Abstract

In this paper, a simple approach to generate the time-wavelength interleaved sampling clock for photonic A/D converters is proposed using commercially available mode-locked femtosecond fiber laser and optical wavelength/time division multiplexing (WDM/OTDM) techniques with low cost passive optical components. A time and wavelength mapping module is configured using specially designed wavelength division multiplexer and mechanical tunable fiber stretchers. OTDM modules with low optical insertion loss and flexibly configurable multiple factor are implemented with the fused-biconical optical fiber couplers. Experiment is carried out using 18 WDM channels and 128 times OTDM to demonstrate the generation of 83.9Gs/s time-wavelength interleaved sampling clock.

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References

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  12. P. J. Delfyett, C. DePriest, and T. Yilmaz, “Signal processing at the speed of lightwaves,” IEEE Circuits Devices Mag. 18(5), 28–35 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  13. P. W. Juodawlkist, J. J. Hargreaves, R. D. Younger, R. C. Williamson, G. E. Belts, and C. Twichell, “Optical Sampling for High-Speed, High-Resolution Analog-to-Digital Converters,” International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics, 2003, pp. 75–80.

2009

2008

X. Wang, S. Chen, Z. Du, X. Wang, C. Shi, and J. Chen, “Experimental study of some key issues on fiber-optic interferometric sensors detecting weak magnetic field,” IEEE Sens. J. 8(7), 1173–1179 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

2004

M. P. Fok, K. L. Lee, and C. Shu, “4×2.5GHz repetitive photonic sampler for high-speed analog-to-digital signal conversion,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(3), 876–878 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002

P. J. Delfyett, C. DePriest, and T. Yilmaz, “Signal processing at the speed of lightwaves,” IEEE Circuits Devices Mag. 18(5), 28–35 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1999

T. R. Clark, J. U. Kang, and R. D. Esman, “Performance of a time- and wavelength-interleaved photonic sampler for analog-digital conversion,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11(9), 1168–1170 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

A. Yariv and R. G. M. P. Koumans, “Time interleaved optical sampling for ultra-high speed A/D conversion,” Electron. Lett. 34(21), 2012–2013 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J.

Chen, S.

X. Wang, S. Chen, Z. Du, X. Wang, C. Shi, and J. Chen, “Experimental study of some key issues on fiber-optic interferometric sensors detecting weak magnetic field,” IEEE Sens. J. 8(7), 1173–1179 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Clark, T. R.

T. R. Clark, J. U. Kang, and R. D. Esman, “Performance of a time- and wavelength-interleaved photonic sampler for analog-digital conversion,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11(9), 1168–1170 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Delfyett, P. J.

P. J. Delfyett, C. DePriest, and T. Yilmaz, “Signal processing at the speed of lightwaves,” IEEE Circuits Devices Mag. 18(5), 28–35 (2002).
[CrossRef]

DePriest, C.

P. J. Delfyett, C. DePriest, and T. Yilmaz, “Signal processing at the speed of lightwaves,” IEEE Circuits Devices Mag. 18(5), 28–35 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Du, Z.

X. Wang, S. Chen, Z. Du, X. Wang, C. Shi, and J. Chen, “Experimental study of some key issues on fiber-optic interferometric sensors detecting weak magnetic field,” IEEE Sens. J. 8(7), 1173–1179 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Esman, R. D.

T. R. Clark, J. U. Kang, and R. D. Esman, “Performance of a time- and wavelength-interleaved photonic sampler for analog-digital conversion,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11(9), 1168–1170 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fok, M. P.

M. P. Fok, K. L. Lee, and C. Shu, “4×2.5GHz repetitive photonic sampler for high-speed analog-to-digital signal conversion,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(3), 876–878 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Guo, P.

Kang, J. U.

T. R. Clark, J. U. Kang, and R. D. Esman, “Performance of a time- and wavelength-interleaved photonic sampler for analog-digital conversion,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11(9), 1168–1170 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kim, Y.-C.

Koumans, R. G. M. P.

A. Yariv and R. G. M. P. Koumans, “Time interleaved optical sampling for ultra-high speed A/D conversion,” Electron. Lett. 34(21), 2012–2013 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lee, K. L.

M. P. Fok, K. L. Lee, and C. Shu, “4×2.5GHz repetitive photonic sampler for high-speed analog-to-digital signal conversion,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(3), 876–878 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Li, M.

Li, X.

Peng, L.

Shi, C.

X. Wang, S. Chen, Z. Du, X. Wang, C. Shi, and J. Chen, “Experimental study of some key issues on fiber-optic interferometric sensors detecting weak magnetic field,” IEEE Sens. J. 8(7), 1173–1179 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shu, C.

M. P. Fok, K. L. Lee, and C. Shu, “4×2.5GHz repetitive photonic sampler for high-speed analog-to-digital signal conversion,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(3), 876–878 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Valley, G. C.

Wang, S.

Wang, X.

X. Wang, S. Chen, Z. Du, X. Wang, C. Shi, and J. Chen, “Experimental study of some key issues on fiber-optic interferometric sensors detecting weak magnetic field,” IEEE Sens. J. 8(7), 1173–1179 (2008).
[CrossRef]

X. Wang, S. Chen, Z. Du, X. Wang, C. Shi, and J. Chen, “Experimental study of some key issues on fiber-optic interferometric sensors detecting weak magnetic field,” IEEE Sens. J. 8(7), 1173–1179 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wu, G.

Yariv, A.

A. Yariv and R. G. M. P. Koumans, “Time interleaved optical sampling for ultra-high speed A/D conversion,” Electron. Lett. 34(21), 2012–2013 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yilmaz, T.

P. J. Delfyett, C. DePriest, and T. Yilmaz, “Signal processing at the speed of lightwaves,” IEEE Circuits Devices Mag. 18(5), 28–35 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

A. Yariv and R. G. M. P. Koumans, “Time interleaved optical sampling for ultra-high speed A/D conversion,” Electron. Lett. 34(21), 2012–2013 (1998).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Circuits Devices Mag.

P. J. Delfyett, C. DePriest, and T. Yilmaz, “Signal processing at the speed of lightwaves,” IEEE Circuits Devices Mag. 18(5), 28–35 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

T. R. Clark, J. U. Kang, and R. D. Esman, “Performance of a time- and wavelength-interleaved photonic sampler for analog-digital conversion,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11(9), 1168–1170 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Fok, K. L. Lee, and C. Shu, “4×2.5GHz repetitive photonic sampler for high-speed analog-to-digital signal conversion,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(3), 876–878 (2004).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Sens. J.

X. Wang, S. Chen, Z. Du, X. Wang, C. Shi, and J. Chen, “Experimental study of some key issues on fiber-optic interferometric sensors detecting weak magnetic field,” IEEE Sens. J. 8(7), 1173–1179 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Other

F. X. Kartner, R. Amataya, G. Barbastathis, H. Byun, F. Gan, C. W. Holzwarth, J. L. Hoyt, E. P. Ippen, O. O. Olubuyide, J. S. Orcutt, M. Park, M. Perrott, M. A. Popovic, P. T. Rakich, R. J. Ram, H. I. Smith, M. Geis, M. Grein, T. Lyszczarz, S. Spector, and J. U. Yoon, “Silicon electronic photonic integrated circuits for high speed analog to digital conversion,” 3rd OEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics 2006, pp. 203–205.

K. L. Lee, C. Shu, and H. F. Liu, “10 Gsample/s photonic analog-to-digital converter constructed using 10-wavelength jitter-suppressed sampling pulses from a self-seeded laser diode,” CLEO 2001, pp. 67–68.

M. Mielke, G. Alphonse, and P. J. Delfyett, “60×3.6Gb/s optical WDM transmitter using a multiwavlength modelocked semiconductor laser,” in Proc. IEEE/LEOS Annual Meeting, 2001, vol. 2, pp. 713–714.

T. R. Clark, P. J. Matthews, and M. Currie, “Real-time photonic analog-digital converter based on discrete wavelength-time mapping,” in IEEE International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics, 1999.

P. W. Juodawlkist, J. J. Hargreaves, R. D. Younger, R. C. Williamson, G. E. Belts, and C. Twichell, “Optical Sampling for High-Speed, High-Resolution Analog-to-Digital Converters,” International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics, 2003, pp. 75–80.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The architecture of photonic ADC based on WDM

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental setup of the time-wavelength interleaved sampling clock generator (FRM: Faraday Rotation Mirror, VOA: Variable Optical Attenuator, TFS: Tunable Fiber Stretchers)

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

OTDM pulse output for one WDM channel. (a) 4.66Gs/s pulse train measured using digital sampling oscilloscope. (b) pulse width observed by a digital sampling oscilloscope (left) and its autocorrelator curve (right).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) The optical pulse trains of 9 channels with even number (left) and 9 channels with odd number (right). (b) Corresponding spectrum.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

The composed 18 channels 83.9 Gs/s pulse train (a) and the spectrum of time-wavelength interleaved sampling clock (b).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The insertion loss of a specially designed 18-channel WDM according to the spectrum of MLFFL used

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

The correction of amplitude errors in sampling a standard sine signal.

Equations (1)

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I L O T D M = i = 1 b E L i 2 × 2 + i = 1 d E L i 3 × 3 + I L l × l

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