Abstract

We demonstrate high-resolution tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) of water vapor confined in nanoporous alumina. Strong multiple light scattering results in long photon pathlengths (1 m through a 6 mm sample). We report on strong line broadening due to frequent wall collisions (gas-surface interactions). For the water vapor line at 935.685 nm, the HWHM of confined molecules are about 4.3 GHz as compared to 2.9 GHz for free molecules (atmospheric pressure). Gas diffusion is also investigated, and in contrast to molecular oxygen (that moves rapidly in and out of the alumina), the exchange of water vapor is found very slow.

© 2010 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]

2010 (3)

S. Svanberg, “Optical analysis of trapped gas-Gas in scattering media absorption spectroscopy,” Laser Phys. 20, 68–77 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Svensson, E. Alerstam, J. Johansson, and S. Andersson-Engels, “Optical porosimetry and investigations of the porosity experienced by light interacting with porous media,” Opt. Lett. 35, 1740–1742 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Svensson and Z. Shen, “Laser spectroscopy of gas confined in nanoporous materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 021107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (3)

M. Lewander, Z. G. Guan, K. Svanberg, S. Svanberg, and T. Svensson, “Clinical system for non-invasive in situ monitoring of gases in the human paranasal sinuses,” Opt. Express 17, 10849–10863 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Svensson, E. Alerstam, D. Khoptyar, J. Johansson, S. Folestad, and S. Andersson-Engels, “Near infrared photon time-of-flight spectroscopy of turbid materials up to 1400 nm,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80, 063105 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (3)

T. Svensson, M. Andersson, L. Rippe, J. Johansson, S. Folestad, and S. Andersson-Engels, “High sensitivity gas spectroscopy of porous, highly scattering solids,” Opt. Lett. 33, 80–82 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Svensson, M. Andersson, L. Rippe, S. Svanberg, S. Andersson-Engels, J. Johansson, and S. Folestad, “VCSEL-based oxygen spectroscopy for structural analysis of pharmaceutical solids,” Appl. Phys. B 90, 345–354 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Lewander, Z. G. Guan, L. Persson, A. Olsson, and S. Svanberg, “Food monitoring based on diode laser gas spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 93, 619–625 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (6)

L. Persson, M. Andersson, T. Svensson, M. Cassel-Engquist, K. Svanberg, and S. Svanberg, “Non-intrusive optical study of gas and its exchange in human maxillary sinuses,” Proc. SPIE 6628, 662804 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Persson, M. Andersson, M. Cassel-Engquist, K. Svanberg, and S. Svanberg, “Gas monitoring in human sinuses using tunable diode laser spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 054001 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Svensson, L. Persson, M. Andersson, S. Svanberg, S. Andersson-Engels, J. Johansson, and S. Folestad, “Non-invasive characterization of pharmaceutical solids by diode laser oxygen spectroscopy,” Appl. Spectrosc. 61, 784–786 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Hald, J. C. Petersen, and J. Henningsen, “Saturated optical absorption by slow molecules in hollow-core photonic band-gap fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 213902 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Andersson, L. Persson, T. Svensson, and S. Svanberg, “Flexible lock-in detection system based on synchronized computer plug-in boards applied in sensitive gas spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 113107 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Fichet, G. Dutier, A. Yarovitsky, P. Todorov, I. Hamdi, I. Maurin, S. Saltiel, D. Sarkisyan, M. P. Gorza, D. Bloch, and M. Ducloy, “Exploring the van der Waals atom-surface attraction in the nanometric range,” Euro-phys. Lett. 77, 54001 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

2005 (1)

S. Ghosh, J. E. Sharping, D. G. Ouzounov, and A. L. Gaeta, “Resonant optical interactions with molecules confined in photonic band-gap fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 093902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

G. Dutier, A. Yarovitski, S. Saltiel, A. Papoyan, D. Sarkisyan, D. Bloch, and M. Ducloy “Collapse and revival of a Dicke-type coherent narrowing in a sub-micron thick vapor cell transmission spectroscopy,” Europhys. Lett. 63, 35–41 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, and M. Dulick, “Empirical line parameters of H162O near 0.94 µm: Positions, intensities and air-broadening coefficients,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 212, 57–82 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. Banerjee and K. Sengupta, “Pore size optimisation of humidity sensor - a probabilistic approach,” Sens. Actuators B 86, 34–41 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

1997 (2)

1994 (1)

J. Rouquerol, D. Avnir, C. W. Fairbridge, D. H. Everett, J. H. Haynes, N. Pernicone, J. D. F. Ramsay, K. S. W. Sing, and K. K. Unger, “Recommendations for the characterization of porous solids,” Pure Appl. Chem. 66, 1739–1758 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

V. Sandoghdar, C. I. Sukenik, E. A. Hinds, and S. Haroche, “Direct measurement of the van der Waals interaction between an atom and its images in a micron-sized cavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 3432–3435 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987 (1)

R. P. Frueholz and J. C. Camparo, “Implications of the trapping-desorption and direct inelastic-scattering channels on Dicke-narrowed line-shapes,” Phys. Rev. A 35, 3768–3774 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1981 (2)

A. Buck, “New equations for computing vapor-pressure and enhancement factor,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 20, 1527–1532 (1981).
[CrossRef]

P. E. Wagner, R. M. Somers, and J. L. Jenkins, “Line broadening and relaxation of 3 microwave transitions in ammonia by wall and intermolecular collisions,” J. Phys. B. 14, 4763–4770 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

S. L. Coy, “Speed dependence of microwave rotational relaxation rates,” J. Chem. Phys. 73, 5531–5555 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

J. Olivero and R. Longbothum, “Empirical fits to Voigt line-width - brief review,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 17, 233–236 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

S. C. M. Luijendijk, “Effect of wall collisions on shape of microwave-absorption lines,” J. Phys. B. 8, 2995–3000 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1955 (1)

R. H. Romer and R. H. Dicke “New technique for high-resolution microwave spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. 99, 532–536 (1955).
[CrossRef]

1954 (1)

G. R. Gunthermohr, R. L. White, A. L. Schawlow, W. E. Good, and D. K. Coles, “Hyperfine structure in the spectrum of N14H3. I. Experimental results,” Phys. Rev. 94, 1184–1191 (1954).
[CrossRef]

1953 (2)

M. Danos and S. Geschwind, “Broadening of microwave absorption lines due to wall collisions,” Phys. Rev. 91, 1159–1162 (1953).
[CrossRef]

R. Dicke, “The effect of collisions upon the Doppler width of spectral lines,” Phys. Rev. 89, 472–473 (1953).
[CrossRef]

1952 (1)

R. H. Johnson and M. W. P. Strandberg, “Broadening of microwave absorption lines by collisions with the cell walls,” Phys. Rev. 86, 811–812 (1952).
[CrossRef]

1948 (1)

W. Gordy, “Microwave spectroscopy,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 20, 668–717 (1948).
[CrossRef]

1921 (1)

E. W. Washburn, “The dynamics of capillary flow.” Phys. Rev. 17, 273–283 (1921).
[CrossRef]

Aegerter, C. M.

M. Störzer, P. Gross, C. M. Aegerter, and G. Maret, “Observation of the critical regime near Anderson localization of light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96 (2006).

Alerstam, E.

T. Svensson, E. Alerstam, J. Johansson, and S. Andersson-Engels, “Optical porosimetry and investigations of the porosity experienced by light interacting with porous media,” Opt. Lett. 35, 1740–1742 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Svensson, E. Alerstam, D. Khoptyar, J. Johansson, S. Folestad, and S. Andersson-Engels, “Near infrared photon time-of-flight spectroscopy of turbid materials up to 1400 nm,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80, 063105 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alnis, J.

Andersson, M.

T. Svensson, M. Andersson, L. Rippe, J. Johansson, S. Folestad, and S. Andersson-Engels, “High sensitivity gas spectroscopy of porous, highly scattering solids,” Opt. Lett. 33, 80–82 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Svensson, M. Andersson, L. Rippe, S. Svanberg, S. Andersson-Engels, J. Johansson, and S. Folestad, “VCSEL-based oxygen spectroscopy for structural analysis of pharmaceutical solids,” Appl. Phys. B 90, 345–354 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Persson, M. Andersson, T. Svensson, M. Cassel-Engquist, K. Svanberg, and S. Svanberg, “Non-intrusive optical study of gas and its exchange in human maxillary sinuses,” Proc. SPIE 6628, 662804 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Persson, M. Andersson, M. Cassel-Engquist, K. Svanberg, and S. Svanberg, “Gas monitoring in human sinuses using tunable diode laser spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 054001 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Svensson, L. Persson, M. Andersson, S. Svanberg, S. Andersson-Engels, J. Johansson, and S. Folestad, “Non-invasive characterization of pharmaceutical solids by diode laser oxygen spectroscopy,” Appl. Spectrosc. 61, 784–786 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Andersson, L. Persson, T. Svensson, and S. Svanberg, “Flexible lock-in detection system based on synchronized computer plug-in boards applied in sensitive gas spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 113107 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Andersson, L. Persson, M. Sjöholm, and S. Svanberg, “Spectroscopic studies of wood-drying processes,” Opt. Express 14, 3641–3653 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Andersson-Engels, S.

Avnir, D.

J. Rouquerol, D. Avnir, C. W. Fairbridge, D. H. Everett, J. H. Haynes, N. Pernicone, J. D. F. Ramsay, K. S. W. Sing, and K. K. Unger, “Recommendations for the characterization of porous solids,” Pure Appl. Chem. 66, 1739–1758 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Banerjee, G.

G. Banerjee and K. Sengupta, “Pore size optimisation of humidity sensor - a probabilistic approach,” Sens. Actuators B 86, 34–41 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Barbe, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bartolini, P.

D. S. Wiersma, P. Bartolini, A. Lagendijk, and R. Righini, “Localization of light in a disordered medium,” Nature 390, 671–673 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Benner, D. C.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bernath, P. E.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bird,

Hirschfelder, Curtiss, and Bird, Molecular Theory of Gases and Liquids (Wiley, New York, 1954).

Birk, M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bloch, D.

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M. Fichet, G. Dutier, A. Yarovitsky, P. Todorov, I. Hamdi, I. Maurin, S. Saltiel, D. Sarkisyan, M. P. Gorza, D. Bloch, and M. Ducloy, “Exploring the van der Waals atom-surface attraction in the nanometric range,” Euro-phys. Lett. 77, 54001 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Dutier, A. Yarovitski, S. Saltiel, A. Papoyan, D. Sarkisyan, D. Bloch, and M. Ducloy “Collapse and revival of a Dicke-type coherent narrowing in a sub-micron thick vapor cell transmission spectroscopy,” Europhys. Lett. 63, 35–41 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Schawlow, A. L.

G. R. Gunthermohr, R. L. White, A. L. Schawlow, W. E. Good, and D. K. Coles, “Hyperfine structure in the spectrum of N14H3. I. Experimental results,” Phys. Rev. 94, 1184–1191 (1954).
[CrossRef]

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G. Banerjee and K. Sengupta, “Pore size optimisation of humidity sensor - a probabilistic approach,” Sens. Actuators B 86, 34–41 (2002).
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S. Ghosh, J. E. Sharping, D. G. Ouzounov, and A. L. Gaeta, “Resonant optical interactions with molecules confined in photonic band-gap fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 093902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shen, Z.

T. Svensson and Z. Shen, “Laser spectroscopy of gas confined in nanoporous materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 021107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Simeckova, M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sing, K. S. W.

J. Rouquerol, D. Avnir, C. W. Fairbridge, D. H. Everett, J. H. Haynes, N. Pernicone, J. D. F. Ramsay, K. S. W. Sing, and K. K. Unger, “Recommendations for the characterization of porous solids,” Pure Appl. Chem. 66, 1739–1758 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Sjöholm, M.

Smith, M. A. H.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Somers, R. M.

P. E. Wagner, R. M. Somers, and J. L. Jenkins, “Line broadening and relaxation of 3 microwave transitions in ammonia by wall and intermolecular collisions,” J. Phys. B. 14, 4763–4770 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Somesfalean, G.

Störzer, M.

M. Störzer, P. Gross, C. M. Aegerter, and G. Maret, “Observation of the critical regime near Anderson localization of light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96 (2006).

Strandberg, M. W. P.

R. H. Johnson and M. W. P. Strandberg, “Broadening of microwave absorption lines by collisions with the cell walls,” Phys. Rev. 86, 811–812 (1952).
[CrossRef]

Sukenik, C. I.

V. Sandoghdar, C. I. Sukenik, E. A. Hinds, and S. Haroche, “Direct measurement of the van der Waals interaction between an atom and its images in a micron-sized cavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 3432–3435 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sung, K.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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Svanberg, K.

M. Lewander, Z. G. Guan, K. Svanberg, S. Svanberg, and T. Svensson, “Clinical system for non-invasive in situ monitoring of gases in the human paranasal sinuses,” Opt. Express 17, 10849–10863 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Persson, M. Andersson, M. Cassel-Engquist, K. Svanberg, and S. Svanberg, “Gas monitoring in human sinuses using tunable diode laser spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 054001 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Persson, M. Andersson, T. Svensson, M. Cassel-Engquist, K. Svanberg, and S. Svanberg, “Non-intrusive optical study of gas and its exchange in human maxillary sinuses,” Proc. SPIE 6628, 662804 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Svanberg, S.

S. Svanberg, “Optical analysis of trapped gas-Gas in scattering media absorption spectroscopy,” Laser Phys. 20, 68–77 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Lewander, Z. G. Guan, K. Svanberg, S. Svanberg, and T. Svensson, “Clinical system for non-invasive in situ monitoring of gases in the human paranasal sinuses,” Opt. Express 17, 10849–10863 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Lewander, Z. G. Guan, L. Persson, A. Olsson, and S. Svanberg, “Food monitoring based on diode laser gas spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 93, 619–625 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Svensson, M. Andersson, L. Rippe, S. Svanberg, S. Andersson-Engels, J. Johansson, and S. Folestad, “VCSEL-based oxygen spectroscopy for structural analysis of pharmaceutical solids,” Appl. Phys. B 90, 345–354 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Persson, M. Andersson, M. Cassel-Engquist, K. Svanberg, and S. Svanberg, “Gas monitoring in human sinuses using tunable diode laser spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 054001 (2007).
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T. Svensson, L. Persson, M. Andersson, S. Svanberg, S. Andersson-Engels, J. Johansson, and S. Folestad, “Non-invasive characterization of pharmaceutical solids by diode laser oxygen spectroscopy,” Appl. Spectrosc. 61, 784–786 (2007).
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L. Persson, M. Andersson, T. Svensson, M. Cassel-Engquist, K. Svanberg, and S. Svanberg, “Non-intrusive optical study of gas and its exchange in human maxillary sinuses,” Proc. SPIE 6628, 662804 (2007).
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M. Andersson, L. Persson, T. Svensson, and S. Svanberg, “Flexible lock-in detection system based on synchronized computer plug-in boards applied in sensitive gas spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 113107 (2007).
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M. Andersson, L. Persson, M. Sjöholm, and S. Svanberg, “Spectroscopic studies of wood-drying processes,” Opt. Express 14, 3641–3653 (2006).
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Svensson, T.

T. Svensson, E. Alerstam, J. Johansson, and S. Andersson-Engels, “Optical porosimetry and investigations of the porosity experienced by light interacting with porous media,” Opt. Lett. 35, 1740–1742 (2010).
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T. Svensson and Z. Shen, “Laser spectroscopy of gas confined in nanoporous materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 021107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Lewander, Z. G. Guan, K. Svanberg, S. Svanberg, and T. Svensson, “Clinical system for non-invasive in situ monitoring of gases in the human paranasal sinuses,” Opt. Express 17, 10849–10863 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Svensson, E. Alerstam, D. Khoptyar, J. Johansson, S. Folestad, and S. Andersson-Engels, “Near infrared photon time-of-flight spectroscopy of turbid materials up to 1400 nm,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80, 063105 (2009).
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T. Svensson, M. Andersson, L. Rippe, J. Johansson, S. Folestad, and S. Andersson-Engels, “High sensitivity gas spectroscopy of porous, highly scattering solids,” Opt. Lett. 33, 80–82 (2008).
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T. Svensson, M. Andersson, L. Rippe, S. Svanberg, S. Andersson-Engels, J. Johansson, and S. Folestad, “VCSEL-based oxygen spectroscopy for structural analysis of pharmaceutical solids,” Appl. Phys. B 90, 345–354 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Persson, M. Andersson, T. Svensson, M. Cassel-Engquist, K. Svanberg, and S. Svanberg, “Non-intrusive optical study of gas and its exchange in human maxillary sinuses,” Proc. SPIE 6628, 662804 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Svensson, L. Persson, M. Andersson, S. Svanberg, S. Andersson-Engels, J. Johansson, and S. Folestad, “Non-invasive characterization of pharmaceutical solids by diode laser oxygen spectroscopy,” Appl. Spectrosc. 61, 784–786 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Andersson, L. Persson, T. Svensson, and S. Svanberg, “Flexible lock-in detection system based on synchronized computer plug-in boards applied in sensitive gas spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 113107 (2007).
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Tashkun, S. A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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Todorov, P.

M. Fichet, G. Dutier, A. Yarovitsky, P. Todorov, I. Hamdi, I. Maurin, S. Saltiel, D. Sarkisyan, M. P. Gorza, D. Bloch, and M. Ducloy, “Exploring the van der Waals atom-surface attraction in the nanometric range,” Euro-phys. Lett. 77, 54001 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Toth, R. A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, and M. Dulick, “Empirical line parameters of H162O near 0.94 µm: Positions, intensities and air-broadening coefficients,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 212, 57–82 (2002).
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Unger, K. K.

J. Rouquerol, D. Avnir, C. W. Fairbridge, D. H. Everett, J. H. Haynes, N. Pernicone, J. D. F. Ramsay, K. S. W. Sing, and K. K. Unger, “Recommendations for the characterization of porous solids,” Pure Appl. Chem. 66, 1739–1758 (1994).
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Vandaele, A. C.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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Vander Auwera, J.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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Wagner, P. E.

P. E. Wagner, R. M. Somers, and J. L. Jenkins, “Line broadening and relaxation of 3 microwave transitions in ammonia by wall and intermolecular collisions,” J. Phys. B. 14, 4763–4770 (1981).
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E. W. Washburn, “The dynamics of capillary flow.” Phys. Rev. 17, 273–283 (1921).
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White, R. L.

G. R. Gunthermohr, R. L. White, A. L. Schawlow, W. E. Good, and D. K. Coles, “Hyperfine structure in the spectrum of N14H3. I. Experimental results,” Phys. Rev. 94, 1184–1191 (1954).
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D. S. Wiersma, P. Bartolini, A. Lagendijk, and R. Righini, “Localization of light in a disordered medium,” Nature 390, 671–673 (1997).
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Yarovitski, A.

G. Dutier, A. Yarovitski, S. Saltiel, A. Papoyan, D. Sarkisyan, D. Bloch, and M. Ducloy “Collapse and revival of a Dicke-type coherent narrowing in a sub-micron thick vapor cell transmission spectroscopy,” Europhys. Lett. 63, 35–41 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yarovitsky, A.

M. Fichet, G. Dutier, A. Yarovitsky, P. Todorov, I. Hamdi, I. Maurin, S. Saltiel, D. Sarkisyan, M. P. Gorza, D. Bloch, and M. Ducloy, “Exploring the van der Waals atom-surface attraction in the nanometric range,” Euro-phys. Lett. 77, 54001 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zaccanti, G.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. B (2)

T. Svensson, M. Andersson, L. Rippe, S. Svanberg, S. Andersson-Engels, J. Johansson, and S. Folestad, “VCSEL-based oxygen spectroscopy for structural analysis of pharmaceutical solids,” Appl. Phys. B 90, 345–354 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Lewander, Z. G. Guan, L. Persson, A. Olsson, and S. Svanberg, “Food monitoring based on diode laser gas spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 93, 619–625 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

T. Svensson and Z. Shen, “Laser spectroscopy of gas confined in nanoporous materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 021107 (2010).
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Appl. Spectrosc. (1)

Euro-phys. Lett. (1)

M. Fichet, G. Dutier, A. Yarovitsky, P. Todorov, I. Hamdi, I. Maurin, S. Saltiel, D. Sarkisyan, M. P. Gorza, D. Bloch, and M. Ducloy, “Exploring the van der Waals atom-surface attraction in the nanometric range,” Euro-phys. Lett. 77, 54001 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Europhys. Lett. (1)

G. Dutier, A. Yarovitski, S. Saltiel, A. Papoyan, D. Sarkisyan, D. Bloch, and M. Ducloy “Collapse and revival of a Dicke-type coherent narrowing in a sub-micron thick vapor cell transmission spectroscopy,” Europhys. Lett. 63, 35–41 (2003).
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J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

L. Persson, M. Andersson, M. Cassel-Engquist, K. Svanberg, and S. Svanberg, “Gas monitoring in human sinuses using tunable diode laser spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 054001 (2007).
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L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, and M. Dulick, “Empirical line parameters of H162O near 0.94 µm: Positions, intensities and air-broadening coefficients,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 212, 57–82 (2002).
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J. Phys. B. (2)

S. C. M. Luijendijk, “Effect of wall collisions on shape of microwave-absorption lines,” J. Phys. B. 8, 2995–3000 (1975).
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P. E. Wagner, R. M. Somers, and J. L. Jenkins, “Line broadening and relaxation of 3 microwave transitions in ammonia by wall and intermolecular collisions,” J. Phys. B. 14, 4763–4770 (1981).
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J. Olivero and R. Longbothum, “Empirical fits to Voigt line-width - brief review,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 17, 233–236 (1977).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Laser Phys. (1)

S. Svanberg, “Optical analysis of trapped gas-Gas in scattering media absorption spectroscopy,” Laser Phys. 20, 68–77 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

D. S. Wiersma, P. Bartolini, A. Lagendijk, and R. Righini, “Localization of light in a disordered medium,” Nature 390, 671–673 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Rev. (6)

R. H. Johnson and M. W. P. Strandberg, “Broadening of microwave absorption lines by collisions with the cell walls,” Phys. Rev. 86, 811–812 (1952).
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M. Danos and S. Geschwind, “Broadening of microwave absorption lines due to wall collisions,” Phys. Rev. 91, 1159–1162 (1953).
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G. R. Gunthermohr, R. L. White, A. L. Schawlow, W. E. Good, and D. K. Coles, “Hyperfine structure in the spectrum of N14H3. I. Experimental results,” Phys. Rev. 94, 1184–1191 (1954).
[CrossRef]

E. W. Washburn, “The dynamics of capillary flow.” Phys. Rev. 17, 273–283 (1921).
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R. Dicke, “The effect of collisions upon the Doppler width of spectral lines,” Phys. Rev. 89, 472–473 (1953).
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Phys. Rev. A (1)

R. P. Frueholz and J. C. Camparo, “Implications of the trapping-desorption and direct inelastic-scattering channels on Dicke-narrowed line-shapes,” Phys. Rev. A 35, 3768–3774 (1987).
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Phys. Rev. Lett. (4)

V. Sandoghdar, C. I. Sukenik, E. A. Hinds, and S. Haroche, “Direct measurement of the van der Waals interaction between an atom and its images in a micron-sized cavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 3432–3435 (1992).
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S. Ghosh, J. E. Sharping, D. G. Ouzounov, and A. L. Gaeta, “Resonant optical interactions with molecules confined in photonic band-gap fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 093902 (2005).
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J. Hald, J. C. Petersen, and J. Henningsen, “Saturated optical absorption by slow molecules in hollow-core photonic band-gap fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 213902 (2007).
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M. Störzer, P. Gross, C. M. Aegerter, and G. Maret, “Observation of the critical regime near Anderson localization of light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96 (2006).

Proc. SPIE (1)

L. Persson, M. Andersson, T. Svensson, M. Cassel-Engquist, K. Svanberg, and S. Svanberg, “Non-intrusive optical study of gas and its exchange in human maxillary sinuses,” Proc. SPIE 6628, 662804 (2007).
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Pure Appl. Chem. (1)

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic of the TDLAS instrumentation (see text for details).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Results of mercury intrusion porosimetry. In (a), the cumulative intrusion is plotted versus pore diameter (not versus mercury pressure). Note that the pressure increase towards the right, while the pore diameter decrease (smaller pores are filled at higher pressures). The intrusion comes a halt at 0.317 mL. Since the measurement was performed on a sample with a volume of 0.8948 mL, the porosity is approximately 35.4%. The pore size distribution is shown in (b), and is the derivative of the cumulative intrusion.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Distribution of pathlengths for photons detected after transmission through the alumina material. Experimental data (black) was recorded for a 2.25 mm thick sample at 940 nm, while the simulated data (red) corresponds to transmission through a 6 mm thick sample for light at 935 nm.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Experimental data from measurement over a 100 cm path through ambient air at about 983 mbar, 296 K and 19% relative humidity. Analysis of the etalon fringes gives a tuning coefficient of −3.8 GHz/mA (0.01 nm/mA).

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Spectral evaluation of the 100 cm ambient air data shown in Fig. 4 based on HITRAN-based fitting (left) and Lorentzian fitting (right). The fitted spectra (red solid) overlays experimental data (black solid).

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Example of the speckle-type interference encountered during measurement on the porous alumina (ambient conditions). The transmittance spectra is heavily distorted if interference suppression is turned off. The acquisition time was 60 s in both measurements. The bottom graph states the normalized difference in detector signals when tracking coils are switched on and off, i.e. (u off s u on s )/u on s . The peak-to-peak interference level is on the order of 5 × 10−3.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Experimental spectrum of water vapor confined in the nanoporous alumina (black solid) together with a fit based on four Lorentzian peaks (red solid). The acquisition time was 60 s. In order to visualize the strong line broadening due to nano-confinenment, a peak normalized HITRAN simulation for water vapor (1 atm, 296 K) is shown for reference.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Part (a) shows gas exchange dynamics during relaxation from 100% RH to ambient conditions (23% RH). Part (b) shows simultaneous monitoring of water vapor and oxygen during a nitrogen flushing experiment. The nitrogen flushing is started at t = 0 and stopped at t = 4 min (range marked in grey), and the time-resolution is 4 s (interference suppression via beam dithering requires some averaging time). In contrast to the slow exchange of water vapor, as seen also in part (a), the response for oxygen is rapid.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Line parameters of the two strongest lines investigated in this work. Except for the Doppler and Voigt widths (Γ D and Γ V ), values are taken from the HITRAN 2008 compilation [26]. An important original source of line parameters is [27]. Γ D and Γ V are calculated theoretically for atmospheric conditions (1 atm and 296 K) [28].

Tables Icon

Table 2. Comparison of expected and measured spectral position and linewidths. Spectral positions are given relative to the position of the strongest line. Expected linewidth, Γ V , refers to Voigt HWHM the calculated for 983 mbar (0.97 atm) and 295.5 K [28]. Γfit L refers to the linewidth of fitted Lorentzian lineshapes, and α fit to fitted peak absorbance.

Tables Icon

Table 3. Experimentally determined spectral parameters of water vapor confined in the nanoporous alumina (spectral data shown in Fig. 7). Γfit L refers to the linewidth of fitted Lorentzian lineshapes, and α fit to fitted peak absorbance. For spectral position and HWHM, the uncertainty is given as one standard deviation (three measurements, different days). Since the time between measurement and removal from 100% RH differs, only the mean peak absorbance can be given. HITRAN-based values (ν 0 and Γ V ) for free ambient H2O (1 atm, 296 K) are stated for reference.

Equations (9)

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f wall = 1 τ wall = A V k T K 2 π m = A 4 V × v avg
u s ( ν ) = u 0 ( ν ) × T ( ν )
u 0 ( ν ) a 0 + a 1 × u r ( ν )
u s ( ν ) ( a 0 + a 1 × u r ( ν ) ) × ( 1 + k × ( T sim ( ν ν 0 ) 1 ) )
T ( ν ) exp ( Σ i α i × g ¯ ( Γ i , ν ν 0 i ) )
u s ( ν ) ( a 0 + a 1 × u r ( ν ) ) × exp ( Σ i α i × g ¯ ( Γ i , ν ν 0 i ) )
p = 6.0326 × 10 3 exp ( 17.502 ( T K 273.15 ) T K 32.18 )
T ( ν ) = exp ( S g ( ν ν 0 ) NL )
0.97 = T min = exp ( S g max NL )

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