Abstract

A new approach for the spatial and temporal modulation of electromagnetic fields at terahertz frequencies is presented. The waveguid-ing elements are based on plasmonic and metamaterial notions and consist of an easy-to-manufacture periodic chain of metallic box-shaped elements protruding out of a metallic surface. It is shown that the dispersion relation of the corresponding electromagnetic modes is rather insensitive to the waveguide width, preserving tight confinement and reasonable absorption loss even when the waveguide transverse dimensions are well in the subwavelength regime. This property enables the simple implementation of key devices, such as tapers and power dividers. Additionally, directional couplers, waveguide bends, and ring resonators are characterized, demonstrating the flexibility of the proposed concept and the prospects for terahertz applications requiring high integration density.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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2009

A. I. Fernandez-Dominguez, E. Moreno, L. Martin-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal "Guiding terahertz waves along subwavelength channels," Phys. Rev. B 79, 233104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. I. Fernandez-Dominguez, E. Moreno, L. Martin-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, "Terahertz wedge plasmon polaritons," Opt. Lett. 34, 2063-2065 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Verhagen, M. Spasenovic, A. Polman, and L. K. Kuipers, "Nanowire Plasmon Excitation by Adiabatic Mode Transformation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 203904 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Kawata, Y. Inouye, and P. Verma, "Plasmonics for near-field nano-imaging and superlensing," Nature Photon. 3, 388-394 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Ishikawa, S. Zhang, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, "Deep Subwavelength Terahertz Waveguides Using Gap Magnetic Plasmon," Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 043904 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

2007

M. Tonouchi, "Cutting-edge terahertz technology," Nat. Photon. 1, 97-105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

S. Maier, S. R. Andrews, L. Martin-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, "Terahertz Surface Plasmon-Polariton Propagation and Focusing on Periodically Corrugated Metal Wires," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 176805 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Nagel, A. Marchewka, and H. Kurz, "Low-index discontinuity terahertz waveguides," Opt. Express 14, 9944-9954 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T.-I. Jeon and D. Grischkowsky, "THz Zenneck surface wave (THz surface plasmon) propagation on a metal sheet," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 061113 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. Ishihara, K. Ohashi, T. Ikari, H. Minamide, and H. Yokoyama, "Terahertz-wave near-field imaging with subwavelength resolution using surface-wave-assisted bow-tie aperture," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 201120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J.-Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators," Nature 440, 508-511 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

F. J. Garcia-Vidal, L. Martin-Moreno, and J. B. Pendry, "Surfaces with holes in them: new plasmonic metamaterials," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 7, S97-S101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Federici, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, D. Gary, R. Barat, F. Oliveira, and D. Zimdars, "THz imaging and sensing for security applications - explosives, weapons and drugs," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, 266-280 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

J. Zhang and D. Grischkowsky, "Waveguide terahertz time-domain spectroscopy of nanometer water layers," Opt. Lett. 29, 1617-1619 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Withington, "Terahertz astronomical telescopes and instrumentation," Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. A 362, 395-402 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. H. Siegel, "Terahertz technology in Biology and Medicine," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 52, 2438-2447 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Wang and D. M. Mittleman, "Metal wires for terahertz wave guiding," Nature 432, 376-379 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Pendry, L. Martin-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, "Mimicking Surface Plasmons with Structured Surfaces," Science 305, 847-848 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

B. Ferguson and X.-C. Zhang, "Materials for terahertz science and technology," Nat. Mater. 1, 26-33 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. H. Siegel, "Terahertz technology," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory and Tech. 50, 910-928 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. Han, H. Park, M. Cho, and J. Kim, "Terahertz pulse propagation in a plastic photonic crystal fiber," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 2634-2636 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

S. A. Maier, M. L. Brongersma, and H. A. Atwater, "Electromagnetic energy transport along arrays of closely spaced metal rods as an analogue to plasmonic devices," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 16-18 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

P. Berini, "Plasmon-polariton waves guided by thin lossy metal films of finite width: Bound modes of symmetric structures," Phys. Rev. B 61, 10484 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. P. Jamison, R. W. McGowan, and D. Grischkowsky, "Single-mode waveguide propagation and reshaping of sub-ps terahertz pulses in sapphire fiber," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1987-1989 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

J. R. Krenn, A. Dereux, J. C. Weeber, E. Bourillot, Y. Lacroute, J. P. Goudonnet, G. Schider,W. Gotschy, A. Leitner, F. R. Aussenegg, and C. Girard, "Squeezing the Optical Near-Field Zone by Plasmon Coupling of Metallic Nanoparticles," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2590-2593 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1983

1972

P. Johnson, and R. Christy, R. "Optical constants of the nobel metals," Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370-4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1959

D. L. Sengupta, "On the phase velocity of wave propagation along an infinite Yagi structure," IRE Trans. Antennas Propag. 7, 234-239 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Agrawal, A.

Alexander, R. W.

Andrews, S. R.

S. Maier, S. R. Andrews, L. Martin-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, "Terahertz Surface Plasmon-Polariton Propagation and Focusing on Periodically Corrugated Metal Wires," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 176805 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Atwater, H. A.

S. A. Maier, M. L. Brongersma, and H. A. Atwater, "Electromagnetic energy transport along arrays of closely spaced metal rods as an analogue to plasmonic devices," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 16-18 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Aussenegg, F. R.

J. R. Krenn, A. Dereux, J. C. Weeber, E. Bourillot, Y. Lacroute, J. P. Goudonnet, G. Schider,W. Gotschy, A. Leitner, F. R. Aussenegg, and C. Girard, "Squeezing the Optical Near-Field Zone by Plasmon Coupling of Metallic Nanoparticles," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2590-2593 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Barat, R.

J. F. Federici, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, D. Gary, R. Barat, F. Oliveira, and D. Zimdars, "THz imaging and sensing for security applications - explosives, weapons and drugs," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, 266-280 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bartal, G.

A. Ishikawa, S. Zhang, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, "Deep Subwavelength Terahertz Waveguides Using Gap Magnetic Plasmon," Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 043904 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bell, R. J.

Bell, R. R.

Bell, S. E.

Berini, P.

P. Berini, "Plasmon-polariton waves guided by thin lossy metal films of finite width: Bound modes of symmetric structures," Phys. Rev. B 61, 10484 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bourillot, E.

J. R. Krenn, A. Dereux, J. C. Weeber, E. Bourillot, Y. Lacroute, J. P. Goudonnet, G. Schider,W. Gotschy, A. Leitner, F. R. Aussenegg, and C. Girard, "Squeezing the Optical Near-Field Zone by Plasmon Coupling of Metallic Nanoparticles," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2590-2593 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bozhevolnyi, S. I.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J.-Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators," Nature 440, 508-511 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brongersma, M. L.

S. A. Maier, M. L. Brongersma, and H. A. Atwater, "Electromagnetic energy transport along arrays of closely spaced metal rods as an analogue to plasmonic devices," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 16-18 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Byrne, M.

J. Cunningham, M. Byrne, P. Upadhya, M. Lachab, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, "Terahertz evanescent field microscopy of dielectric materials using on-chip waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 032903 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cho, M.

H. Han, H. Park, M. Cho, and J. Kim, "Terahertz pulse propagation in a plastic photonic crystal fiber," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 2634-2636 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Christy, R.

P. Johnson, and R. Christy, R. "Optical constants of the nobel metals," Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370-4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Cunningham, J.

J. Cunningham, M. Byrne, P. Upadhya, M. Lachab, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, "Terahertz evanescent field microscopy of dielectric materials using on-chip waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 032903 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Davies, A. G.

J. Cunningham, M. Byrne, P. Upadhya, M. Lachab, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, "Terahertz evanescent field microscopy of dielectric materials using on-chip waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 032903 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dereux, A.

J. R. Krenn, A. Dereux, J. C. Weeber, E. Bourillot, Y. Lacroute, J. P. Goudonnet, G. Schider,W. Gotschy, A. Leitner, F. R. Aussenegg, and C. Girard, "Squeezing the Optical Near-Field Zone by Plasmon Coupling of Metallic Nanoparticles," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2590-2593 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Devaux, E.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J.-Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators," Nature 440, 508-511 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Durach, M.

Ebbesen, T. W.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J.-Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators," Nature 440, 508-511 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Federici, J. F.

J. F. Federici, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, D. Gary, R. Barat, F. Oliveira, and D. Zimdars, "THz imaging and sensing for security applications - explosives, weapons and drugs," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, 266-280 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ferguson, B.

B. Ferguson and X.-C. Zhang, "Materials for terahertz science and technology," Nat. Mater. 1, 26-33 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fernandez-Dominguez, A. I.

A. I. Fernandez-Dominguez, E. Moreno, L. Martin-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, "Terahertz wedge plasmon polaritons," Opt. Lett. 34, 2063-2065 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. I. Fernandez-Dominguez, E. Moreno, L. Martin-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal "Guiding terahertz waves along subwavelength channels," Phys. Rev. B 79, 233104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Garcia-Vidal, F. J.

A. I. Fernandez-Dominguez, E. Moreno, L. Martin-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal "Guiding terahertz waves along subwavelength channels," Phys. Rev. B 79, 233104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. I. Fernandez-Dominguez, E. Moreno, L. Martin-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, "Terahertz wedge plasmon polaritons," Opt. Lett. 34, 2063-2065 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Maier, S. R. Andrews, L. Martin-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, "Terahertz Surface Plasmon-Polariton Propagation and Focusing on Periodically Corrugated Metal Wires," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 176805 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. J. Garcia-Vidal, L. Martin-Moreno, and J. B. Pendry, "Surfaces with holes in them: new plasmonic metamaterials," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 7, S97-S101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Pendry, L. Martin-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, "Mimicking Surface Plasmons with Structured Surfaces," Science 305, 847-848 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gary, D.

J. F. Federici, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, D. Gary, R. Barat, F. Oliveira, and D. Zimdars, "THz imaging and sensing for security applications - explosives, weapons and drugs," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, 266-280 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Genov, D. A.

A. Ishikawa, S. Zhang, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, "Deep Subwavelength Terahertz Waveguides Using Gap Magnetic Plasmon," Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 043904 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Girard, C.

J. R. Krenn, A. Dereux, J. C. Weeber, E. Bourillot, Y. Lacroute, J. P. Goudonnet, G. Schider,W. Gotschy, A. Leitner, F. R. Aussenegg, and C. Girard, "Squeezing the Optical Near-Field Zone by Plasmon Coupling of Metallic Nanoparticles," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2590-2593 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gotschy, W.

J. R. Krenn, A. Dereux, J. C. Weeber, E. Bourillot, Y. Lacroute, J. P. Goudonnet, G. Schider,W. Gotschy, A. Leitner, F. R. Aussenegg, and C. Girard, "Squeezing the Optical Near-Field Zone by Plasmon Coupling of Metallic Nanoparticles," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2590-2593 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Goudonnet, J. P.

J. R. Krenn, A. Dereux, J. C. Weeber, E. Bourillot, Y. Lacroute, J. P. Goudonnet, G. Schider,W. Gotschy, A. Leitner, F. R. Aussenegg, and C. Girard, "Squeezing the Optical Near-Field Zone by Plasmon Coupling of Metallic Nanoparticles," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2590-2593 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Grischkowsky, D.

T.-I. Jeon and D. Grischkowsky, "THz Zenneck surface wave (THz surface plasmon) propagation on a metal sheet," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 061113 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhang and D. Grischkowsky, "Waveguide terahertz time-domain spectroscopy of nanometer water layers," Opt. Lett. 29, 1617-1619 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. P. Jamison, R. W. McGowan, and D. Grischkowsky, "Single-mode waveguide propagation and reshaping of sub-ps terahertz pulses in sapphire fiber," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1987-1989 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Han, H.

H. Han, H. Park, M. Cho, and J. Kim, "Terahertz pulse propagation in a plastic photonic crystal fiber," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 2634-2636 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Huang, F.

J. F. Federici, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, D. Gary, R. Barat, F. Oliveira, and D. Zimdars, "THz imaging and sensing for security applications - explosives, weapons and drugs," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, 266-280 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Huang, W.

Ikari, T.

K. Ishihara, K. Ohashi, T. Ikari, H. Minamide, and H. Yokoyama, "Terahertz-wave near-field imaging with subwavelength resolution using surface-wave-assisted bow-tie aperture," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 201120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Inouye, Y.

S. Kawata, Y. Inouye, and P. Verma, "Plasmonics for near-field nano-imaging and superlensing," Nature Photon. 3, 388-394 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ishihara, K.

K. Ishihara, K. Ohashi, T. Ikari, H. Minamide, and H. Yokoyama, "Terahertz-wave near-field imaging with subwavelength resolution using surface-wave-assisted bow-tie aperture," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 201120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ishikawa, A.

A. Ishikawa, S. Zhang, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, "Deep Subwavelength Terahertz Waveguides Using Gap Magnetic Plasmon," Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 043904 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jamison, S. P.

S. P. Jamison, R. W. McGowan, and D. Grischkowsky, "Single-mode waveguide propagation and reshaping of sub-ps terahertz pulses in sapphire fiber," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1987-1989 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Jeon, T.-I.

T.-I. Jeon and D. Grischkowsky, "THz Zenneck surface wave (THz surface plasmon) propagation on a metal sheet," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 061113 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, P.

P. Johnson, and R. Christy, R. "Optical constants of the nobel metals," Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370-4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Kats, A. V.

Kawata, S.

S. Kawata, Y. Inouye, and P. Verma, "Plasmonics for near-field nano-imaging and superlensing," Nature Photon. 3, 388-394 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J.

H. Han, H. Park, M. Cho, and J. Kim, "Terahertz pulse propagation in a plastic photonic crystal fiber," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 2634-2636 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Krenn, J. R.

J. R. Krenn, A. Dereux, J. C. Weeber, E. Bourillot, Y. Lacroute, J. P. Goudonnet, G. Schider,W. Gotschy, A. Leitner, F. R. Aussenegg, and C. Girard, "Squeezing the Optical Near-Field Zone by Plasmon Coupling of Metallic Nanoparticles," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2590-2593 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kuipers, L. K.

E. Verhagen, M. Spasenovic, A. Polman, and L. K. Kuipers, "Nanowire Plasmon Excitation by Adiabatic Mode Transformation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 203904 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kurz, H.

Lachab, M.

J. Cunningham, M. Byrne, P. Upadhya, M. Lachab, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, "Terahertz evanescent field microscopy of dielectric materials using on-chip waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 032903 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lacroute, Y.

J. R. Krenn, A. Dereux, J. C. Weeber, E. Bourillot, Y. Lacroute, J. P. Goudonnet, G. Schider,W. Gotschy, A. Leitner, F. R. Aussenegg, and C. Girard, "Squeezing the Optical Near-Field Zone by Plasmon Coupling of Metallic Nanoparticles," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2590-2593 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Laluet, J.-Y.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J.-Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators," Nature 440, 508-511 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leitner, A.

J. R. Krenn, A. Dereux, J. C. Weeber, E. Bourillot, Y. Lacroute, J. P. Goudonnet, G. Schider,W. Gotschy, A. Leitner, F. R. Aussenegg, and C. Girard, "Squeezing the Optical Near-Field Zone by Plasmon Coupling of Metallic Nanoparticles," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2590-2593 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Li, B.

Liang, H.

Linfield, E. H.

J. Cunningham, M. Byrne, P. Upadhya, M. Lachab, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, "Terahertz evanescent field microscopy of dielectric materials using on-chip waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 032903 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Long, L. L.

Maier, S.

S. Maier, S. R. Andrews, L. Martin-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, "Terahertz Surface Plasmon-Polariton Propagation and Focusing on Periodically Corrugated Metal Wires," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 176805 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maier, S. A.

S. A. Maier, M. L. Brongersma, and H. A. Atwater, "Electromagnetic energy transport along arrays of closely spaced metal rods as an analogue to plasmonic devices," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 16-18 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Marchewka, A.

Martin-Moreno, L.

A. I. Fernandez-Dominguez, E. Moreno, L. Martin-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal "Guiding terahertz waves along subwavelength channels," Phys. Rev. B 79, 233104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. I. Fernandez-Dominguez, E. Moreno, L. Martin-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, "Terahertz wedge plasmon polaritons," Opt. Lett. 34, 2063-2065 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Maier, S. R. Andrews, L. Martin-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, "Terahertz Surface Plasmon-Polariton Propagation and Focusing on Periodically Corrugated Metal Wires," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 176805 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. J. Garcia-Vidal, L. Martin-Moreno, and J. B. Pendry, "Surfaces with holes in them: new plasmonic metamaterials," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 7, S97-S101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Pendry, L. Martin-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, "Mimicking Surface Plasmons with Structured Surfaces," Science 305, 847-848 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McGowan, R. W.

S. P. Jamison, R. W. McGowan, and D. Grischkowsky, "Single-mode waveguide propagation and reshaping of sub-ps terahertz pulses in sapphire fiber," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1987-1989 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Minamide, H.

K. Ishihara, K. Ohashi, T. Ikari, H. Minamide, and H. Yokoyama, "Terahertz-wave near-field imaging with subwavelength resolution using surface-wave-assisted bow-tie aperture," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 201120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mittleman, D. M.

K. Wang and D. M. Mittleman, "Metal wires for terahertz wave guiding," Nature 432, 376-379 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moreno, E.

A. I. Fernandez-Dominguez, E. Moreno, L. Martin-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal "Guiding terahertz waves along subwavelength channels," Phys. Rev. B 79, 233104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. I. Fernandez-Dominguez, E. Moreno, L. Martin-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, "Terahertz wedge plasmon polaritons," Opt. Lett. 34, 2063-2065 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nagel, M.

Nahata, A.

Nelson, K. A.

Nesterov, M. L.

Ohashi, K.

K. Ishihara, K. Ohashi, T. Ikari, H. Minamide, and H. Yokoyama, "Terahertz-wave near-field imaging with subwavelength resolution using surface-wave-assisted bow-tie aperture," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 201120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Oliveira, F.

J. F. Federici, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, D. Gary, R. Barat, F. Oliveira, and D. Zimdars, "THz imaging and sensing for security applications - explosives, weapons and drugs," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, 266-280 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ordal, M. A.

Park, H.

H. Han, H. Park, M. Cho, and J. Kim, "Terahertz pulse propagation in a plastic photonic crystal fiber," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 2634-2636 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Pendry, J. B.

F. J. Garcia-Vidal, L. Martin-Moreno, and J. B. Pendry, "Surfaces with holes in them: new plasmonic metamaterials," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 7, S97-S101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Pendry, L. Martin-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, "Mimicking Surface Plasmons with Structured Surfaces," Science 305, 847-848 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Polman, A.

E. Verhagen, M. Spasenovic, A. Polman, and L. K. Kuipers, "Nanowire Plasmon Excitation by Adiabatic Mode Transformation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 203904 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ruan, S.

Rusina, A.

Schider, G.

J. R. Krenn, A. Dereux, J. C. Weeber, E. Bourillot, Y. Lacroute, J. P. Goudonnet, G. Schider,W. Gotschy, A. Leitner, F. R. Aussenegg, and C. Girard, "Squeezing the Optical Near-Field Zone by Plasmon Coupling of Metallic Nanoparticles," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2590-2593 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Schulkin, B.

J. F. Federici, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, D. Gary, R. Barat, F. Oliveira, and D. Zimdars, "THz imaging and sensing for security applications - explosives, weapons and drugs," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, 266-280 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sengupta, D. L.

D. L. Sengupta, "On the phase velocity of wave propagation along an infinite Yagi structure," IRE Trans. Antennas Propag. 7, 234-239 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Siegel, P. H.

P. H. Siegel, "Terahertz technology in Biology and Medicine," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 52, 2438-2447 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. H. Siegel, "Terahertz technology," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory and Tech. 50, 910-928 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Spasenovic, M.

E. Verhagen, M. Spasenovic, A. Polman, and L. K. Kuipers, "Nanowire Plasmon Excitation by Adiabatic Mode Transformation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 203904 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stockman, M. I.

Tonouchi, M.

M. Tonouchi, "Cutting-edge terahertz technology," Nat. Photon. 1, 97-105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Turitsyn, S. K.

Upadhya, P.

J. Cunningham, M. Byrne, P. Upadhya, M. Lachab, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, "Terahertz evanescent field microscopy of dielectric materials using on-chip waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 032903 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Verhagen, E.

E. Verhagen, M. Spasenovic, A. Polman, and L. K. Kuipers, "Nanowire Plasmon Excitation by Adiabatic Mode Transformation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 203904 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Verma, P.

S. Kawata, Y. Inouye, and P. Verma, "Plasmonics for near-field nano-imaging and superlensing," Nature Photon. 3, 388-394 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Volkov, V. S.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J.-Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators," Nature 440, 508-511 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, K.

K. Wang and D. M. Mittleman, "Metal wires for terahertz wave guiding," Nature 432, 376-379 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ward, C. A.

Weeber, J. C.

J. R. Krenn, A. Dereux, J. C. Weeber, E. Bourillot, Y. Lacroute, J. P. Goudonnet, G. Schider,W. Gotschy, A. Leitner, F. R. Aussenegg, and C. Girard, "Squeezing the Optical Near-Field Zone by Plasmon Coupling of Metallic Nanoparticles," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2590-2593 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Withington, S.

S. Withington, "Terahertz astronomical telescopes and instrumentation," Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. A 362, 395-402 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yokoyama, H.

K. Ishihara, K. Ohashi, T. Ikari, H. Minamide, and H. Yokoyama, "Terahertz-wave near-field imaging with subwavelength resolution using surface-wave-assisted bow-tie aperture," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 201120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J.

Zhang, M.

Zhang, S.

A. Ishikawa, S. Zhang, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, "Deep Subwavelength Terahertz Waveguides Using Gap Magnetic Plasmon," Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 043904 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.

A. Ishikawa, S. Zhang, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, "Deep Subwavelength Terahertz Waveguides Using Gap Magnetic Plasmon," Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 043904 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.-C.

B. Ferguson and X.-C. Zhang, "Materials for terahertz science and technology," Nat. Mater. 1, 26-33 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y.

Zhu, W.

Zimdars, D.

J. F. Federici, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, D. Gary, R. Barat, F. Oliveira, and D. Zimdars, "THz imaging and sensing for security applications - explosives, weapons and drugs," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, 266-280 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

K. Ishihara, K. Ohashi, T. Ikari, H. Minamide, and H. Yokoyama, "Terahertz-wave near-field imaging with subwavelength resolution using surface-wave-assisted bow-tie aperture," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 201120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Maier, M. L. Brongersma, and H. A. Atwater, "Electromagnetic energy transport along arrays of closely spaced metal rods as an analogue to plasmonic devices," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 16-18 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Cunningham, M. Byrne, P. Upadhya, M. Lachab, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, "Terahertz evanescent field microscopy of dielectric materials using on-chip waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 032903 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. P. Jamison, R. W. McGowan, and D. Grischkowsky, "Single-mode waveguide propagation and reshaping of sub-ps terahertz pulses in sapphire fiber," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1987-1989 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. Han, H. Park, M. Cho, and J. Kim, "Terahertz pulse propagation in a plastic photonic crystal fiber," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 2634-2636 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T.-I. Jeon and D. Grischkowsky, "THz Zenneck surface wave (THz surface plasmon) propagation on a metal sheet," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 061113 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory and Tech.

P. H. Siegel, "Terahertz technology," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory and Tech. 50, 910-928 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech.

P. H. Siegel, "Terahertz technology in Biology and Medicine," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 52, 2438-2447 (2004).
[CrossRef]

IRE Trans. Antennas Propag.

D. L. Sengupta, "On the phase velocity of wave propagation along an infinite Yagi structure," IRE Trans. Antennas Propag. 7, 234-239 (1959).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt.

F. J. Garcia-Vidal, L. Martin-Moreno, and J. B. Pendry, "Surfaces with holes in them: new plasmonic metamaterials," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 7, S97-S101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Mater.

B. Ferguson and X.-C. Zhang, "Materials for terahertz science and technology," Nat. Mater. 1, 26-33 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photon.

M. Tonouchi, "Cutting-edge terahertz technology," Nat. Photon. 1, 97-105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nature

K. Wang and D. M. Mittleman, "Metal wires for terahertz wave guiding," Nature 432, 376-379 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J.-Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators," Nature 440, 508-511 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature Photon.

S. Kawata, Y. Inouye, and P. Verma, "Plasmonics for near-field nano-imaging and superlensing," Nature Photon. 3, 388-394 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. A

S. Withington, "Terahertz astronomical telescopes and instrumentation," Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. A 362, 395-402 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B

A. I. Fernandez-Dominguez, E. Moreno, L. Martin-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal "Guiding terahertz waves along subwavelength channels," Phys. Rev. B 79, 233104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. Johnson, and R. Christy, R. "Optical constants of the nobel metals," Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370-4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

P. Berini, "Plasmon-polariton waves guided by thin lossy metal films of finite width: Bound modes of symmetric structures," Phys. Rev. B 61, 10484 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

E. Verhagen, M. Spasenovic, A. Polman, and L. K. Kuipers, "Nanowire Plasmon Excitation by Adiabatic Mode Transformation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 203904 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Krenn, A. Dereux, J. C. Weeber, E. Bourillot, Y. Lacroute, J. P. Goudonnet, G. Schider,W. Gotschy, A. Leitner, F. R. Aussenegg, and C. Girard, "Squeezing the Optical Near-Field Zone by Plasmon Coupling of Metallic Nanoparticles," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2590-2593 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Ishikawa, S. Zhang, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, "Deep Subwavelength Terahertz Waveguides Using Gap Magnetic Plasmon," Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 043904 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Maier, S. R. Andrews, L. Martin-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, "Terahertz Surface Plasmon-Polariton Propagation and Focusing on Periodically Corrugated Metal Wires," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 176805 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science

J. B. Pendry, L. Martin-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, "Mimicking Surface Plasmons with Structured Surfaces," Science 305, 847-848 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Semicond. Sci. Technol.

J. F. Federici, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, D. Gary, R. Barat, F. Oliveira, and D. Zimdars, "THz imaging and sensing for security applications - explosives, weapons and drugs," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, 266-280 (2005).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Modal properties of domino plasmons. (a), Dispersion relation of DPs for various lateral widths L. Black and grey (blue) lines correspond to height h = 1.5d (h = 0.75d). Dashed line stands for infinitely wide dominoes (L = ∞). Inset: diagram of the domino structure and geometric parameters (the arrow depicts the mode propagation direction). (b) and (c), Modal shape of DPs: transverse (xy) electric field (arrows) and horizontal (xz) electric field (color shading) for DPs of height h = 1.5d and widths L = 0.5d (b) and L = 8d (c). (d) and (e), Same as in panels (b) and (c), but now for a 1D array of freestanding metallic rods (h = 3d). The designations even and odd label the symmetries of the modes with respect to the corresponding white lines. The fields in (b)-(d) are plotted for d/λ = 0.125, marked with a red open dot in (a), the white bar in (c) being the wavelength (valid for panels (b)-(d)). The field in (e) is computed for the same k as in panels (b)-(d), corresponding now to d/λ = 0.056. In panels (a)-(e) metals are modelled as PECs. (f), DP modal effective index as a function of lateral dimension L in units of wavelength. Various operating frequency regimes are considered: λ = 1.6mm (red), λ = 0.16mm (green), λ = 0.016mm (blue), and λ = 1.5 μm (magenta). To compute panel (f), a realistic description of the metals is used. As described in the main text, the periodicity d is different for the various operating frequencies, and h = 1.5d, a = 0.5d, L = 0.5d,…, 24d.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Absorption (ohmic) and bend (radiation) losses. (a), Normalized propagation length of DPs in rectilinear guides of various L as a function of λ (h = 1.5d, a = 0.5d, d = 200μm). (b), Bend loss of DPs for three radii of curvature as a function of λ (h = 1.5d, a = 0.5d, L = 0.5d, d = 200μm). Inset: Poynting vector field (modulus) distribution in a horizontal plane slightly above (30μm) the height of the bend (top view). The chosen wavelength and radius of curvature are marked with an open black dot in panel (b). The red solid vertical lines in both panels indicate the operating wavelength used later, λ = 1.6mm.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Subwavelength concentration of a domino plasmon. (a), Poynting vector field (modulus) distribution in a horizontal plane slightly above (30μm) the height of the tapered domino structure (top view). The lateral width is tapered from L in = 16d to L out = 0.5d (h = 1.5d, a = 0.5d, d = 200μm, λ = 1.6mm). (b)-(e), Amplitude of electric field in transverse vertical planes (longitudinal views) at the locations shown by white dashed lines in (a). The white bar in (b) showing the operating wavelength is valid for the last four panels.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Dispersion relations corresponding to one and two parallel domino structures. Black solid (blue dashed-dotted) line is for DP of L = 0.5d (L = 1.5d). Magenta solid (dashed) line is for the even (odd) supermode of parallel domino structures separated a distance s = 0.5d, whereas green solid (dashed) line is the corresponding supermode for s = 1.25d. The individual dominoes in double structures have L = 0.5d. The red solid horizontal line indicates the operating wavelength, λ = 1.6mm, used later. Insets: longitudinal electric field for the odd and even supermodes of two parallel domino structures separated a distance s = 1.25d at the operating wavelength, and displayed in a transverse cross section lying at the center of the inter-domino gaps. For all structures h = 1.5d, a = 0.5d, d = 200μm.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Domino plasmon devices. Top view of: (a), Power divider. (b), Directional coupler. (c), Waveguide ring resonator. The Poynting vector (modulus) is displayed in a horizontal plane slightly above (about 30μm) the height of the domino structures. White bars show the operating wavelength in each panel. The various geometric parameters are described in the main text, the periodicity being d = 200μm in all cases.

Equations (1)

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k = k 0 1 + ( a d ) 2 tan 2 ( q y h ) ,

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