, A. E. Elsner, Y. Zhao, and D. VanNasdale, “Mueller matrix retinal imager with optimized polarization conditions,” Opt. Express 16(26), 21339–21354 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Y. Chui, H. Song, and S. A. Burns, “Adaptive-optics imaging of human cone photoreceptor distribution,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 25(12), 3021–3029 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Y. P. Chui, H. Song, and S. A. Burns, “Individual variations in human cone photoreceptor packing density: variations with refractive error,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49(10), 4679–4687 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Zhong, B. L. Petrig, X. Qi, and S. A. Burns, “In vivo measurement of erythrocyte velocity and retinal blood flow using adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy,” Opt. Express 16(17), 12746–12756 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Song, Y. Zhao, X. Qi, Y. T. Chui, and S. A. Burns, “Stokes vector analysis of adaptive optics images of the retina,” Opt. Lett. 33(2), 137–139 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Gao, B. Cense, Y. Zhang, R. S. Jonnal, and D. T. Miller, “Measuring retinal contributions to the optical Stiles-Crawford effect with optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 16(9), 6486–6501 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

2006

D. C. Gray, W. Merigan, J. I. Wolfing, B. P. Gee, J. Porter, A. Dubra, T. H. Twietmeyer, K. Ahamd, R. Tumbar, F. Reinholz, and D. R. Williams, “In vivo fluorescence imaging of primate retinal ganglion cells and retinal pigment epithelial cells,” Opt. Express 14(16), 7144–7158 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, O. Findl, S. Michels, W. Geitzenauer, C. Leydolt, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Human macula investigated in vivo with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47(12), 5487–5494 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

M. B. Mellem-Kairala, A. E. Elsner, A. Weber, R. B. Simmons, and S. A. Burns, “Improved contrast of peripapillary hyperpigmentation using polarization analysis,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 46(3), 1099–1106 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X.-R. Huang and R. W. Knighton, “Microtubules contribute to the birefringence of the retinal nerve fiber layer,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 46(12), 4588–4593 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Miura, A. E. Elsner, A. Weber, M. C. Cheney, M. Osako, M. Usui, and T. Iwasaki, “Imaging polarimetry in central serous chorioretinopathy,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 140(6), 1014–1019 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. B. Stevenson and A. Roorda, “Correcting for Miniature Eye Movements in High Resolution Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscopy,” Proc. SPIE 5688A, 145–151 (2005).

J. A. Martin and A. Roorda, “Direct and noninvasive assessment of parafoveal capillary leukocyte velocity,” Ophthalmology 112(12), 2219–2224 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

2003

M. C. Cheney, A. E. Elsner, S. A. Burns, M. B. M. Kairala, C. L. Trempe, K. Lashkari, J. J. Weiter, M. Miura, M. Osako, and M. Usui, “Polarization amplitude and phase changes in retinal exudation,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 44, U691–U691 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. N. Weinreb, C. Bowd, and L. M. Zangwill, “Glaucoma detection using scanning laser polarimetry with variable corneal polarization compensation,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 121(2), 218–224 (2003).
[PubMed]

S. A. Burns, A. E. Elsner, M. B. Mellem-Kairala, and R. B. Simmons, “Improved contrast of subretinal structures using polarization analysis,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 44(9), 4061–4068 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

A. Roorda, F. Romero-Borja, W. Donnelly Iii, H. Queener, T. J. Hebert, and M. C. W. Campbell, “Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy,” Opt. Express 10(9), 405–412 (2002).
[PubMed]

R. N. Weinreb, C. Bowd, D. S. Greenfield, L. M. Zangwill, and M. Zangwill, “Measurement of the magnitude and axis of corneal polarization with scanning laser polarimetry,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 120(7), 901–906 (2002).
[PubMed]

R. W. Knighton and X. R. Huang, “Linear birefringence of the central human cornea,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 43(1), 82–86 (2002).
[PubMed]

R. N. Weinreb, C. Bowd, D. S. Greenfield, and L. M. Zangwill, “Measurement of the magnitude and axis of corneal polarization with scanning laser polarimetry,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 120(7), 901–906 (2002).
[PubMed]

2001

J. M. Bueno, “Depolarization effects in the human eye,” Vision Res. 41(21), 2687–2696 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. T. Nicolela, C. Martinez-Bello, C. A. Morrison, R. P. LeBlanc, H. G. Lemij, T. P. Colen, and B. C. Chauhan, “Scanning laser polarimetry in a selected group of patients with glaucoma and normal controls,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 132(6), 845–854 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Bueno and P. Artal, “Polarization and retinal image quality estimates in the human eye,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18(3), 489–496 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. K. Hitzenberger, E. Goetzinger, M. Sticker, M. Pircher, and A. F. Fercher, “Measurement and imaging of birefringence and optic axis orientation by phase resolved polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 9(13), 780–790 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000

D. S. Greenfield, R. W. Knighton, and X. R. Huang, “Effect of corneal polarization axis on assessment of retinal nerve fiber layer thickness by scanning laser polarimetry,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 129(6), 715–722 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Bueno, “Measurement of parameters of polarization in the living human eye using imaging polarimetry,” Vision Res. 40(28), 3791–3799 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999

J. Sjöstrand, Z. Popovic, N. Conradi, and J. Marshall, “Morphometric study of the displacement of retinal ganglion cells subserving cones within the human fovea,” Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 237(12), 1014–1023 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995

1992

A. W. Dreher and K. Reiter, “Retinal Laser Ellipsometry - a New Method for Measuring the Retinal Nerve-Fiber Layer Thickness Distribution,” Clin. Vis. Sci. 7, 481–488 (1992).

1988

1987

1986

G. J. van Blokland and D. van Norren, “Intensity and polarization of light scattered at small angles from the human fovea,” Vision Res. 26(3), 485–494 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1985

1984

J. M. Gorrand, R. Alfieri, and J. Y. Boire, “Diffusion of the retinal layers of the living human eye,” Vision Res. 24(9), 1097–1106 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1981

L. J. Bour and N. J. Lopes Cardozo, “On the birefringence of the living human eye,” Vision Res. 21(9), 1413–1421 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1973

A. W. Snyder and C. Pask, “The Stiles-Crawford effect--explanation and consequences,” Vision Res. 13(6), 1115–1137 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1949

1933

W. S. Stiles and B. H. Crawford, “The luminous efficiency of rays entering the eye pupil at different points,” Proc. R. Soc. Lond. 112(778), 428–450 (1933).
[CrossRef]

Ahamd, K.

Ahlers, C.

C. Ahlers, E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, I. Golbaz, F. Prager, C. Schütze, B. Baumann, C. K. Hitzenberger, and U. Schmidt-Erfurth, “Imaging of the retinal pigment epithelium in age-related macular degeneration using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51(4), 2149–2157 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alfieri, R.

J. M. Gorrand, R. Alfieri, and J. Y. Boire, “Diffusion of the retinal layers of the living human eye,” Vision Res. 24(9), 1097–1106 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Artal, P.

Baumann, B.

C. Ahlers, E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, I. Golbaz, F. Prager, C. Schütze, B. Baumann, C. K. Hitzenberger, and U. Schmidt-Erfurth, “Imaging of the retinal pigment epithelium in age-related macular degeneration using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51(4), 2149–2157 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boire, J. Y.

J. M. Gorrand, R. Alfieri, and J. Y. Boire, “Diffusion of the retinal layers of the living human eye,” Vision Res. 24(9), 1097–1106 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bour, L. J.

L. J. Bour and N. J. Lopes Cardozo, “On the birefringence of the living human eye,” Vision Res. 21(9), 1413–1421 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bowd, C.

R. N. Weinreb, C. Bowd, and L. M. Zangwill, “Glaucoma detection using scanning laser polarimetry with variable corneal polarization compensation,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 121(2), 218–224 (2003).
[PubMed]

R. N. Weinreb, C. Bowd, D. S. Greenfield, and L. M. Zangwill, “Measurement of the magnitude and axis of corneal polarization with scanning laser polarimetry,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 120(7), 901–906 (2002).
[PubMed]

R. N. Weinreb, C. Bowd, D. S. Greenfield, L. M. Zangwill, and M. Zangwill, “Measurement of the magnitude and axis of corneal polarization with scanning laser polarimetry,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 120(7), 901–906 (2002).
[PubMed]

Brink, H. B.

Bueno, J. M.

Burns, S. A.

T. Y. P. Chui, H. Song, and S. A. Burns, “Individual variations in human cone photoreceptor packing density: variations with refractive error,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49(10), 4679–4687 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Zhong, B. L. Petrig, X. Qi, and S. A. Burns, “In vivo measurement of erythrocyte velocity and retinal blood flow using adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy,” Opt. Express 16(17), 12746–12756 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Y. Chui, H. Song, and S. A. Burns, “Adaptive-optics imaging of human cone photoreceptor distribution,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 25(12), 3021–3029 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Song, Y. Zhao, X. Qi, Y. T. Chui, and S. A. Burns, “Stokes vector analysis of adaptive optics images of the retina,” Opt. Lett. 33(2), 137–139 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Burns, R. Tumbar, A. E. Elsner, D. Ferguson, and D. X. Hammer, “Large-field-of-view, modular, stabilized, adaptive-optics-based scanning laser ophthalmoscope,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24(5), 1313–1326 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. B. Mellem-Kairala, A. E. Elsner, A. Weber, R. B. Simmons, and S. A. Burns, “Improved contrast of peripapillary hyperpigmentation using polarization analysis,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 46(3), 1099–1106 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Burns, A. E. Elsner, M. B. Mellem-Kairala, and R. B. Simmons, “Improved contrast of subretinal structures using polarization analysis,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 44(9), 4061–4068 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. C. Cheney, A. E. Elsner, S. A. Burns, M. B. M. Kairala, C. L. Trempe, K. Lashkari, J. J. Weiter, M. Miura, M. Osako, and M. Usui, “Polarization amplitude and phase changes in retinal exudation,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 44, U691–U691 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Burns, S. Wu, F. C. Delori, and A. E. Elsner, “Direct measurement of human-cone-photoreceptor alignment,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12(10), 2329–2338 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Campbell, M. C. W.

Cense, B.

W. Gao, B. Cense, Y. Zhang, R. S. Jonnal, and D. T. Miller, “Measuring retinal contributions to the optical Stiles-Crawford effect with optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 16(9), 6486–6501 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Cense, T. C. Chen, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, and J. F. de Boer, “In vivo birefringence and thickness measurements of the human retinal nerve fiber layer using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(1), 121–125 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chauhan, B. C.

M. T. Nicolela, C. Martinez-Bello, C. A. Morrison, R. P. LeBlanc, H. G. Lemij, T. P. Colen, and B. C. Chauhan, “Scanning laser polarimetry in a selected group of patients with glaucoma and normal controls,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 132(6), 845–854 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, T. C.

B. Cense, T. C. Chen, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, and J. F. de Boer, “In vivo birefringence and thickness measurements of the human retinal nerve fiber layer using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(1), 121–125 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cheney, M. C.

A. E. Elsner, A. Weber, M. C. Cheney, and D. A. Vannasdale, “Spatial distribution of macular birefringence associated with the Henle fibers,” Vision Res. 48(26), 2578–2585 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. E. Elsner, A. Weber, M. C. Cheney, D. A. VanNasdale, and M. Miura, “Imaging polarimetry in patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24(5), 1468–1480 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Miura, A. E. Elsner, M. C. Cheney, M. Usui, and T. Iwasaki, “Imaging polarimetry and retinal blood vessel quantification at the epiretinal membrane,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24(5), 1431–1437 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Miura, A. E. Elsner, A. Weber, M. C. Cheney, M. Osako, M. Usui, and T. Iwasaki, “Imaging polarimetry in central serous chorioretinopathy,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 140(6), 1014–1019 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Weber, M. C. Cheney, Q. Y. J. Smithwick, and A. E. Elsner, “Polarimetric imaging and blood vessel quantification,” Opt. Express 12(21), 5178–5190 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. C. Cheney, A. E. Elsner, S. A. Burns, M. B. M. Kairala, C. L. Trempe, K. Lashkari, J. J. Weiter, M. Miura, M. Osako, and M. Usui, “Polarization amplitude and phase changes in retinal exudation,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 44, U691–U691 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chipman, R. A.

Chui, T. Y.

Chui, T. Y. P.

T. Y. P. Chui, H. Song, and S. A. Burns, “Individual variations in human cone photoreceptor packing density: variations with refractive error,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49(10), 4679–4687 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chui, Y. T.

Colen, T. P.

M. T. Nicolela, C. Martinez-Bello, C. A. Morrison, R. P. LeBlanc, H. G. Lemij, T. P. Colen, and B. C. Chauhan, “Scanning laser polarimetry in a selected group of patients with glaucoma and normal controls,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 132(6), 845–854 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Conradi, N.

J. Sjöstrand, Z. Popovic, N. Conradi, and J. Marshall, “Morphometric study of the displacement of retinal ganglion cells subserving cones within the human fovea,” Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 237(12), 1014–1023 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Crawford, B. H.

W. S. Stiles and B. H. Crawford, “The luminous efficiency of rays entering the eye pupil at different points,” Proc. R. Soc. Lond. 112(778), 428–450 (1933).
[CrossRef]

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B. Cense, T. C. Chen, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, and J. F. de Boer, “In vivo birefringence and thickness measurements of the human retinal nerve fiber layer using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(1), 121–125 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Delori, F. C.

Donnelly Iii, W.

Dreher, A. W.

A. W. Dreher and K. Reiter, “Retinal Laser Ellipsometry - a New Method for Measuring the Retinal Nerve-Fiber Layer Thickness Distribution,” Clin. Vis. Sci. 7, 481–488 (1992).

Dubra, A.

Duncan, J. L.

A. Roorda, Y. H. Zhang, and J. L. Duncan, “High-resolution in vivo imaging of the RPE mosaic in eyes with retinal disease,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 48(5), 2297–2303 (2007).
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Elsner, A. E.

D. A. VanNasdale, A. E. Elsner, A. Weber, M. Miura, and B. P. Haggerty, “Determination of foveal location using scanning laser polarimetry,” J. Vis. 9(3), 21, 1–17 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. E. Elsner, A. Weber, M. C. Cheney, and D. A. Vannasdale, “Spatial distribution of macular birefringence associated with the Henle fibers,” Vision Res. 48(26), 2578–2585 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. M. Twietmeyer, R. A. Chipman, A. E. Elsner, Y. Zhao, and D. VanNasdale, “Mueller matrix retinal imager with optimized polarization conditions,” Opt. Express 16(26), 21339–21354 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Miura, M. Yamanari, T. Iwasaki, A. E. Elsner, S. Makita, T. Yatagai, and Y. Yasuno, “Imaging polarimetry in age-related macular degeneration,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49(6), 2661–2667 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Miura, A. E. Elsner, M. C. Cheney, M. Usui, and T. Iwasaki, “Imaging polarimetry and retinal blood vessel quantification at the epiretinal membrane,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24(5), 1431–1437 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Burns, R. Tumbar, A. E. Elsner, D. Ferguson, and D. X. Hammer, “Large-field-of-view, modular, stabilized, adaptive-optics-based scanning laser ophthalmoscope,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24(5), 1313–1326 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. E. Elsner, A. Weber, M. C. Cheney, D. A. VanNasdale, and M. Miura, “Imaging polarimetry in patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24(5), 1468–1480 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. B. Mellem-Kairala, A. E. Elsner, A. Weber, R. B. Simmons, and S. A. Burns, “Improved contrast of peripapillary hyperpigmentation using polarization analysis,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 46(3), 1099–1106 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Miura, A. E. Elsner, A. Weber, M. C. Cheney, M. Osako, M. Usui, and T. Iwasaki, “Imaging polarimetry in central serous chorioretinopathy,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 140(6), 1014–1019 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Weber, M. C. Cheney, Q. Y. J. Smithwick, and A. E. Elsner, “Polarimetric imaging and blood vessel quantification,” Opt. Express 12(21), 5178–5190 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Burns, A. E. Elsner, M. B. Mellem-Kairala, and R. B. Simmons, “Improved contrast of subretinal structures using polarization analysis,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 44(9), 4061–4068 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. C. Cheney, A. E. Elsner, S. A. Burns, M. B. M. Kairala, C. L. Trempe, K. Lashkari, J. J. Weiter, M. Miura, M. Osako, and M. Usui, “Polarization amplitude and phase changes in retinal exudation,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 44, U691–U691 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Burns, S. Wu, F. C. Delori, and A. E. Elsner, “Direct measurement of human-cone-photoreceptor alignment,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12(10), 2329–2338 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Ferguson, D.

Findl, O.

S. Michels, M. Pircher, W. Geitzenauer, C. Simader, E. Götzinger, O. Findl, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Value of polarisation-sensitive optical coherence tomography in diseases affecting the retinal pigment epithelium,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 92(2), 204–209 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, O. Findl, S. Michels, W. Geitzenauer, C. Leydolt, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Human macula investigated in vivo with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47(12), 5487–5494 (2006).
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M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, R. Leitgeb, H. Sattmann, O. Findl, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Imaging of polarization properties of human retina in vivo with phase resolved transversal PS-OCT,” Opt. Express 12(24), 5940–5951 (2004).
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Gao, W.

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S. Michels, M. Pircher, W. Geitzenauer, C. Simader, E. Götzinger, O. Findl, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Value of polarisation-sensitive optical coherence tomography in diseases affecting the retinal pigment epithelium,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 92(2), 204–209 (2008).
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M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, O. Findl, S. Michels, W. Geitzenauer, C. Leydolt, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Human macula investigated in vivo with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47(12), 5487–5494 (2006).
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Golbaz, I.

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S. Michels, M. Pircher, W. Geitzenauer, C. Simader, E. Götzinger, O. Findl, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Value of polarisation-sensitive optical coherence tomography in diseases affecting the retinal pigment epithelium,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 92(2), 204–209 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, O. Findl, S. Michels, W. Geitzenauer, C. Leydolt, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Human macula investigated in vivo with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47(12), 5487–5494 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, R. Leitgeb, H. Sattmann, O. Findl, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Imaging of polarization properties of human retina in vivo with phase resolved transversal PS-OCT,” Opt. Express 12(24), 5940–5951 (2004).
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Gray, D. C.

Greenfield, D. S.

R. N. Weinreb, C. Bowd, D. S. Greenfield, L. M. Zangwill, and M. Zangwill, “Measurement of the magnitude and axis of corneal polarization with scanning laser polarimetry,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 120(7), 901–906 (2002).
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R. N. Weinreb, C. Bowd, D. S. Greenfield, and L. M. Zangwill, “Measurement of the magnitude and axis of corneal polarization with scanning laser polarimetry,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 120(7), 901–906 (2002).
[PubMed]

D. S. Greenfield, R. W. Knighton, and X. R. Huang, “Effect of corneal polarization axis on assessment of retinal nerve fiber layer thickness by scanning laser polarimetry,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 129(6), 715–722 (2000).
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Haggerty, B. P.

D. A. VanNasdale, A. E. Elsner, A. Weber, M. Miura, and B. P. Haggerty, “Determination of foveal location using scanning laser polarimetry,” J. Vis. 9(3), 21, 1–17 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hammer, D. X.

Hebert, T. J.

Hitzenberger, C. K.

C. Ahlers, E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, I. Golbaz, F. Prager, C. Schütze, B. Baumann, C. K. Hitzenberger, and U. Schmidt-Erfurth, “Imaging of the retinal pigment epithelium in age-related macular degeneration using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51(4), 2149–2157 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Michels, M. Pircher, W. Geitzenauer, C. Simader, E. Götzinger, O. Findl, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Value of polarisation-sensitive optical coherence tomography in diseases affecting the retinal pigment epithelium,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 92(2), 204–209 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, O. Findl, S. Michels, W. Geitzenauer, C. Leydolt, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Human macula investigated in vivo with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47(12), 5487–5494 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, R. Leitgeb, H. Sattmann, O. Findl, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Imaging of polarization properties of human retina in vivo with phase resolved transversal PS-OCT,” Opt. Express 12(24), 5940–5951 (2004).
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C. K. Hitzenberger, E. Goetzinger, M. Sticker, M. Pircher, and A. F. Fercher, “Measurement and imaging of birefringence and optic axis orientation by phase resolved polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 9(13), 780–790 (2001).
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[PubMed]

D. S. Greenfield, R. W. Knighton, and X. R. Huang, “Effect of corneal polarization axis on assessment of retinal nerve fiber layer thickness by scanning laser polarimetry,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 129(6), 715–722 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, X.-R.

X.-R. Huang and R. W. Knighton, “Microtubules contribute to the birefringence of the retinal nerve fiber layer,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 46(12), 4588–4593 (2005).
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Hunter, J. J.

Iwasaki, T.

M. Miura, M. Yamanari, T. Iwasaki, A. E. Elsner, S. Makita, T. Yatagai, and Y. Yasuno, “Imaging polarimetry in age-related macular degeneration,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49(6), 2661–2667 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Miura, A. E. Elsner, M. C. Cheney, M. Usui, and T. Iwasaki, “Imaging polarimetry and retinal blood vessel quantification at the epiretinal membrane,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24(5), 1431–1437 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Miura, A. E. Elsner, A. Weber, M. C. Cheney, M. Osako, M. Usui, and T. Iwasaki, “Imaging polarimetry in central serous chorioretinopathy,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 140(6), 1014–1019 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jonnal, R. S.

Kairala, M. B. M.

M. C. Cheney, A. E. Elsner, S. A. Burns, M. B. M. Kairala, C. L. Trempe, K. Lashkari, J. J. Weiter, M. Miura, M. Osako, and M. Usui, “Polarization amplitude and phase changes in retinal exudation,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 44, U691–U691 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kisilak, M. L.

Knighton, R. W.

X.-R. Huang and R. W. Knighton, “Microtubules contribute to the birefringence of the retinal nerve fiber layer,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 46(12), 4588–4593 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. W. Knighton and X. R. Huang, “Linear birefringence of the central human cornea,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 43(1), 82–86 (2002).
[PubMed]

D. S. Greenfield, R. W. Knighton, and X. R. Huang, “Effect of corneal polarization axis on assessment of retinal nerve fiber layer thickness by scanning laser polarimetry,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 129(6), 715–722 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lashkari, K.

M. C. Cheney, A. E. Elsner, S. A. Burns, M. B. M. Kairala, C. L. Trempe, K. Lashkari, J. J. Weiter, M. Miura, M. Osako, and M. Usui, “Polarization amplitude and phase changes in retinal exudation,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 44, U691–U691 (2003).
[CrossRef]

LeBlanc, R. P.

M. T. Nicolela, C. Martinez-Bello, C. A. Morrison, R. P. LeBlanc, H. G. Lemij, T. P. Colen, and B. C. Chauhan, “Scanning laser polarimetry in a selected group of patients with glaucoma and normal controls,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 132(6), 845–854 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leitgeb, R.

Lemij, H. G.

M. T. Nicolela, C. Martinez-Bello, C. A. Morrison, R. P. LeBlanc, H. G. Lemij, T. P. Colen, and B. C. Chauhan, “Scanning laser polarimetry in a selected group of patients with glaucoma and normal controls,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 132(6), 845–854 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leydolt, C.

M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, O. Findl, S. Michels, W. Geitzenauer, C. Leydolt, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Human macula investigated in vivo with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47(12), 5487–5494 (2006).
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Makita, S.

M. Miura, M. Yamanari, T. Iwasaki, A. E. Elsner, S. Makita, T. Yatagai, and Y. Yasuno, “Imaging polarimetry in age-related macular degeneration,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49(6), 2661–2667 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marshall, J.

J. Sjöstrand, Z. Popovic, N. Conradi, and J. Marshall, “Morphometric study of the displacement of retinal ganglion cells subserving cones within the human fovea,” Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 237(12), 1014–1023 (1999).
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J. A. Martin and A. Roorda, “Direct and noninvasive assessment of parafoveal capillary leukocyte velocity,” Ophthalmology 112(12), 2219–2224 (2005).
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M. T. Nicolela, C. Martinez-Bello, C. A. Morrison, R. P. LeBlanc, H. G. Lemij, T. P. Colen, and B. C. Chauhan, “Scanning laser polarimetry in a selected group of patients with glaucoma and normal controls,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 132(6), 845–854 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mellem-Kairala, M. B.

M. B. Mellem-Kairala, A. E. Elsner, A. Weber, R. B. Simmons, and S. A. Burns, “Improved contrast of peripapillary hyperpigmentation using polarization analysis,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 46(3), 1099–1106 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Burns, A. E. Elsner, M. B. Mellem-Kairala, and R. B. Simmons, “Improved contrast of subretinal structures using polarization analysis,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 44(9), 4061–4068 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Merigan, W.

Michels, S.

S. Michels, M. Pircher, W. Geitzenauer, C. Simader, E. Götzinger, O. Findl, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Value of polarisation-sensitive optical coherence tomography in diseases affecting the retinal pigment epithelium,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 92(2), 204–209 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, O. Findl, S. Michels, W. Geitzenauer, C. Leydolt, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Human macula investigated in vivo with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47(12), 5487–5494 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miller, D. T.

Miura, M.

D. A. VanNasdale, A. E. Elsner, A. Weber, M. Miura, and B. P. Haggerty, “Determination of foveal location using scanning laser polarimetry,” J. Vis. 9(3), 21, 1–17 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Miura, M. Yamanari, T. Iwasaki, A. E. Elsner, S. Makita, T. Yatagai, and Y. Yasuno, “Imaging polarimetry in age-related macular degeneration,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49(6), 2661–2667 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Miura, A. E. Elsner, M. C. Cheney, M. Usui, and T. Iwasaki, “Imaging polarimetry and retinal blood vessel quantification at the epiretinal membrane,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24(5), 1431–1437 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. E. Elsner, A. Weber, M. C. Cheney, D. A. VanNasdale, and M. Miura, “Imaging polarimetry in patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24(5), 1468–1480 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Miura, A. E. Elsner, A. Weber, M. C. Cheney, M. Osako, M. Usui, and T. Iwasaki, “Imaging polarimetry in central serous chorioretinopathy,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 140(6), 1014–1019 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. C. Cheney, A. E. Elsner, S. A. Burns, M. B. M. Kairala, C. L. Trempe, K. Lashkari, J. J. Weiter, M. Miura, M. Osako, and M. Usui, “Polarization amplitude and phase changes in retinal exudation,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 44, U691–U691 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Morrison, C. A.

M. T. Nicolela, C. Martinez-Bello, C. A. Morrison, R. P. LeBlanc, H. G. Lemij, T. P. Colen, and B. C. Chauhan, “Scanning laser polarimetry in a selected group of patients with glaucoma and normal controls,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 132(6), 845–854 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nicolela, M. T.

M. T. Nicolela, C. Martinez-Bello, C. A. Morrison, R. P. LeBlanc, H. G. Lemij, T. P. Colen, and B. C. Chauhan, “Scanning laser polarimetry in a selected group of patients with glaucoma and normal controls,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 132(6), 845–854 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Osako, M.

M. Miura, A. E. Elsner, A. Weber, M. C. Cheney, M. Osako, M. Usui, and T. Iwasaki, “Imaging polarimetry in central serous chorioretinopathy,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 140(6), 1014–1019 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. C. Cheney, A. E. Elsner, S. A. Burns, M. B. M. Kairala, C. L. Trempe, K. Lashkari, J. J. Weiter, M. Miura, M. Osako, and M. Usui, “Polarization amplitude and phase changes in retinal exudation,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 44, U691–U691 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Park, B. H.

B. Cense, T. C. Chen, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, and J. F. de Boer, “In vivo birefringence and thickness measurements of the human retinal nerve fiber layer using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(1), 121–125 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pask, C.

A. W. Snyder and C. Pask, “The Stiles-Crawford effect--explanation and consequences,” Vision Res. 13(6), 1115–1137 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Petrig, B. L.

Pierce, M. C.

B. Cense, T. C. Chen, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, and J. F. de Boer, “In vivo birefringence and thickness measurements of the human retinal nerve fiber layer using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(1), 121–125 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pircher, M.

C. Ahlers, E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, I. Golbaz, F. Prager, C. Schütze, B. Baumann, C. K. Hitzenberger, and U. Schmidt-Erfurth, “Imaging of the retinal pigment epithelium in age-related macular degeneration using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51(4), 2149–2157 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Michels, M. Pircher, W. Geitzenauer, C. Simader, E. Götzinger, O. Findl, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Value of polarisation-sensitive optical coherence tomography in diseases affecting the retinal pigment epithelium,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 92(2), 204–209 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, O. Findl, S. Michels, W. Geitzenauer, C. Leydolt, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Human macula investigated in vivo with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47(12), 5487–5494 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, R. Leitgeb, H. Sattmann, O. Findl, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Imaging of polarization properties of human retina in vivo with phase resolved transversal PS-OCT,” Opt. Express 12(24), 5940–5951 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. K. Hitzenberger, E. Goetzinger, M. Sticker, M. Pircher, and A. F. Fercher, “Measurement and imaging of birefringence and optic axis orientation by phase resolved polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 9(13), 780–790 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Popovic, Z.

J. Sjöstrand, Z. Popovic, N. Conradi, and J. Marshall, “Morphometric study of the displacement of retinal ganglion cells subserving cones within the human fovea,” Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 237(12), 1014–1023 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Porter, J.

Prager, F.

C. Ahlers, E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, I. Golbaz, F. Prager, C. Schütze, B. Baumann, C. K. Hitzenberger, and U. Schmidt-Erfurth, “Imaging of the retinal pigment epithelium in age-related macular degeneration using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51(4), 2149–2157 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Qi, X.

Queener, H.

Reinholz, F.

Reiter, K.

A. W. Dreher and K. Reiter, “Retinal Laser Ellipsometry - a New Method for Measuring the Retinal Nerve-Fiber Layer Thickness Distribution,” Clin. Vis. Sci. 7, 481–488 (1992).

Romero-Borja, F.

Roorda, A.

A. Roorda, Y. H. Zhang, and J. L. Duncan, “High-resolution in vivo imaging of the RPE mosaic in eyes with retinal disease,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 48(5), 2297–2303 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. B. Stevenson and A. Roorda, “Correcting for Miniature Eye Movements in High Resolution Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscopy,” Proc. SPIE 5688A, 145–151 (2005).

J. A. Martin and A. Roorda, “Direct and noninvasive assessment of parafoveal capillary leukocyte velocity,” Ophthalmology 112(12), 2219–2224 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Roorda, F. Romero-Borja, W. Donnelly Iii, H. Queener, T. J. Hebert, and M. C. W. Campbell, “Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy,” Opt. Express 10(9), 405–412 (2002).
[PubMed]

Sattmann, H.

Schmidt-Erfurth, U.

C. Ahlers, E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, I. Golbaz, F. Prager, C. Schütze, B. Baumann, C. K. Hitzenberger, and U. Schmidt-Erfurth, “Imaging of the retinal pigment epithelium in age-related macular degeneration using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51(4), 2149–2157 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Michels, M. Pircher, W. Geitzenauer, C. Simader, E. Götzinger, O. Findl, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Value of polarisation-sensitive optical coherence tomography in diseases affecting the retinal pigment epithelium,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 92(2), 204–209 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, O. Findl, S. Michels, W. Geitzenauer, C. Leydolt, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Human macula investigated in vivo with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47(12), 5487–5494 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schütze, C.

C. Ahlers, E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, I. Golbaz, F. Prager, C. Schütze, B. Baumann, C. K. Hitzenberger, and U. Schmidt-Erfurth, “Imaging of the retinal pigment epithelium in age-related macular degeneration using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51(4), 2149–2157 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Simader, C.

S. Michels, M. Pircher, W. Geitzenauer, C. Simader, E. Götzinger, O. Findl, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Value of polarisation-sensitive optical coherence tomography in diseases affecting the retinal pigment epithelium,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 92(2), 204–209 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Simmons, R. B.

M. B. Mellem-Kairala, A. E. Elsner, A. Weber, R. B. Simmons, and S. A. Burns, “Improved contrast of peripapillary hyperpigmentation using polarization analysis,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 46(3), 1099–1106 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Burns, A. E. Elsner, M. B. Mellem-Kairala, and R. B. Simmons, “Improved contrast of subretinal structures using polarization analysis,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 44(9), 4061–4068 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sjöstrand, J.

J. Sjöstrand, Z. Popovic, N. Conradi, and J. Marshall, “Morphometric study of the displacement of retinal ganglion cells subserving cones within the human fovea,” Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 237(12), 1014–1023 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smithwick, Q. Y. J.

Snyder, A. W.

A. W. Snyder and C. Pask, “The Stiles-Crawford effect--explanation and consequences,” Vision Res. 13(6), 1115–1137 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Song, H.

Stevenson, S. B.

S. B. Stevenson and A. Roorda, “Correcting for Miniature Eye Movements in High Resolution Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscopy,” Proc. SPIE 5688A, 145–151 (2005).

Sticker, M.

Stiles, W. S.

W. S. Stiles and B. H. Crawford, “The luminous efficiency of rays entering the eye pupil at different points,” Proc. R. Soc. Lond. 112(778), 428–450 (1933).
[CrossRef]

Trempe, C. L.

M. C. Cheney, A. E. Elsner, S. A. Burns, M. B. M. Kairala, C. L. Trempe, K. Lashkari, J. J. Weiter, M. Miura, M. Osako, and M. Usui, “Polarization amplitude and phase changes in retinal exudation,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 44, U691–U691 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tumbar, R.

Twietmeyer, K. M.

Twietmeyer, T. H.

Usui, M.

M. Miura, A. E. Elsner, M. C. Cheney, M. Usui, and T. Iwasaki, “Imaging polarimetry and retinal blood vessel quantification at the epiretinal membrane,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24(5), 1431–1437 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Miura, A. E. Elsner, A. Weber, M. C. Cheney, M. Osako, M. Usui, and T. Iwasaki, “Imaging polarimetry in central serous chorioretinopathy,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 140(6), 1014–1019 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. C. Cheney, A. E. Elsner, S. A. Burns, M. B. M. Kairala, C. L. Trempe, K. Lashkari, J. J. Weiter, M. Miura, M. Osako, and M. Usui, “Polarization amplitude and phase changes in retinal exudation,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 44, U691–U691 (2003).
[CrossRef]

van Blokland, G. J.

van Norren, D.

G. J. van Blokland and D. van Norren, “Intensity and polarization of light scattered at small angles from the human fovea,” Vision Res. 26(3), 485–494 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

VanNasdale, D.

VanNasdale, D. A.

D. A. VanNasdale, A. E. Elsner, A. Weber, M. Miura, and B. P. Haggerty, “Determination of foveal location using scanning laser polarimetry,” J. Vis. 9(3), 21, 1–17 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. E. Elsner, A. Weber, M. C. Cheney, and D. A. Vannasdale, “Spatial distribution of macular birefringence associated with the Henle fibers,” Vision Res. 48(26), 2578–2585 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. E. Elsner, A. Weber, M. C. Cheney, D. A. VanNasdale, and M. Miura, “Imaging polarimetry in patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24(5), 1468–1480 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Verhelst, S. C.

Weber, A.

D. A. VanNasdale, A. E. Elsner, A. Weber, M. Miura, and B. P. Haggerty, “Determination of foveal location using scanning laser polarimetry,” J. Vis. 9(3), 21, 1–17 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. E. Elsner, A. Weber, M. C. Cheney, and D. A. Vannasdale, “Spatial distribution of macular birefringence associated with the Henle fibers,” Vision Res. 48(26), 2578–2585 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. E. Elsner, A. Weber, M. C. Cheney, D. A. VanNasdale, and M. Miura, “Imaging polarimetry in patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24(5), 1468–1480 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. B. Mellem-Kairala, A. E. Elsner, A. Weber, R. B. Simmons, and S. A. Burns, “Improved contrast of peripapillary hyperpigmentation using polarization analysis,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 46(3), 1099–1106 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Miura, A. E. Elsner, A. Weber, M. C. Cheney, M. Osako, M. Usui, and T. Iwasaki, “Imaging polarimetry in central serous chorioretinopathy,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 140(6), 1014–1019 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Weber, M. C. Cheney, Q. Y. J. Smithwick, and A. E. Elsner, “Polarimetric imaging and blood vessel quantification,” Opt. Express 12(21), 5178–5190 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weinreb, R. N.

R. N. Weinreb, C. Bowd, and L. M. Zangwill, “Glaucoma detection using scanning laser polarimetry with variable corneal polarization compensation,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 121(2), 218–224 (2003).
[PubMed]

R. N. Weinreb, C. Bowd, D. S. Greenfield, and L. M. Zangwill, “Measurement of the magnitude and axis of corneal polarization with scanning laser polarimetry,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 120(7), 901–906 (2002).
[PubMed]

R. N. Weinreb, C. Bowd, D. S. Greenfield, L. M. Zangwill, and M. Zangwill, “Measurement of the magnitude and axis of corneal polarization with scanning laser polarimetry,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 120(7), 901–906 (2002).
[PubMed]

Weiter, J. J.

M. C. Cheney, A. E. Elsner, S. A. Burns, M. B. M. Kairala, C. L. Trempe, K. Lashkari, J. J. Weiter, M. Miura, M. Osako, and M. Usui, “Polarization amplitude and phase changes in retinal exudation,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 44, U691–U691 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Williams, D. R.

Wolfing, J. I.

Wu, S.

Yamanari, M.

M. Miura, M. Yamanari, T. Iwasaki, A. E. Elsner, S. Makita, T. Yatagai, and Y. Yasuno, “Imaging polarimetry in age-related macular degeneration,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49(6), 2661–2667 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yasuno, Y.

M. Miura, M. Yamanari, T. Iwasaki, A. E. Elsner, S. Makita, T. Yatagai, and Y. Yasuno, “Imaging polarimetry in age-related macular degeneration,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49(6), 2661–2667 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yatagai, T.

M. Miura, M. Yamanari, T. Iwasaki, A. E. Elsner, S. Makita, T. Yatagai, and Y. Yasuno, “Imaging polarimetry in age-related macular degeneration,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49(6), 2661–2667 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zangwill, L. M.

R. N. Weinreb, C. Bowd, and L. M. Zangwill, “Glaucoma detection using scanning laser polarimetry with variable corneal polarization compensation,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 121(2), 218–224 (2003).
[PubMed]

R. N. Weinreb, C. Bowd, D. S. Greenfield, and L. M. Zangwill, “Measurement of the magnitude and axis of corneal polarization with scanning laser polarimetry,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 120(7), 901–906 (2002).
[PubMed]

R. N. Weinreb, C. Bowd, D. S. Greenfield, L. M. Zangwill, and M. Zangwill, “Measurement of the magnitude and axis of corneal polarization with scanning laser polarimetry,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 120(7), 901–906 (2002).
[PubMed]

Zangwill, M.

R. N. Weinreb, C. Bowd, D. S. Greenfield, L. M. Zangwill, and M. Zangwill, “Measurement of the magnitude and axis of corneal polarization with scanning laser polarimetry,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 120(7), 901–906 (2002).
[PubMed]

Zhang, Y.

Zhang, Y. H.

A. Roorda, Y. H. Zhang, and J. L. Duncan, “High-resolution in vivo imaging of the RPE mosaic in eyes with retinal disease,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 48(5), 2297–2303 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhao, Y.

Zhong, Z.

Am. J. Ophthalmol.

D. S. Greenfield, R. W. Knighton, and X. R. Huang, “Effect of corneal polarization axis on assessment of retinal nerve fiber layer thickness by scanning laser polarimetry,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 129(6), 715–722 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. T. Nicolela, C. Martinez-Bello, C. A. Morrison, R. P. LeBlanc, H. G. Lemij, T. P. Colen, and B. C. Chauhan, “Scanning laser polarimetry in a selected group of patients with glaucoma and normal controls,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 132(6), 845–854 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Miura, A. E. Elsner, A. Weber, M. C. Cheney, M. Osako, M. Usui, and T. Iwasaki, “Imaging polarimetry in central serous chorioretinopathy,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 140(6), 1014–1019 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arch. Ophthalmol.

R. N. Weinreb, C. Bowd, D. S. Greenfield, and L. M. Zangwill, “Measurement of the magnitude and axis of corneal polarization with scanning laser polarimetry,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 120(7), 901–906 (2002).
[PubMed]

R. N. Weinreb, C. Bowd, and L. M. Zangwill, “Glaucoma detection using scanning laser polarimetry with variable corneal polarization compensation,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 121(2), 218–224 (2003).
[PubMed]

R. N. Weinreb, C. Bowd, D. S. Greenfield, L. M. Zangwill, and M. Zangwill, “Measurement of the magnitude and axis of corneal polarization with scanning laser polarimetry,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 120(7), 901–906 (2002).
[PubMed]

Br. J. Ophthalmol.

S. Michels, M. Pircher, W. Geitzenauer, C. Simader, E. Götzinger, O. Findl, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Value of polarisation-sensitive optical coherence tomography in diseases affecting the retinal pigment epithelium,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 92(2), 204–209 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Clin. Vis. Sci.

A. W. Dreher and K. Reiter, “Retinal Laser Ellipsometry - a New Method for Measuring the Retinal Nerve-Fiber Layer Thickness Distribution,” Clin. Vis. Sci. 7, 481–488 (1992).

Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol.

J. Sjöstrand, Z. Popovic, N. Conradi, and J. Marshall, “Morphometric study of the displacement of retinal ganglion cells subserving cones within the human fovea,” Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 237(12), 1014–1023 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.

X.-R. Huang and R. W. Knighton, “Microtubules contribute to the birefringence of the retinal nerve fiber layer,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 46(12), 4588–4593 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. B. Mellem-Kairala, A. E. Elsner, A. Weber, R. B. Simmons, and S. A. Burns, “Improved contrast of peripapillary hyperpigmentation using polarization analysis,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 46(3), 1099–1106 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Burns, A. E. Elsner, M. B. Mellem-Kairala, and R. B. Simmons, “Improved contrast of subretinal structures using polarization analysis,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 44(9), 4061–4068 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Ahlers, E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, I. Golbaz, F. Prager, C. Schütze, B. Baumann, C. K. Hitzenberger, and U. Schmidt-Erfurth, “Imaging of the retinal pigment epithelium in age-related macular degeneration using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51(4), 2149–2157 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, O. Findl, S. Michels, W. Geitzenauer, C. Leydolt, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Human macula investigated in vivo with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47(12), 5487–5494 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. C. Cheney, A. E. Elsner, S. A. Burns, M. B. M. Kairala, C. L. Trempe, K. Lashkari, J. J. Weiter, M. Miura, M. Osako, and M. Usui, “Polarization amplitude and phase changes in retinal exudation,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 44, U691–U691 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Miura, M. Yamanari, T. Iwasaki, A. E. Elsner, S. Makita, T. Yatagai, and Y. Yasuno, “Imaging polarimetry in age-related macular degeneration,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49(6), 2661–2667 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Y. P. Chui, H. Song, and S. A. Burns, “Individual variations in human cone photoreceptor packing density: variations with refractive error,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49(10), 4679–4687 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Roorda, Y. H. Zhang, and J. L. Duncan, “High-resolution in vivo imaging of the RPE mosaic in eyes with retinal disease,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 48(5), 2297–2303 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. W. Knighton and X. R. Huang, “Linear birefringence of the central human cornea,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 43(1), 82–86 (2002).
[PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt.

B. Cense, T. C. Chen, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, and J. F. de Boer, “In vivo birefringence and thickness measurements of the human retinal nerve fiber layer using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(1), 121–125 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

J. M. Bueno and P. Artal, “Polarization and retinal image quality estimates in the human eye,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18(3), 489–496 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Burns, R. Tumbar, A. E. Elsner, D. Ferguson, and D. X. Hammer, “Large-field-of-view, modular, stabilized, adaptive-optics-based scanning laser ophthalmoscope,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24(5), 1313–1326 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Bueno, J. J. Hunter, C. J. Cookson, M. L. Kisilak, and M. C. W. Campbell, “Improved scanning laser fundus imaging using polarimetry,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24(5), 1337–1348 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Miura, A. E. Elsner, M. C. Cheney, M. Usui, and T. Iwasaki, “Imaging polarimetry and retinal blood vessel quantification at the epiretinal membrane,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24(5), 1431–1437 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. E. Elsner, A. Weber, M. C. Cheney, D. A. VanNasdale, and M. Miura, “Imaging polarimetry in patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24(5), 1468–1480 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Y. Chui, H. Song, and S. A. Burns, “Adaptive-optics imaging of human cone photoreceptor distribution,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 25(12), 3021–3029 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. van Blokland, “Ellipsometry of the human retina in vivo: preservation of polarization,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 2(1), 72–75 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Van Blokland and S. C. Verhelst, “Corneal polarization in the living human eye explained with a biaxial model,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 4(1), 82–90 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Van Blokland and S. C. Verhelst, “Corneal polarization in the living human eye explained with a biaxial model,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 4(1), 82–90 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. B. Brink and G. J. van Blokland, “Birefringence of the human foveal area assessed in vivo with Mueller-matrix ellipsometry,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 5(1), 49–57 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Burns, S. Wu, F. C. Delori, and A. E. Elsner, “Direct measurement of human-cone-photoreceptor alignment,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12(10), 2329–2338 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Vis.

D. A. VanNasdale, A. E. Elsner, A. Weber, M. Miura, and B. P. Haggerty, “Determination of foveal location using scanning laser polarimetry,” J. Vis. 9(3), 21, 1–17 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ophthalmology

J. A. Martin and A. Roorda, “Direct and noninvasive assessment of parafoveal capillary leukocyte velocity,” Ophthalmology 112(12), 2219–2224 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

K. M. Twietmeyer, R. A. Chipman, A. E. Elsner, Y. Zhao, and D. VanNasdale, “Mueller matrix retinal imager with optimized polarization conditions,” Opt. Express 16(26), 21339–21354 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Gao, B. Cense, Y. Zhang, R. S. Jonnal, and D. T. Miller, “Measuring retinal contributions to the optical Stiles-Crawford effect with optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 16(9), 6486–6501 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Zhong, B. L. Petrig, X. Qi, and S. A. Burns, “In vivo measurement of erythrocyte velocity and retinal blood flow using adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy,” Opt. Express 16(17), 12746–12756 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. K. Hitzenberger, E. Goetzinger, M. Sticker, M. Pircher, and A. F. Fercher, “Measurement and imaging of birefringence and optic axis orientation by phase resolved polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 9(13), 780–790 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Roorda, F. Romero-Borja, W. Donnelly Iii, H. Queener, T. J. Hebert, and M. C. W. Campbell, “Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy,” Opt. Express 10(9), 405–412 (2002).
[PubMed]

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