Abstract

Pixel resolution polarization-sensitive second harmonic generation (PSHG) imaging has been recently shown as a promising imaging modality, by largely enhancing the capabilities of conventional intensity-based SHG microscopy. PSHG is able to obtain structural information from the elementary SHG active structures, which play an important role in many biological processes. Although the technique is of major interest, acquiring such information requires long offline processing, even with current computers. In this paper, we present an approach based on Fourier analysis of the anisotropy signature that allows processing the PSHG images in less than a second in standard single core computers. This represents a temporal improvement of several orders of magnitude compared to conventional fitting algorithms. This opens up the possibility for fast PSHG information with the subsequent benefit of potential use in medical applications.

© 2010 OSA

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. H. Bao, A. Boussioutas, R. Jeremy, S. Russell, and M. Gu, “Second harmonic generation imaging via nonlinear endomicroscopy,” Opt. Express 18(2), 1255–1260 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  6. P. J. Campagnola, A. C. Millard, M. Terasaki, P. E. Hoppe, C. J. Malone, and W. A. Mohler, “Three-dimensional high-resolution second-harmonic generation imaging of endogenous structural proteins in biological tissues,” Biophys. J. 82(1), 493–508 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  7. R. M. Williams, W. R. Zipfel, and W. W. Webb, “Interpreting second-harmonic generation images of collagen I fibrils,” Biophys. J. 88(2), 1377–1386 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  8. S.-W. Chu, S.-P. Tai, M.-C. Chan, C.-K. Sun, I.-C. Hsiao, C.-H. Lin, Y.-C. Chen, and B.-L. Lin, “Thickness dependence of optical second harmonic generation in collagen fibrils,” Opt. Express 15(19), 12005–12010 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (3)

R. Cicchi, D. Kapsokalyvas, V. De Giorgi, V. Maio, A. Van Wiechen, D. Massi, T. Lotti, and F. S. Pavone, “Scoring of collagen organization in healthy and diseased human dermis by multiphoton microscopy,” J Biophoton. 3(1-2), 34–43 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Psilodimitrakopoulos, I. Amat-Roldan, P. Loza-Alvarez, and D. Artigas, “Estimating the helical pitch angle of amylopectin in starch using polarization second harmonic generation microscopy,” J. Opt. 12(8), 084007 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Bao, A. Boussioutas, R. Jeremy, S. Russell, and M. Gu, “Second harmonic generation imaging via nonlinear endomicroscopy,” Opt. Express 18(2), 1255–1260 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (9)

S. Psilodimitrakopoulos, S. I. Santos, I. Amat-Roldan, A. K. Thayil, D. Artigas, and P. Loza-Alvarez, “In vivo, pixel-resolution mapping of thick filaments’ orientation in nonfibrilar muscle using polarization-sensitive second harmonic generation microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(1), 014001 (2009), http://spiedl.aip.org/getpdf/servlet/GetPDFServlet?filetype=pdf&id=JBOPFO000014000001014001000001&idtype=cvips&prog=normal .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. L. Chen, T. H. Li, P. J. Su, C. K. Chou, P. T. Fwu, S. J. Lin, D. Kim, P. T. C. So, and C. Y. Dong, “Second harmonic generation chi tensor microscopy for tissue imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 3 (2009).

P. Matteini, F. Ratto, F. Rossi, R. Cicchi, C. Stringari, D. Kapsokalyvas, F. S. Pavone, and R. Pini, “Photothermally-induced disordered patterns of corneal collagen revealed by SHG imaging,” Opt. Express 17(6), 4868–4878 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Nadiarnykh and P. J. Campagnola, “Retention of polarization signatures in SHG microscopy of scattering tissues through optical clearing,” Opt. Express 17(7), 5794–5806 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Psilodimitrakopoulos, D. Artigas, G. Soria, I. Amat-Roldan, A. M. Planas, and P. Loza-Alvarez, “Quantitative discrimination between endogenous SHG sources in mammalian tissue, based on their polarization response,” Opt. Express 17(12), 10168–10176 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Psilodimitrakopoulos, V. Petegnief, G. Soria, I. Amat-Roldan, D. Artigas, A. M. Planas, and P. Loza-Alvarez, “Estimation of the effective orientation of the SHG source in primary cortical neurons,” Opt. Express 17(16), 14418–14425 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Rao, M. R. Mehta, and K. C. Toussaint., “Fourier transform-second-harmonic generation imaging of biological tissues,” Opt. Express 17(17), 14534–14542 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Recher, D. Rouède, P. Richard, A. Simon, J.-J. Bellanger, and F. Tiaho, “Three distinct sarcomeric patterns of skeletal muscle revealed by SHG and TPEF microscopy,” Opt. Express 17(22), 19763–19777 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. R. Rao, M. R. Mehta, S. Leithem, and K. C. Toussaint., “Quantitative analysis of forward and backward second-harmonic images of collagen fibers using Fourier transform second-harmonic-generation microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 34(24), 3779–3781 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (4)

M. E. Llewellyn, R. P. J. Barretto, S. L. Delp, and M. J. Schnitzer, “Minimally invasive high-speed imaging of sarcomere contractile dynamics in mice and humans,” Nature 454(7205), 784–788 (2008).
[PubMed]

S. V. Plotnikov, A. M. Kenny, S. J. Walsh, B. Zubrowski, C. Joseph, V. L. Scranton, G. A. Kuchel, D. Dauser, M. Xu, C. C. Pilbeam, D. J. Adams, R. P. Dougherty, P. J. Campagnola, and W. A. Mohler, “Measurement of muscle disease by quantitative second-harmonic generation imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(4), 044018 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Fu and M. Gu, “Polarization anisotropy in fiber-optic second harmonic generation microscopy,” Opt. Express 16(7), 5000–5006 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Odin, T. Guilbert, A. Alkilani, O. P. Boryskina, V. Fleury, and Y. Le Grand, “Collagen and myosin characterization by orientation field second harmonic microscopy,” Opt. Express 16(20), 16151–16165 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (5)

O. Nadiarnykh, S. Plotnikov, W. A. Mohler, I. Kalajzic, D. Redford-Badwal, and P. J. Campagnola, “Second harmonic generation imaging microscopy studies of osteogenesis imperfecta,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(5), 051805 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. M. Reiser, C. Bratton, D. R. Yankelevich, A. Knoesen, I. Rocha-Mendoza, and J. Lotz, “Quantitative analysis of structural disorder in intervertebral disks using second harmonic generation imaging: comparison with morphometric analysis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(6), 064019 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. U. Rafailov, M. A. Cataluna, and W. Sibbett, “Mode-locked quantum-dot lasers,” Nat. Photonics 1(7), 395–401 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S.-W. Chu, S.-P. Tai, M.-C. Chan, C.-K. Sun, I.-C. Hsiao, C.-H. Lin, Y.-C. Chen, and B.-L. Lin, “Thickness dependence of optical second harmonic generation in collagen fibrils,” Opt. Express 15(19), 12005–12010 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Tiaho, G. Recher, and D. Rouède, “Estimation of helical angles of myosin and collagen by second harmonic generation imaging microscopy,” Opt. Express 15(19), 12286–12295 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

S. Plotnikov, V. Juneja, A. B. Isaacson, W. A. Mohler, and P. J. Campagnola, “Optical clearing for improved contrast in second harmonic generation imaging of skeletal muscle,” Biophys. J. 90(1), 328–339 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Plotnikov, V. Juneja, A. B. Isaacson, W. A. Mohler, and P. J. Campagnola, “Optical clearing for improved contrast in second harmonic generation imaging of skeletal muscle,” Biophys. J. 90(1), 328–339 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

R. M. Williams, W. R. Zipfel, and W. W. Webb, “Interpreting second-harmonic generation images of collagen I fibrils,” Biophys. J. 88(2), 1377–1386 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

P. J. Campagnola, A. C. Millard, M. Terasaki, P. E. Hoppe, C. J. Malone, and W. A. Mohler, “Three-dimensional high-resolution second-harmonic generation imaging of endogenous structural proteins in biological tissues,” Biophys. J. 82(1), 493–508 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. Stoller, K. M. Reiser, P. M. Celliers, and A. M. Rubenchik, “Polarization-modulated second harmonic generation in collagen,” Biophys. J. 82(6), 3330–3342 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

P. J. Campagnola, M. D. Wei, A. Lewis, and L. M. Loew, “High-resolution nonlinear optical imaging of live cells by second harmonic generation,” Biophys. J. 77(6), 3341–3349 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adams, D. J.

S. V. Plotnikov, A. M. Kenny, S. J. Walsh, B. Zubrowski, C. Joseph, V. L. Scranton, G. A. Kuchel, D. Dauser, M. Xu, C. C. Pilbeam, D. J. Adams, R. P. Dougherty, P. J. Campagnola, and W. A. Mohler, “Measurement of muscle disease by quantitative second-harmonic generation imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(4), 044018 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alkilani, A.

Amat-Roldan, I.

S. Psilodimitrakopoulos, I. Amat-Roldan, P. Loza-Alvarez, and D. Artigas, “Estimating the helical pitch angle of amylopectin in starch using polarization second harmonic generation microscopy,” J. Opt. 12(8), 084007 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Psilodimitrakopoulos, D. Artigas, G. Soria, I. Amat-Roldan, A. M. Planas, and P. Loza-Alvarez, “Quantitative discrimination between endogenous SHG sources in mammalian tissue, based on their polarization response,” Opt. Express 17(12), 10168–10176 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Psilodimitrakopoulos, V. Petegnief, G. Soria, I. Amat-Roldan, D. Artigas, A. M. Planas, and P. Loza-Alvarez, “Estimation of the effective orientation of the SHG source in primary cortical neurons,” Opt. Express 17(16), 14418–14425 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Psilodimitrakopoulos, S. I. Santos, I. Amat-Roldan, A. K. Thayil, D. Artigas, and P. Loza-Alvarez, “In vivo, pixel-resolution mapping of thick filaments’ orientation in nonfibrilar muscle using polarization-sensitive second harmonic generation microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(1), 014001 (2009), http://spiedl.aip.org/getpdf/servlet/GetPDFServlet?filetype=pdf&id=JBOPFO000014000001014001000001&idtype=cvips&prog=normal .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Artigas, D.

S. Psilodimitrakopoulos, I. Amat-Roldan, P. Loza-Alvarez, and D. Artigas, “Estimating the helical pitch angle of amylopectin in starch using polarization second harmonic generation microscopy,” J. Opt. 12(8), 084007 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Psilodimitrakopoulos, V. Petegnief, G. Soria, I. Amat-Roldan, D. Artigas, A. M. Planas, and P. Loza-Alvarez, “Estimation of the effective orientation of the SHG source in primary cortical neurons,” Opt. Express 17(16), 14418–14425 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Psilodimitrakopoulos, D. Artigas, G. Soria, I. Amat-Roldan, A. M. Planas, and P. Loza-Alvarez, “Quantitative discrimination between endogenous SHG sources in mammalian tissue, based on their polarization response,” Opt. Express 17(12), 10168–10176 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Psilodimitrakopoulos, S. I. Santos, I. Amat-Roldan, A. K. Thayil, D. Artigas, and P. Loza-Alvarez, “In vivo, pixel-resolution mapping of thick filaments’ orientation in nonfibrilar muscle using polarization-sensitive second harmonic generation microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(1), 014001 (2009), http://spiedl.aip.org/getpdf/servlet/GetPDFServlet?filetype=pdf&id=JBOPFO000014000001014001000001&idtype=cvips&prog=normal .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bao, H.

Barretto, R. P. J.

M. E. Llewellyn, R. P. J. Barretto, S. L. Delp, and M. J. Schnitzer, “Minimally invasive high-speed imaging of sarcomere contractile dynamics in mice and humans,” Nature 454(7205), 784–788 (2008).
[PubMed]

Bellanger, J.-J.

Boryskina, O. P.

Boussioutas, A.

Bratton, C.

K. M. Reiser, C. Bratton, D. R. Yankelevich, A. Knoesen, I. Rocha-Mendoza, and J. Lotz, “Quantitative analysis of structural disorder in intervertebral disks using second harmonic generation imaging: comparison with morphometric analysis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(6), 064019 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Campagnola, P. J.

O. Nadiarnykh and P. J. Campagnola, “Retention of polarization signatures in SHG microscopy of scattering tissues through optical clearing,” Opt. Express 17(7), 5794–5806 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. V. Plotnikov, A. M. Kenny, S. J. Walsh, B. Zubrowski, C. Joseph, V. L. Scranton, G. A. Kuchel, D. Dauser, M. Xu, C. C. Pilbeam, D. J. Adams, R. P. Dougherty, P. J. Campagnola, and W. A. Mohler, “Measurement of muscle disease by quantitative second-harmonic generation imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(4), 044018 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Nadiarnykh, S. Plotnikov, W. A. Mohler, I. Kalajzic, D. Redford-Badwal, and P. J. Campagnola, “Second harmonic generation imaging microscopy studies of osteogenesis imperfecta,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(5), 051805 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Plotnikov, V. Juneja, A. B. Isaacson, W. A. Mohler, and P. J. Campagnola, “Optical clearing for improved contrast in second harmonic generation imaging of skeletal muscle,” Biophys. J. 90(1), 328–339 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Plotnikov, V. Juneja, A. B. Isaacson, W. A. Mohler, and P. J. Campagnola, “Optical clearing for improved contrast in second harmonic generation imaging of skeletal muscle,” Biophys. J. 90(1), 328–339 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Campagnola, A. C. Millard, M. Terasaki, P. E. Hoppe, C. J. Malone, and W. A. Mohler, “Three-dimensional high-resolution second-harmonic generation imaging of endogenous structural proteins in biological tissues,” Biophys. J. 82(1), 493–508 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Campagnola, M. D. Wei, A. Lewis, and L. M. Loew, “High-resolution nonlinear optical imaging of live cells by second harmonic generation,” Biophys. J. 77(6), 3341–3349 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cataluna, M. A.

E. U. Rafailov, M. A. Cataluna, and W. Sibbett, “Mode-locked quantum-dot lasers,” Nat. Photonics 1(7), 395–401 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Celliers, P. M.

P. Stoller, K. M. Reiser, P. M. Celliers, and A. M. Rubenchik, “Polarization-modulated second harmonic generation in collagen,” Biophys. J. 82(6), 3330–3342 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chan, M.-C.

Chen, W. L.

W. L. Chen, T. H. Li, P. J. Su, C. K. Chou, P. T. Fwu, S. J. Lin, D. Kim, P. T. C. So, and C. Y. Dong, “Second harmonic generation chi tensor microscopy for tissue imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 3 (2009).

Chen, Y.-C.

Chou, C. K.

W. L. Chen, T. H. Li, P. J. Su, C. K. Chou, P. T. Fwu, S. J. Lin, D. Kim, P. T. C. So, and C. Y. Dong, “Second harmonic generation chi tensor microscopy for tissue imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 3 (2009).

Chu, S.-W.

Cicchi, R.

R. Cicchi, D. Kapsokalyvas, V. De Giorgi, V. Maio, A. Van Wiechen, D. Massi, T. Lotti, and F. S. Pavone, “Scoring of collagen organization in healthy and diseased human dermis by multiphoton microscopy,” J Biophoton. 3(1-2), 34–43 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Matteini, F. Ratto, F. Rossi, R. Cicchi, C. Stringari, D. Kapsokalyvas, F. S. Pavone, and R. Pini, “Photothermally-induced disordered patterns of corneal collagen revealed by SHG imaging,” Opt. Express 17(6), 4868–4878 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dauser, D.

S. V. Plotnikov, A. M. Kenny, S. J. Walsh, B. Zubrowski, C. Joseph, V. L. Scranton, G. A. Kuchel, D. Dauser, M. Xu, C. C. Pilbeam, D. J. Adams, R. P. Dougherty, P. J. Campagnola, and W. A. Mohler, “Measurement of muscle disease by quantitative second-harmonic generation imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(4), 044018 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

De Giorgi, V.

R. Cicchi, D. Kapsokalyvas, V. De Giorgi, V. Maio, A. Van Wiechen, D. Massi, T. Lotti, and F. S. Pavone, “Scoring of collagen organization in healthy and diseased human dermis by multiphoton microscopy,” J Biophoton. 3(1-2), 34–43 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Delp, S. L.

M. E. Llewellyn, R. P. J. Barretto, S. L. Delp, and M. J. Schnitzer, “Minimally invasive high-speed imaging of sarcomere contractile dynamics in mice and humans,” Nature 454(7205), 784–788 (2008).
[PubMed]

Dong, C. Y.

W. L. Chen, T. H. Li, P. J. Su, C. K. Chou, P. T. Fwu, S. J. Lin, D. Kim, P. T. C. So, and C. Y. Dong, “Second harmonic generation chi tensor microscopy for tissue imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 3 (2009).

Dougherty, R. P.

S. V. Plotnikov, A. M. Kenny, S. J. Walsh, B. Zubrowski, C. Joseph, V. L. Scranton, G. A. Kuchel, D. Dauser, M. Xu, C. C. Pilbeam, D. J. Adams, R. P. Dougherty, P. J. Campagnola, and W. A. Mohler, “Measurement of muscle disease by quantitative second-harmonic generation imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(4), 044018 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fleury, V.

Fu, L.

Fwu, P. T.

W. L. Chen, T. H. Li, P. J. Su, C. K. Chou, P. T. Fwu, S. J. Lin, D. Kim, P. T. C. So, and C. Y. Dong, “Second harmonic generation chi tensor microscopy for tissue imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 3 (2009).

Gu, M.

Guilbert, T.

Hoppe, P. E.

P. J. Campagnola, A. C. Millard, M. Terasaki, P. E. Hoppe, C. J. Malone, and W. A. Mohler, “Three-dimensional high-resolution second-harmonic generation imaging of endogenous structural proteins in biological tissues,” Biophys. J. 82(1), 493–508 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hsiao, I.-C.

Isaacson, A. B.

S. Plotnikov, V. Juneja, A. B. Isaacson, W. A. Mohler, and P. J. Campagnola, “Optical clearing for improved contrast in second harmonic generation imaging of skeletal muscle,” Biophys. J. 90(1), 328–339 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Plotnikov, V. Juneja, A. B. Isaacson, W. A. Mohler, and P. J. Campagnola, “Optical clearing for improved contrast in second harmonic generation imaging of skeletal muscle,” Biophys. J. 90(1), 328–339 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jeremy, R.

Joseph, C.

S. V. Plotnikov, A. M. Kenny, S. J. Walsh, B. Zubrowski, C. Joseph, V. L. Scranton, G. A. Kuchel, D. Dauser, M. Xu, C. C. Pilbeam, D. J. Adams, R. P. Dougherty, P. J. Campagnola, and W. A. Mohler, “Measurement of muscle disease by quantitative second-harmonic generation imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(4), 044018 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Juneja, V.

S. Plotnikov, V. Juneja, A. B. Isaacson, W. A. Mohler, and P. J. Campagnola, “Optical clearing for improved contrast in second harmonic generation imaging of skeletal muscle,” Biophys. J. 90(1), 328–339 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Plotnikov, V. Juneja, A. B. Isaacson, W. A. Mohler, and P. J. Campagnola, “Optical clearing for improved contrast in second harmonic generation imaging of skeletal muscle,” Biophys. J. 90(1), 328–339 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kalajzic, I.

O. Nadiarnykh, S. Plotnikov, W. A. Mohler, I. Kalajzic, D. Redford-Badwal, and P. J. Campagnola, “Second harmonic generation imaging microscopy studies of osteogenesis imperfecta,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(5), 051805 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kapsokalyvas, D.

R. Cicchi, D. Kapsokalyvas, V. De Giorgi, V. Maio, A. Van Wiechen, D. Massi, T. Lotti, and F. S. Pavone, “Scoring of collagen organization in healthy and diseased human dermis by multiphoton microscopy,” J Biophoton. 3(1-2), 34–43 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Matteini, F. Ratto, F. Rossi, R. Cicchi, C. Stringari, D. Kapsokalyvas, F. S. Pavone, and R. Pini, “Photothermally-induced disordered patterns of corneal collagen revealed by SHG imaging,” Opt. Express 17(6), 4868–4878 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kenny, A. M.

S. V. Plotnikov, A. M. Kenny, S. J. Walsh, B. Zubrowski, C. Joseph, V. L. Scranton, G. A. Kuchel, D. Dauser, M. Xu, C. C. Pilbeam, D. J. Adams, R. P. Dougherty, P. J. Campagnola, and W. A. Mohler, “Measurement of muscle disease by quantitative second-harmonic generation imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(4), 044018 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, D.

W. L. Chen, T. H. Li, P. J. Su, C. K. Chou, P. T. Fwu, S. J. Lin, D. Kim, P. T. C. So, and C. Y. Dong, “Second harmonic generation chi tensor microscopy for tissue imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 3 (2009).

Knoesen, A.

K. M. Reiser, C. Bratton, D. R. Yankelevich, A. Knoesen, I. Rocha-Mendoza, and J. Lotz, “Quantitative analysis of structural disorder in intervertebral disks using second harmonic generation imaging: comparison with morphometric analysis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(6), 064019 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kuchel, G. A.

S. V. Plotnikov, A. M. Kenny, S. J. Walsh, B. Zubrowski, C. Joseph, V. L. Scranton, G. A. Kuchel, D. Dauser, M. Xu, C. C. Pilbeam, D. J. Adams, R. P. Dougherty, P. J. Campagnola, and W. A. Mohler, “Measurement of muscle disease by quantitative second-harmonic generation imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(4), 044018 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Le Grand, Y.

Leithem, S.

Lewis, A.

P. J. Campagnola, M. D. Wei, A. Lewis, and L. M. Loew, “High-resolution nonlinear optical imaging of live cells by second harmonic generation,” Biophys. J. 77(6), 3341–3349 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, T. H.

W. L. Chen, T. H. Li, P. J. Su, C. K. Chou, P. T. Fwu, S. J. Lin, D. Kim, P. T. C. So, and C. Y. Dong, “Second harmonic generation chi tensor microscopy for tissue imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 3 (2009).

Lin, B.-L.

Lin, C.-H.

Lin, S. J.

W. L. Chen, T. H. Li, P. J. Su, C. K. Chou, P. T. Fwu, S. J. Lin, D. Kim, P. T. C. So, and C. Y. Dong, “Second harmonic generation chi tensor microscopy for tissue imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 3 (2009).

Llewellyn, M. E.

M. E. Llewellyn, R. P. J. Barretto, S. L. Delp, and M. J. Schnitzer, “Minimally invasive high-speed imaging of sarcomere contractile dynamics in mice and humans,” Nature 454(7205), 784–788 (2008).
[PubMed]

Loew, L. M.

P. J. Campagnola, M. D. Wei, A. Lewis, and L. M. Loew, “High-resolution nonlinear optical imaging of live cells by second harmonic generation,” Biophys. J. 77(6), 3341–3349 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lotti, T.

R. Cicchi, D. Kapsokalyvas, V. De Giorgi, V. Maio, A. Van Wiechen, D. Massi, T. Lotti, and F. S. Pavone, “Scoring of collagen organization in healthy and diseased human dermis by multiphoton microscopy,” J Biophoton. 3(1-2), 34–43 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lotz, J.

K. M. Reiser, C. Bratton, D. R. Yankelevich, A. Knoesen, I. Rocha-Mendoza, and J. Lotz, “Quantitative analysis of structural disorder in intervertebral disks using second harmonic generation imaging: comparison with morphometric analysis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(6), 064019 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Loza-Alvarez, P.

S. Psilodimitrakopoulos, I. Amat-Roldan, P. Loza-Alvarez, and D. Artigas, “Estimating the helical pitch angle of amylopectin in starch using polarization second harmonic generation microscopy,” J. Opt. 12(8), 084007 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Psilodimitrakopoulos, V. Petegnief, G. Soria, I. Amat-Roldan, D. Artigas, A. M. Planas, and P. Loza-Alvarez, “Estimation of the effective orientation of the SHG source in primary cortical neurons,” Opt. Express 17(16), 14418–14425 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Psilodimitrakopoulos, D. Artigas, G. Soria, I. Amat-Roldan, A. M. Planas, and P. Loza-Alvarez, “Quantitative discrimination between endogenous SHG sources in mammalian tissue, based on their polarization response,” Opt. Express 17(12), 10168–10176 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Psilodimitrakopoulos, S. I. Santos, I. Amat-Roldan, A. K. Thayil, D. Artigas, and P. Loza-Alvarez, “In vivo, pixel-resolution mapping of thick filaments’ orientation in nonfibrilar muscle using polarization-sensitive second harmonic generation microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(1), 014001 (2009), http://spiedl.aip.org/getpdf/servlet/GetPDFServlet?filetype=pdf&id=JBOPFO000014000001014001000001&idtype=cvips&prog=normal .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maio, V.

R. Cicchi, D. Kapsokalyvas, V. De Giorgi, V. Maio, A. Van Wiechen, D. Massi, T. Lotti, and F. S. Pavone, “Scoring of collagen organization in healthy and diseased human dermis by multiphoton microscopy,” J Biophoton. 3(1-2), 34–43 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Malone, C. J.

P. J. Campagnola, A. C. Millard, M. Terasaki, P. E. Hoppe, C. J. Malone, and W. A. Mohler, “Three-dimensional high-resolution second-harmonic generation imaging of endogenous structural proteins in biological tissues,” Biophys. J. 82(1), 493–508 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Massi, D.

R. Cicchi, D. Kapsokalyvas, V. De Giorgi, V. Maio, A. Van Wiechen, D. Massi, T. Lotti, and F. S. Pavone, “Scoring of collagen organization in healthy and diseased human dermis by multiphoton microscopy,” J Biophoton. 3(1-2), 34–43 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Matteini, P.

Mehta, M. R.

Millard, A. C.

P. J. Campagnola, A. C. Millard, M. Terasaki, P. E. Hoppe, C. J. Malone, and W. A. Mohler, “Three-dimensional high-resolution second-harmonic generation imaging of endogenous structural proteins in biological tissues,” Biophys. J. 82(1), 493–508 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mohler, W. A.

S. V. Plotnikov, A. M. Kenny, S. J. Walsh, B. Zubrowski, C. Joseph, V. L. Scranton, G. A. Kuchel, D. Dauser, M. Xu, C. C. Pilbeam, D. J. Adams, R. P. Dougherty, P. J. Campagnola, and W. A. Mohler, “Measurement of muscle disease by quantitative second-harmonic generation imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(4), 044018 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Nadiarnykh, S. Plotnikov, W. A. Mohler, I. Kalajzic, D. Redford-Badwal, and P. J. Campagnola, “Second harmonic generation imaging microscopy studies of osteogenesis imperfecta,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(5), 051805 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Plotnikov, V. Juneja, A. B. Isaacson, W. A. Mohler, and P. J. Campagnola, “Optical clearing for improved contrast in second harmonic generation imaging of skeletal muscle,” Biophys. J. 90(1), 328–339 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Plotnikov, V. Juneja, A. B. Isaacson, W. A. Mohler, and P. J. Campagnola, “Optical clearing for improved contrast in second harmonic generation imaging of skeletal muscle,” Biophys. J. 90(1), 328–339 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Campagnola, A. C. Millard, M. Terasaki, P. E. Hoppe, C. J. Malone, and W. A. Mohler, “Three-dimensional high-resolution second-harmonic generation imaging of endogenous structural proteins in biological tissues,” Biophys. J. 82(1), 493–508 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nadiarnykh, O.

O. Nadiarnykh and P. J. Campagnola, “Retention of polarization signatures in SHG microscopy of scattering tissues through optical clearing,” Opt. Express 17(7), 5794–5806 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Nadiarnykh, S. Plotnikov, W. A. Mohler, I. Kalajzic, D. Redford-Badwal, and P. J. Campagnola, “Second harmonic generation imaging microscopy studies of osteogenesis imperfecta,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(5), 051805 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Odin, C.

Pavone, F. S.

R. Cicchi, D. Kapsokalyvas, V. De Giorgi, V. Maio, A. Van Wiechen, D. Massi, T. Lotti, and F. S. Pavone, “Scoring of collagen organization in healthy and diseased human dermis by multiphoton microscopy,” J Biophoton. 3(1-2), 34–43 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Matteini, F. Ratto, F. Rossi, R. Cicchi, C. Stringari, D. Kapsokalyvas, F. S. Pavone, and R. Pini, “Photothermally-induced disordered patterns of corneal collagen revealed by SHG imaging,” Opt. Express 17(6), 4868–4878 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Petegnief, V.

Pilbeam, C. C.

S. V. Plotnikov, A. M. Kenny, S. J. Walsh, B. Zubrowski, C. Joseph, V. L. Scranton, G. A. Kuchel, D. Dauser, M. Xu, C. C. Pilbeam, D. J. Adams, R. P. Dougherty, P. J. Campagnola, and W. A. Mohler, “Measurement of muscle disease by quantitative second-harmonic generation imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(4), 044018 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pini, R.

Planas, A. M.

Plotnikov, S.

O. Nadiarnykh, S. Plotnikov, W. A. Mohler, I. Kalajzic, D. Redford-Badwal, and P. J. Campagnola, “Second harmonic generation imaging microscopy studies of osteogenesis imperfecta,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(5), 051805 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Plotnikov, V. Juneja, A. B. Isaacson, W. A. Mohler, and P. J. Campagnola, “Optical clearing for improved contrast in second harmonic generation imaging of skeletal muscle,” Biophys. J. 90(1), 328–339 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Plotnikov, V. Juneja, A. B. Isaacson, W. A. Mohler, and P. J. Campagnola, “Optical clearing for improved contrast in second harmonic generation imaging of skeletal muscle,” Biophys. J. 90(1), 328–339 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Plotnikov, S. V.

S. V. Plotnikov, A. M. Kenny, S. J. Walsh, B. Zubrowski, C. Joseph, V. L. Scranton, G. A. Kuchel, D. Dauser, M. Xu, C. C. Pilbeam, D. J. Adams, R. P. Dougherty, P. J. Campagnola, and W. A. Mohler, “Measurement of muscle disease by quantitative second-harmonic generation imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(4), 044018 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Psilodimitrakopoulos, S.

S. Psilodimitrakopoulos, I. Amat-Roldan, P. Loza-Alvarez, and D. Artigas, “Estimating the helical pitch angle of amylopectin in starch using polarization second harmonic generation microscopy,” J. Opt. 12(8), 084007 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Psilodimitrakopoulos, D. Artigas, G. Soria, I. Amat-Roldan, A. M. Planas, and P. Loza-Alvarez, “Quantitative discrimination between endogenous SHG sources in mammalian tissue, based on their polarization response,” Opt. Express 17(12), 10168–10176 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Psilodimitrakopoulos, V. Petegnief, G. Soria, I. Amat-Roldan, D. Artigas, A. M. Planas, and P. Loza-Alvarez, “Estimation of the effective orientation of the SHG source in primary cortical neurons,” Opt. Express 17(16), 14418–14425 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Psilodimitrakopoulos, S. I. Santos, I. Amat-Roldan, A. K. Thayil, D. Artigas, and P. Loza-Alvarez, “In vivo, pixel-resolution mapping of thick filaments’ orientation in nonfibrilar muscle using polarization-sensitive second harmonic generation microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(1), 014001 (2009), http://spiedl.aip.org/getpdf/servlet/GetPDFServlet?filetype=pdf&id=JBOPFO000014000001014001000001&idtype=cvips&prog=normal .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rafailov, E. U.

E. U. Rafailov, M. A. Cataluna, and W. Sibbett, “Mode-locked quantum-dot lasers,” Nat. Photonics 1(7), 395–401 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rao, R. A.

Rao, R. A. R.

Ratto, F.

Recher, G.

Redford-Badwal, D.

O. Nadiarnykh, S. Plotnikov, W. A. Mohler, I. Kalajzic, D. Redford-Badwal, and P. J. Campagnola, “Second harmonic generation imaging microscopy studies of osteogenesis imperfecta,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(5), 051805 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reiser, K. M.

K. M. Reiser, C. Bratton, D. R. Yankelevich, A. Knoesen, I. Rocha-Mendoza, and J. Lotz, “Quantitative analysis of structural disorder in intervertebral disks using second harmonic generation imaging: comparison with morphometric analysis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(6), 064019 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Stoller, K. M. Reiser, P. M. Celliers, and A. M. Rubenchik, “Polarization-modulated second harmonic generation in collagen,” Biophys. J. 82(6), 3330–3342 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Richard, P.

Rocha-Mendoza, I.

K. M. Reiser, C. Bratton, D. R. Yankelevich, A. Knoesen, I. Rocha-Mendoza, and J. Lotz, “Quantitative analysis of structural disorder in intervertebral disks using second harmonic generation imaging: comparison with morphometric analysis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(6), 064019 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rossi, F.

Rouède, D.

Rubenchik, A. M.

P. Stoller, K. M. Reiser, P. M. Celliers, and A. M. Rubenchik, “Polarization-modulated second harmonic generation in collagen,” Biophys. J. 82(6), 3330–3342 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Russell, S.

Santos, S. I.

S. Psilodimitrakopoulos, S. I. Santos, I. Amat-Roldan, A. K. Thayil, D. Artigas, and P. Loza-Alvarez, “In vivo, pixel-resolution mapping of thick filaments’ orientation in nonfibrilar muscle using polarization-sensitive second harmonic generation microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(1), 014001 (2009), http://spiedl.aip.org/getpdf/servlet/GetPDFServlet?filetype=pdf&id=JBOPFO000014000001014001000001&idtype=cvips&prog=normal .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schnitzer, M. J.

M. E. Llewellyn, R. P. J. Barretto, S. L. Delp, and M. J. Schnitzer, “Minimally invasive high-speed imaging of sarcomere contractile dynamics in mice and humans,” Nature 454(7205), 784–788 (2008).
[PubMed]

Scranton, V. L.

S. V. Plotnikov, A. M. Kenny, S. J. Walsh, B. Zubrowski, C. Joseph, V. L. Scranton, G. A. Kuchel, D. Dauser, M. Xu, C. C. Pilbeam, D. J. Adams, R. P. Dougherty, P. J. Campagnola, and W. A. Mohler, “Measurement of muscle disease by quantitative second-harmonic generation imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(4), 044018 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sibbett, W.

E. U. Rafailov, M. A. Cataluna, and W. Sibbett, “Mode-locked quantum-dot lasers,” Nat. Photonics 1(7), 395–401 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Simon, A.

So, P. T. C.

W. L. Chen, T. H. Li, P. J. Su, C. K. Chou, P. T. Fwu, S. J. Lin, D. Kim, P. T. C. So, and C. Y. Dong, “Second harmonic generation chi tensor microscopy for tissue imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 3 (2009).

Soria, G.

Stoller, P.

P. Stoller, K. M. Reiser, P. M. Celliers, and A. M. Rubenchik, “Polarization-modulated second harmonic generation in collagen,” Biophys. J. 82(6), 3330–3342 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stringari, C.

Su, P. J.

W. L. Chen, T. H. Li, P. J. Su, C. K. Chou, P. T. Fwu, S. J. Lin, D. Kim, P. T. C. So, and C. Y. Dong, “Second harmonic generation chi tensor microscopy for tissue imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 3 (2009).

Sun, C.-K.

Tai, S.-P.

Terasaki, M.

P. J. Campagnola, A. C. Millard, M. Terasaki, P. E. Hoppe, C. J. Malone, and W. A. Mohler, “Three-dimensional high-resolution second-harmonic generation imaging of endogenous structural proteins in biological tissues,” Biophys. J. 82(1), 493–508 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Thayil, A. K.

S. Psilodimitrakopoulos, S. I. Santos, I. Amat-Roldan, A. K. Thayil, D. Artigas, and P. Loza-Alvarez, “In vivo, pixel-resolution mapping of thick filaments’ orientation in nonfibrilar muscle using polarization-sensitive second harmonic generation microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(1), 014001 (2009), http://spiedl.aip.org/getpdf/servlet/GetPDFServlet?filetype=pdf&id=JBOPFO000014000001014001000001&idtype=cvips&prog=normal .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tiaho, F.

Toussaint, K. C.

Van Wiechen, A.

R. Cicchi, D. Kapsokalyvas, V. De Giorgi, V. Maio, A. Van Wiechen, D. Massi, T. Lotti, and F. S. Pavone, “Scoring of collagen organization in healthy and diseased human dermis by multiphoton microscopy,” J Biophoton. 3(1-2), 34–43 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Walsh, S. J.

S. V. Plotnikov, A. M. Kenny, S. J. Walsh, B. Zubrowski, C. Joseph, V. L. Scranton, G. A. Kuchel, D. Dauser, M. Xu, C. C. Pilbeam, D. J. Adams, R. P. Dougherty, P. J. Campagnola, and W. A. Mohler, “Measurement of muscle disease by quantitative second-harmonic generation imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(4), 044018 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Webb, W. W.

R. M. Williams, W. R. Zipfel, and W. W. Webb, “Interpreting second-harmonic generation images of collagen I fibrils,” Biophys. J. 88(2), 1377–1386 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wei, M. D.

P. J. Campagnola, M. D. Wei, A. Lewis, and L. M. Loew, “High-resolution nonlinear optical imaging of live cells by second harmonic generation,” Biophys. J. 77(6), 3341–3349 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Williams, R. M.

R. M. Williams, W. R. Zipfel, and W. W. Webb, “Interpreting second-harmonic generation images of collagen I fibrils,” Biophys. J. 88(2), 1377–1386 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Xu, M.

S. V. Plotnikov, A. M. Kenny, S. J. Walsh, B. Zubrowski, C. Joseph, V. L. Scranton, G. A. Kuchel, D. Dauser, M. Xu, C. C. Pilbeam, D. J. Adams, R. P. Dougherty, P. J. Campagnola, and W. A. Mohler, “Measurement of muscle disease by quantitative second-harmonic generation imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(4), 044018 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yankelevich, D. R.

K. M. Reiser, C. Bratton, D. R. Yankelevich, A. Knoesen, I. Rocha-Mendoza, and J. Lotz, “Quantitative analysis of structural disorder in intervertebral disks using second harmonic generation imaging: comparison with morphometric analysis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(6), 064019 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zipfel, W. R.

R. M. Williams, W. R. Zipfel, and W. W. Webb, “Interpreting second-harmonic generation images of collagen I fibrils,” Biophys. J. 88(2), 1377–1386 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zubrowski, B.

S. V. Plotnikov, A. M. Kenny, S. J. Walsh, B. Zubrowski, C. Joseph, V. L. Scranton, G. A. Kuchel, D. Dauser, M. Xu, C. C. Pilbeam, D. J. Adams, R. P. Dougherty, P. J. Campagnola, and W. A. Mohler, “Measurement of muscle disease by quantitative second-harmonic generation imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(4), 044018 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

W. L. Chen, T. H. Li, P. J. Su, C. K. Chou, P. T. Fwu, S. J. Lin, D. Kim, P. T. C. So, and C. Y. Dong, “Second harmonic generation chi tensor microscopy for tissue imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 3 (2009).

Biophys. J. (6)

P. Stoller, K. M. Reiser, P. M. Celliers, and A. M. Rubenchik, “Polarization-modulated second harmonic generation in collagen,” Biophys. J. 82(6), 3330–3342 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Plotnikov, V. Juneja, A. B. Isaacson, W. A. Mohler, and P. J. Campagnola, “Optical clearing for improved contrast in second harmonic generation imaging of skeletal muscle,” Biophys. J. 90(1), 328–339 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Campagnola, A. C. Millard, M. Terasaki, P. E. Hoppe, C. J. Malone, and W. A. Mohler, “Three-dimensional high-resolution second-harmonic generation imaging of endogenous structural proteins in biological tissues,” Biophys. J. 82(1), 493–508 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Williams, W. R. Zipfel, and W. W. Webb, “Interpreting second-harmonic generation images of collagen I fibrils,” Biophys. J. 88(2), 1377–1386 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Campagnola, M. D. Wei, A. Lewis, and L. M. Loew, “High-resolution nonlinear optical imaging of live cells by second harmonic generation,” Biophys. J. 77(6), 3341–3349 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Plotnikov, V. Juneja, A. B. Isaacson, W. A. Mohler, and P. J. Campagnola, “Optical clearing for improved contrast in second harmonic generation imaging of skeletal muscle,” Biophys. J. 90(1), 328–339 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J Biophoton. (1)

R. Cicchi, D. Kapsokalyvas, V. De Giorgi, V. Maio, A. Van Wiechen, D. Massi, T. Lotti, and F. S. Pavone, “Scoring of collagen organization in healthy and diseased human dermis by multiphoton microscopy,” J Biophoton. 3(1-2), 34–43 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt. (4)

S. Psilodimitrakopoulos, S. I. Santos, I. Amat-Roldan, A. K. Thayil, D. Artigas, and P. Loza-Alvarez, “In vivo, pixel-resolution mapping of thick filaments’ orientation in nonfibrilar muscle using polarization-sensitive second harmonic generation microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(1), 014001 (2009), http://spiedl.aip.org/getpdf/servlet/GetPDFServlet?filetype=pdf&id=JBOPFO000014000001014001000001&idtype=cvips&prog=normal .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. M. Reiser, C. Bratton, D. R. Yankelevich, A. Knoesen, I. Rocha-Mendoza, and J. Lotz, “Quantitative analysis of structural disorder in intervertebral disks using second harmonic generation imaging: comparison with morphometric analysis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(6), 064019 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. V. Plotnikov, A. M. Kenny, S. J. Walsh, B. Zubrowski, C. Joseph, V. L. Scranton, G. A. Kuchel, D. Dauser, M. Xu, C. C. Pilbeam, D. J. Adams, R. P. Dougherty, P. J. Campagnola, and W. A. Mohler, “Measurement of muscle disease by quantitative second-harmonic generation imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(4), 044018 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Nadiarnykh, S. Plotnikov, W. A. Mohler, I. Kalajzic, D. Redford-Badwal, and P. J. Campagnola, “Second harmonic generation imaging microscopy studies of osteogenesis imperfecta,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(5), 051805 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. (1)

S. Psilodimitrakopoulos, I. Amat-Roldan, P. Loza-Alvarez, and D. Artigas, “Estimating the helical pitch angle of amylopectin in starch using polarization second harmonic generation microscopy,” J. Opt. 12(8), 084007 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (1)

E. U. Rafailov, M. A. Cataluna, and W. Sibbett, “Mode-locked quantum-dot lasers,” Nat. Photonics 1(7), 395–401 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

M. E. Llewellyn, R. P. J. Barretto, S. L. Delp, and M. J. Schnitzer, “Minimally invasive high-speed imaging of sarcomere contractile dynamics in mice and humans,” Nature 454(7205), 784–788 (2008).
[PubMed]

Opt. Express (11)

S.-W. Chu, S.-P. Tai, M.-C. Chan, C.-K. Sun, I.-C. Hsiao, C.-H. Lin, Y.-C. Chen, and B.-L. Lin, “Thickness dependence of optical second harmonic generation in collagen fibrils,” Opt. Express 15(19), 12005–12010 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Tiaho, G. Recher, and D. Rouède, “Estimation of helical angles of myosin and collagen by second harmonic generation imaging microscopy,” Opt. Express 15(19), 12286–12295 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Fu and M. Gu, “Polarization anisotropy in fiber-optic second harmonic generation microscopy,” Opt. Express 16(7), 5000–5006 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Odin, T. Guilbert, A. Alkilani, O. P. Boryskina, V. Fleury, and Y. Le Grand, “Collagen and myosin characterization by orientation field second harmonic microscopy,” Opt. Express 16(20), 16151–16165 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Matteini, F. Ratto, F. Rossi, R. Cicchi, C. Stringari, D. Kapsokalyvas, F. S. Pavone, and R. Pini, “Photothermally-induced disordered patterns of corneal collagen revealed by SHG imaging,” Opt. Express 17(6), 4868–4878 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Nadiarnykh and P. J. Campagnola, “Retention of polarization signatures in SHG microscopy of scattering tissues through optical clearing,” Opt. Express 17(7), 5794–5806 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Psilodimitrakopoulos, D. Artigas, G. Soria, I. Amat-Roldan, A. M. Planas, and P. Loza-Alvarez, “Quantitative discrimination between endogenous SHG sources in mammalian tissue, based on their polarization response,” Opt. Express 17(12), 10168–10176 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Psilodimitrakopoulos, V. Petegnief, G. Soria, I. Amat-Roldan, D. Artigas, A. M. Planas, and P. Loza-Alvarez, “Estimation of the effective orientation of the SHG source in primary cortical neurons,” Opt. Express 17(16), 14418–14425 (2009).
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R. A. Rao, M. R. Mehta, and K. C. Toussaint., “Fourier transform-second-harmonic generation imaging of biological tissues,” Opt. Express 17(17), 14534–14542 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Recher, D. Rouède, P. Richard, A. Simon, J.-J. Bellanger, and F. Tiaho, “Three distinct sarcomeric patterns of skeletal muscle revealed by SHG and TPEF microscopy,” Opt. Express 17(22), 19763–19777 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Bao, A. Boussioutas, R. Jeremy, S. Russell, and M. Gu, “Second harmonic generation imaging via nonlinear endomicroscopy,” Opt. Express 18(2), 1255–1260 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Other (1)

S. Psilodimitrakopoulos, I. Amat-Roldan, S. Santos, M. Mathew, A.K.N. Thayil, D. Zalvidea, D. Artigas, and P. Loza-Alvarez, “Starch granules as a probe for the polarization at the sample plane of a high resolution multiphoton microscope,” SPIE, 68600E (2008).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Calculation of fiber orientationϕ in starch: (a) Mean SHG intensity of the 9 PSHG images. Scale bar shows 10μm. (b) FF-PSHG analysis using 9 polarizations and (c) iterative fitting algorithm using 8 polarizations.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) detail of fiber of collagen and manual delineation of fiber trajectory in white and (b) comparison of local PSHG fiber orientation (solid) and angle of the manual delineation (dashed); and retrieved fiber orientation using the FF-PSHG analysis is shown in (c). Pixels with e > 0.1 have been filtered out and are represented in black pseudocolor.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Map of the computed helical pitch angle using FF-PSHG (b) Pseudocolored cosine coefficients a0 , a2 and a4 of Eq. (2), plotted into RGB images, red channel is a0 , green channel is a2 and blue channel is a4 . Scale bar shows 10μm, and (c) the helical pitch angle frequency distribution of Fig. 3(a), exhibiting a centre of the distribution at 43° for collagen and 64° for myosin.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Lyophilized Achilles’ tendon collagen. (a) Superposition of the SHG intensity images for eight polarizations. Scale bar shows 10μm. (b) Image showing the helical pitch angle in every pixel obtained using an iterative fitting algorithm and its frequency distribution in (c). Similarly, (d) shows the helical pitch angle in every pixel and its frequency distribution in (e), this time using the FF-PSHG analysis.

Equations (8)

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I S H G ( ϕ ) = C 2 sin 2 [ 2 ( ϕ α ) ] + [ A sin 2 ( ϕ α ) + B cos 2 ( ϕ α ) ] 2 ,
I S H G ( ϕ ) = α 0 + α 2 cos 2 ( ϕ α ) + α 4 cos 4 ( ϕ α ) ,
i ( Ω ) = α 0 δ ( 0 ) + α 2 exp ( i 2 ϕ ) δ ( 1 Ω ) + α 4 exp ( i 4 ϕ ) δ ( 2 Ω ) + c . c . ,
ϕ ' = arg [ α 2 exp ( i 2 ϕ ) ] / 2
ϕ = | ϕ ' 2 for a 2 a 4 ϕ ' 2 + π / 2 for a 2 < a 4
A 2 = α 0 α 2 + α 4 B 2 = α 0 ± α 2 + α 4 C 2 = α 0 α 4 ( A / 2 + B / 2 ) 2 ,
cos 2 θ e = B / ( 2 A + B ) .
e ( x , y ) = [ m e a n ( i ( x , y , Ω ) , Ω > 2 ) ] / [ m e a n ( α 0 , α 2 , α 4 ) ]

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