Abstract

We demonstrate enhanced electro-optic phase shifts in suspended InGaAs/InGaAsP quantum well waveguides compared to attached waveguides. The enhancement stems from an improved overlap between the optical mode and the multiple quantum well layers in thin waveguides when the semiconductor material beneath the waveguide is selectively etched. The measured voltage length product is 0.41 V-cm and the measured propagation loss is 2.3 ± 0.7 dB/cm for the TE mode in the optical L-band.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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  1. T. H. Stievater, W. S. Rabinovich, P. G. Goetz, R. Mahon, and S. C. Binari, "A Surface-Normal Coupled-Quantum-Well Modulator at 1.55 Microns," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2036-2038 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  2. E. Kunkee, C.-C. Shih, Q. Chen, C.-J. Wang, and L. J. Lembo, "Electrorefractive Coupled Quantum Well Modulators: Model and Experimental Results," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43, 641-650 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. Shin, S. Wu, and N. Dagli, "Bulk Undoped GaAs-AlGaAs Substrate-Removed Electrooptic Modulators With 3.7-V-cm Drive Voltage at 1.55 μm," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2251-2253 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. Shin, Y.-C. Chang, and N. Dagli, "0.3 V drive voltage GaAs/AlGaAs substrate removed Mach-Zehnder intensity modulators," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 201103 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  5. T. H. Stievater, W. S. Rabinovich, D. Park, J. B. Khurgin, S. Kanakaraju, and C. J. K. Richardson, "Low-loss suspended quantum well waveguides," Opt. Express 16, 2621-2627 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. D. Park, T. H. Stievater, W. S. Rabinovich, N. Green, S. Kanakaraju, and L. C. Calhoun, "Characterization of hydrogen silsesquioxane as a Cl2/BCl3 inductively coupled plasma etch mask for air-clad InP-based quantum well waveguide fabrication," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B. 24, 3152-3156 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  7. R. J. Deri and E. Kapon, "Low-loss III-V semiconductor optical waveguides," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 626-640 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  8. S. Pogossian, L. Vescan, and A. Vonsovici, "The single-mode condition for semiconductor rib waveguides with large cross section," J. Lightwave. Technol. 16, 1851-1853 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  9. T. Ikegami, "Reflectivity of mode at facet and oscillation mode in double-heterostructure injection lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 8, 470 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  10. P. C. Kendall, D. A. Roberts, P. N. Robson, M. J. Adams, and M. J. Robertson, "New formula for semiconductor laser facet reflectivity," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 148-150 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  11. E. M. Skouri, P. Martin, L. Chusseau, C. Alibert, C. Coriasso, D. Campi, and C. Cacciatore, "Measurement of the refractive index of GaInAs/InP quantum wells by a grating coupling technique," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3441-3443 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  12. S. Nishimura, H. Inoue, H. Sano, and K. Ishida, "Electrooptic effects in an InGaAs/InAlAs multiquantum well structure," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 1123-1126 (1992.
    [CrossRef]
  13. J. E. Zucker, Properties of Lattice-Matched and Strained Indium Gallium Arsenide, in EMIS Datareviews INSPEC, (1993) (and references contained therein).
  14. S. Adachi, Physical properties of III-V semiconductor compounds: InP, InAs, GaAs, GaP, InGaAs, and InGaAsP (Wiley-VCH, 1992).
  15. J. Mendoza-Alvarez, L. Coldren, A. Alping, R. Yan, T. Hausken, K. Lee, and K. Pedrotti, "Analysis of depletion edge translation lightwave modulators," J. Lightwave. Technol. 6, 793-808 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  16. Q. Lu, W. Guo, D. Byrne, and J. F. Donegan, "Design of Low Vπ High-Speed GaAs Travelling-Wave Electrooptic Phase Modulators Using an n-i-p-n Structure," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1805-1807 (2008).
    [CrossRef]

2008 (2)

T. H. Stievater, W. S. Rabinovich, D. Park, J. B. Khurgin, S. Kanakaraju, and C. J. K. Richardson, "Low-loss suspended quantum well waveguides," Opt. Express 16, 2621-2627 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Lu, W. Guo, D. Byrne, and J. F. Donegan, "Design of Low Vπ High-Speed GaAs Travelling-Wave Electrooptic Phase Modulators Using an n-i-p-n Structure," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1805-1807 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

E. Kunkee, C.-C. Shih, Q. Chen, C.-J. Wang, and L. J. Lembo, "Electrorefractive Coupled Quantum Well Modulators: Model and Experimental Results," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43, 641-650 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

J. Shin, S. Wu, and N. Dagli, "Bulk Undoped GaAs-AlGaAs Substrate-Removed Electrooptic Modulators With 3.7-V-cm Drive Voltage at 1.55 μm," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2251-2253 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Park, T. H. Stievater, W. S. Rabinovich, N. Green, S. Kanakaraju, and L. C. Calhoun, "Characterization of hydrogen silsesquioxane as a Cl2/BCl3 inductively coupled plasma etch mask for air-clad InP-based quantum well waveguide fabrication," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B. 24, 3152-3156 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

T. H. Stievater, W. S. Rabinovich, P. G. Goetz, R. Mahon, and S. C. Binari, "A Surface-Normal Coupled-Quantum-Well Modulator at 1.55 Microns," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2036-2038 (2004).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

S. Pogossian, L. Vescan, and A. Vonsovici, "The single-mode condition for semiconductor rib waveguides with large cross section," J. Lightwave. Technol. 16, 1851-1853 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

E. M. Skouri, P. Martin, L. Chusseau, C. Alibert, C. Coriasso, D. Campi, and C. Cacciatore, "Measurement of the refractive index of GaInAs/InP quantum wells by a grating coupling technique," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3441-3443 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

P. C. Kendall, D. A. Roberts, P. N. Robson, M. J. Adams, and M. J. Robertson, "New formula for semiconductor laser facet reflectivity," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 148-150 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

S. Nishimura, H. Inoue, H. Sano, and K. Ishida, "Electrooptic effects in an InGaAs/InAlAs multiquantum well structure," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 1123-1126 (1992.
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

R. J. Deri and E. Kapon, "Low-loss III-V semiconductor optical waveguides," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 626-640 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

J. Mendoza-Alvarez, L. Coldren, A. Alping, R. Yan, T. Hausken, K. Lee, and K. Pedrotti, "Analysis of depletion edge translation lightwave modulators," J. Lightwave. Technol. 6, 793-808 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

T. Ikegami, "Reflectivity of mode at facet and oscillation mode in double-heterostructure injection lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 8, 470 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Adams, M. J.

P. C. Kendall, D. A. Roberts, P. N. Robson, M. J. Adams, and M. J. Robertson, "New formula for semiconductor laser facet reflectivity," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 148-150 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Alibert, C.

E. M. Skouri, P. Martin, L. Chusseau, C. Alibert, C. Coriasso, D. Campi, and C. Cacciatore, "Measurement of the refractive index of GaInAs/InP quantum wells by a grating coupling technique," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3441-3443 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Alping, A.

J. Mendoza-Alvarez, L. Coldren, A. Alping, R. Yan, T. Hausken, K. Lee, and K. Pedrotti, "Analysis of depletion edge translation lightwave modulators," J. Lightwave. Technol. 6, 793-808 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Binari, S. C.

T. H. Stievater, W. S. Rabinovich, P. G. Goetz, R. Mahon, and S. C. Binari, "A Surface-Normal Coupled-Quantum-Well Modulator at 1.55 Microns," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2036-2038 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Byrne, D.

Q. Lu, W. Guo, D. Byrne, and J. F. Donegan, "Design of Low Vπ High-Speed GaAs Travelling-Wave Electrooptic Phase Modulators Using an n-i-p-n Structure," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1805-1807 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cacciatore, C.

E. M. Skouri, P. Martin, L. Chusseau, C. Alibert, C. Coriasso, D. Campi, and C. Cacciatore, "Measurement of the refractive index of GaInAs/InP quantum wells by a grating coupling technique," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3441-3443 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Calhoun, L. C.

D. Park, T. H. Stievater, W. S. Rabinovich, N. Green, S. Kanakaraju, and L. C. Calhoun, "Characterization of hydrogen silsesquioxane as a Cl2/BCl3 inductively coupled plasma etch mask for air-clad InP-based quantum well waveguide fabrication," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B. 24, 3152-3156 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Campi, D.

E. M. Skouri, P. Martin, L. Chusseau, C. Alibert, C. Coriasso, D. Campi, and C. Cacciatore, "Measurement of the refractive index of GaInAs/InP quantum wells by a grating coupling technique," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3441-3443 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Q.

E. Kunkee, C.-C. Shih, Q. Chen, C.-J. Wang, and L. J. Lembo, "Electrorefractive Coupled Quantum Well Modulators: Model and Experimental Results," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43, 641-650 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chusseau, L.

E. M. Skouri, P. Martin, L. Chusseau, C. Alibert, C. Coriasso, D. Campi, and C. Cacciatore, "Measurement of the refractive index of GaInAs/InP quantum wells by a grating coupling technique," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3441-3443 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Coldren, L.

J. Mendoza-Alvarez, L. Coldren, A. Alping, R. Yan, T. Hausken, K. Lee, and K. Pedrotti, "Analysis of depletion edge translation lightwave modulators," J. Lightwave. Technol. 6, 793-808 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Coriasso, C.

E. M. Skouri, P. Martin, L. Chusseau, C. Alibert, C. Coriasso, D. Campi, and C. Cacciatore, "Measurement of the refractive index of GaInAs/InP quantum wells by a grating coupling technique," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3441-3443 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Dagli, N.

J. Shin, S. Wu, and N. Dagli, "Bulk Undoped GaAs-AlGaAs Substrate-Removed Electrooptic Modulators With 3.7-V-cm Drive Voltage at 1.55 μm," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2251-2253 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Deri, R. J.

R. J. Deri and E. Kapon, "Low-loss III-V semiconductor optical waveguides," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 626-640 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Donegan, J. F.

Q. Lu, W. Guo, D. Byrne, and J. F. Donegan, "Design of Low Vπ High-Speed GaAs Travelling-Wave Electrooptic Phase Modulators Using an n-i-p-n Structure," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1805-1807 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Goetz, P. G.

T. H. Stievater, W. S. Rabinovich, P. G. Goetz, R. Mahon, and S. C. Binari, "A Surface-Normal Coupled-Quantum-Well Modulator at 1.55 Microns," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2036-2038 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Green, N.

D. Park, T. H. Stievater, W. S. Rabinovich, N. Green, S. Kanakaraju, and L. C. Calhoun, "Characterization of hydrogen silsesquioxane as a Cl2/BCl3 inductively coupled plasma etch mask for air-clad InP-based quantum well waveguide fabrication," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B. 24, 3152-3156 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Guo, W.

Q. Lu, W. Guo, D. Byrne, and J. F. Donegan, "Design of Low Vπ High-Speed GaAs Travelling-Wave Electrooptic Phase Modulators Using an n-i-p-n Structure," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1805-1807 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hausken, T.

J. Mendoza-Alvarez, L. Coldren, A. Alping, R. Yan, T. Hausken, K. Lee, and K. Pedrotti, "Analysis of depletion edge translation lightwave modulators," J. Lightwave. Technol. 6, 793-808 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Ikegami, T.

T. Ikegami, "Reflectivity of mode at facet and oscillation mode in double-heterostructure injection lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 8, 470 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Inoue, H.

S. Nishimura, H. Inoue, H. Sano, and K. Ishida, "Electrooptic effects in an InGaAs/InAlAs multiquantum well structure," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 1123-1126 (1992.
[CrossRef]

Ishida, K.

S. Nishimura, H. Inoue, H. Sano, and K. Ishida, "Electrooptic effects in an InGaAs/InAlAs multiquantum well structure," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 1123-1126 (1992.
[CrossRef]

Kanakaraju, S.

T. H. Stievater, W. S. Rabinovich, D. Park, J. B. Khurgin, S. Kanakaraju, and C. J. K. Richardson, "Low-loss suspended quantum well waveguides," Opt. Express 16, 2621-2627 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Park, T. H. Stievater, W. S. Rabinovich, N. Green, S. Kanakaraju, and L. C. Calhoun, "Characterization of hydrogen silsesquioxane as a Cl2/BCl3 inductively coupled plasma etch mask for air-clad InP-based quantum well waveguide fabrication," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B. 24, 3152-3156 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kapon, E.

R. J. Deri and E. Kapon, "Low-loss III-V semiconductor optical waveguides," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 626-640 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Kendall, P. C.

P. C. Kendall, D. A. Roberts, P. N. Robson, M. J. Adams, and M. J. Robertson, "New formula for semiconductor laser facet reflectivity," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 148-150 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Khurgin, J. B.

Kunkee, E.

E. Kunkee, C.-C. Shih, Q. Chen, C.-J. Wang, and L. J. Lembo, "Electrorefractive Coupled Quantum Well Modulators: Model and Experimental Results," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43, 641-650 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lee, K.

J. Mendoza-Alvarez, L. Coldren, A. Alping, R. Yan, T. Hausken, K. Lee, and K. Pedrotti, "Analysis of depletion edge translation lightwave modulators," J. Lightwave. Technol. 6, 793-808 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Lembo, L. J.

E. Kunkee, C.-C. Shih, Q. Chen, C.-J. Wang, and L. J. Lembo, "Electrorefractive Coupled Quantum Well Modulators: Model and Experimental Results," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43, 641-650 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lu, Q.

Q. Lu, W. Guo, D. Byrne, and J. F. Donegan, "Design of Low Vπ High-Speed GaAs Travelling-Wave Electrooptic Phase Modulators Using an n-i-p-n Structure," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1805-1807 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mahon, R.

T. H. Stievater, W. S. Rabinovich, P. G. Goetz, R. Mahon, and S. C. Binari, "A Surface-Normal Coupled-Quantum-Well Modulator at 1.55 Microns," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2036-2038 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Martin, P.

E. M. Skouri, P. Martin, L. Chusseau, C. Alibert, C. Coriasso, D. Campi, and C. Cacciatore, "Measurement of the refractive index of GaInAs/InP quantum wells by a grating coupling technique," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3441-3443 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Mendoza-Alvarez, J.

J. Mendoza-Alvarez, L. Coldren, A. Alping, R. Yan, T. Hausken, K. Lee, and K. Pedrotti, "Analysis of depletion edge translation lightwave modulators," J. Lightwave. Technol. 6, 793-808 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Nishimura, S.

S. Nishimura, H. Inoue, H. Sano, and K. Ishida, "Electrooptic effects in an InGaAs/InAlAs multiquantum well structure," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 1123-1126 (1992.
[CrossRef]

Park, D.

T. H. Stievater, W. S. Rabinovich, D. Park, J. B. Khurgin, S. Kanakaraju, and C. J. K. Richardson, "Low-loss suspended quantum well waveguides," Opt. Express 16, 2621-2627 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Park, T. H. Stievater, W. S. Rabinovich, N. Green, S. Kanakaraju, and L. C. Calhoun, "Characterization of hydrogen silsesquioxane as a Cl2/BCl3 inductively coupled plasma etch mask for air-clad InP-based quantum well waveguide fabrication," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B. 24, 3152-3156 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pedrotti, K.

J. Mendoza-Alvarez, L. Coldren, A. Alping, R. Yan, T. Hausken, K. Lee, and K. Pedrotti, "Analysis of depletion edge translation lightwave modulators," J. Lightwave. Technol. 6, 793-808 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Pogossian, S.

S. Pogossian, L. Vescan, and A. Vonsovici, "The single-mode condition for semiconductor rib waveguides with large cross section," J. Lightwave. Technol. 16, 1851-1853 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Rabinovich, W. S.

T. H. Stievater, W. S. Rabinovich, D. Park, J. B. Khurgin, S. Kanakaraju, and C. J. K. Richardson, "Low-loss suspended quantum well waveguides," Opt. Express 16, 2621-2627 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Park, T. H. Stievater, W. S. Rabinovich, N. Green, S. Kanakaraju, and L. C. Calhoun, "Characterization of hydrogen silsesquioxane as a Cl2/BCl3 inductively coupled plasma etch mask for air-clad InP-based quantum well waveguide fabrication," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B. 24, 3152-3156 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. H. Stievater, W. S. Rabinovich, P. G. Goetz, R. Mahon, and S. C. Binari, "A Surface-Normal Coupled-Quantum-Well Modulator at 1.55 Microns," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2036-2038 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Richardson, C. J. K.

Roberts, D. A.

P. C. Kendall, D. A. Roberts, P. N. Robson, M. J. Adams, and M. J. Robertson, "New formula for semiconductor laser facet reflectivity," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 148-150 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Robertson, M. J.

P. C. Kendall, D. A. Roberts, P. N. Robson, M. J. Adams, and M. J. Robertson, "New formula for semiconductor laser facet reflectivity," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 148-150 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Robson, P. N.

P. C. Kendall, D. A. Roberts, P. N. Robson, M. J. Adams, and M. J. Robertson, "New formula for semiconductor laser facet reflectivity," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 148-150 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Sano, H.

S. Nishimura, H. Inoue, H. Sano, and K. Ishida, "Electrooptic effects in an InGaAs/InAlAs multiquantum well structure," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 1123-1126 (1992.
[CrossRef]

Shih, C.-C.

E. Kunkee, C.-C. Shih, Q. Chen, C.-J. Wang, and L. J. Lembo, "Electrorefractive Coupled Quantum Well Modulators: Model and Experimental Results," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43, 641-650 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shin, J.

J. Shin, S. Wu, and N. Dagli, "Bulk Undoped GaAs-AlGaAs Substrate-Removed Electrooptic Modulators With 3.7-V-cm Drive Voltage at 1.55 μm," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2251-2253 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Skouri, E. M.

E. M. Skouri, P. Martin, L. Chusseau, C. Alibert, C. Coriasso, D. Campi, and C. Cacciatore, "Measurement of the refractive index of GaInAs/InP quantum wells by a grating coupling technique," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3441-3443 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Stievater, T. H.

T. H. Stievater, W. S. Rabinovich, D. Park, J. B. Khurgin, S. Kanakaraju, and C. J. K. Richardson, "Low-loss suspended quantum well waveguides," Opt. Express 16, 2621-2627 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Park, T. H. Stievater, W. S. Rabinovich, N. Green, S. Kanakaraju, and L. C. Calhoun, "Characterization of hydrogen silsesquioxane as a Cl2/BCl3 inductively coupled plasma etch mask for air-clad InP-based quantum well waveguide fabrication," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B. 24, 3152-3156 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. H. Stievater, W. S. Rabinovich, P. G. Goetz, R. Mahon, and S. C. Binari, "A Surface-Normal Coupled-Quantum-Well Modulator at 1.55 Microns," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2036-2038 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Vescan, L.

S. Pogossian, L. Vescan, and A. Vonsovici, "The single-mode condition for semiconductor rib waveguides with large cross section," J. Lightwave. Technol. 16, 1851-1853 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Vonsovici, A.

S. Pogossian, L. Vescan, and A. Vonsovici, "The single-mode condition for semiconductor rib waveguides with large cross section," J. Lightwave. Technol. 16, 1851-1853 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wang, C.-J.

E. Kunkee, C.-C. Shih, Q. Chen, C.-J. Wang, and L. J. Lembo, "Electrorefractive Coupled Quantum Well Modulators: Model and Experimental Results," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43, 641-650 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wu, S.

J. Shin, S. Wu, and N. Dagli, "Bulk Undoped GaAs-AlGaAs Substrate-Removed Electrooptic Modulators With 3.7-V-cm Drive Voltage at 1.55 μm," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2251-2253 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yan, R.

J. Mendoza-Alvarez, L. Coldren, A. Alping, R. Yan, T. Hausken, K. Lee, and K. Pedrotti, "Analysis of depletion edge translation lightwave modulators," J. Lightwave. Technol. 6, 793-808 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

E. M. Skouri, P. Martin, L. Chusseau, C. Alibert, C. Coriasso, D. Campi, and C. Cacciatore, "Measurement of the refractive index of GaInAs/InP quantum wells by a grating coupling technique," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3441-3443 (1995).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (3)

E. Kunkee, C.-C. Shih, Q. Chen, C.-J. Wang, and L. J. Lembo, "Electrorefractive Coupled Quantum Well Modulators: Model and Experimental Results," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43, 641-650 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Deri and E. Kapon, "Low-loss III-V semiconductor optical waveguides," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 626-640 (1991).
[CrossRef]

T. Ikegami, "Reflectivity of mode at facet and oscillation mode in double-heterostructure injection lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 8, 470 (1972).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (5)

P. C. Kendall, D. A. Roberts, P. N. Robson, M. J. Adams, and M. J. Robertson, "New formula for semiconductor laser facet reflectivity," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 148-150 (1993).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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Opt. Express (1)

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a): The epitaxial layer structure and waveguide rib dimensions (not to scale). (b): A false-color SEM image of a suspended quantum well waveguide comprised of a shallow rib bounded by etch holes, prior to the deposition of the metal contacts. Inset: the facet of a 2 μm wide rib.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Fabry-Perot method for measuring propagation loss in the suspended waveguides. The lines are least-square fits to the data.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Measured Fabry-Perot phase shift vs. reverse bias for TE (a) and TM (b) light in the optical L-band. Inset: The TE Fabry-Perot fringes for reverse biases of 0 V and 0.85 V.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Measured Fabry-Perot phase shift vs. reverse bias in a suspended [011] waveguide for the TE mode.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Measured electro-optic tensor coefficients as a function of wavelength.

Equations (6)

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R TE ( TM ) = R 0 ( 1 + ( ) ( k y 2 k x 2 ) + ( k y 4 + k x 4 ) ) k i = ln 2 / n eff λ π a i
Δϕ = 2 π L Δ n / λ
Δ n T M = n 3 s 11 E 2 Γ T M / 2
Δ n T E [ 011 ] = n 3 ( s 12 E 2 + r 41 E ) Γ T E / 2
Δ n T E [ 011 ] ̄ = n 3 ( s 12 E 2 r 41 E ) Γ T E / 2
Δ n T E [ 001 ] = n 3 s 12 E 2 Γ T E / 2

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