Abstract

A pixel partition scheme assisted with patterned or center-hollowed microlens-array films (MAFs) was proposed to improve the optical characteristics and electrical properties of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). In our optical simulation results, a pixel of 1 × 1 mm2 with a center-hollowed MAF has a 42% luminance enhancement; however, after dividing the large pixel into ten by ten smaller pixels of 100 × 100 μm2, the partitioned units with a corresponding center-hollowed MAF can have a 104% luminance enhancement under the same total active area and the same optical power of organic emitters. Furthermore, a significant 127% luminance enhancement by the introduction of a high-refractive-index substrate can be obtained.

© 2010 OSA

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. F. So, J. Kido, and P. Burrows, “Organic light-emitting devices for solid-state lighting,” MRS Bull. 33, 663–669 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M.-K. Wei and I.-L. Su, “Method to evaluate the enhancement of luminance efficiency in planar OLED light emitting devices for microlens array,” Opt. Express 12(23), 5777–5782 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. H. Peng, Y. Ho, X. Yu, M. Wong, and H. Kwok, “Coupling efficiency enhancement in organic light-emitting devices using microlens array-theory and experiment,” J. Disp. Technol. 1(2), 278–282 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  4. B. C. Krummacher, M. K. Mathai, V. Choong, S. A. Choulis, F. So, and A. Winnacker, “General method to evaluate substrate surface modification techniques for light extraction enhancement of organic light- emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(5), 054702 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  5. H. Greiner, “Light extraction from organic light emitting diode substrates: simulation and experiment,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(7A7A), 4125–4137 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  6. Y.-H. Ho, K.-Y. Chen, H.-Y. Lin, J.-H. Lee, and M.-K. Wei, “120% Luminance enhancement of OLED by patterned microlens array,” in SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 39, pp. 2022–2024 (SID, Los Angeles, Calif., 2008).
  7. H.-Y. Lin, Y.-H. Ho, J.-H. Lee, K.-Y. Chen, J.-H. Fang, S.-C. Hsu, M.-K. Wei, H.-Y. Lin, J.-H. Tsai, and T.-C. Wu, “Patterned microlens array for efficiency improvement of small-pixelated organic light-emitting devices,” Opt. Express 16(15), 11044–11051 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. M.-K. Wei, J.-H. Lee, H.-Y. Lin, Y.-H. Ho, K.-Y. Chen, C.-C. Lin, C.-F. Wu, H.-Y. Lin, J.-H. Tsai, and T.-C. Wu, “Efficiency improvement and spectral shift of an organic light-emitting device by attaching a hexagon-based microlens array,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 10(5), 055302 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M.-K. Wei, H. Y. Lin, J.-H. Lee, K.-Y. Chen, Y.-H. Ho, C.-C. Lin, C.-F. Wu, J.-H. Tsai, and T.-C. Wu, “Efficiency improvement and spectral shift of an organic light-emitting device with a square-based microlens array,” Opt. Commun. 281(22), 5625–5632 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  10. S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent tube efficiency,” Nature 459(7244), 234–238 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. K.-Y. Chen, Y.-T. Chang, Y.-H. Ho, H.-Y. Lin, J.-H. Lee, and M.-K. Wei, “Emitter apodization dependent angular luminance enhancement of microlens-array film attached organic light-emitting devices,” Opt. Express 18(4), 3238–3243 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. T. Tsutsui, M. Yahiro, H. Yokogawa, K. Kawano, and M. Yokoyama, “Doubling coupling-out efficiency in organic light-emitting devices using a thin silica Aerogel layer,” Adv. Mater. 13(15), 1149–1152 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  13. Y. J. Lee, S. H. Kim, J. Huh, G. H. Kim, Y. H. Lee, S. H. Cho, Y. C. Kim, and Y. R. Do, “A high-extraction-efficiency nanopatterned organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(21), 3779–3781 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  14. Y. Sun and S. Forrest, “Enhanced light out-coupling of organic light-emitting devices using embedded low-index grids,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 483–487 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  15. T. Nakamura, N. Tsutsumi, N. Juni, and H. Fujii, “Thin-film waveguiding mode light extraction in organic electroluminescent device using high refractive index substrate,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(5), 054505 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  16. S. Mladenovski, K. Neyts, D. Pavicic, A. Werner, and C. Rothe, “Exceptionally efficient organic light emitting devices using high refractive index substrates,” Opt. Express 17(9), 7562–7570 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. P. Melpignano, V. Biondo, S. Sinesi, M. Gale, S. Westenhofer, M. Murgia, S. Caria, and R. Zamboni, “Efficient light extraction and beam shaping from flexible, optically integrated organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(15), 153514 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  18. C. Piliego, M. Mazzeo, M. Salerno, R. Cingolani, G. Gigli, and A. Moro, “Analysis and control of the active area scaling effect on white organic light emitting diodes towards lighting applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(10), 103514 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  19. C. Gärditz, A. Winnacker, F. Schindler, and R. Paetzold, “Impact of joule heating on the brightness homogeneity of organic light emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(10), 103506 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  20. A. Duggal, D. Foust, W. Nealon, and C. Heller, “Fault-tolerant, scalable organic light-emitting device architecture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(16), 2580–2582 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  21. A. Dodabalapur, L. J. Rothberg, R. H. Jordan, T. M. Miller, R. E. Slusher, and J. M. Phillips, “Physics and applications of organic microcavity light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 80(12), 6954–6964 (1996).
    [CrossRef]

2010 (1)

2009 (2)

S. Mladenovski, K. Neyts, D. Pavicic, A. Werner, and C. Rothe, “Exceptionally efficient organic light emitting devices using high refractive index substrates,” Opt. Express 17(9), 7562–7570 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent tube efficiency,” Nature 459(7244), 234–238 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (5)

H.-Y. Lin, Y.-H. Ho, J.-H. Lee, K.-Y. Chen, J.-H. Fang, S.-C. Hsu, M.-K. Wei, H.-Y. Lin, J.-H. Tsai, and T.-C. Wu, “Patterned microlens array for efficiency improvement of small-pixelated organic light-emitting devices,” Opt. Express 16(15), 11044–11051 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M.-K. Wei, J.-H. Lee, H.-Y. Lin, Y.-H. Ho, K.-Y. Chen, C.-C. Lin, C.-F. Wu, H.-Y. Lin, J.-H. Tsai, and T.-C. Wu, “Efficiency improvement and spectral shift of an organic light-emitting device by attaching a hexagon-based microlens array,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 10(5), 055302 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M.-K. Wei, H. Y. Lin, J.-H. Lee, K.-Y. Chen, Y.-H. Ho, C.-C. Lin, C.-F. Wu, J.-H. Tsai, and T.-C. Wu, “Efficiency improvement and spectral shift of an organic light-emitting device with a square-based microlens array,” Opt. Commun. 281(22), 5625–5632 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. So, J. Kido, and P. Burrows, “Organic light-emitting devices for solid-state lighting,” MRS Bull. 33, 663–669 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sun and S. Forrest, “Enhanced light out-coupling of organic light-emitting devices using embedded low-index grids,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 483–487 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

C. Gärditz, A. Winnacker, F. Schindler, and R. Paetzold, “Impact of joule heating on the brightness homogeneity of organic light emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(10), 103506 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Greiner, “Light extraction from organic light emitting diode substrates: simulation and experiment,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(7A7A), 4125–4137 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

B. C. Krummacher, M. K. Mathai, V. Choong, S. A. Choulis, F. So, and A. Winnacker, “General method to evaluate substrate surface modification techniques for light extraction enhancement of organic light- emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(5), 054702 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Melpignano, V. Biondo, S. Sinesi, M. Gale, S. Westenhofer, M. Murgia, S. Caria, and R. Zamboni, “Efficient light extraction and beam shaping from flexible, optically integrated organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(15), 153514 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Piliego, M. Mazzeo, M. Salerno, R. Cingolani, G. Gigli, and A. Moro, “Analysis and control of the active area scaling effect on white organic light emitting diodes towards lighting applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(10), 103514 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

T. Nakamura, N. Tsutsumi, N. Juni, and H. Fujii, “Thin-film waveguiding mode light extraction in organic electroluminescent device using high refractive index substrate,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(5), 054505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Peng, Y. Ho, X. Yu, M. Wong, and H. Kwok, “Coupling efficiency enhancement in organic light-emitting devices using microlens array-theory and experiment,” J. Disp. Technol. 1(2), 278–282 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

2003 (2)

A. Duggal, D. Foust, W. Nealon, and C. Heller, “Fault-tolerant, scalable organic light-emitting device architecture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(16), 2580–2582 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Lee, S. H. Kim, J. Huh, G. H. Kim, Y. H. Lee, S. H. Cho, Y. C. Kim, and Y. R. Do, “A high-extraction-efficiency nanopatterned organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(21), 3779–3781 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

T. Tsutsui, M. Yahiro, H. Yokogawa, K. Kawano, and M. Yokoyama, “Doubling coupling-out efficiency in organic light-emitting devices using a thin silica Aerogel layer,” Adv. Mater. 13(15), 1149–1152 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

A. Dodabalapur, L. J. Rothberg, R. H. Jordan, T. M. Miller, R. E. Slusher, and J. M. Phillips, “Physics and applications of organic microcavity light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 80(12), 6954–6964 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Biondo, V.

P. Melpignano, V. Biondo, S. Sinesi, M. Gale, S. Westenhofer, M. Murgia, S. Caria, and R. Zamboni, “Efficient light extraction and beam shaping from flexible, optically integrated organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(15), 153514 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Burrows, P.

F. So, J. Kido, and P. Burrows, “Organic light-emitting devices for solid-state lighting,” MRS Bull. 33, 663–669 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Caria, S.

P. Melpignano, V. Biondo, S. Sinesi, M. Gale, S. Westenhofer, M. Murgia, S. Caria, and R. Zamboni, “Efficient light extraction and beam shaping from flexible, optically integrated organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(15), 153514 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chang, Y.-T.

Chen, K.-Y.

K.-Y. Chen, Y.-T. Chang, Y.-H. Ho, H.-Y. Lin, J.-H. Lee, and M.-K. Wei, “Emitter apodization dependent angular luminance enhancement of microlens-array film attached organic light-emitting devices,” Opt. Express 18(4), 3238–3243 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M.-K. Wei, H. Y. Lin, J.-H. Lee, K.-Y. Chen, Y.-H. Ho, C.-C. Lin, C.-F. Wu, J.-H. Tsai, and T.-C. Wu, “Efficiency improvement and spectral shift of an organic light-emitting device with a square-based microlens array,” Opt. Commun. 281(22), 5625–5632 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H.-Y. Lin, Y.-H. Ho, J.-H. Lee, K.-Y. Chen, J.-H. Fang, S.-C. Hsu, M.-K. Wei, H.-Y. Lin, J.-H. Tsai, and T.-C. Wu, “Patterned microlens array for efficiency improvement of small-pixelated organic light-emitting devices,” Opt. Express 16(15), 11044–11051 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M.-K. Wei, J.-H. Lee, H.-Y. Lin, Y.-H. Ho, K.-Y. Chen, C.-C. Lin, C.-F. Wu, H.-Y. Lin, J.-H. Tsai, and T.-C. Wu, “Efficiency improvement and spectral shift of an organic light-emitting device by attaching a hexagon-based microlens array,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 10(5), 055302 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cho, S. H.

Y. J. Lee, S. H. Kim, J. Huh, G. H. Kim, Y. H. Lee, S. H. Cho, Y. C. Kim, and Y. R. Do, “A high-extraction-efficiency nanopatterned organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(21), 3779–3781 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Choong, V.

B. C. Krummacher, M. K. Mathai, V. Choong, S. A. Choulis, F. So, and A. Winnacker, “General method to evaluate substrate surface modification techniques for light extraction enhancement of organic light- emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(5), 054702 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Choulis, S. A.

B. C. Krummacher, M. K. Mathai, V. Choong, S. A. Choulis, F. So, and A. Winnacker, “General method to evaluate substrate surface modification techniques for light extraction enhancement of organic light- emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(5), 054702 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cingolani, R.

C. Piliego, M. Mazzeo, M. Salerno, R. Cingolani, G. Gigli, and A. Moro, “Analysis and control of the active area scaling effect on white organic light emitting diodes towards lighting applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(10), 103514 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Do, Y. R.

Y. J. Lee, S. H. Kim, J. Huh, G. H. Kim, Y. H. Lee, S. H. Cho, Y. C. Kim, and Y. R. Do, “A high-extraction-efficiency nanopatterned organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(21), 3779–3781 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dodabalapur, A.

A. Dodabalapur, L. J. Rothberg, R. H. Jordan, T. M. Miller, R. E. Slusher, and J. M. Phillips, “Physics and applications of organic microcavity light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 80(12), 6954–6964 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Duggal, A.

A. Duggal, D. Foust, W. Nealon, and C. Heller, “Fault-tolerant, scalable organic light-emitting device architecture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(16), 2580–2582 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fang, J.-H.

Forrest, S.

Y. Sun and S. Forrest, “Enhanced light out-coupling of organic light-emitting devices using embedded low-index grids,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 483–487 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Foust, D.

A. Duggal, D. Foust, W. Nealon, and C. Heller, “Fault-tolerant, scalable organic light-emitting device architecture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(16), 2580–2582 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fujii, H.

T. Nakamura, N. Tsutsumi, N. Juni, and H. Fujii, “Thin-film waveguiding mode light extraction in organic electroluminescent device using high refractive index substrate,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(5), 054505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gale, M.

P. Melpignano, V. Biondo, S. Sinesi, M. Gale, S. Westenhofer, M. Murgia, S. Caria, and R. Zamboni, “Efficient light extraction and beam shaping from flexible, optically integrated organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(15), 153514 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gärditz, C.

C. Gärditz, A. Winnacker, F. Schindler, and R. Paetzold, “Impact of joule heating on the brightness homogeneity of organic light emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(10), 103506 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gigli, G.

C. Piliego, M. Mazzeo, M. Salerno, R. Cingolani, G. Gigli, and A. Moro, “Analysis and control of the active area scaling effect on white organic light emitting diodes towards lighting applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(10), 103514 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Greiner, H.

H. Greiner, “Light extraction from organic light emitting diode substrates: simulation and experiment,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(7A7A), 4125–4137 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Heller, C.

A. Duggal, D. Foust, W. Nealon, and C. Heller, “Fault-tolerant, scalable organic light-emitting device architecture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(16), 2580–2582 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ho, Y.

H. Peng, Y. Ho, X. Yu, M. Wong, and H. Kwok, “Coupling efficiency enhancement in organic light-emitting devices using microlens array-theory and experiment,” J. Disp. Technol. 1(2), 278–282 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ho, Y.-H.

K.-Y. Chen, Y.-T. Chang, Y.-H. Ho, H.-Y. Lin, J.-H. Lee, and M.-K. Wei, “Emitter apodization dependent angular luminance enhancement of microlens-array film attached organic light-emitting devices,” Opt. Express 18(4), 3238–3243 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M.-K. Wei, H. Y. Lin, J.-H. Lee, K.-Y. Chen, Y.-H. Ho, C.-C. Lin, C.-F. Wu, J.-H. Tsai, and T.-C. Wu, “Efficiency improvement and spectral shift of an organic light-emitting device with a square-based microlens array,” Opt. Commun. 281(22), 5625–5632 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H.-Y. Lin, Y.-H. Ho, J.-H. Lee, K.-Y. Chen, J.-H. Fang, S.-C. Hsu, M.-K. Wei, H.-Y. Lin, J.-H. Tsai, and T.-C. Wu, “Patterned microlens array for efficiency improvement of small-pixelated organic light-emitting devices,” Opt. Express 16(15), 11044–11051 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M.-K. Wei, J.-H. Lee, H.-Y. Lin, Y.-H. Ho, K.-Y. Chen, C.-C. Lin, C.-F. Wu, H.-Y. Lin, J.-H. Tsai, and T.-C. Wu, “Efficiency improvement and spectral shift of an organic light-emitting device by attaching a hexagon-based microlens array,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 10(5), 055302 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, S.-C.

Huh, J.

Y. J. Lee, S. H. Kim, J. Huh, G. H. Kim, Y. H. Lee, S. H. Cho, Y. C. Kim, and Y. R. Do, “A high-extraction-efficiency nanopatterned organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(21), 3779–3781 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jordan, R. H.

A. Dodabalapur, L. J. Rothberg, R. H. Jordan, T. M. Miller, R. E. Slusher, and J. M. Phillips, “Physics and applications of organic microcavity light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 80(12), 6954–6964 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Juni, N.

T. Nakamura, N. Tsutsumi, N. Juni, and H. Fujii, “Thin-film waveguiding mode light extraction in organic electroluminescent device using high refractive index substrate,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(5), 054505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kawano, K.

T. Tsutsui, M. Yahiro, H. Yokogawa, K. Kawano, and M. Yokoyama, “Doubling coupling-out efficiency in organic light-emitting devices using a thin silica Aerogel layer,” Adv. Mater. 13(15), 1149–1152 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kido, J.

F. So, J. Kido, and P. Burrows, “Organic light-emitting devices for solid-state lighting,” MRS Bull. 33, 663–669 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, G. H.

Y. J. Lee, S. H. Kim, J. Huh, G. H. Kim, Y. H. Lee, S. H. Cho, Y. C. Kim, and Y. R. Do, “A high-extraction-efficiency nanopatterned organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(21), 3779–3781 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S. H.

Y. J. Lee, S. H. Kim, J. Huh, G. H. Kim, Y. H. Lee, S. H. Cho, Y. C. Kim, and Y. R. Do, “A high-extraction-efficiency nanopatterned organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(21), 3779–3781 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kim, Y. C.

Y. J. Lee, S. H. Kim, J. Huh, G. H. Kim, Y. H. Lee, S. H. Cho, Y. C. Kim, and Y. R. Do, “A high-extraction-efficiency nanopatterned organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(21), 3779–3781 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Krummacher, B. C.

B. C. Krummacher, M. K. Mathai, V. Choong, S. A. Choulis, F. So, and A. Winnacker, “General method to evaluate substrate surface modification techniques for light extraction enhancement of organic light- emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(5), 054702 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kwok, H.

H. Peng, Y. Ho, X. Yu, M. Wong, and H. Kwok, “Coupling efficiency enhancement in organic light-emitting devices using microlens array-theory and experiment,” J. Disp. Technol. 1(2), 278–282 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J.-H.

K.-Y. Chen, Y.-T. Chang, Y.-H. Ho, H.-Y. Lin, J.-H. Lee, and M.-K. Wei, “Emitter apodization dependent angular luminance enhancement of microlens-array film attached organic light-emitting devices,” Opt. Express 18(4), 3238–3243 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M.-K. Wei, H. Y. Lin, J.-H. Lee, K.-Y. Chen, Y.-H. Ho, C.-C. Lin, C.-F. Wu, J.-H. Tsai, and T.-C. Wu, “Efficiency improvement and spectral shift of an organic light-emitting device with a square-based microlens array,” Opt. Commun. 281(22), 5625–5632 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H.-Y. Lin, Y.-H. Ho, J.-H. Lee, K.-Y. Chen, J.-H. Fang, S.-C. Hsu, M.-K. Wei, H.-Y. Lin, J.-H. Tsai, and T.-C. Wu, “Patterned microlens array for efficiency improvement of small-pixelated organic light-emitting devices,” Opt. Express 16(15), 11044–11051 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M.-K. Wei, J.-H. Lee, H.-Y. Lin, Y.-H. Ho, K.-Y. Chen, C.-C. Lin, C.-F. Wu, H.-Y. Lin, J.-H. Tsai, and T.-C. Wu, “Efficiency improvement and spectral shift of an organic light-emitting device by attaching a hexagon-based microlens array,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 10(5), 055302 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y. H.

Y. J. Lee, S. H. Kim, J. Huh, G. H. Kim, Y. H. Lee, S. H. Cho, Y. C. Kim, and Y. R. Do, “A high-extraction-efficiency nanopatterned organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(21), 3779–3781 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y. J.

Y. J. Lee, S. H. Kim, J. Huh, G. H. Kim, Y. H. Lee, S. H. Cho, Y. C. Kim, and Y. R. Do, “A high-extraction-efficiency nanopatterned organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(21), 3779–3781 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Leo, K.

S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent tube efficiency,” Nature 459(7244), 234–238 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, C.-C.

M.-K. Wei, H. Y. Lin, J.-H. Lee, K.-Y. Chen, Y.-H. Ho, C.-C. Lin, C.-F. Wu, J.-H. Tsai, and T.-C. Wu, “Efficiency improvement and spectral shift of an organic light-emitting device with a square-based microlens array,” Opt. Commun. 281(22), 5625–5632 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M.-K. Wei, J.-H. Lee, H.-Y. Lin, Y.-H. Ho, K.-Y. Chen, C.-C. Lin, C.-F. Wu, H.-Y. Lin, J.-H. Tsai, and T.-C. Wu, “Efficiency improvement and spectral shift of an organic light-emitting device by attaching a hexagon-based microlens array,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 10(5), 055302 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lin, H. Y.

M.-K. Wei, H. Y. Lin, J.-H. Lee, K.-Y. Chen, Y.-H. Ho, C.-C. Lin, C.-F. Wu, J.-H. Tsai, and T.-C. Wu, “Efficiency improvement and spectral shift of an organic light-emitting device with a square-based microlens array,” Opt. Commun. 281(22), 5625–5632 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lin, H.-Y.

K.-Y. Chen, Y.-T. Chang, Y.-H. Ho, H.-Y. Lin, J.-H. Lee, and M.-K. Wei, “Emitter apodization dependent angular luminance enhancement of microlens-array film attached organic light-emitting devices,” Opt. Express 18(4), 3238–3243 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M.-K. Wei, J.-H. Lee, H.-Y. Lin, Y.-H. Ho, K.-Y. Chen, C.-C. Lin, C.-F. Wu, H.-Y. Lin, J.-H. Tsai, and T.-C. Wu, “Efficiency improvement and spectral shift of an organic light-emitting device by attaching a hexagon-based microlens array,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 10(5), 055302 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M.-K. Wei, J.-H. Lee, H.-Y. Lin, Y.-H. Ho, K.-Y. Chen, C.-C. Lin, C.-F. Wu, H.-Y. Lin, J.-H. Tsai, and T.-C. Wu, “Efficiency improvement and spectral shift of an organic light-emitting device by attaching a hexagon-based microlens array,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 10(5), 055302 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H.-Y. Lin, Y.-H. Ho, J.-H. Lee, K.-Y. Chen, J.-H. Fang, S.-C. Hsu, M.-K. Wei, H.-Y. Lin, J.-H. Tsai, and T.-C. Wu, “Patterned microlens array for efficiency improvement of small-pixelated organic light-emitting devices,” Opt. Express 16(15), 11044–11051 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H.-Y. Lin, Y.-H. Ho, J.-H. Lee, K.-Y. Chen, J.-H. Fang, S.-C. Hsu, M.-K. Wei, H.-Y. Lin, J.-H. Tsai, and T.-C. Wu, “Patterned microlens array for efficiency improvement of small-pixelated organic light-emitting devices,” Opt. Express 16(15), 11044–11051 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lindner, F.

S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent tube efficiency,” Nature 459(7244), 234–238 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lüssem, B.

S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent tube efficiency,” Nature 459(7244), 234–238 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mathai, M. K.

B. C. Krummacher, M. K. Mathai, V. Choong, S. A. Choulis, F. So, and A. Winnacker, “General method to evaluate substrate surface modification techniques for light extraction enhancement of organic light- emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(5), 054702 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mazzeo, M.

C. Piliego, M. Mazzeo, M. Salerno, R. Cingolani, G. Gigli, and A. Moro, “Analysis and control of the active area scaling effect on white organic light emitting diodes towards lighting applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(10), 103514 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Melpignano, P.

P. Melpignano, V. Biondo, S. Sinesi, M. Gale, S. Westenhofer, M. Murgia, S. Caria, and R. Zamboni, “Efficient light extraction and beam shaping from flexible, optically integrated organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(15), 153514 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Miller, T. M.

A. Dodabalapur, L. J. Rothberg, R. H. Jordan, T. M. Miller, R. E. Slusher, and J. M. Phillips, “Physics and applications of organic microcavity light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 80(12), 6954–6964 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Mladenovski, S.

Moro, A.

C. Piliego, M. Mazzeo, M. Salerno, R. Cingolani, G. Gigli, and A. Moro, “Analysis and control of the active area scaling effect on white organic light emitting diodes towards lighting applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(10), 103514 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Murgia, M.

P. Melpignano, V. Biondo, S. Sinesi, M. Gale, S. Westenhofer, M. Murgia, S. Caria, and R. Zamboni, “Efficient light extraction and beam shaping from flexible, optically integrated organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(15), 153514 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, T.

T. Nakamura, N. Tsutsumi, N. Juni, and H. Fujii, “Thin-film waveguiding mode light extraction in organic electroluminescent device using high refractive index substrate,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(5), 054505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nealon, W.

A. Duggal, D. Foust, W. Nealon, and C. Heller, “Fault-tolerant, scalable organic light-emitting device architecture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(16), 2580–2582 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Neyts, K.

Paetzold, R.

C. Gärditz, A. Winnacker, F. Schindler, and R. Paetzold, “Impact of joule heating on the brightness homogeneity of organic light emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(10), 103506 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pavicic, D.

Peng, H.

H. Peng, Y. Ho, X. Yu, M. Wong, and H. Kwok, “Coupling efficiency enhancement in organic light-emitting devices using microlens array-theory and experiment,” J. Disp. Technol. 1(2), 278–282 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Phillips, J. M.

A. Dodabalapur, L. J. Rothberg, R. H. Jordan, T. M. Miller, R. E. Slusher, and J. M. Phillips, “Physics and applications of organic microcavity light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 80(12), 6954–6964 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Piliego, C.

C. Piliego, M. Mazzeo, M. Salerno, R. Cingolani, G. Gigli, and A. Moro, “Analysis and control of the active area scaling effect on white organic light emitting diodes towards lighting applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(10), 103514 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Reineke, S.

S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent tube efficiency,” Nature 459(7244), 234–238 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rothberg, L. J.

A. Dodabalapur, L. J. Rothberg, R. H. Jordan, T. M. Miller, R. E. Slusher, and J. M. Phillips, “Physics and applications of organic microcavity light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 80(12), 6954–6964 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Rothe, C.

Salerno, M.

C. Piliego, M. Mazzeo, M. Salerno, R. Cingolani, G. Gigli, and A. Moro, “Analysis and control of the active area scaling effect on white organic light emitting diodes towards lighting applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(10), 103514 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schindler, F.

C. Gärditz, A. Winnacker, F. Schindler, and R. Paetzold, “Impact of joule heating on the brightness homogeneity of organic light emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(10), 103506 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schwartz, G.

S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent tube efficiency,” Nature 459(7244), 234–238 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Seidler, N.

S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent tube efficiency,” Nature 459(7244), 234–238 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sinesi, S.

P. Melpignano, V. Biondo, S. Sinesi, M. Gale, S. Westenhofer, M. Murgia, S. Caria, and R. Zamboni, “Efficient light extraction and beam shaping from flexible, optically integrated organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(15), 153514 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Slusher, R. E.

A. Dodabalapur, L. J. Rothberg, R. H. Jordan, T. M. Miller, R. E. Slusher, and J. M. Phillips, “Physics and applications of organic microcavity light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 80(12), 6954–6964 (1996).
[CrossRef]

So, F.

F. So, J. Kido, and P. Burrows, “Organic light-emitting devices for solid-state lighting,” MRS Bull. 33, 663–669 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. C. Krummacher, M. K. Mathai, V. Choong, S. A. Choulis, F. So, and A. Winnacker, “General method to evaluate substrate surface modification techniques for light extraction enhancement of organic light- emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(5), 054702 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Su, I.-L.

Sun, Y.

Y. Sun and S. Forrest, “Enhanced light out-coupling of organic light-emitting devices using embedded low-index grids,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 483–487 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, J.-H.

H.-Y. Lin, Y.-H. Ho, J.-H. Lee, K.-Y. Chen, J.-H. Fang, S.-C. Hsu, M.-K. Wei, H.-Y. Lin, J.-H. Tsai, and T.-C. Wu, “Patterned microlens array for efficiency improvement of small-pixelated organic light-emitting devices,” Opt. Express 16(15), 11044–11051 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M.-K. Wei, H. Y. Lin, J.-H. Lee, K.-Y. Chen, Y.-H. Ho, C.-C. Lin, C.-F. Wu, J.-H. Tsai, and T.-C. Wu, “Efficiency improvement and spectral shift of an organic light-emitting device with a square-based microlens array,” Opt. Commun. 281(22), 5625–5632 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M.-K. Wei, J.-H. Lee, H.-Y. Lin, Y.-H. Ho, K.-Y. Chen, C.-C. Lin, C.-F. Wu, H.-Y. Lin, J.-H. Tsai, and T.-C. Wu, “Efficiency improvement and spectral shift of an organic light-emitting device by attaching a hexagon-based microlens array,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 10(5), 055302 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tsutsui, T.

T. Tsutsui, M. Yahiro, H. Yokogawa, K. Kawano, and M. Yokoyama, “Doubling coupling-out efficiency in organic light-emitting devices using a thin silica Aerogel layer,” Adv. Mater. 13(15), 1149–1152 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Tsutsumi, N.

T. Nakamura, N. Tsutsumi, N. Juni, and H. Fujii, “Thin-film waveguiding mode light extraction in organic electroluminescent device using high refractive index substrate,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(5), 054505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Walzer, K.

S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent tube efficiency,” Nature 459(7244), 234–238 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wei, M.-K.

K.-Y. Chen, Y.-T. Chang, Y.-H. Ho, H.-Y. Lin, J.-H. Lee, and M.-K. Wei, “Emitter apodization dependent angular luminance enhancement of microlens-array film attached organic light-emitting devices,” Opt. Express 18(4), 3238–3243 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M.-K. Wei, H. Y. Lin, J.-H. Lee, K.-Y. Chen, Y.-H. Ho, C.-C. Lin, C.-F. Wu, J.-H. Tsai, and T.-C. Wu, “Efficiency improvement and spectral shift of an organic light-emitting device with a square-based microlens array,” Opt. Commun. 281(22), 5625–5632 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M.-K. Wei, J.-H. Lee, H.-Y. Lin, Y.-H. Ho, K.-Y. Chen, C.-C. Lin, C.-F. Wu, H.-Y. Lin, J.-H. Tsai, and T.-C. Wu, “Efficiency improvement and spectral shift of an organic light-emitting device by attaching a hexagon-based microlens array,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 10(5), 055302 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H.-Y. Lin, Y.-H. Ho, J.-H. Lee, K.-Y. Chen, J.-H. Fang, S.-C. Hsu, M.-K. Wei, H.-Y. Lin, J.-H. Tsai, and T.-C. Wu, “Patterned microlens array for efficiency improvement of small-pixelated organic light-emitting devices,” Opt. Express 16(15), 11044–11051 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M.-K. Wei and I.-L. Su, “Method to evaluate the enhancement of luminance efficiency in planar OLED light emitting devices for microlens array,” Opt. Express 12(23), 5777–5782 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Werner, A.

Westenhofer, S.

P. Melpignano, V. Biondo, S. Sinesi, M. Gale, S. Westenhofer, M. Murgia, S. Caria, and R. Zamboni, “Efficient light extraction and beam shaping from flexible, optically integrated organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(15), 153514 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Winnacker, A.

C. Gärditz, A. Winnacker, F. Schindler, and R. Paetzold, “Impact of joule heating on the brightness homogeneity of organic light emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(10), 103506 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. C. Krummacher, M. K. Mathai, V. Choong, S. A. Choulis, F. So, and A. Winnacker, “General method to evaluate substrate surface modification techniques for light extraction enhancement of organic light- emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(5), 054702 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wong, M.

H. Peng, Y. Ho, X. Yu, M. Wong, and H. Kwok, “Coupling efficiency enhancement in organic light-emitting devices using microlens array-theory and experiment,” J. Disp. Technol. 1(2), 278–282 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wu, C.-F.

M.-K. Wei, J.-H. Lee, H.-Y. Lin, Y.-H. Ho, K.-Y. Chen, C.-C. Lin, C.-F. Wu, H.-Y. Lin, J.-H. Tsai, and T.-C. Wu, “Efficiency improvement and spectral shift of an organic light-emitting device by attaching a hexagon-based microlens array,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 10(5), 055302 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M.-K. Wei, H. Y. Lin, J.-H. Lee, K.-Y. Chen, Y.-H. Ho, C.-C. Lin, C.-F. Wu, J.-H. Tsai, and T.-C. Wu, “Efficiency improvement and spectral shift of an organic light-emitting device with a square-based microlens array,” Opt. Commun. 281(22), 5625–5632 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wu, T.-C.

M.-K. Wei, J.-H. Lee, H.-Y. Lin, Y.-H. Ho, K.-Y. Chen, C.-C. Lin, C.-F. Wu, H.-Y. Lin, J.-H. Tsai, and T.-C. Wu, “Efficiency improvement and spectral shift of an organic light-emitting device by attaching a hexagon-based microlens array,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 10(5), 055302 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M.-K. Wei, H. Y. Lin, J.-H. Lee, K.-Y. Chen, Y.-H. Ho, C.-C. Lin, C.-F. Wu, J.-H. Tsai, and T.-C. Wu, “Efficiency improvement and spectral shift of an organic light-emitting device with a square-based microlens array,” Opt. Commun. 281(22), 5625–5632 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H.-Y. Lin, Y.-H. Ho, J.-H. Lee, K.-Y. Chen, J.-H. Fang, S.-C. Hsu, M.-K. Wei, H.-Y. Lin, J.-H. Tsai, and T.-C. Wu, “Patterned microlens array for efficiency improvement of small-pixelated organic light-emitting devices,” Opt. Express 16(15), 11044–11051 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yahiro, M.

T. Tsutsui, M. Yahiro, H. Yokogawa, K. Kawano, and M. Yokoyama, “Doubling coupling-out efficiency in organic light-emitting devices using a thin silica Aerogel layer,” Adv. Mater. 13(15), 1149–1152 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yokogawa, H.

T. Tsutsui, M. Yahiro, H. Yokogawa, K. Kawano, and M. Yokoyama, “Doubling coupling-out efficiency in organic light-emitting devices using a thin silica Aerogel layer,” Adv. Mater. 13(15), 1149–1152 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yokoyama, M.

T. Tsutsui, M. Yahiro, H. Yokogawa, K. Kawano, and M. Yokoyama, “Doubling coupling-out efficiency in organic light-emitting devices using a thin silica Aerogel layer,” Adv. Mater. 13(15), 1149–1152 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yu, X.

H. Peng, Y. Ho, X. Yu, M. Wong, and H. Kwok, “Coupling efficiency enhancement in organic light-emitting devices using microlens array-theory and experiment,” J. Disp. Technol. 1(2), 278–282 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zamboni, R.

P. Melpignano, V. Biondo, S. Sinesi, M. Gale, S. Westenhofer, M. Murgia, S. Caria, and R. Zamboni, “Efficient light extraction and beam shaping from flexible, optically integrated organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(15), 153514 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (1)

T. Tsutsui, M. Yahiro, H. Yokogawa, K. Kawano, and M. Yokoyama, “Doubling coupling-out efficiency in organic light-emitting devices using a thin silica Aerogel layer,” Adv. Mater. 13(15), 1149–1152 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

Y. J. Lee, S. H. Kim, J. Huh, G. H. Kim, Y. H. Lee, S. H. Cho, Y. C. Kim, and Y. R. Do, “A high-extraction-efficiency nanopatterned organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(21), 3779–3781 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Melpignano, V. Biondo, S. Sinesi, M. Gale, S. Westenhofer, M. Murgia, S. Caria, and R. Zamboni, “Efficient light extraction and beam shaping from flexible, optically integrated organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(15), 153514 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Piliego, M. Mazzeo, M. Salerno, R. Cingolani, G. Gigli, and A. Moro, “Analysis and control of the active area scaling effect on white organic light emitting diodes towards lighting applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(10), 103514 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Gärditz, A. Winnacker, F. Schindler, and R. Paetzold, “Impact of joule heating on the brightness homogeneity of organic light emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(10), 103506 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Duggal, D. Foust, W. Nealon, and C. Heller, “Fault-tolerant, scalable organic light-emitting device architecture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(16), 2580–2582 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (3)

A. Dodabalapur, L. J. Rothberg, R. H. Jordan, T. M. Miller, R. E. Slusher, and J. M. Phillips, “Physics and applications of organic microcavity light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 80(12), 6954–6964 (1996).
[CrossRef]

B. C. Krummacher, M. K. Mathai, V. Choong, S. A. Choulis, F. So, and A. Winnacker, “General method to evaluate substrate surface modification techniques for light extraction enhancement of organic light- emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(5), 054702 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Nakamura, N. Tsutsumi, N. Juni, and H. Fujii, “Thin-film waveguiding mode light extraction in organic electroluminescent device using high refractive index substrate,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(5), 054505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Disp. Technol. (1)

H. Peng, Y. Ho, X. Yu, M. Wong, and H. Kwok, “Coupling efficiency enhancement in organic light-emitting devices using microlens array-theory and experiment,” J. Disp. Technol. 1(2), 278–282 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. (1)

M.-K. Wei, J.-H. Lee, H.-Y. Lin, Y.-H. Ho, K.-Y. Chen, C.-C. Lin, C.-F. Wu, H.-Y. Lin, J.-H. Tsai, and T.-C. Wu, “Efficiency improvement and spectral shift of an organic light-emitting device by attaching a hexagon-based microlens array,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 10(5), 055302 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

H. Greiner, “Light extraction from organic light emitting diode substrates: simulation and experiment,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(7A7A), 4125–4137 (2007).
[CrossRef]

MRS Bull. (1)

F. So, J. Kido, and P. Burrows, “Organic light-emitting devices for solid-state lighting,” MRS Bull. 33, 663–669 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (1)

Y. Sun and S. Forrest, “Enhanced light out-coupling of organic light-emitting devices using embedded low-index grids,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 483–487 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent tube efficiency,” Nature 459(7244), 234–238 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (1)

M.-K. Wei, H. Y. Lin, J.-H. Lee, K.-Y. Chen, Y.-H. Ho, C.-C. Lin, C.-F. Wu, J.-H. Tsai, and T.-C. Wu, “Efficiency improvement and spectral shift of an organic light-emitting device with a square-based microlens array,” Opt. Commun. 281(22), 5625–5632 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (4)

Other (1)

Y.-H. Ho, K.-Y. Chen, H.-Y. Lin, J.-H. Lee, and M.-K. Wei, “120% Luminance enhancement of OLED by patterned microlens array,” in SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 39, pp. 2022–2024 (SID, Los Angeles, Calif., 2008).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Relative luminance at normal direction by applying center-hollowed MAFs vs. regular MAFs with varying pixel sizes.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Partitioned pixel units with center-hollowed MAFs have spacing of one row of microlenses (red circles). The white squares without microlenses represent emissive units of (a) 500 × 500 μm2, (b) 250 × 250 μm2, (c) 200 × 200 μm2, and (d) 100 × 100 μm2.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Angular relative luminous intensity of un-partitioned 1000 × 1000 μm2 pixel.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Angular relative luminous intensity of partitioned pixel units are equal to (a) 500 × 500 μm2, (b) 250 × 250 μm2, (c) 200 × 200 μm2, and (d) 100 × 100 μm2, respectively.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Relative luminance at normal direction of the units attached with center-hollowed MAFs or regular MAFs vs. the area of a single unit with varying the spacing of rows of microlenses; the refractive indices of the substrates are (a) 1.52 and (b) 1.72.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Relative luminous power of units attached with center-hollowed MAFs or regular MAFs vs. the area of a single unit with varying the spacing of rows of microlenses; the refractive indices of the substrates are (a) 1.52 and (b) 1.72.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Simulated relative luminance at normal direction and relative luminous power of the partitioned pixel units with the spacing of one row of microlenses, all under the same total emissive area and total power

Metrics