Abstract

There is a strong need for low-cost biosensors to enable rapid, on-site analysis of biological, biomedical, or chemical substances. We propose a platform for label-free optical biosensors based on applying the analyte onto a surface-functionalized photonic crystal slab and performing a transmission measurement with two crossed polarization filters. This dark-field approach allows for efficient background suppression as only the photonic crystal guided-mode resonances interacting with the functionalized surface experience significant polarization rotation. We present a compact biosensor demonstrator using a low-cost light emitting diode and a simple photodiode capable of detecting the binding kinetics of a 2.5 nM solution of the protein streptavidin on a biotin-functionalized photonic crystal surface.

© 2010 OSA

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  1. J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 442–453 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. Y. Cui, Q. Wei, H. Park, and C. M. Lieber, “Nanowire nanosensors for highly sensitive and selective detection of biological and chemical species,” Science 293(5533), 1289–1292 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. B. Polisky, R. Jenison, S. Yang, and A. Haeberli, “Interference-based detection of nucleic acid targets on optically coated silicon,” Nat. Biotechnol. 19(1), 62–65 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. V. S. Y. Lin, K. Motesharei, K. P. S. Dancil, M. J. Sailor, and M. R. Ghadiri, “A porous silicon-based optical interferometric biosensor,” Science 278(5339), 840–843 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. A. M. Armani, R. P. Kulkarni, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. J. Vahala, “Label-free, single-molecule detection with optical microcavities,” Science 317(5839), 783–787 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. E. Chow, A. Grot, L. W. Mirkarimi, M. Sigalas, and G. Girolami, “Ultracompact biochemical sensor built with two-dimensional photonic crystal microcavity,” Opt. Lett. 29(10), 1093–1095 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. B. T. Cunningham, P. Li, S. Schulz, B. Lin, C. Baird, J. Gerstenmaier, C. Genick, F. Wang, E. Fine, and L. Laing, “Label-free assays on the BIND system,” J. Biomol. Screen. 9(6), 481–490 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. F. Vollmer, D. Braun, A. Libchaber, M. Khoshsima, I. Teraoka, and S. Arnold, “Protein detection by optical shift of a resonant microcavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(21), 4057–4059 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  9. G. Zheng, F. Patolsky, Y. Cui, W. U. Wang, and C. M. Lieber, “Multiplexed electrical detection of cancer markers with nanowire sensor arrays,” Nat. Biotechnol. 23(10), 1294–1301 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. S. Fan and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Analysis of guided resonances in photonic crystal slabs,” Phys. Rev. B 65(23), 235112 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  11. Y. Nazirizadeh, J. G. Müller, U. Geyer, D. Schelle, E.-B. Kley, A. Tünnermann, U. Lemmer, and M. Gerken, “Optical characterization of photonic crystal slabs using orthogonally oriented polarization filters,” Opt. Express 16(10), 7153–7160 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. Y. Nazirizadeh, U. Lemmer, and M. Gerken, “Experimental quality factor determination of guided-mode resonances in photonic crystal slabs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(26), 261110 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  13. Y. Nazirizadeh, J. G. Müller, U. Geyer, U. Lemmer, and M. Gerken, “Direct observation of photonic modes in photonic crystal slabs,” in Proceedings of International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (Academic, 2008), pp. 72–75.
  14. U. Geyer, J. Hauss, B. Riedel, S. Gleiss, U. Lemmer, and M. Gerken, “Large-scale patterning of indium tin oxide electrodes for guided mode extraction from organic light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(9), 093111 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  15. L. Shi, P. Pottier, Y. A. Peter, and M. Skorobogatiy, “Guided-mode resonance photonic crystal slab sensors based on bead monolayer geometry,” Opt. Express 16(22), 17962–17971 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. T. Sano and C. R. Cantor, “Intersubunit contacts made by tryptophan 120 with biotin are essential for both strong biotin binding and biotin-induced tighter subunit association of streptavidin,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 92(8), 3180–3184 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (5)

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Nazirizadeh, U. Lemmer, and M. Gerken, “Experimental quality factor determination of guided-mode resonances in photonic crystal slabs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(26), 261110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

U. Geyer, J. Hauss, B. Riedel, S. Gleiss, U. Lemmer, and M. Gerken, “Large-scale patterning of indium tin oxide electrodes for guided mode extraction from organic light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(9), 093111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Nazirizadeh, J. G. Müller, U. Geyer, D. Schelle, E.-B. Kley, A. Tünnermann, U. Lemmer, and M. Gerken, “Optical characterization of photonic crystal slabs using orthogonally oriented polarization filters,” Opt. Express 16(10), 7153–7160 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Shi, P. Pottier, Y. A. Peter, and M. Skorobogatiy, “Guided-mode resonance photonic crystal slab sensors based on bead monolayer geometry,” Opt. Express 16(22), 17962–17971 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

A. M. Armani, R. P. Kulkarni, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. J. Vahala, “Label-free, single-molecule detection with optical microcavities,” Science 317(5839), 783–787 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

G. Zheng, F. Patolsky, Y. Cui, W. U. Wang, and C. M. Lieber, “Multiplexed electrical detection of cancer markers with nanowire sensor arrays,” Nat. Biotechnol. 23(10), 1294–1301 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

B. T. Cunningham, P. Li, S. Schulz, B. Lin, C. Baird, J. Gerstenmaier, C. Genick, F. Wang, E. Fine, and L. Laing, “Label-free assays on the BIND system,” J. Biomol. Screen. 9(6), 481–490 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Chow, A. Grot, L. W. Mirkarimi, M. Sigalas, and G. Girolami, “Ultracompact biochemical sensor built with two-dimensional photonic crystal microcavity,” Opt. Lett. 29(10), 1093–1095 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

F. Vollmer, D. Braun, A. Libchaber, M. Khoshsima, I. Teraoka, and S. Arnold, “Protein detection by optical shift of a resonant microcavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(21), 4057–4059 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Fan and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Analysis of guided resonances in photonic crystal slabs,” Phys. Rev. B 65(23), 235112 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

Y. Cui, Q. Wei, H. Park, and C. M. Lieber, “Nanowire nanosensors for highly sensitive and selective detection of biological and chemical species,” Science 293(5533), 1289–1292 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Polisky, R. Jenison, S. Yang, and A. Haeberli, “Interference-based detection of nucleic acid targets on optically coated silicon,” Nat. Biotechnol. 19(1), 62–65 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

V. S. Y. Lin, K. Motesharei, K. P. S. Dancil, M. J. Sailor, and M. R. Ghadiri, “A porous silicon-based optical interferometric biosensor,” Science 278(5339), 840–843 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

T. Sano and C. R. Cantor, “Intersubunit contacts made by tryptophan 120 with biotin are essential for both strong biotin binding and biotin-induced tighter subunit association of streptavidin,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 92(8), 3180–3184 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anker, J. N.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Armani, A. M.

A. M. Armani, R. P. Kulkarni, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. J. Vahala, “Label-free, single-molecule detection with optical microcavities,” Science 317(5839), 783–787 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arnold, S.

F. Vollmer, D. Braun, A. Libchaber, M. Khoshsima, I. Teraoka, and S. Arnold, “Protein detection by optical shift of a resonant microcavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(21), 4057–4059 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Baird, C.

B. T. Cunningham, P. Li, S. Schulz, B. Lin, C. Baird, J. Gerstenmaier, C. Genick, F. Wang, E. Fine, and L. Laing, “Label-free assays on the BIND system,” J. Biomol. Screen. 9(6), 481–490 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Braun, D.

F. Vollmer, D. Braun, A. Libchaber, M. Khoshsima, I. Teraoka, and S. Arnold, “Protein detection by optical shift of a resonant microcavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(21), 4057–4059 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Cantor, C. R.

T. Sano and C. R. Cantor, “Intersubunit contacts made by tryptophan 120 with biotin are essential for both strong biotin binding and biotin-induced tighter subunit association of streptavidin,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 92(8), 3180–3184 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chow, E.

Cui, Y.

G. Zheng, F. Patolsky, Y. Cui, W. U. Wang, and C. M. Lieber, “Multiplexed electrical detection of cancer markers with nanowire sensor arrays,” Nat. Biotechnol. 23(10), 1294–1301 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Cui, Q. Wei, H. Park, and C. M. Lieber, “Nanowire nanosensors for highly sensitive and selective detection of biological and chemical species,” Science 293(5533), 1289–1292 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cunningham, B. T.

B. T. Cunningham, P. Li, S. Schulz, B. Lin, C. Baird, J. Gerstenmaier, C. Genick, F. Wang, E. Fine, and L. Laing, “Label-free assays on the BIND system,” J. Biomol. Screen. 9(6), 481–490 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dancil, K. P. S.

V. S. Y. Lin, K. Motesharei, K. P. S. Dancil, M. J. Sailor, and M. R. Ghadiri, “A porous silicon-based optical interferometric biosensor,” Science 278(5339), 840–843 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fan, S.

S. Fan and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Analysis of guided resonances in photonic crystal slabs,” Phys. Rev. B 65(23), 235112 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fine, E.

B. T. Cunningham, P. Li, S. Schulz, B. Lin, C. Baird, J. Gerstenmaier, C. Genick, F. Wang, E. Fine, and L. Laing, “Label-free assays on the BIND system,” J. Biomol. Screen. 9(6), 481–490 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Flagan, R. C.

A. M. Armani, R. P. Kulkarni, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. J. Vahala, “Label-free, single-molecule detection with optical microcavities,” Science 317(5839), 783–787 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fraser, S. E.

A. M. Armani, R. P. Kulkarni, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. J. Vahala, “Label-free, single-molecule detection with optical microcavities,” Science 317(5839), 783–787 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Genick, C.

B. T. Cunningham, P. Li, S. Schulz, B. Lin, C. Baird, J. Gerstenmaier, C. Genick, F. Wang, E. Fine, and L. Laing, “Label-free assays on the BIND system,” J. Biomol. Screen. 9(6), 481–490 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gerken, M.

U. Geyer, J. Hauss, B. Riedel, S. Gleiss, U. Lemmer, and M. Gerken, “Large-scale patterning of indium tin oxide electrodes for guided mode extraction from organic light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(9), 093111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Nazirizadeh, J. G. Müller, U. Geyer, D. Schelle, E.-B. Kley, A. Tünnermann, U. Lemmer, and M. Gerken, “Optical characterization of photonic crystal slabs using orthogonally oriented polarization filters,” Opt. Express 16(10), 7153–7160 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Nazirizadeh, U. Lemmer, and M. Gerken, “Experimental quality factor determination of guided-mode resonances in photonic crystal slabs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(26), 261110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gerstenmaier, J.

B. T. Cunningham, P. Li, S. Schulz, B. Lin, C. Baird, J. Gerstenmaier, C. Genick, F. Wang, E. Fine, and L. Laing, “Label-free assays on the BIND system,” J. Biomol. Screen. 9(6), 481–490 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Geyer, U.

U. Geyer, J. Hauss, B. Riedel, S. Gleiss, U. Lemmer, and M. Gerken, “Large-scale patterning of indium tin oxide electrodes for guided mode extraction from organic light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(9), 093111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Nazirizadeh, J. G. Müller, U. Geyer, D. Schelle, E.-B. Kley, A. Tünnermann, U. Lemmer, and M. Gerken, “Optical characterization of photonic crystal slabs using orthogonally oriented polarization filters,” Opt. Express 16(10), 7153–7160 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ghadiri, M. R.

V. S. Y. Lin, K. Motesharei, K. P. S. Dancil, M. J. Sailor, and M. R. Ghadiri, “A porous silicon-based optical interferometric biosensor,” Science 278(5339), 840–843 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Girolami, G.

Gleiss, S.

U. Geyer, J. Hauss, B. Riedel, S. Gleiss, U. Lemmer, and M. Gerken, “Large-scale patterning of indium tin oxide electrodes for guided mode extraction from organic light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(9), 093111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Grot, A.

Haeberli, A.

B. Polisky, R. Jenison, S. Yang, and A. Haeberli, “Interference-based detection of nucleic acid targets on optically coated silicon,” Nat. Biotechnol. 19(1), 62–65 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hall, W. P.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hauss, J.

U. Geyer, J. Hauss, B. Riedel, S. Gleiss, U. Lemmer, and M. Gerken, “Large-scale patterning of indium tin oxide electrodes for guided mode extraction from organic light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(9), 093111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jenison, R.

B. Polisky, R. Jenison, S. Yang, and A. Haeberli, “Interference-based detection of nucleic acid targets on optically coated silicon,” Nat. Biotechnol. 19(1), 62–65 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Joannopoulos, J. D.

S. Fan and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Analysis of guided resonances in photonic crystal slabs,” Phys. Rev. B 65(23), 235112 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Khoshsima, M.

F. Vollmer, D. Braun, A. Libchaber, M. Khoshsima, I. Teraoka, and S. Arnold, “Protein detection by optical shift of a resonant microcavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(21), 4057–4059 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kley, E.-B.

Kulkarni, R. P.

A. M. Armani, R. P. Kulkarni, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. J. Vahala, “Label-free, single-molecule detection with optical microcavities,” Science 317(5839), 783–787 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Laing, L.

B. T. Cunningham, P. Li, S. Schulz, B. Lin, C. Baird, J. Gerstenmaier, C. Genick, F. Wang, E. Fine, and L. Laing, “Label-free assays on the BIND system,” J. Biomol. Screen. 9(6), 481–490 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lemmer, U.

U. Geyer, J. Hauss, B. Riedel, S. Gleiss, U. Lemmer, and M. Gerken, “Large-scale patterning of indium tin oxide electrodes for guided mode extraction from organic light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(9), 093111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Nazirizadeh, J. G. Müller, U. Geyer, D. Schelle, E.-B. Kley, A. Tünnermann, U. Lemmer, and M. Gerken, “Optical characterization of photonic crystal slabs using orthogonally oriented polarization filters,” Opt. Express 16(10), 7153–7160 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Nazirizadeh, U. Lemmer, and M. Gerken, “Experimental quality factor determination of guided-mode resonances in photonic crystal slabs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(26), 261110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Li, P.

B. T. Cunningham, P. Li, S. Schulz, B. Lin, C. Baird, J. Gerstenmaier, C. Genick, F. Wang, E. Fine, and L. Laing, “Label-free assays on the BIND system,” J. Biomol. Screen. 9(6), 481–490 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Libchaber, A.

F. Vollmer, D. Braun, A. Libchaber, M. Khoshsima, I. Teraoka, and S. Arnold, “Protein detection by optical shift of a resonant microcavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(21), 4057–4059 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lieber, C. M.

G. Zheng, F. Patolsky, Y. Cui, W. U. Wang, and C. M. Lieber, “Multiplexed electrical detection of cancer markers with nanowire sensor arrays,” Nat. Biotechnol. 23(10), 1294–1301 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Cui, Q. Wei, H. Park, and C. M. Lieber, “Nanowire nanosensors for highly sensitive and selective detection of biological and chemical species,” Science 293(5533), 1289–1292 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, B.

B. T. Cunningham, P. Li, S. Schulz, B. Lin, C. Baird, J. Gerstenmaier, C. Genick, F. Wang, E. Fine, and L. Laing, “Label-free assays on the BIND system,” J. Biomol. Screen. 9(6), 481–490 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, V. S. Y.

V. S. Y. Lin, K. Motesharei, K. P. S. Dancil, M. J. Sailor, and M. R. Ghadiri, “A porous silicon-based optical interferometric biosensor,” Science 278(5339), 840–843 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lyandres, O.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mirkarimi, L. W.

Motesharei, K.

V. S. Y. Lin, K. Motesharei, K. P. S. Dancil, M. J. Sailor, and M. R. Ghadiri, “A porous silicon-based optical interferometric biosensor,” Science 278(5339), 840–843 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Müller, J. G.

Nazirizadeh, Y.

Park, H.

Y. Cui, Q. Wei, H. Park, and C. M. Lieber, “Nanowire nanosensors for highly sensitive and selective detection of biological and chemical species,” Science 293(5533), 1289–1292 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Patolsky, F.

G. Zheng, F. Patolsky, Y. Cui, W. U. Wang, and C. M. Lieber, “Multiplexed electrical detection of cancer markers with nanowire sensor arrays,” Nat. Biotechnol. 23(10), 1294–1301 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Peter, Y. A.

Polisky, B.

B. Polisky, R. Jenison, S. Yang, and A. Haeberli, “Interference-based detection of nucleic acid targets on optically coated silicon,” Nat. Biotechnol. 19(1), 62–65 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pottier, P.

Riedel, B.

U. Geyer, J. Hauss, B. Riedel, S. Gleiss, U. Lemmer, and M. Gerken, “Large-scale patterning of indium tin oxide electrodes for guided mode extraction from organic light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(9), 093111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sailor, M. J.

V. S. Y. Lin, K. Motesharei, K. P. S. Dancil, M. J. Sailor, and M. R. Ghadiri, “A porous silicon-based optical interferometric biosensor,” Science 278(5339), 840–843 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sano, T.

T. Sano and C. R. Cantor, “Intersubunit contacts made by tryptophan 120 with biotin are essential for both strong biotin binding and biotin-induced tighter subunit association of streptavidin,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 92(8), 3180–3184 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schelle, D.

Schulz, S.

B. T. Cunningham, P. Li, S. Schulz, B. Lin, C. Baird, J. Gerstenmaier, C. Genick, F. Wang, E. Fine, and L. Laing, “Label-free assays on the BIND system,” J. Biomol. Screen. 9(6), 481–490 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shah, N. C.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shi, L.

Sigalas, M.

Skorobogatiy, M.

Teraoka, I.

F. Vollmer, D. Braun, A. Libchaber, M. Khoshsima, I. Teraoka, and S. Arnold, “Protein detection by optical shift of a resonant microcavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(21), 4057–4059 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tünnermann, A.

Vahala, K. J.

A. M. Armani, R. P. Kulkarni, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. J. Vahala, “Label-free, single-molecule detection with optical microcavities,” Science 317(5839), 783–787 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Van Duyne, R. P.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vollmer, F.

F. Vollmer, D. Braun, A. Libchaber, M. Khoshsima, I. Teraoka, and S. Arnold, “Protein detection by optical shift of a resonant microcavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(21), 4057–4059 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wang, F.

B. T. Cunningham, P. Li, S. Schulz, B. Lin, C. Baird, J. Gerstenmaier, C. Genick, F. Wang, E. Fine, and L. Laing, “Label-free assays on the BIND system,” J. Biomol. Screen. 9(6), 481–490 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, W. U.

G. Zheng, F. Patolsky, Y. Cui, W. U. Wang, and C. M. Lieber, “Multiplexed electrical detection of cancer markers with nanowire sensor arrays,” Nat. Biotechnol. 23(10), 1294–1301 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wei, Q.

Y. Cui, Q. Wei, H. Park, and C. M. Lieber, “Nanowire nanosensors for highly sensitive and selective detection of biological and chemical species,” Science 293(5533), 1289–1292 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, S.

B. Polisky, R. Jenison, S. Yang, and A. Haeberli, “Interference-based detection of nucleic acid targets on optically coated silicon,” Nat. Biotechnol. 19(1), 62–65 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhao, J.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zheng, G.

G. Zheng, F. Patolsky, Y. Cui, W. U. Wang, and C. M. Lieber, “Multiplexed electrical detection of cancer markers with nanowire sensor arrays,” Nat. Biotechnol. 23(10), 1294–1301 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

F. Vollmer, D. Braun, A. Libchaber, M. Khoshsima, I. Teraoka, and S. Arnold, “Protein detection by optical shift of a resonant microcavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(21), 4057–4059 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y. Nazirizadeh, U. Lemmer, and M. Gerken, “Experimental quality factor determination of guided-mode resonances in photonic crystal slabs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(26), 261110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

U. Geyer, J. Hauss, B. Riedel, S. Gleiss, U. Lemmer, and M. Gerken, “Large-scale patterning of indium tin oxide electrodes for guided mode extraction from organic light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(9), 093111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomol. Screen. (1)

B. T. Cunningham, P. Li, S. Schulz, B. Lin, C. Baird, J. Gerstenmaier, C. Genick, F. Wang, E. Fine, and L. Laing, “Label-free assays on the BIND system,” J. Biomol. Screen. 9(6), 481–490 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Biotechnol. (2)

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Background suppression for transmission measurements through photonic crystal slabs (PCS). (a) Setup for background suppression. The PCS is placed between two crossed polarization filters. Due to polarization rotation only light interacting with the PCS can pass this configuration. (b) Transmission measurements with and without crossed polarization filters. Using polarization filters only the GMRs are transmitted, which are sensitive to the environmental condition of the PCS. (c) Schematic representation of the PCS used in this paper. It is composed of a Ta2O5 layer (d = 300 nm) on a glass substrate with a linear periodic nanostructure. The periodicity of the PCS was chosen to be Λ = 370 nm.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Basic concept of the conversion of GMR shift into intensity change using an LED as the light source. The convolution of the LED spectrum with the GMR results in a function of the spectral shift of GMR versus the intensity of the transmission. (b) Schematic of a compact and low-cost biosensor for affinity measurements in real time. Here, an LED is applied as the light source, while a photo diode is used for the intensity detection.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Transmission measurements with tuned refractive index and an LED as the light source. An intensity drop of up to 75% is observed, which stands in relation to the GMR shift. (b) Integrated intensity as deduced from spectra versus refractive index of the surrounded liquid obtained by integrating spectra obtained in Fig. 3(a). The decreasing intensity is due to the GMR shift, which is a function of the refractive index. As expected the intensity drop follows the sloping edge of the LED spectrum.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Photograph of the flow-cell during volume change with an ink-water dilution. The flow-cell consists of an o-ring squeezed between two glass substrates (one with the PCS on its surface). The liquid supply is realized using a butterfly cannula, which is pierced into the o-ring. The capacity of the flow-cell depends on the diameter and the thickness of the o-ring and was in this case approximately 200 µl. (b) Photograph of the assembled biosensor demonstrator.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Determination of the detection limit of the demonstrator, utilizing bulk refractive index tests. A 0.5% isopropanol-water dilution could be clearly differentiated from pure water. Hence, a bulk refractive index detection limit of Δn = 2.25 10−4 is obtained.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Spectral analysis of the second resonance with a spectrometer and an LED as light source during the streptavidin coupling process. We observe a resonance shift of 0.5 nm as well as an intensity decrease of the transmission following the falling edge of the LED spectrum.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) Relative voltage reduction using demonstrator of (Fig. 4a) as a function of time for two different composition ratios of N-Biotinyl Cap-PE admixed in DOPC. Signal saturation is reached faster with a 10 mol% of N-Biotinyl Cap-PE content in DOPC. (b) The influence of streptavidin concentration on the signal. Lowering the streptavidin concentration, the saturation level decreases. 2.5nMol streptavidin binding to N-Biotinyl Cap-PE functionalized surface was clearly detectable.

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