Abstract

In the present work a photonic integrated circuit (PIC) that emits broadband chaotic signals is employed for ultra-fast generation of true random bit sequences. Chaotic dynamics emerge from a DFB laser, accompanied by a monolithic integrated 1-cm long external cavity (EC) that provides controllable optical feedback. The short length minimizes the existence of external cavity modes, so flattened broadband spectra with minimized intrinsic periodicities can emerge. After sampling and quantization - without including optical de-correlation techniques and using most significant bits (MSB) elimination post-processing - truly random bit streams with bit-rates as high as 140 Gb/s can be generated. Finally, the extreme robustness of the random bit generator for adaptive bit-rate operation and for various operating conditions of the PIC is demonstrated.

© 2010 OSA

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2010 (5)

2009 (2)

I. Reidler, Y. Aviad, M. Rosenbluh, and I. Kanter, “Ultrahigh-speed random number generation based on a chaotic semiconductor laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(2), 024102 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-L. Danger, S. Guilley, and P. Hoogvorst, “High speed true random number generator based on open loop structures in FPGAs,” Microelectron. J. 40(11), 1650–1656 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (4)

J. F. Dynes, Z. L. Yuan, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, “A high speed, post-processing free, quantum random number generator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(3), 031109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Tokunaga, D. Blaauw, and T. Mudge, “True random number generator with a metastability-based quality control,” IEEE J. Solid-state Circuits 43(1), 78–85 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Argyris, M. Hamacher, K. E. Chlouverakis, A. Bogris, and D. Syvridis, “Photonic integrated device for chaos applications in communications,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(19), 194101 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Uchida, K. Amano, M. Inoue, K. Hirano, S. Naito, H. Someya, I. Oowada, T. Kurashige, M. Shiki, S. Yoshimori, K. Yoshimura, and P. Davis, “Fast physical random bit generation with chaotic semiconductor lasers,” Nat. Photonics 2(12), 728–732 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

M. Bucci, L. Germani, R. Luzzi, A. Trifiletti, and M. Varanonuovo, “A high-speed oscillator-based truly random number source for cryptographic applications on a Smart Card IC,” IEEE Trans. Comput. 52(4), 403–409 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

J. T. Gleeson, “Truly random number generator based on turbulent electroconvection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(11), 1949 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

W. T. Holman, J. A. Connelly, and A. B. Dowlatabadi, “An integrated analog/digital random noise source,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst., I: Fundam. Theory Appl. 44(6), 521–528 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

J. Mork, B. Tromborg, and J. Mark, “Chaos in semiconductor lasers with optical feedback: theory and experiment,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28(1), 93–108 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

R. Lang and K. Kobayashi, “External optical feedback effects on semiconductor injection laser properties,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 16(3), 347–355 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Aida, H.

Amano, K.

A. Uchida, K. Amano, M. Inoue, K. Hirano, S. Naito, H. Someya, I. Oowada, T. Kurashige, M. Shiki, S. Yoshimori, K. Yoshimura, and P. Davis, “Fast physical random bit generation with chaotic semiconductor lasers,” Nat. Photonics 2(12), 728–732 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Argyris, A.

A. Argyris, E. Grivas, M. Hamacher, A. Bogris, and D. Syvridis, “Chaos-on-a-chip secures data transmission in optical fiber links,” Opt. Express 18(5), 5188–5198 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Argyris, M. Hamacher, K. E. Chlouverakis, A. Bogris, and D. Syvridis, “Photonic integrated device for chaos applications in communications,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(19), 194101 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aviad, Y.

I. Kanter, Y. Aviad, I. Reidler, E. Cohen, and M. Rosenbluh, “An optical ultrafast random bit generator,” Nat. Photonics 4(1), 58–61 (2010).
[CrossRef]

I. Reidler, Y. Aviad, M. Rosenbluh, and I. Kanter, “Ultrahigh-speed random number generation based on a chaotic semiconductor laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(2), 024102 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Blaauw, D.

C. Tokunaga, D. Blaauw, and T. Mudge, “True random number generator with a metastability-based quality control,” IEEE J. Solid-state Circuits 43(1), 78–85 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bogris, A.

A. Argyris, E. Grivas, M. Hamacher, A. Bogris, and D. Syvridis, “Chaos-on-a-chip secures data transmission in optical fiber links,” Opt. Express 18(5), 5188–5198 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Argyris, M. Hamacher, K. E. Chlouverakis, A. Bogris, and D. Syvridis, “Photonic integrated device for chaos applications in communications,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(19), 194101 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bucci, M.

M. Bucci, L. Germani, R. Luzzi, A. Trifiletti, and M. Varanonuovo, “A high-speed oscillator-based truly random number source for cryptographic applications on a Smart Card IC,” IEEE Trans. Comput. 52(4), 403–409 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chi, Y.-M.

Chlouverakis, K. E.

A. Argyris, M. Hamacher, K. E. Chlouverakis, A. Bogris, and D. Syvridis, “Photonic integrated device for chaos applications in communications,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(19), 194101 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cohen, E.

I. Kanter, Y. Aviad, I. Reidler, E. Cohen, and M. Rosenbluh, “An optical ultrafast random bit generator,” Nat. Photonics 4(1), 58–61 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Connelly, J. A.

W. T. Holman, J. A. Connelly, and A. B. Dowlatabadi, “An integrated analog/digital random noise source,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst., I: Fundam. Theory Appl. 44(6), 521–528 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Danger, J.-L.

J.-L. Danger, S. Guilley, and P. Hoogvorst, “High speed true random number generator based on open loop structures in FPGAs,” Microelectron. J. 40(11), 1650–1656 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Davis, P.

K. Hirano, T. Yamazaki, S. Morikatsu, H. Okumura, H. Aida, A. Uchida, S. Yoshimori, K. Yoshimura, T. Harayama, and P. Davis, “Fast random bit generation with bandwidth-enhanced chaos in semiconductor lasers,” Opt. Express 18(6), 5512–5524 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Uchida, K. Amano, M. Inoue, K. Hirano, S. Naito, H. Someya, I. Oowada, T. Kurashige, M. Shiki, S. Yoshimori, K. Yoshimura, and P. Davis, “Fast physical random bit generation with chaotic semiconductor lasers,” Nat. Photonics 2(12), 728–732 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dowlatabadi, A. B.

W. T. Holman, J. A. Connelly, and A. B. Dowlatabadi, “An integrated analog/digital random noise source,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst., I: Fundam. Theory Appl. 44(6), 521–528 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Dynes, J. F.

J. F. Dynes, Z. L. Yuan, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, “A high speed, post-processing free, quantum random number generator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(3), 031109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Germani, L.

M. Bucci, L. Germani, R. Luzzi, A. Trifiletti, and M. Varanonuovo, “A high-speed oscillator-based truly random number source for cryptographic applications on a Smart Card IC,” IEEE Trans. Comput. 52(4), 403–409 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gleeson, J. T.

J. T. Gleeson, “Truly random number generator based on turbulent electroconvection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(11), 1949 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Grivas, E.

Guilley, S.

J.-L. Danger, S. Guilley, and P. Hoogvorst, “High speed true random number generator based on open loop structures in FPGAs,” Microelectron. J. 40(11), 1650–1656 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hamacher, M.

A. Argyris, E. Grivas, M. Hamacher, A. Bogris, and D. Syvridis, “Chaos-on-a-chip secures data transmission in optical fiber links,” Opt. Express 18(5), 5188–5198 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Argyris, M. Hamacher, K. E. Chlouverakis, A. Bogris, and D. Syvridis, “Photonic integrated device for chaos applications in communications,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(19), 194101 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Harayama, T.

Hirano, K.

K. Hirano, T. Yamazaki, S. Morikatsu, H. Okumura, H. Aida, A. Uchida, S. Yoshimori, K. Yoshimura, T. Harayama, and P. Davis, “Fast random bit generation with bandwidth-enhanced chaos in semiconductor lasers,” Opt. Express 18(6), 5512–5524 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Uchida, K. Amano, M. Inoue, K. Hirano, S. Naito, H. Someya, I. Oowada, T. Kurashige, M. Shiki, S. Yoshimori, K. Yoshimura, and P. Davis, “Fast physical random bit generation with chaotic semiconductor lasers,” Nat. Photonics 2(12), 728–732 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Holman, W. T.

W. T. Holman, J. A. Connelly, and A. B. Dowlatabadi, “An integrated analog/digital random noise source,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst., I: Fundam. Theory Appl. 44(6), 521–528 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hoogvorst, P.

J.-L. Danger, S. Guilley, and P. Hoogvorst, “High speed true random number generator based on open loop structures in FPGAs,” Microelectron. J. 40(11), 1650–1656 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Inoue, M.

A. Uchida, K. Amano, M. Inoue, K. Hirano, S. Naito, H. Someya, I. Oowada, T. Kurashige, M. Shiki, S. Yoshimori, K. Yoshimura, and P. Davis, “Fast physical random bit generation with chaotic semiconductor lasers,” Nat. Photonics 2(12), 728–732 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kanter, I.

I. Kanter, Y. Aviad, I. Reidler, E. Cohen, and M. Rosenbluh, “An optical ultrafast random bit generator,” Nat. Photonics 4(1), 58–61 (2010).
[CrossRef]

I. Reidler, Y. Aviad, M. Rosenbluh, and I. Kanter, “Ultrahigh-speed random number generation based on a chaotic semiconductor laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(2), 024102 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kobayashi, K.

R. Lang and K. Kobayashi, “External optical feedback effects on semiconductor injection laser properties,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 16(3), 347–355 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Kurashige, T.

A. Uchida, K. Amano, M. Inoue, K. Hirano, S. Naito, H. Someya, I. Oowada, T. Kurashige, M. Shiki, S. Yoshimori, K. Yoshimura, and P. Davis, “Fast physical random bit generation with chaotic semiconductor lasers,” Nat. Photonics 2(12), 728–732 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kwiat, P. G.

Lang, R.

R. Lang and K. Kobayashi, “External optical feedback effects on semiconductor injection laser properties,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 16(3), 347–355 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Lo, H.-K.

Luzzi, R.

M. Bucci, L. Germani, R. Luzzi, A. Trifiletti, and M. Varanonuovo, “A high-speed oscillator-based truly random number source for cryptographic applications on a Smart Card IC,” IEEE Trans. Comput. 52(4), 403–409 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mark, J.

J. Mork, B. Tromborg, and J. Mark, “Chaos in semiconductor lasers with optical feedback: theory and experiment,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28(1), 93–108 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Morikatsu, S.

Mork, J.

J. Mork, B. Tromborg, and J. Mark, “Chaos in semiconductor lasers with optical feedback: theory and experiment,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28(1), 93–108 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Mudge, T.

C. Tokunaga, D. Blaauw, and T. Mudge, “True random number generator with a metastability-based quality control,” IEEE J. Solid-state Circuits 43(1), 78–85 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Naito, S.

A. Uchida, K. Amano, M. Inoue, K. Hirano, S. Naito, H. Someya, I. Oowada, T. Kurashige, M. Shiki, S. Yoshimori, K. Yoshimura, and P. Davis, “Fast physical random bit generation with chaotic semiconductor lasers,” Nat. Photonics 2(12), 728–732 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Okumura, H.

Oowada, I.

A. Uchida, K. Amano, M. Inoue, K. Hirano, S. Naito, H. Someya, I. Oowada, T. Kurashige, M. Shiki, S. Yoshimori, K. Yoshimura, and P. Davis, “Fast physical random bit generation with chaotic semiconductor lasers,” Nat. Photonics 2(12), 728–732 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Qi, B.

Qian, L.

Reidler, I.

I. Kanter, Y. Aviad, I. Reidler, E. Cohen, and M. Rosenbluh, “An optical ultrafast random bit generator,” Nat. Photonics 4(1), 58–61 (2010).
[CrossRef]

I. Reidler, Y. Aviad, M. Rosenbluh, and I. Kanter, “Ultrahigh-speed random number generation based on a chaotic semiconductor laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(2), 024102 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rosenbluh, M.

I. Kanter, Y. Aviad, I. Reidler, E. Cohen, and M. Rosenbluh, “An optical ultrafast random bit generator,” Nat. Photonics 4(1), 58–61 (2010).
[CrossRef]

I. Reidler, Y. Aviad, M. Rosenbluh, and I. Kanter, “Ultrahigh-speed random number generation based on a chaotic semiconductor laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(2), 024102 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sharpe, A. W.

J. F. Dynes, Z. L. Yuan, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, “A high speed, post-processing free, quantum random number generator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(3), 031109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shields, A. J.

J. F. Dynes, Z. L. Yuan, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, “A high speed, post-processing free, quantum random number generator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(3), 031109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shiki, M.

A. Uchida, K. Amano, M. Inoue, K. Hirano, S. Naito, H. Someya, I. Oowada, T. Kurashige, M. Shiki, S. Yoshimori, K. Yoshimura, and P. Davis, “Fast physical random bit generation with chaotic semiconductor lasers,” Nat. Photonics 2(12), 728–732 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Someya, H.

A. Uchida, K. Amano, M. Inoue, K. Hirano, S. Naito, H. Someya, I. Oowada, T. Kurashige, M. Shiki, S. Yoshimori, K. Yoshimura, and P. Davis, “Fast physical random bit generation with chaotic semiconductor lasers,” Nat. Photonics 2(12), 728–732 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Syvridis, D.

A. Argyris, E. Grivas, M. Hamacher, A. Bogris, and D. Syvridis, “Chaos-on-a-chip secures data transmission in optical fiber links,” Opt. Express 18(5), 5188–5198 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Argyris, M. Hamacher, K. E. Chlouverakis, A. Bogris, and D. Syvridis, “Photonic integrated device for chaos applications in communications,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(19), 194101 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tokunaga, C.

C. Tokunaga, D. Blaauw, and T. Mudge, “True random number generator with a metastability-based quality control,” IEEE J. Solid-state Circuits 43(1), 78–85 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Trifiletti, A.

M. Bucci, L. Germani, R. Luzzi, A. Trifiletti, and M. Varanonuovo, “A high-speed oscillator-based truly random number source for cryptographic applications on a Smart Card IC,” IEEE Trans. Comput. 52(4), 403–409 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tromborg, B.

J. Mork, B. Tromborg, and J. Mark, “Chaos in semiconductor lasers with optical feedback: theory and experiment,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28(1), 93–108 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Uchida, A.

K. Hirano, T. Yamazaki, S. Morikatsu, H. Okumura, H. Aida, A. Uchida, S. Yoshimori, K. Yoshimura, T. Harayama, and P. Davis, “Fast random bit generation with bandwidth-enhanced chaos in semiconductor lasers,” Opt. Express 18(6), 5512–5524 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Uchida, K. Amano, M. Inoue, K. Hirano, S. Naito, H. Someya, I. Oowada, T. Kurashige, M. Shiki, S. Yoshimori, K. Yoshimura, and P. Davis, “Fast physical random bit generation with chaotic semiconductor lasers,” Nat. Photonics 2(12), 728–732 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Varanonuovo, M.

M. Bucci, L. Germani, R. Luzzi, A. Trifiletti, and M. Varanonuovo, “A high-speed oscillator-based truly random number source for cryptographic applications on a Smart Card IC,” IEEE Trans. Comput. 52(4), 403–409 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wayne, M. A.

Yamazaki, T.

Yoshimori, S.

K. Hirano, T. Yamazaki, S. Morikatsu, H. Okumura, H. Aida, A. Uchida, S. Yoshimori, K. Yoshimura, T. Harayama, and P. Davis, “Fast random bit generation with bandwidth-enhanced chaos in semiconductor lasers,” Opt. Express 18(6), 5512–5524 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Uchida, K. Amano, M. Inoue, K. Hirano, S. Naito, H. Someya, I. Oowada, T. Kurashige, M. Shiki, S. Yoshimori, K. Yoshimura, and P. Davis, “Fast physical random bit generation with chaotic semiconductor lasers,” Nat. Photonics 2(12), 728–732 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yoshimura, K.

K. Hirano, T. Yamazaki, S. Morikatsu, H. Okumura, H. Aida, A. Uchida, S. Yoshimori, K. Yoshimura, T. Harayama, and P. Davis, “Fast random bit generation with bandwidth-enhanced chaos in semiconductor lasers,” Opt. Express 18(6), 5512–5524 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Uchida, K. Amano, M. Inoue, K. Hirano, S. Naito, H. Someya, I. Oowada, T. Kurashige, M. Shiki, S. Yoshimori, K. Yoshimura, and P. Davis, “Fast physical random bit generation with chaotic semiconductor lasers,” Nat. Photonics 2(12), 728–732 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yuan, Z. L.

J. F. Dynes, Z. L. Yuan, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, “A high speed, post-processing free, quantum random number generator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(3), 031109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

J. T. Gleeson, “Truly random number generator based on turbulent electroconvection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(11), 1949 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Dynes, Z. L. Yuan, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, “A high speed, post-processing free, quantum random number generator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(3), 031109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

R. Lang and K. Kobayashi, “External optical feedback effects on semiconductor injection laser properties,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 16(3), 347–355 (1980).
[CrossRef]

J. Mork, B. Tromborg, and J. Mark, “Chaos in semiconductor lasers with optical feedback: theory and experiment,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28(1), 93–108 (1992).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Solid-state Circuits (1)

C. Tokunaga, D. Blaauw, and T. Mudge, “True random number generator with a metastability-based quality control,” IEEE J. Solid-state Circuits 43(1), 78–85 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst., I: Fundam. Theory Appl. (1)

W. T. Holman, J. A. Connelly, and A. B. Dowlatabadi, “An integrated analog/digital random noise source,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst., I: Fundam. Theory Appl. 44(6), 521–528 (1997).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Comput. (1)

M. Bucci, L. Germani, R. Luzzi, A. Trifiletti, and M. Varanonuovo, “A high-speed oscillator-based truly random number source for cryptographic applications on a Smart Card IC,” IEEE Trans. Comput. 52(4), 403–409 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Microelectron. J. (1)

J.-L. Danger, S. Guilley, and P. Hoogvorst, “High speed true random number generator based on open loop structures in FPGAs,” Microelectron. J. 40(11), 1650–1656 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (2)

I. Kanter, Y. Aviad, I. Reidler, E. Cohen, and M. Rosenbluh, “An optical ultrafast random bit generator,” Nat. Photonics 4(1), 58–61 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Uchida, K. Amano, M. Inoue, K. Hirano, S. Naito, H. Someya, I. Oowada, T. Kurashige, M. Shiki, S. Yoshimori, K. Yoshimura, and P. Davis, “Fast physical random bit generation with chaotic semiconductor lasers,” Nat. Photonics 2(12), 728–732 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

A. Argyris, M. Hamacher, K. E. Chlouverakis, A. Bogris, and D. Syvridis, “Photonic integrated device for chaos applications in communications,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(19), 194101 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Reidler, Y. Aviad, M. Rosenbluh, and I. Kanter, “Ultrahigh-speed random number generation based on a chaotic semiconductor laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(2), 024102 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (5)

J. Ohtsubo, Semiconductor Lasers: Stability, Instability and Chaos (Springer-Verlag, 2006).

A. Rukhin, J. Soto, J. Nechvatal, M. Smid, E. Barker, S. Leigh, M. Levenson, M. Vangel, D. Banks, A. Heckert, J. Dray and S. Vo, “A Statistical Test Suite for Random and Pseudorandom Number Generators for Cryptographic Applications,” NIST Special Publication 800–22 Revision 1a (2010).

K. Petermann, Laser diode modulation and noise, (Kluwer Academic Publ., 1991).

N. Ferguson, and B. Schneier, Practical Cryptography (John Wiley & Sons, 2003).

http://csrc.nist.gov/publications/fips/fips140-2/fips1402.pdf (2001).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic of the photonic integrated circuit (PIC). (b) A true random bit generator (TRBG) based on the emitted chaotic signal from the PIC.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Timetrace of the chaotic analog signal. The sampling rate is set to 40GSa/s (black dots) while only 10GSa/s (red circles) are considered for the output of the TRNG. Only k LSBs out of the 16-bit digitized representation of each sample is included in the final output sequence.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Spectral distribution of the electrical output of the chaotic PIC after photodetection, for various DFB laser biasing currents (30mA, 40mA and 50mA) and two different cases of internal optical feedback strength: (a) 1.6% and (b) 3.3%.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Mapping of the TRBG performance in terms of bit-rate and number of NIST randomness tests passed. The characterization has been performed vs. the biasing laser current and the number of LSBs of each sample included in the output sequence, for (a) Pf = 1.6% and (b) Pf = 3.3%. Black color grade regions designate operating conditions where all NIST randomness tests are successful.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Probability distributions of sampled multi-bit data, when including (a) all 16 output bits, (b) 15 LSBs, (c) 14 LSBs and (d) 13 LSBs, for the operating conditions of Table 1.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Results of NIST SP800-22(rev.1a) statistical test suite for the case of DFB laser current 48mA, Pf = 1.6% and k = 14 (10GS/s). The final TRBG rate is 140Gb/s.

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