Abstract

In this paper, we reported high speed optical test on polymeric optical waveguide array with embedded 45º micro-mirrors on flexible substrate for out-of-plane optical interconnects. The waveguide array was bent with curvature ranging from 61mm to 5mm. As the bending radius decreases, the average insertion loss increases from 3.4dB to 7.7dB for single-mode fiber (SMF) coupling and from 5.5dB to 7.9dB for multi-mode fiber (MMF) coupling, respectively. Eye-diagrams under such bending conditions show that the Q factor decreases from 8.0 to 6.1 and the calculated bit error rate (BER) increases from 10-16 to 10-10 at 10Gbps.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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  1. O. Ishida, and T. Wang, “100 gigabit Ethernet transport,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 48, S4 - S4, (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  2. R. T. Chen, L. Lin, C. Choi, Y. Liu, B. Bihari, L. Wu, S. Tang, R. Wickman, B. Picor, M. K. Hibbs-Brenner, J. Bristow, and Y. S. Liu, “Fully Embedded Board level Guided-wave Optoelctronic Interconnects,” Proc. IEEE 88, 780-793 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  3. F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. W. Baks, D. M. Kuchta, P. Pepeljugoski, L. Schares, R. Budd, F. Libsch, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, and J. A. Kash, “160 Gb/s Bidirectional Polymer-Waveguide Board-Level Optical Interconnects Using CMOS-Based Transceivers,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packaging 32(2),345-359 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  4. X. Y. Dou, X. L Wang, H. Y. Huang, X. H. Lin, D. Ding, D. Z. Pan, and R. T. Chen, “Polymeric waveguides with embedded micro-mirrors formed by Metallic Hard Mold,” Opt. Express 18, 378-385 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  5. L. Wang, X. Wang, W. Jiang, J. Choi, H. Bi, and R. T. Chen, “45° polymer-based total internal reflection coupling mirrors for fully embedded intraboard guided wave optical interconnects,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(14), 141110 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  6. X. Wang, W. Jiang, L. Wang, H. Bi, and R. T. Chen, “Fully Embedded Board-Level Optical Interconnects From Waveguide Fabrication to Device Integration,” J. Lightwave Technol. 26(2), 243-250 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. Hikita, R. Yoshimura, M. Usui, S. Tomaru, and S. Imamura, “Polymeric optical waveguides for optical interconnections,” Thin Solid Films,  331(1), 303-308 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  8. F. Wang, F. Liu, and A. Adibi, “45 Degree Polymer Micromirror Integration for Board-Level Three-Dimensional Optical Interconnects,” Opt. Express 17(13), 10514-10521 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  9. W. J. Lee, S. H. Hwang, J. W. Lim, and B. S. Rho, “Polymeric Waveguide Film With Embedded Mirror for Multilayer Optical Circuits,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(1), 12-14 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. Van Erps, N. Hendrickx, C. Debaes, P. Van Daele, and H. Thienpont, “Discrete Out-of-Plane Coupling Components for Printed Circuit Board-Level Optical Interconnections” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(21), 1753-1755 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  11. N. Hendrickx, J. Van Erps, E. Bosman, C. Debaes, H. Thienpont, and P. Van Daele, “Embedded Micromirror Inserts for Optical Printed Circuit Boards,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(20), 1727-1729 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  12. B. S. Rho, W. J. Lee, J. W. Lim, G. W. Kim, C. H. Cho, and S. H. Hwang, “High-reliability flexible optical printed circuit board for opto-electric interconnections,” Opt. Eng. 48(1), 015401 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  13. B. Howley, X. L. Wang, Y. H. Chen, and R. T. Chen, “Experimental evaluation of curved polymer waveguides with air trenches and offsets,” J. Appl. Phys. 100, 023114 (2006).
    [CrossRef]

2010 (2)

2009 (4)

F. Wang, F. Liu, and A. Adibi, “45 Degree Polymer Micromirror Integration for Board-Level Three-Dimensional Optical Interconnects,” Opt. Express 17(13), 10514-10521 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. W. Baks, D. M. Kuchta, P. Pepeljugoski, L. Schares, R. Budd, F. Libsch, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, and J. A. Kash, “160 Gb/s Bidirectional Polymer-Waveguide Board-Level Optical Interconnects Using CMOS-Based Transceivers,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packaging 32(2),345-359 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Lee, S. H. Hwang, J. W. Lim, and B. S. Rho, “Polymeric Waveguide Film With Embedded Mirror for Multilayer Optical Circuits,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(1), 12-14 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. S. Rho, W. J. Lee, J. W. Lim, G. W. Kim, C. H. Cho, and S. H. Hwang, “High-reliability flexible optical printed circuit board for opto-electric interconnections,” Opt. Eng. 48(1), 015401 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

N. Hendrickx, J. Van Erps, E. Bosman, C. Debaes, H. Thienpont, and P. Van Daele, “Embedded Micromirror Inserts for Optical Printed Circuit Boards,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(20), 1727-1729 (2008).
[CrossRef]

X. Wang, W. Jiang, L. Wang, H. Bi, and R. T. Chen, “Fully Embedded Board-Level Optical Interconnects From Waveguide Fabrication to Device Integration,” J. Lightwave Technol. 26(2), 243-250 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

J. Van Erps, N. Hendrickx, C. Debaes, P. Van Daele, and H. Thienpont, “Discrete Out-of-Plane Coupling Components for Printed Circuit Board-Level Optical Interconnections” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(21), 1753-1755 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

B. Howley, X. L. Wang, Y. H. Chen, and R. T. Chen, “Experimental evaluation of curved polymer waveguides with air trenches and offsets,” J. Appl. Phys. 100, 023114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

L. Wang, X. Wang, W. Jiang, J. Choi, H. Bi, and R. T. Chen, “45° polymer-based total internal reflection coupling mirrors for fully embedded intraboard guided wave optical interconnects,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(14), 141110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

R. T. Chen, L. Lin, C. Choi, Y. Liu, B. Bihari, L. Wu, S. Tang, R. Wickman, B. Picor, M. K. Hibbs-Brenner, J. Bristow, and Y. S. Liu, “Fully Embedded Board level Guided-wave Optoelctronic Interconnects,” Proc. IEEE 88, 780-793 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

M. Hikita, R. Yoshimura, M. Usui, S. Tomaru, and S. Imamura, “Polymeric optical waveguides for optical interconnections,” Thin Solid Films,  331(1), 303-308 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Adibi, A.

Baks, C. W.

F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. W. Baks, D. M. Kuchta, P. Pepeljugoski, L. Schares, R. Budd, F. Libsch, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, and J. A. Kash, “160 Gb/s Bidirectional Polymer-Waveguide Board-Level Optical Interconnects Using CMOS-Based Transceivers,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packaging 32(2),345-359 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bi, H.

X. Wang, W. Jiang, L. Wang, H. Bi, and R. T. Chen, “Fully Embedded Board-Level Optical Interconnects From Waveguide Fabrication to Device Integration,” J. Lightwave Technol. 26(2), 243-250 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Wang, X. Wang, W. Jiang, J. Choi, H. Bi, and R. T. Chen, “45° polymer-based total internal reflection coupling mirrors for fully embedded intraboard guided wave optical interconnects,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(14), 141110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bihari, B.

R. T. Chen, L. Lin, C. Choi, Y. Liu, B. Bihari, L. Wu, S. Tang, R. Wickman, B. Picor, M. K. Hibbs-Brenner, J. Bristow, and Y. S. Liu, “Fully Embedded Board level Guided-wave Optoelctronic Interconnects,” Proc. IEEE 88, 780-793 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bosman, E.

N. Hendrickx, J. Van Erps, E. Bosman, C. Debaes, H. Thienpont, and P. Van Daele, “Embedded Micromirror Inserts for Optical Printed Circuit Boards,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(20), 1727-1729 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bristow, J.

R. T. Chen, L. Lin, C. Choi, Y. Liu, B. Bihari, L. Wu, S. Tang, R. Wickman, B. Picor, M. K. Hibbs-Brenner, J. Bristow, and Y. S. Liu, “Fully Embedded Board level Guided-wave Optoelctronic Interconnects,” Proc. IEEE 88, 780-793 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Budd, R.

F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. W. Baks, D. M. Kuchta, P. Pepeljugoski, L. Schares, R. Budd, F. Libsch, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, and J. A. Kash, “160 Gb/s Bidirectional Polymer-Waveguide Board-Level Optical Interconnects Using CMOS-Based Transceivers,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packaging 32(2),345-359 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chen, R. T.

X. Y. Dou, X. L Wang, H. Y. Huang, X. H. Lin, D. Ding, D. Z. Pan, and R. T. Chen, “Polymeric waveguides with embedded micro-mirrors formed by Metallic Hard Mold,” Opt. Express 18, 378-385 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X. Wang, W. Jiang, L. Wang, H. Bi, and R. T. Chen, “Fully Embedded Board-Level Optical Interconnects From Waveguide Fabrication to Device Integration,” J. Lightwave Technol. 26(2), 243-250 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Howley, X. L. Wang, Y. H. Chen, and R. T. Chen, “Experimental evaluation of curved polymer waveguides with air trenches and offsets,” J. Appl. Phys. 100, 023114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. Wang, X. Wang, W. Jiang, J. Choi, H. Bi, and R. T. Chen, “45° polymer-based total internal reflection coupling mirrors for fully embedded intraboard guided wave optical interconnects,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(14), 141110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. T. Chen, L. Lin, C. Choi, Y. Liu, B. Bihari, L. Wu, S. Tang, R. Wickman, B. Picor, M. K. Hibbs-Brenner, J. Bristow, and Y. S. Liu, “Fully Embedded Board level Guided-wave Optoelctronic Interconnects,” Proc. IEEE 88, 780-793 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y. H.

B. Howley, X. L. Wang, Y. H. Chen, and R. T. Chen, “Experimental evaluation of curved polymer waveguides with air trenches and offsets,” J. Appl. Phys. 100, 023114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cho, C. H.

B. S. Rho, W. J. Lee, J. W. Lim, G. W. Kim, C. H. Cho, and S. H. Hwang, “High-reliability flexible optical printed circuit board for opto-electric interconnections,” Opt. Eng. 48(1), 015401 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Choi, C.

R. T. Chen, L. Lin, C. Choi, Y. Liu, B. Bihari, L. Wu, S. Tang, R. Wickman, B. Picor, M. K. Hibbs-Brenner, J. Bristow, and Y. S. Liu, “Fully Embedded Board level Guided-wave Optoelctronic Interconnects,” Proc. IEEE 88, 780-793 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Choi, J.

L. Wang, X. Wang, W. Jiang, J. Choi, H. Bi, and R. T. Chen, “45° polymer-based total internal reflection coupling mirrors for fully embedded intraboard guided wave optical interconnects,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(14), 141110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dangel, R.

F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. W. Baks, D. M. Kuchta, P. Pepeljugoski, L. Schares, R. Budd, F. Libsch, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, and J. A. Kash, “160 Gb/s Bidirectional Polymer-Waveguide Board-Level Optical Interconnects Using CMOS-Based Transceivers,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packaging 32(2),345-359 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Debaes, C.

N. Hendrickx, J. Van Erps, E. Bosman, C. Debaes, H. Thienpont, and P. Van Daele, “Embedded Micromirror Inserts for Optical Printed Circuit Boards,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(20), 1727-1729 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Van Erps, N. Hendrickx, C. Debaes, P. Van Daele, and H. Thienpont, “Discrete Out-of-Plane Coupling Components for Printed Circuit Board-Level Optical Interconnections” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(21), 1753-1755 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ding, D.

Doany, F. E.

F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. W. Baks, D. M. Kuchta, P. Pepeljugoski, L. Schares, R. Budd, F. Libsch, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, and J. A. Kash, “160 Gb/s Bidirectional Polymer-Waveguide Board-Level Optical Interconnects Using CMOS-Based Transceivers,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packaging 32(2),345-359 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dou, X. Y.

Hendrickx, N.

N. Hendrickx, J. Van Erps, E. Bosman, C. Debaes, H. Thienpont, and P. Van Daele, “Embedded Micromirror Inserts for Optical Printed Circuit Boards,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(20), 1727-1729 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Van Erps, N. Hendrickx, C. Debaes, P. Van Daele, and H. Thienpont, “Discrete Out-of-Plane Coupling Components for Printed Circuit Board-Level Optical Interconnections” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(21), 1753-1755 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hibbs-Brenner, M. K.

R. T. Chen, L. Lin, C. Choi, Y. Liu, B. Bihari, L. Wu, S. Tang, R. Wickman, B. Picor, M. K. Hibbs-Brenner, J. Bristow, and Y. S. Liu, “Fully Embedded Board level Guided-wave Optoelctronic Interconnects,” Proc. IEEE 88, 780-793 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hikita, M.

M. Hikita, R. Yoshimura, M. Usui, S. Tomaru, and S. Imamura, “Polymeric optical waveguides for optical interconnections,” Thin Solid Films,  331(1), 303-308 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Horst, F.

F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. W. Baks, D. M. Kuchta, P. Pepeljugoski, L. Schares, R. Budd, F. Libsch, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, and J. A. Kash, “160 Gb/s Bidirectional Polymer-Waveguide Board-Level Optical Interconnects Using CMOS-Based Transceivers,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packaging 32(2),345-359 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Howley, B.

B. Howley, X. L. Wang, Y. H. Chen, and R. T. Chen, “Experimental evaluation of curved polymer waveguides with air trenches and offsets,” J. Appl. Phys. 100, 023114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Huang, H. Y.

Hwang, S. H.

B. S. Rho, W. J. Lee, J. W. Lim, G. W. Kim, C. H. Cho, and S. H. Hwang, “High-reliability flexible optical printed circuit board for opto-electric interconnections,” Opt. Eng. 48(1), 015401 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Lee, S. H. Hwang, J. W. Lim, and B. S. Rho, “Polymeric Waveguide Film With Embedded Mirror for Multilayer Optical Circuits,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(1), 12-14 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Imamura, S.

M. Hikita, R. Yoshimura, M. Usui, S. Tomaru, and S. Imamura, “Polymeric optical waveguides for optical interconnections,” Thin Solid Films,  331(1), 303-308 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ishida, O.

O. Ishida, and T. Wang, “100 gigabit Ethernet transport,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 48, S4 - S4, (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, W.

X. Wang, W. Jiang, L. Wang, H. Bi, and R. T. Chen, “Fully Embedded Board-Level Optical Interconnects From Waveguide Fabrication to Device Integration,” J. Lightwave Technol. 26(2), 243-250 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Wang, X. Wang, W. Jiang, J. Choi, H. Bi, and R. T. Chen, “45° polymer-based total internal reflection coupling mirrors for fully embedded intraboard guided wave optical interconnects,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(14), 141110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kash, J. A.

F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. W. Baks, D. M. Kuchta, P. Pepeljugoski, L. Schares, R. Budd, F. Libsch, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, and J. A. Kash, “160 Gb/s Bidirectional Polymer-Waveguide Board-Level Optical Interconnects Using CMOS-Based Transceivers,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packaging 32(2),345-359 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kim, G. W.

B. S. Rho, W. J. Lee, J. W. Lim, G. W. Kim, C. H. Cho, and S. H. Hwang, “High-reliability flexible optical printed circuit board for opto-electric interconnections,” Opt. Eng. 48(1), 015401 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kuchta, D. M.

F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. W. Baks, D. M. Kuchta, P. Pepeljugoski, L. Schares, R. Budd, F. Libsch, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, and J. A. Kash, “160 Gb/s Bidirectional Polymer-Waveguide Board-Level Optical Interconnects Using CMOS-Based Transceivers,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packaging 32(2),345-359 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lee, W. J.

B. S. Rho, W. J. Lee, J. W. Lim, G. W. Kim, C. H. Cho, and S. H. Hwang, “High-reliability flexible optical printed circuit board for opto-electric interconnections,” Opt. Eng. 48(1), 015401 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Lee, S. H. Hwang, J. W. Lim, and B. S. Rho, “Polymeric Waveguide Film With Embedded Mirror for Multilayer Optical Circuits,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(1), 12-14 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Libsch, F.

F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. W. Baks, D. M. Kuchta, P. Pepeljugoski, L. Schares, R. Budd, F. Libsch, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, and J. A. Kash, “160 Gb/s Bidirectional Polymer-Waveguide Board-Level Optical Interconnects Using CMOS-Based Transceivers,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packaging 32(2),345-359 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lim, J. W.

W. J. Lee, S. H. Hwang, J. W. Lim, and B. S. Rho, “Polymeric Waveguide Film With Embedded Mirror for Multilayer Optical Circuits,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(1), 12-14 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. S. Rho, W. J. Lee, J. W. Lim, G. W. Kim, C. H. Cho, and S. H. Hwang, “High-reliability flexible optical printed circuit board for opto-electric interconnections,” Opt. Eng. 48(1), 015401 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lin, L.

R. T. Chen, L. Lin, C. Choi, Y. Liu, B. Bihari, L. Wu, S. Tang, R. Wickman, B. Picor, M. K. Hibbs-Brenner, J. Bristow, and Y. S. Liu, “Fully Embedded Board level Guided-wave Optoelctronic Interconnects,” Proc. IEEE 88, 780-793 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lin, X. H.

Liu, F.

Liu, Y.

R. T. Chen, L. Lin, C. Choi, Y. Liu, B. Bihari, L. Wu, S. Tang, R. Wickman, B. Picor, M. K. Hibbs-Brenner, J. Bristow, and Y. S. Liu, “Fully Embedded Board level Guided-wave Optoelctronic Interconnects,” Proc. IEEE 88, 780-793 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y. S.

R. T. Chen, L. Lin, C. Choi, Y. Liu, B. Bihari, L. Wu, S. Tang, R. Wickman, B. Picor, M. K. Hibbs-Brenner, J. Bristow, and Y. S. Liu, “Fully Embedded Board level Guided-wave Optoelctronic Interconnects,” Proc. IEEE 88, 780-793 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Offrein, B. J.

F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. W. Baks, D. M. Kuchta, P. Pepeljugoski, L. Schares, R. Budd, F. Libsch, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, and J. A. Kash, “160 Gb/s Bidirectional Polymer-Waveguide Board-Level Optical Interconnects Using CMOS-Based Transceivers,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packaging 32(2),345-359 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pan, D. Z.

Pepeljugoski, P.

F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. W. Baks, D. M. Kuchta, P. Pepeljugoski, L. Schares, R. Budd, F. Libsch, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, and J. A. Kash, “160 Gb/s Bidirectional Polymer-Waveguide Board-Level Optical Interconnects Using CMOS-Based Transceivers,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packaging 32(2),345-359 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Picor, B.

R. T. Chen, L. Lin, C. Choi, Y. Liu, B. Bihari, L. Wu, S. Tang, R. Wickman, B. Picor, M. K. Hibbs-Brenner, J. Bristow, and Y. S. Liu, “Fully Embedded Board level Guided-wave Optoelctronic Interconnects,” Proc. IEEE 88, 780-793 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Rho, B. S.

B. S. Rho, W. J. Lee, J. W. Lim, G. W. Kim, C. H. Cho, and S. H. Hwang, “High-reliability flexible optical printed circuit board for opto-electric interconnections,” Opt. Eng. 48(1), 015401 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Lee, S. H. Hwang, J. W. Lim, and B. S. Rho, “Polymeric Waveguide Film With Embedded Mirror for Multilayer Optical Circuits,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(1), 12-14 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Schares, L.

F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. W. Baks, D. M. Kuchta, P. Pepeljugoski, L. Schares, R. Budd, F. Libsch, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, and J. A. Kash, “160 Gb/s Bidirectional Polymer-Waveguide Board-Level Optical Interconnects Using CMOS-Based Transceivers,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packaging 32(2),345-359 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Schow, C. L.

F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. W. Baks, D. M. Kuchta, P. Pepeljugoski, L. Schares, R. Budd, F. Libsch, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, and J. A. Kash, “160 Gb/s Bidirectional Polymer-Waveguide Board-Level Optical Interconnects Using CMOS-Based Transceivers,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packaging 32(2),345-359 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tang, S.

R. T. Chen, L. Lin, C. Choi, Y. Liu, B. Bihari, L. Wu, S. Tang, R. Wickman, B. Picor, M. K. Hibbs-Brenner, J. Bristow, and Y. S. Liu, “Fully Embedded Board level Guided-wave Optoelctronic Interconnects,” Proc. IEEE 88, 780-793 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Thienpont, H.

N. Hendrickx, J. Van Erps, E. Bosman, C. Debaes, H. Thienpont, and P. Van Daele, “Embedded Micromirror Inserts for Optical Printed Circuit Boards,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(20), 1727-1729 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Van Erps, N. Hendrickx, C. Debaes, P. Van Daele, and H. Thienpont, “Discrete Out-of-Plane Coupling Components for Printed Circuit Board-Level Optical Interconnections” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(21), 1753-1755 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tomaru, S.

M. Hikita, R. Yoshimura, M. Usui, S. Tomaru, and S. Imamura, “Polymeric optical waveguides for optical interconnections,” Thin Solid Films,  331(1), 303-308 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Usui, M.

M. Hikita, R. Yoshimura, M. Usui, S. Tomaru, and S. Imamura, “Polymeric optical waveguides for optical interconnections,” Thin Solid Films,  331(1), 303-308 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Van Daele, P.

N. Hendrickx, J. Van Erps, E. Bosman, C. Debaes, H. Thienpont, and P. Van Daele, “Embedded Micromirror Inserts for Optical Printed Circuit Boards,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(20), 1727-1729 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Van Erps, N. Hendrickx, C. Debaes, P. Van Daele, and H. Thienpont, “Discrete Out-of-Plane Coupling Components for Printed Circuit Board-Level Optical Interconnections” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(21), 1753-1755 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Van Erps, J.

N. Hendrickx, J. Van Erps, E. Bosman, C. Debaes, H. Thienpont, and P. Van Daele, “Embedded Micromirror Inserts for Optical Printed Circuit Boards,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(20), 1727-1729 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Van Erps, N. Hendrickx, C. Debaes, P. Van Daele, and H. Thienpont, “Discrete Out-of-Plane Coupling Components for Printed Circuit Board-Level Optical Interconnections” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(21), 1753-1755 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wang, F.

Wang, L.

X. Wang, W. Jiang, L. Wang, H. Bi, and R. T. Chen, “Fully Embedded Board-Level Optical Interconnects From Waveguide Fabrication to Device Integration,” J. Lightwave Technol. 26(2), 243-250 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Wang, X. Wang, W. Jiang, J. Choi, H. Bi, and R. T. Chen, “45° polymer-based total internal reflection coupling mirrors for fully embedded intraboard guided wave optical interconnects,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(14), 141110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wang, T.

O. Ishida, and T. Wang, “100 gigabit Ethernet transport,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 48, S4 - S4, (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X.

X. Wang, W. Jiang, L. Wang, H. Bi, and R. T. Chen, “Fully Embedded Board-Level Optical Interconnects From Waveguide Fabrication to Device Integration,” J. Lightwave Technol. 26(2), 243-250 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Wang, X. Wang, W. Jiang, J. Choi, H. Bi, and R. T. Chen, “45° polymer-based total internal reflection coupling mirrors for fully embedded intraboard guided wave optical interconnects,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(14), 141110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X. L

Wang, X. L.

B. Howley, X. L. Wang, Y. H. Chen, and R. T. Chen, “Experimental evaluation of curved polymer waveguides with air trenches and offsets,” J. Appl. Phys. 100, 023114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wickman, R.

R. T. Chen, L. Lin, C. Choi, Y. Liu, B. Bihari, L. Wu, S. Tang, R. Wickman, B. Picor, M. K. Hibbs-Brenner, J. Bristow, and Y. S. Liu, “Fully Embedded Board level Guided-wave Optoelctronic Interconnects,” Proc. IEEE 88, 780-793 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wu, L.

R. T. Chen, L. Lin, C. Choi, Y. Liu, B. Bihari, L. Wu, S. Tang, R. Wickman, B. Picor, M. K. Hibbs-Brenner, J. Bristow, and Y. S. Liu, “Fully Embedded Board level Guided-wave Optoelctronic Interconnects,” Proc. IEEE 88, 780-793 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yoshimura, R.

M. Hikita, R. Yoshimura, M. Usui, S. Tomaru, and S. Imamura, “Polymeric optical waveguides for optical interconnections,” Thin Solid Films,  331(1), 303-308 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

L. Wang, X. Wang, W. Jiang, J. Choi, H. Bi, and R. T. Chen, “45° polymer-based total internal reflection coupling mirrors for fully embedded intraboard guided wave optical interconnects,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(14), 141110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Commun. Mag. (1)

O. Ishida, and T. Wang, “100 gigabit Ethernet transport,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 48, S4 - S4, (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (3)

W. J. Lee, S. H. Hwang, J. W. Lim, and B. S. Rho, “Polymeric Waveguide Film With Embedded Mirror for Multilayer Optical Circuits,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(1), 12-14 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Van Erps, N. Hendrickx, C. Debaes, P. Van Daele, and H. Thienpont, “Discrete Out-of-Plane Coupling Components for Printed Circuit Board-Level Optical Interconnections” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(21), 1753-1755 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. Hendrickx, J. Van Erps, E. Bosman, C. Debaes, H. Thienpont, and P. Van Daele, “Embedded Micromirror Inserts for Optical Printed Circuit Boards,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(20), 1727-1729 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Adv. Packaging (1)

F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. W. Baks, D. M. Kuchta, P. Pepeljugoski, L. Schares, R. Budd, F. Libsch, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, and J. A. Kash, “160 Gb/s Bidirectional Polymer-Waveguide Board-Level Optical Interconnects Using CMOS-Based Transceivers,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packaging 32(2),345-359 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

B. Howley, X. L. Wang, Y. H. Chen, and R. T. Chen, “Experimental evaluation of curved polymer waveguides with air trenches and offsets,” J. Appl. Phys. 100, 023114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Opt. Eng. (1)

B. S. Rho, W. J. Lee, J. W. Lim, G. W. Kim, C. H. Cho, and S. H. Hwang, “High-reliability flexible optical printed circuit board for opto-electric interconnections,” Opt. Eng. 48(1), 015401 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Proc. IEEE (1)

R. T. Chen, L. Lin, C. Choi, Y. Liu, B. Bihari, L. Wu, S. Tang, R. Wickman, B. Picor, M. K. Hibbs-Brenner, J. Bristow, and Y. S. Liu, “Fully Embedded Board level Guided-wave Optoelctronic Interconnects,” Proc. IEEE 88, 780-793 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films (1)

M. Hikita, R. Yoshimura, M. Usui, S. Tomaru, and S. Imamura, “Polymeric optical waveguides for optical interconnections,” Thin Solid Films,  331(1), 303-308 (1998).
[CrossRef]

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