Abstract

We generate squeezed state of light at 860 nm with a monolithic optical parametric oscillator. The optical parametric oscillator consists of a periodically poled KTiOPO4 crystal, both ends of which are spherically polished and mirror-coated. We achieve both phase matching and cavity resonance by controlling only the temperature of the crystal. We observe up to −8.0±0.2 dB of squeezing with the bandwidth of 142 MHz. Our technique makes it possible to drive many monolithic cavities simultaneously by a single laser. Hence our monolithic optical parametric oscillator is quite suitable to continuous-variable quantum information experiments where we need a large number of highly squeezed light beams.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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  1. C. M. Caves, “Quantum-mechanical noise in an interferometer,” Phys. Rev. D Part. Fields 23, 1693–1708 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  2. K. Goda, O. Miyakawa, E. E. Mikhailov, S. Saraf, R. Adhikari, K. Mckenzie, R. Ward, S. Vass, A. J. Weinstein, and N. Mavalvala, “A quantum-enhanced prototype gravitational-wave detector,” Nat. Phys. 4, 472–476 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  3. S. L. Braunstein and A. K. Pati, Quantum Information with Continuous Variables (Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, 2003).
  4. N. J. Cerf, G. Leuchs, and E. S. Polzik, Quantum Information with Continuous Variables of Atoms and Light (Imperial College Press, 2007).
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  5. R. Ukai, N. Iwata, Y. Shimokawa, S. C. Armstrong, A. Politi, J. Yoshikawa, P. van Loock, and A. Furusawa, “Demonstration of unconditional one-way quantum computations for continuous variables,” arXiv: 1001.4860 [quant-ph] (2010).
  6. T. Aoki, G. Takahashi, T. Kajiya, J. Yoshikawa, S. L. Braunstein, P. van Loock, and A. Furusawa, “Quantum error correction beyond qubits,” Nat. Phys. 5, 541–546 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  7. R. E. Slusher, L. W. Hollberg, B. Yurke, J. C. Mertz, and J. F. Valley, “Observation of Squeezed States Generated by Four-Wave Mixing in an Optical Cavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 2409–2412 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. L. A. Wu, H. J. Kimble, J. L. Hall, and H. Wu, “Generation of Squeezed States by Parametric Down Conversion,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2520–2523 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. R. M. Shelby, M. D. Levenson, S. H. Perlmutter, R. G. DeVoe, and D. F. Walls, “Broad-Band Parametric Deamplification of Quantum Noise in an Optical Fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 691–694 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. S. Suzuki, H. Yonezawa, F. Kannari, M. Sasaki, and A. Furusawa, “7 dB quadrature squeezing at 860 nm with periodically poled KTiOPO4,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 061116 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  11. Y. Takeno, M. Yukawa, H. Yonezawa, and A. Furusawa, “Observation of −9 dB quadrature squeezing with improvement of phase stability in homodyne measurement,” Opt. Express 15, 4321–4327 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. K. Goda, E. E. Mikhailov, O. Miyakawa, S. Saraf, S. Vass, A. Weinstein, and N. Mavalvala, “Generation of a stable low-frequency squeezed vacuum field with periodically poled KTiOPO4 at 1064 nm,” Opt. Lett. 33, 92–94 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. H. Vahlbruch, M. Mehmet, S. Chelkowski, B. Hage, A. Franzen, N. Lastzka, S. Goßler, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, “Observation of Squeezed Light with 10-dB Quantum-Noise Reduction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 033602 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. G. Masada, T. Suzudo, Y. Satoh, H. Ishizuki, T. Taira, and A. Furusawa, “Efficient generation of highly squeezed light with periodically poled MgO:LiNbO3,” Opt. Express 18, 13114–13121 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. M. Mehmet, H. Vahlbruch, N. Lastzka, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, “Observation of squeezed states with strong photon-number oscillations,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 013814 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  16. H. Vahlbruch, A. Khalaidovski, N. Lastzka, C. Gr¨af, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, “The GEO600 squeezed light source,” Class. Quantum Gravity 27, 084027 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  17. P. K. Lam, T. C. Ralph, B. C. Buchler, D. E. McClelland, H.-A. Bachor, and J. Gao, “Optimization and transfer of vacuum squeezing from an optical parametric oscillator,” J. Opt. B Quantum Semiclassical Opt. 1, 469–474 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
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2010

G. Masada, T. Suzudo, Y. Satoh, H. Ishizuki, T. Taira, and A. Furusawa, “Efficient generation of highly squeezed light with periodically poled MgO:LiNbO3,” Opt. Express 18, 13114–13121 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Mehmet, H. Vahlbruch, N. Lastzka, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, “Observation of squeezed states with strong photon-number oscillations,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 013814 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Vahlbruch, A. Khalaidovski, N. Lastzka, C. Gr¨af, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, “The GEO600 squeezed light source,” Class. Quantum Gravity 27, 084027 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

T. Aoki, G. Takahashi, T. Kajiya, J. Yoshikawa, S. L. Braunstein, P. van Loock, and A. Furusawa, “Quantum error correction beyond qubits,” Nat. Phys. 5, 541–546 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

K. Goda, O. Miyakawa, E. E. Mikhailov, S. Saraf, R. Adhikari, K. Mckenzie, R. Ward, S. Vass, A. J. Weinstein, and N. Mavalvala, “A quantum-enhanced prototype gravitational-wave detector,” Nat. Phys. 4, 472–476 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Goda, E. E. Mikhailov, O. Miyakawa, S. Saraf, S. Vass, A. Weinstein, and N. Mavalvala, “Generation of a stable low-frequency squeezed vacuum field with periodically poled KTiOPO4 at 1064 nm,” Opt. Lett. 33, 92–94 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Vahlbruch, M. Mehmet, S. Chelkowski, B. Hage, A. Franzen, N. Lastzka, S. Goßler, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, “Observation of Squeezed Light with 10-dB Quantum-Noise Reduction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 033602 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

2006

S. Suzuki, H. Yonezawa, F. Kannari, M. Sasaki, and A. Furusawa, “7 dB quadrature squeezing at 860 nm with periodically poled KTiOPO4,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 061116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

1999

P. K. Lam, T. C. Ralph, B. C. Buchler, D. E. McClelland, H.-A. Bachor, and J. Gao, “Optimization and transfer of vacuum squeezing from an optical parametric oscillator,” J. Opt. B Quantum Semiclassical Opt. 1, 469–474 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1986

L. A. Wu, H. J. Kimble, J. L. Hall, and H. Wu, “Generation of Squeezed States by Parametric Down Conversion,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2520–2523 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Shelby, M. D. Levenson, S. H. Perlmutter, R. G. DeVoe, and D. F. Walls, “Broad-Band Parametric Deamplification of Quantum Noise in an Optical Fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 691–694 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1985

R. E. Slusher, L. W. Hollberg, B. Yurke, J. C. Mertz, and J. F. Valley, “Observation of Squeezed States Generated by Four-Wave Mixing in an Optical Cavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 2409–2412 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1981

C. M. Caves, “Quantum-mechanical noise in an interferometer,” Phys. Rev. D Part. Fields 23, 1693–1708 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Adhikari, R.

K. Goda, O. Miyakawa, E. E. Mikhailov, S. Saraf, R. Adhikari, K. Mckenzie, R. Ward, S. Vass, A. J. Weinstein, and N. Mavalvala, “A quantum-enhanced prototype gravitational-wave detector,” Nat. Phys. 4, 472–476 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Aoki, T.

T. Aoki, G. Takahashi, T. Kajiya, J. Yoshikawa, S. L. Braunstein, P. van Loock, and A. Furusawa, “Quantum error correction beyond qubits,” Nat. Phys. 5, 541–546 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bachor, H.-A.

P. K. Lam, T. C. Ralph, B. C. Buchler, D. E. McClelland, H.-A. Bachor, and J. Gao, “Optimization and transfer of vacuum squeezing from an optical parametric oscillator,” J. Opt. B Quantum Semiclassical Opt. 1, 469–474 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Braunstein, S. L.

T. Aoki, G. Takahashi, T. Kajiya, J. Yoshikawa, S. L. Braunstein, P. van Loock, and A. Furusawa, “Quantum error correction beyond qubits,” Nat. Phys. 5, 541–546 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Buchler, B. C.

P. K. Lam, T. C. Ralph, B. C. Buchler, D. E. McClelland, H.-A. Bachor, and J. Gao, “Optimization and transfer of vacuum squeezing from an optical parametric oscillator,” J. Opt. B Quantum Semiclassical Opt. 1, 469–474 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Caves, C. M.

C. M. Caves, “Quantum-mechanical noise in an interferometer,” Phys. Rev. D Part. Fields 23, 1693–1708 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Chelkowski, S.

H. Vahlbruch, M. Mehmet, S. Chelkowski, B. Hage, A. Franzen, N. Lastzka, S. Goßler, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, “Observation of Squeezed Light with 10-dB Quantum-Noise Reduction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 033602 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Danzmann, K.

M. Mehmet, H. Vahlbruch, N. Lastzka, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, “Observation of squeezed states with strong photon-number oscillations,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 013814 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Vahlbruch, A. Khalaidovski, N. Lastzka, C. Gr¨af, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, “The GEO600 squeezed light source,” Class. Quantum Gravity 27, 084027 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Vahlbruch, M. Mehmet, S. Chelkowski, B. Hage, A. Franzen, N. Lastzka, S. Goßler, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, “Observation of Squeezed Light with 10-dB Quantum-Noise Reduction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 033602 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

DeVoe, R. G.

R. M. Shelby, M. D. Levenson, S. H. Perlmutter, R. G. DeVoe, and D. F. Walls, “Broad-Band Parametric Deamplification of Quantum Noise in an Optical Fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 691–694 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Franzen, A.

H. Vahlbruch, M. Mehmet, S. Chelkowski, B. Hage, A. Franzen, N. Lastzka, S. Goßler, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, “Observation of Squeezed Light with 10-dB Quantum-Noise Reduction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 033602 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Furusawa, A.

G. Masada, T. Suzudo, Y. Satoh, H. Ishizuki, T. Taira, and A. Furusawa, “Efficient generation of highly squeezed light with periodically poled MgO:LiNbO3,” Opt. Express 18, 13114–13121 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Aoki, G. Takahashi, T. Kajiya, J. Yoshikawa, S. L. Braunstein, P. van Loock, and A. Furusawa, “Quantum error correction beyond qubits,” Nat. Phys. 5, 541–546 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Takeno, M. Yukawa, H. Yonezawa, and A. Furusawa, “Observation of −9 dB quadrature squeezing with improvement of phase stability in homodyne measurement,” Opt. Express 15, 4321–4327 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Suzuki, H. Yonezawa, F. Kannari, M. Sasaki, and A. Furusawa, “7 dB quadrature squeezing at 860 nm with periodically poled KTiOPO4,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 061116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gao, J.

P. K. Lam, T. C. Ralph, B. C. Buchler, D. E. McClelland, H.-A. Bachor, and J. Gao, “Optimization and transfer of vacuum squeezing from an optical parametric oscillator,” J. Opt. B Quantum Semiclassical Opt. 1, 469–474 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Goda, K.

K. Goda, E. E. Mikhailov, O. Miyakawa, S. Saraf, S. Vass, A. Weinstein, and N. Mavalvala, “Generation of a stable low-frequency squeezed vacuum field with periodically poled KTiOPO4 at 1064 nm,” Opt. Lett. 33, 92–94 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Goda, O. Miyakawa, E. E. Mikhailov, S. Saraf, R. Adhikari, K. Mckenzie, R. Ward, S. Vass, A. J. Weinstein, and N. Mavalvala, “A quantum-enhanced prototype gravitational-wave detector,” Nat. Phys. 4, 472–476 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Goßler, S.

H. Vahlbruch, M. Mehmet, S. Chelkowski, B. Hage, A. Franzen, N. Lastzka, S. Goßler, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, “Observation of Squeezed Light with 10-dB Quantum-Noise Reduction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 033602 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gr¨af, C.

H. Vahlbruch, A. Khalaidovski, N. Lastzka, C. Gr¨af, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, “The GEO600 squeezed light source,” Class. Quantum Gravity 27, 084027 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hage, B.

H. Vahlbruch, M. Mehmet, S. Chelkowski, B. Hage, A. Franzen, N. Lastzka, S. Goßler, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, “Observation of Squeezed Light with 10-dB Quantum-Noise Reduction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 033602 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hall, J. L.

L. A. Wu, H. J. Kimble, J. L. Hall, and H. Wu, “Generation of Squeezed States by Parametric Down Conversion,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2520–2523 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hollberg, L. W.

R. E. Slusher, L. W. Hollberg, B. Yurke, J. C. Mertz, and J. F. Valley, “Observation of Squeezed States Generated by Four-Wave Mixing in an Optical Cavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 2409–2412 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ishizuki, H.

Kajiya, T.

T. Aoki, G. Takahashi, T. Kajiya, J. Yoshikawa, S. L. Braunstein, P. van Loock, and A. Furusawa, “Quantum error correction beyond qubits,” Nat. Phys. 5, 541–546 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kannari, F.

S. Suzuki, H. Yonezawa, F. Kannari, M. Sasaki, and A. Furusawa, “7 dB quadrature squeezing at 860 nm with periodically poled KTiOPO4,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 061116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Khalaidovski, A.

H. Vahlbruch, A. Khalaidovski, N. Lastzka, C. Gr¨af, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, “The GEO600 squeezed light source,” Class. Quantum Gravity 27, 084027 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kimble, H. J.

L. A. Wu, H. J. Kimble, J. L. Hall, and H. Wu, “Generation of Squeezed States by Parametric Down Conversion,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2520–2523 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lam, P. K.

P. K. Lam, T. C. Ralph, B. C. Buchler, D. E. McClelland, H.-A. Bachor, and J. Gao, “Optimization and transfer of vacuum squeezing from an optical parametric oscillator,” J. Opt. B Quantum Semiclassical Opt. 1, 469–474 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lastzka, N.

H. Vahlbruch, A. Khalaidovski, N. Lastzka, C. Gr¨af, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, “The GEO600 squeezed light source,” Class. Quantum Gravity 27, 084027 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Mehmet, H. Vahlbruch, N. Lastzka, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, “Observation of squeezed states with strong photon-number oscillations,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 013814 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Vahlbruch, M. Mehmet, S. Chelkowski, B. Hage, A. Franzen, N. Lastzka, S. Goßler, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, “Observation of Squeezed Light with 10-dB Quantum-Noise Reduction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 033602 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Levenson, M. D.

R. M. Shelby, M. D. Levenson, S. H. Perlmutter, R. G. DeVoe, and D. F. Walls, “Broad-Band Parametric Deamplification of Quantum Noise in an Optical Fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 691–694 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Masada, G.

Mavalvala, N.

K. Goda, E. E. Mikhailov, O. Miyakawa, S. Saraf, S. Vass, A. Weinstein, and N. Mavalvala, “Generation of a stable low-frequency squeezed vacuum field with periodically poled KTiOPO4 at 1064 nm,” Opt. Lett. 33, 92–94 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Goda, O. Miyakawa, E. E. Mikhailov, S. Saraf, R. Adhikari, K. Mckenzie, R. Ward, S. Vass, A. J. Weinstein, and N. Mavalvala, “A quantum-enhanced prototype gravitational-wave detector,” Nat. Phys. 4, 472–476 (2008).
[CrossRef]

McClelland, D. E.

P. K. Lam, T. C. Ralph, B. C. Buchler, D. E. McClelland, H.-A. Bachor, and J. Gao, “Optimization and transfer of vacuum squeezing from an optical parametric oscillator,” J. Opt. B Quantum Semiclassical Opt. 1, 469–474 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mckenzie, K.

K. Goda, O. Miyakawa, E. E. Mikhailov, S. Saraf, R. Adhikari, K. Mckenzie, R. Ward, S. Vass, A. J. Weinstein, and N. Mavalvala, “A quantum-enhanced prototype gravitational-wave detector,” Nat. Phys. 4, 472–476 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mehmet, M.

M. Mehmet, H. Vahlbruch, N. Lastzka, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, “Observation of squeezed states with strong photon-number oscillations,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 013814 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Vahlbruch, M. Mehmet, S. Chelkowski, B. Hage, A. Franzen, N. Lastzka, S. Goßler, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, “Observation of Squeezed Light with 10-dB Quantum-Noise Reduction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 033602 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mertz, J. C.

R. E. Slusher, L. W. Hollberg, B. Yurke, J. C. Mertz, and J. F. Valley, “Observation of Squeezed States Generated by Four-Wave Mixing in an Optical Cavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 2409–2412 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mikhailov, E. E.

K. Goda, O. Miyakawa, E. E. Mikhailov, S. Saraf, R. Adhikari, K. Mckenzie, R. Ward, S. Vass, A. J. Weinstein, and N. Mavalvala, “A quantum-enhanced prototype gravitational-wave detector,” Nat. Phys. 4, 472–476 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Goda, E. E. Mikhailov, O. Miyakawa, S. Saraf, S. Vass, A. Weinstein, and N. Mavalvala, “Generation of a stable low-frequency squeezed vacuum field with periodically poled KTiOPO4 at 1064 nm,” Opt. Lett. 33, 92–94 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miyakawa, O.

K. Goda, E. E. Mikhailov, O. Miyakawa, S. Saraf, S. Vass, A. Weinstein, and N. Mavalvala, “Generation of a stable low-frequency squeezed vacuum field with periodically poled KTiOPO4 at 1064 nm,” Opt. Lett. 33, 92–94 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Goda, O. Miyakawa, E. E. Mikhailov, S. Saraf, R. Adhikari, K. Mckenzie, R. Ward, S. Vass, A. J. Weinstein, and N. Mavalvala, “A quantum-enhanced prototype gravitational-wave detector,” Nat. Phys. 4, 472–476 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Perlmutter, S. H.

R. M. Shelby, M. D. Levenson, S. H. Perlmutter, R. G. DeVoe, and D. F. Walls, “Broad-Band Parametric Deamplification of Quantum Noise in an Optical Fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 691–694 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ralph, T. C.

P. K. Lam, T. C. Ralph, B. C. Buchler, D. E. McClelland, H.-A. Bachor, and J. Gao, “Optimization and transfer of vacuum squeezing from an optical parametric oscillator,” J. Opt. B Quantum Semiclassical Opt. 1, 469–474 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Saraf, S.

K. Goda, O. Miyakawa, E. E. Mikhailov, S. Saraf, R. Adhikari, K. Mckenzie, R. Ward, S. Vass, A. J. Weinstein, and N. Mavalvala, “A quantum-enhanced prototype gravitational-wave detector,” Nat. Phys. 4, 472–476 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Goda, E. E. Mikhailov, O. Miyakawa, S. Saraf, S. Vass, A. Weinstein, and N. Mavalvala, “Generation of a stable low-frequency squeezed vacuum field with periodically poled KTiOPO4 at 1064 nm,” Opt. Lett. 33, 92–94 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sasaki, M.

S. Suzuki, H. Yonezawa, F. Kannari, M. Sasaki, and A. Furusawa, “7 dB quadrature squeezing at 860 nm with periodically poled KTiOPO4,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 061116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Satoh, Y.

Schnabel, R.

M. Mehmet, H. Vahlbruch, N. Lastzka, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, “Observation of squeezed states with strong photon-number oscillations,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 013814 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Vahlbruch, A. Khalaidovski, N. Lastzka, C. Gr¨af, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, “The GEO600 squeezed light source,” Class. Quantum Gravity 27, 084027 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Vahlbruch, M. Mehmet, S. Chelkowski, B. Hage, A. Franzen, N. Lastzka, S. Goßler, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, “Observation of Squeezed Light with 10-dB Quantum-Noise Reduction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 033602 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shelby, R. M.

R. M. Shelby, M. D. Levenson, S. H. Perlmutter, R. G. DeVoe, and D. F. Walls, “Broad-Band Parametric Deamplification of Quantum Noise in an Optical Fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 691–694 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Slusher, R. E.

R. E. Slusher, L. W. Hollberg, B. Yurke, J. C. Mertz, and J. F. Valley, “Observation of Squeezed States Generated by Four-Wave Mixing in an Optical Cavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 2409–2412 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Suzudo, T.

Suzuki, S.

S. Suzuki, H. Yonezawa, F. Kannari, M. Sasaki, and A. Furusawa, “7 dB quadrature squeezing at 860 nm with periodically poled KTiOPO4,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 061116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Taira, T.

Takahashi, G.

T. Aoki, G. Takahashi, T. Kajiya, J. Yoshikawa, S. L. Braunstein, P. van Loock, and A. Furusawa, “Quantum error correction beyond qubits,” Nat. Phys. 5, 541–546 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Takeno, Y.

Vahlbruch, H.

M. Mehmet, H. Vahlbruch, N. Lastzka, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, “Observation of squeezed states with strong photon-number oscillations,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 013814 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Vahlbruch, A. Khalaidovski, N. Lastzka, C. Gr¨af, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, “The GEO600 squeezed light source,” Class. Quantum Gravity 27, 084027 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Vahlbruch, M. Mehmet, S. Chelkowski, B. Hage, A. Franzen, N. Lastzka, S. Goßler, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, “Observation of Squeezed Light with 10-dB Quantum-Noise Reduction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 033602 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Valley, J. F.

R. E. Slusher, L. W. Hollberg, B. Yurke, J. C. Mertz, and J. F. Valley, “Observation of Squeezed States Generated by Four-Wave Mixing in an Optical Cavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 2409–2412 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Loock, P.

T. Aoki, G. Takahashi, T. Kajiya, J. Yoshikawa, S. L. Braunstein, P. van Loock, and A. Furusawa, “Quantum error correction beyond qubits,” Nat. Phys. 5, 541–546 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Vass, S.

K. Goda, O. Miyakawa, E. E. Mikhailov, S. Saraf, R. Adhikari, K. Mckenzie, R. Ward, S. Vass, A. J. Weinstein, and N. Mavalvala, “A quantum-enhanced prototype gravitational-wave detector,” Nat. Phys. 4, 472–476 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Goda, E. E. Mikhailov, O. Miyakawa, S. Saraf, S. Vass, A. Weinstein, and N. Mavalvala, “Generation of a stable low-frequency squeezed vacuum field with periodically poled KTiOPO4 at 1064 nm,” Opt. Lett. 33, 92–94 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Walls, D. F.

R. M. Shelby, M. D. Levenson, S. H. Perlmutter, R. G. DeVoe, and D. F. Walls, “Broad-Band Parametric Deamplification of Quantum Noise in an Optical Fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 691–694 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ward, R.

K. Goda, O. Miyakawa, E. E. Mikhailov, S. Saraf, R. Adhikari, K. Mckenzie, R. Ward, S. Vass, A. J. Weinstein, and N. Mavalvala, “A quantum-enhanced prototype gravitational-wave detector,” Nat. Phys. 4, 472–476 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Weinstein, A.

Weinstein, A. J.

K. Goda, O. Miyakawa, E. E. Mikhailov, S. Saraf, R. Adhikari, K. Mckenzie, R. Ward, S. Vass, A. J. Weinstein, and N. Mavalvala, “A quantum-enhanced prototype gravitational-wave detector,” Nat. Phys. 4, 472–476 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wu, H.

L. A. Wu, H. J. Kimble, J. L. Hall, and H. Wu, “Generation of Squeezed States by Parametric Down Conversion,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2520–2523 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, L. A.

L. A. Wu, H. J. Kimble, J. L. Hall, and H. Wu, “Generation of Squeezed States by Parametric Down Conversion,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2520–2523 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yonezawa, H.

Y. Takeno, M. Yukawa, H. Yonezawa, and A. Furusawa, “Observation of −9 dB quadrature squeezing with improvement of phase stability in homodyne measurement,” Opt. Express 15, 4321–4327 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Suzuki, H. Yonezawa, F. Kannari, M. Sasaki, and A. Furusawa, “7 dB quadrature squeezing at 860 nm with periodically poled KTiOPO4,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 061116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yoshikawa, J.

T. Aoki, G. Takahashi, T. Kajiya, J. Yoshikawa, S. L. Braunstein, P. van Loock, and A. Furusawa, “Quantum error correction beyond qubits,” Nat. Phys. 5, 541–546 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yukawa, M.

Yurke, B.

R. E. Slusher, L. W. Hollberg, B. Yurke, J. C. Mertz, and J. F. Valley, “Observation of Squeezed States Generated by Four-Wave Mixing in an Optical Cavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 2409–2412 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

S. Suzuki, H. Yonezawa, F. Kannari, M. Sasaki, and A. Furusawa, “7 dB quadrature squeezing at 860 nm with periodically poled KTiOPO4,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 061116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Class. Quantum Gravity

H. Vahlbruch, A. Khalaidovski, N. Lastzka, C. Gr¨af, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, “The GEO600 squeezed light source,” Class. Quantum Gravity 27, 084027 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. B Quantum Semiclassical Opt.

P. K. Lam, T. C. Ralph, B. C. Buchler, D. E. McClelland, H.-A. Bachor, and J. Gao, “Optimization and transfer of vacuum squeezing from an optical parametric oscillator,” J. Opt. B Quantum Semiclassical Opt. 1, 469–474 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Phys.

K. Goda, O. Miyakawa, E. E. Mikhailov, S. Saraf, R. Adhikari, K. Mckenzie, R. Ward, S. Vass, A. J. Weinstein, and N. Mavalvala, “A quantum-enhanced prototype gravitational-wave detector,” Nat. Phys. 4, 472–476 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Aoki, G. Takahashi, T. Kajiya, J. Yoshikawa, S. L. Braunstein, P. van Loock, and A. Furusawa, “Quantum error correction beyond qubits,” Nat. Phys. 5, 541–546 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. A

M. Mehmet, H. Vahlbruch, N. Lastzka, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, “Observation of squeezed states with strong photon-number oscillations,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 013814 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. D Part. Fields

C. M. Caves, “Quantum-mechanical noise in an interferometer,” Phys. Rev. D Part. Fields 23, 1693–1708 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

H. Vahlbruch, M. Mehmet, S. Chelkowski, B. Hage, A. Franzen, N. Lastzka, S. Goßler, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, “Observation of Squeezed Light with 10-dB Quantum-Noise Reduction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 033602 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. E. Slusher, L. W. Hollberg, B. Yurke, J. C. Mertz, and J. F. Valley, “Observation of Squeezed States Generated by Four-Wave Mixing in an Optical Cavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 2409–2412 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. A. Wu, H. J. Kimble, J. L. Hall, and H. Wu, “Generation of Squeezed States by Parametric Down Conversion,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2520–2523 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Shelby, M. D. Levenson, S. H. Perlmutter, R. G. DeVoe, and D. F. Walls, “Broad-Band Parametric Deamplification of Quantum Noise in an Optical Fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 691–694 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

S. L. Braunstein and A. K. Pati, Quantum Information with Continuous Variables (Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, 2003).

N. J. Cerf, G. Leuchs, and E. S. Polzik, Quantum Information with Continuous Variables of Atoms and Light (Imperial College Press, 2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Ukai, N. Iwata, Y. Shimokawa, S. C. Armstrong, A. Politi, J. Yoshikawa, P. van Loock, and A. Furusawa, “Demonstration of unconditional one-way quantum computations for continuous variables,” arXiv: 1001.4860 [quant-ph] (2010).

A. Yariv, Optical Electronics in Modern Communications 5th ed. (Oxford University Press, Oxford New York, 1997).

G. G. Gurzadian, V. G. Dmitriev, and D. N. Nikogosian, Handbook of Nonlinear Optical Crystals (Springer, 1999).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Theoretical calculation of phase matching and resonance condition. Blue line is OPO transmittance power (resonance condition). Red line is conversion efficiency η from fundamental to second harmonic beam (phase matching condition).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Experimental setup. Abbreviations are, EOM: electro-optic modulator, BSs: beam splitter, MCC: mode cleaning cavity, PZTs: piezoelectric transducer, and DMs: dichroic mirror (high reflection for 860 nm and high transmittance for 430 nm).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Measurement results of squeezed states. Here we use OPO No.1. All the data was measured at 2 MHz. (a) Measured at the fixed pump power (130 mW). Trace (i) is the normalized shot noise level. Trace (ii) and (iii) are the normalized squeezing and anti-squeezing level. (b) Pump power dependence of squeezing and anti-squeezing level. Trace(i) and (ii) correspond to the normalized squeezing and anti-squeezing level. Solid curves indicate the theoretical values.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Broadband measurement of squeezed states. Trace (i) and (ii) correspond to the normalized squeezing and anti-squeezing level. Dark noise is subtracted. Solid black lines indicate the theoretical values. Spikes at 9.1 and 36.7 MHz are modulation signals for cavity locking.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Measured data for three OPOs.

Equations (6)

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η sin 2 ( Δ kl 2 ) ( Δ kl 2 ) 2 ,
Δ k = ( Δ n z ( 2 ω ) Δ n z ( ω ) ) 4 π λ .
Δ T PM λ 2 l d n z ( 2 w ) dT d n z ( ω ) dT 1 .
Δ T FSR = λ 2 l d n z ( ω ) dT 1 .
R ± R ± cos 2 θ ˜ + R sin 2 θ ˜ ,
R ± = 1 ± κ T T + L 4 x ( 1 x ) 2 + ( f f 0 ) 2 .

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