Abstract

A new type of an all-solid photonic bandgap fiber for a non-phase-matched tunable band-rejection filter was proposed and fabricated by introducing a hexagonal array of high-index rods surrounded by graded-index pedestals in silica cladding. Due to the graded index and subsequent weak confinement of light, the proposed fiber showed two contrasting transmission spectra: flat transmission for a long fiber segment of ~1 m in contrast to typical bandgap transmission in a short fiber segment of ~10 cm. For the 120-cm-long fiber, we observed unique band-rejection transmission without any requirement of phase-matching conditions, whose rejection strength was tunable by mechanical perturbations such as bending and twisting. Detailed device principles, fiber design, fabrication, and transmission characteristics are discussed in both theory and experiment.

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References

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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2010 (2)

2009 (1)

W. Shin, Y. L. Lee, B.-A. Yu, Y.-C. Noh, and K. Oh, “Spectral characterization of helicoidal long-period fiber gratings in photoniccrystal fibers,” Opt. Commun. 282(17), 3456–3459 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

G. Ren, P. Shum, L. Zhang, X. Yu, W. Tong, and J. Luo, “Low-loss all-solid photonic bandgap fiber,” Opt. Lett. 32(9), 1023–1025 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Bartelt, J. Kirchhof, J. Kobelke, K. Schuster, A. Schwuchow, K. Mörl, U. Röpke, J. Leppert, H. Lehmann, S. Smolka, M. Barth, O. Benson, S. Taccheo, and C. D’Andrea, “Preparation and application of functionalized photonic crystal fibres,” Phys. Status Solidi A 204(11), 3805–3821 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

2005 (2)

2004 (3)

2003 (2)

C. M. Smith, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, D. Müller, J. A. West, N. F. Borrelli, D. C. Allan, and K. W. Koch, “Low-loss hollow-core silica/air photonic bandgap fibre,” Nature 424(6949), 657–659 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. M. Litchinitser, S. C. Dunn, B. Usner, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, R. C. McPhedran, and C. M. de Sterke, “Resonances in microstructured optical waveguides,” Opt. Express 11(10), 1243–1251 (2003), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-11-10-1243 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

2001 (1)

Abeeluck, A. K.

Allan, D. C.

C. M. Smith, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, D. Müller, J. A. West, N. F. Borrelli, D. C. Allan, and K. W. Koch, “Low-loss hollow-core silica/air photonic bandgap fibre,” Nature 424(6949), 657–659 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Argyros, A A.

Argyros, A.

Bartelt, H.

H. Bartelt, J. Kirchhof, J. Kobelke, K. Schuster, A. Schwuchow, K. Mörl, U. Röpke, J. Leppert, H. Lehmann, S. Smolka, M. Barth, O. Benson, S. Taccheo, and C. D’Andrea, “Preparation and application of functionalized photonic crystal fibres,” Phys. Status Solidi A 204(11), 3805–3821 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Barth, M.

H. Bartelt, J. Kirchhof, J. Kobelke, K. Schuster, A. Schwuchow, K. Mörl, U. Röpke, J. Leppert, H. Lehmann, S. Smolka, M. Barth, O. Benson, S. Taccheo, and C. D’Andrea, “Preparation and application of functionalized photonic crystal fibres,” Phys. Status Solidi A 204(11), 3805–3821 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Benson, O.

H. Bartelt, J. Kirchhof, J. Kobelke, K. Schuster, A. Schwuchow, K. Mörl, U. Röpke, J. Leppert, H. Lehmann, S. Smolka, M. Barth, O. Benson, S. Taccheo, and C. D’Andrea, “Preparation and application of functionalized photonic crystal fibres,” Phys. Status Solidi A 204(11), 3805–3821 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bird, D. M.

Birks, T. A.

Borrelli, N. F.

C. M. Smith, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, D. Müller, J. A. West, N. F. Borrelli, D. C. Allan, and K. W. Koch, “Low-loss hollow-core silica/air photonic bandgap fibre,” Nature 424(6949), 657–659 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Churikov, V. M.

Cordeiro, C. M. B.

D’Andrea, C.

H. Bartelt, J. Kirchhof, J. Kobelke, K. Schuster, A. Schwuchow, K. Mörl, U. Röpke, J. Leppert, H. Lehmann, S. Smolka, M. Barth, O. Benson, S. Taccheo, and C. D’Andrea, “Preparation and application of functionalized photonic crystal fibres,” Phys. Status Solidi A 204(11), 3805–3821 (2007).
[CrossRef]

de Sterke, C. M.

Dunn, S. C.

Eggleton, B. J.

Gallagher, M. T.

C. M. Smith, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, D. Müller, J. A. West, N. F. Borrelli, D. C. Allan, and K. W. Koch, “Low-loss hollow-core silica/air photonic bandgap fibre,” Nature 424(6949), 657–659 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Genack, A. Z.

George, A. K.

Headley, C.

Hedley, T. D.

Joannopoulos, J. D.

Johnson, S. G.

Kirchhof, J.

H. Bartelt, J. Kirchhof, J. Kobelke, K. Schuster, A. Schwuchow, K. Mörl, U. Röpke, J. Leppert, H. Lehmann, S. Smolka, M. Barth, O. Benson, S. Taccheo, and C. D’Andrea, “Preparation and application of functionalized photonic crystal fibres,” Phys. Status Solidi A 204(11), 3805–3821 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Knight, J. C.

Kobelke, J.

H. Bartelt, J. Kirchhof, J. Kobelke, K. Schuster, A. Schwuchow, K. Mörl, U. Röpke, J. Leppert, H. Lehmann, S. Smolka, M. Barth, O. Benson, S. Taccheo, and C. D’Andrea, “Preparation and application of functionalized photonic crystal fibres,” Phys. Status Solidi A 204(11), 3805–3821 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Koch, K. W.

C. M. Smith, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, D. Müller, J. A. West, N. F. Borrelli, D. C. Allan, and K. W. Koch, “Low-loss hollow-core silica/air photonic bandgap fibre,” Nature 424(6949), 657–659 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kopp, V. I.

Kuhlmey, B. T.

Lægsgaard, J.

J. Lægsgaard, “Gap formation and guided modes in photonic bandgap fibres with high-index rods,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 6(8), 798–804 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y. L.

W. Shin, Y. L. Lee, B.-A. Yu, Y.-C. Noh, and K. Oh, “Spectral characterization of helicoidal long-period fiber gratings in photoniccrystal fibers,” Opt. Commun. 282(17), 3456–3459 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lehmann, H.

H. Bartelt, J. Kirchhof, J. Kobelke, K. Schuster, A. Schwuchow, K. Mörl, U. Röpke, J. Leppert, H. Lehmann, S. Smolka, M. Barth, O. Benson, S. Taccheo, and C. D’Andrea, “Preparation and application of functionalized photonic crystal fibres,” Phys. Status Solidi A 204(11), 3805–3821 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Leon-Saval, S. G.

Leppert, J.

H. Bartelt, J. Kirchhof, J. Kobelke, K. Schuster, A. Schwuchow, K. Mörl, U. Röpke, J. Leppert, H. Lehmann, S. Smolka, M. Barth, O. Benson, S. Taccheo, and C. D’Andrea, “Preparation and application of functionalized photonic crystal fibres,” Phys. Status Solidi A 204(11), 3805–3821 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liao, C.

Litchinitser, N. M.

Luan, F.

Luo, J.

G. Ren, P. Shum, L. Zhang, X. Yu, W. Tong, and J. Luo, “Low-loss all-solid photonic bandgap fiber,” Opt. Lett. 32(9), 1023–1025 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Ren, P. Shum, L. Zhang, M. Yan, X. Yu, W. Tong, and J. Luo, “Design of all-solid bandgap fiber with improved confinement and bend losses,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(24), 2560–2562 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Martijnde Sterke, C.

McPhedran, R. C.

Mörl, K.

H. Bartelt, J. Kirchhof, J. Kobelke, K. Schuster, A. Schwuchow, K. Mörl, U. Röpke, J. Leppert, H. Lehmann, S. Smolka, M. Barth, O. Benson, S. Taccheo, and C. D’Andrea, “Preparation and application of functionalized photonic crystal fibres,” Phys. Status Solidi A 204(11), 3805–3821 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Müller, D.

C. M. Smith, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, D. Müller, J. A. West, N. F. Borrelli, D. C. Allan, and K. W. Koch, “Low-loss hollow-core silica/air photonic bandgap fibre,” Nature 424(6949), 657–659 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Noh, Y.-C.

W. Shin, Y. L. Lee, B.-A. Yu, Y.-C. Noh, and K. Oh, “Spectral characterization of helicoidal long-period fiber gratings in photoniccrystal fibers,” Opt. Commun. 282(17), 3456–3459 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Oh, K.

W. Shin, Y. L. Lee, B.-A. Yu, Y.-C. Noh, and K. Oh, “Spectral characterization of helicoidal long-period fiber gratings in photoniccrystal fibers,” Opt. Commun. 282(17), 3456–3459 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pearce, G. J.

Ren, G.

G. Ren, P. Shum, L. Zhang, X. Yu, W. Tong, and J. Luo, “Low-loss all-solid photonic bandgap fiber,” Opt. Lett. 32(9), 1023–1025 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Ren, P. Shum, L. Zhang, M. Yan, X. Yu, W. Tong, and J. Luo, “Design of all-solid bandgap fiber with improved confinement and bend losses,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(24), 2560–2562 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Röpke, U.

H. Bartelt, J. Kirchhof, J. Kobelke, K. Schuster, A. Schwuchow, K. Mörl, U. Röpke, J. Leppert, H. Lehmann, S. Smolka, M. Barth, O. Benson, S. Taccheo, and C. D’Andrea, “Preparation and application of functionalized photonic crystal fibres,” Phys. Status Solidi A 204(11), 3805–3821 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Russell, P. St. J.

Schuster, K.

H. Bartelt, J. Kirchhof, J. Kobelke, K. Schuster, A. Schwuchow, K. Mörl, U. Röpke, J. Leppert, H. Lehmann, S. Smolka, M. Barth, O. Benson, S. Taccheo, and C. D’Andrea, “Preparation and application of functionalized photonic crystal fibres,” Phys. Status Solidi A 204(11), 3805–3821 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schwuchow, A.

H. Bartelt, J. Kirchhof, J. Kobelke, K. Schuster, A. Schwuchow, K. Mörl, U. Röpke, J. Leppert, H. Lehmann, S. Smolka, M. Barth, O. Benson, S. Taccheo, and C. D’Andrea, “Preparation and application of functionalized photonic crystal fibres,” Phys. Status Solidi A 204(11), 3805–3821 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shin, W.

W. Shin, Y. L. Lee, B.-A. Yu, Y.-C. Noh, and K. Oh, “Spectral characterization of helicoidal long-period fiber gratings in photoniccrystal fibers,” Opt. Commun. 282(17), 3456–3459 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Shum, P.

G. Ren, P. Shum, L. Zhang, X. Yu, W. Tong, and J. Luo, “Low-loss all-solid photonic bandgap fiber,” Opt. Lett. 32(9), 1023–1025 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Ren, P. Shum, L. Zhang, M. Yan, X. Yu, W. Tong, and J. Luo, “Design of all-solid bandgap fiber with improved confinement and bend losses,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(24), 2560–2562 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Smith, C. M.

C. M. Smith, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, D. Müller, J. A. West, N. F. Borrelli, D. C. Allan, and K. W. Koch, “Low-loss hollow-core silica/air photonic bandgap fibre,” Nature 424(6949), 657–659 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smolka, S.

H. Bartelt, J. Kirchhof, J. Kobelke, K. Schuster, A. Schwuchow, K. Mörl, U. Röpke, J. Leppert, H. Lehmann, S. Smolka, M. Barth, O. Benson, S. Taccheo, and C. D’Andrea, “Preparation and application of functionalized photonic crystal fibres,” Phys. Status Solidi A 204(11), 3805–3821 (2007).
[CrossRef]

St. J. Russell, P.

Steel, M. J.

Steinvurzel, P.

Taccheo, S.

H. Bartelt, J. Kirchhof, J. Kobelke, K. Schuster, A. Schwuchow, K. Mörl, U. Röpke, J. Leppert, H. Lehmann, S. Smolka, M. Barth, O. Benson, S. Taccheo, and C. D’Andrea, “Preparation and application of functionalized photonic crystal fibres,” Phys. Status Solidi A 204(11), 3805–3821 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tong, W.

G. Ren, P. Shum, L. Zhang, X. Yu, W. Tong, and J. Luo, “Low-loss all-solid photonic bandgap fiber,” Opt. Lett. 32(9), 1023–1025 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Ren, P. Shum, L. Zhang, M. Yan, X. Yu, W. Tong, and J. Luo, “Design of all-solid bandgap fiber with improved confinement and bend losses,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(24), 2560–2562 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Usner, B.

Venkataraman, N.

C. M. Smith, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, D. Müller, J. A. West, N. F. Borrelli, D. C. Allan, and K. W. Koch, “Low-loss hollow-core silica/air photonic bandgap fibre,” Nature 424(6949), 657–659 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, A.

Wang, D. N.

Wang, Y.

West, J. A.

C. M. Smith, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, D. Müller, J. A. West, N. F. Borrelli, D. C. Allan, and K. W. Koch, “Low-loss hollow-core silica/air photonic bandgap fibre,” Nature 424(6949), 657–659 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

White, T. P.

Yan, M.

G. Ren, P. Shum, L. Zhang, M. Yan, X. Yu, W. Tong, and J. Luo, “Design of all-solid bandgap fiber with improved confinement and bend losses,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(24), 2560–2562 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yang, M.

Yu, B.-A.

W. Shin, Y. L. Lee, B.-A. Yu, Y.-C. Noh, and K. Oh, “Spectral characterization of helicoidal long-period fiber gratings in photoniccrystal fibers,” Opt. Commun. 282(17), 3456–3459 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yu, X.

G. Ren, P. Shum, L. Zhang, X. Yu, W. Tong, and J. Luo, “Low-loss all-solid photonic bandgap fiber,” Opt. Lett. 32(9), 1023–1025 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Ren, P. Shum, L. Zhang, M. Yan, X. Yu, W. Tong, and J. Luo, “Design of all-solid bandgap fiber with improved confinement and bend losses,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(24), 2560–2562 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, L.

G. Ren, P. Shum, L. Zhang, X. Yu, W. Tong, and J. Luo, “Low-loss all-solid photonic bandgap fiber,” Opt. Lett. 32(9), 1023–1025 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Ren, P. Shum, L. Zhang, M. Yan, X. Yu, W. Tong, and J. Luo, “Design of all-solid bandgap fiber with improved confinement and bend losses,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(24), 2560–2562 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

G. Ren, P. Shum, L. Zhang, M. Yan, X. Yu, W. Tong, and J. Luo, “Design of all-solid bandgap fiber with improved confinement and bend losses,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(24), 2560–2562 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. (1)

J. Lægsgaard, “Gap formation and guided modes in photonic bandgap fibres with high-index rods,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 6(8), 798–804 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

C. M. Smith, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, D. Müller, J. A. West, N. F. Borrelli, D. C. Allan, and K. W. Koch, “Low-loss hollow-core silica/air photonic bandgap fibre,” Nature 424(6949), 657–659 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (1)

W. Shin, Y. L. Lee, B.-A. Yu, Y.-C. Noh, and K. Oh, “Spectral characterization of helicoidal long-period fiber gratings in photoniccrystal fibers,” Opt. Commun. 282(17), 3456–3459 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (7)

M. Yang, D. N. Wang, Y. Wang, and C. Liao, “Long period fiber grating formed by periodically structured microholes in all-solid photonic bandgap fiber,” Opt. Express 18(3), 2183–2189 (2010), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-3-2183 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. M. Litchinitser, S. C. Dunn, B. Usner, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, R. C. McPhedran, and C. M. de Sterke, “Resonances in microstructured optical waveguides,” Opt. Express 11(10), 1243–1251 (2003), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-11-10-1243 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. G. Johnson and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Block-iterative frequency-domain methods for Maxwell’s equations in a planewave basis,” Opt. Express 8(3), 173–190 (2001), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-8-3-173 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Steinvurzel, B. T. Kuhlmey, T. P. White, M. J. Steel, C. M. de Sterke, and B. J. Eggleton, “Long wavelength anti-resonant guidance in high index inclusion microstructured fibers,” Opt. Express 12(22), 5424–5433 (2004), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-22-5424 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. A. Birks, F. Luan, G. J. Pearce, A. Wang, J. C. Knight, and D. M. Bird, “Bend loss in all-solid bandgap fibres,” Opt. Express 14(12), 5688–5698 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-12-5688 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A A. Argyros, T. A. Birks, S. G. Leon-Saval, C. M. B. Cordeiro, and P. St. J. Russell, “Guidance properties of low-contrast photonic bandgap fibres,” Opt. Express 13(7), 2503 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-7-2503 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Argyros, T. A. Birks, S. G. Leon-Saval, C. M. B. Cordeiro, F. Luan, and P. St. J. Russell, “Photonic bandgap with an index step of one percent,” Opt. Express 13(1), 309–314 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-1-309 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (5)

Phys. Status Solidi A (1)

H. Bartelt, J. Kirchhof, J. Kobelke, K. Schuster, A. Schwuchow, K. Mörl, U. Röpke, J. Leppert, H. Lehmann, S. Smolka, M. Barth, O. Benson, S. Taccheo, and C. D’Andrea, “Preparation and application of functionalized photonic crystal fibres,” Phys. Status Solidi A 204(11), 3805–3821 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Refractive-index profile of the highly confining defects with the DITs and (b) its schematic transmission spectra. (c) Refractive-index profile of the weakly confining defects with the GIPs and (d) its schematic transmission spectra. In (b) and (d), the solid lines are for the straight fibers and the dotted lines are for the deformed fibers.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Profile of the 1-mm-diameter preform for the weakly confining high-index rods surrounded by the GIPs. (b) Cross-sectional micrograph of the fabricated AS-PBGF.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Bandgap map calculated by the plane-wave expansion method. (b) Normalized transmission spectra of the AS-PBGF for 10 cm (solid black) and 120 cm (dotted red) in length.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Measurement setup for spectral responses by (a) bending and (b) twisting. Normalized transmission spectra of the 120-cm-long AS-PBGF with the GIPs under (c) bending and (d) twisting. The insets in (c) and (d) show spectral variations in the bandgap #3 along the bend radius and the number of turns, respectively.

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