Abstract

The drug development industry is faced with increasing costs and decreasing success rates. New ways to understand biology as well as the increasing interest in personalized treatments for smaller patient segments requires new capabilities for the rapid assessment of treatment responses. Deployment of qualified imaging biomarkers lags apparent technology capabilities. The lack of consensus methods and qualification evidence needed for large-scale multi-center trials, as well as the standardization that allows them, are widely acknowledged to be the limiting factors. The current fragmentation in imaging vendor offerings, coupled with the independent activities of individual biopharmaceutical companies and their contract research organizations (CROs), may stand in the way of the greater opportunity were these efforts to be drawn together. A preliminary report, “Volumetric CT: a potential biomarker of response,” of the Quantitative Imaging Biomarkers Alliance (QIBA) activity was presented at the Medical Imaging Continuum: Path Forward for Advancing the Uses of Medical Imaging in the Development of New Biopharmaceutical Products meeting of the Extended Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America (PhRMA) Imaging Group sponsored by the Drug Information Agency (DIA) in October 2008. The clinical context in Lung Cancer and a methodology for approaching the qualification of volumetric CT as a biomarker has since been reported [Acad. Radiol. 17, 100–106, 107–115 (2010)]. This report reviews the effort to collect and utilize publicly available data sets to provide a transparent environment in which to pursue the qualification activities in such a way as to allow independent peer review and verification of results. This article focuses specifically on our role as stewards of image sets for developing new tools.

© 2010 OSA

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2010 (1)

2009 (6)

E. A. Eisenhauer, P. Therasse, J. Bogaerts, L. H. Schwartz, D. Sargent, R. Ford, J. Dancey, S. Arbuck, S. Gwyther, M. Mooney, L. Rubinstein, L. Shankar, L. Dodd, R. Kaplan, D. Lacombe, and J. Verweij, “New response evaluation criteria in solid tumours: revised RECIST guideline (version 1.1),” Eur. J. Cancer 45(2), 228–247 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Gavrielides, L. M. Kinnard, K. J. Myers, and N. Petrick, “Noncalcified lung nodules: volumetric assessment with thoracic CT,” Radiology 251(1), 26–37 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Gavrielides, R. Zeng, L. M. Kinnard, K. J. Myers, and N. Petrick, “A template-based approach for the analysis of lung nodules in a volumetric CT phantom study,” Proc. SPIE 7260, 726009–726011 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. F. McNitt-Gray, L. M. Bidaut, S. G. Armato, C. R. Meyer, M. A. Gavrielides, C. Fenimore, G. McLennan, N. Petrick, B. Zhao, A. P. Reeves, R. Beichel, H. J. Kim, and L. Kinnard, “Computed tomography assessment of response to therapy: tumor volume change measurement, truth data, and error,” Transl. Oncol. 2(4), 216–222 (2009).
[PubMed]

C. R. Meyer, S. G. Armato, C. P. Fenimore, G. McLennan, L. M. Bidaut, D. P. Barboriak, M. A. Gavrielides, E. F. Jackson, M. F. McNitt-Gray, P. E. Kinahan, N. Petrick, and B. Zhao, “Quantitative imaging to assess tumor response to therapy: common themes of measurement, truth data, and error sources,” Transl. Oncol. 2(4), 198–210 (2009).
[PubMed]

B. Zhao, L. P. James, C. S. Moskowitz, P. Guo, M. S. Ginsberg, R. A. Lefkowitz, Y. Qin, G. J. Riely, M. G. Kris, and L. H. Schwartz, “Evaluating variability in tumor measurements from same-day repeat CT scans of patients with non-small cell lung cancer,” Radiology 252(1), 263–272 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (6)

N. Altorki, J. Heymach, M. Guarino, P. Lee, E. Felip, T. Bauer, S. Swann, D. Roychowdhury, L. H. Ottesen, and D. Yankelevitz, “Phase II study of pazopanib (GW786034) given preoperatively in stage I–II non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC): a proof-of-concept study,” Ann. Oncol. 19(Supplement 8), 124 (2008).

L. P. Clarke, R. D. Sriram, and L. B. Schilling, “Imaging as a biomarker: standards for change measurements in therapy workshop summary,” Acad. Radiol. 15(4), 501–530 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. McLennan, L. P. Clarke, and R. J. Hohl, “Imaging as a biomarker for therapy response: cancer as a prototype for the creation of research resources,” Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. 84(4), 433–436 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. G. Armato, C. R. Meyer, M. F. Mcnitt-Gray, G. McLennan, A. P. Reeves, B. Y. Croft, L. P. Clarke, and RIDER Research Group, “The Reference Image Database to Evaluate Response to therapy in lung cancer (RIDER) project: a resource for the development of change-analysis software,” Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. 84(4), 448–456 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Petrick, D. G. Brown, O. Suleiman, and K. J. Myers, “Imaging as a tumor biomarker in oncology drug trials for lung cancer: the FDA perspective,” Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. 84(4), 523–525 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. W. Way, H.-P. Chan, M. M. Goodsitt, B. Sahiner, L. M. Hadjiiski, C. Zhou, and A. Chughtai, “Effect of CT scanning parameters on volumetric measurements of pulmonary nodules by 3D active contour segmentation: a phantom study,” Phys. Med. Biol. 53(5), 1295–1312 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

L. Schwartz, S. Curran, R. Trocola, J. Randazzo, D. Ilson, D. Kelsen, and M. Shah, “Volumetric 3D CT analysis–an early predictor of response to therapy,” J. Clin. Oncol. 25(18S), 4576 (2007).

A. P. Reeves, A. M. Biancardi, T. V. Apanasovich, C. R. Meyer, H. MacMahon, E. J. van Beek, E. A. Kazerooni, D. Yankelevitz, M. F. McNitt-Gray, G. McLennan, S. G. Armato, C. I. Henschke, D. R. Aberle, B. Y. Croft, and L. P. Clarke, “The Lung Image Database Consortium (LIDC): a comparison of different size metrics for pulmonary nodule measurements,” Acad. Radiol. 14(12), 1475–1485 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (4)

M. M. Goodsitt, H.-P. Chan, T. W. Way, S. C. Larson, E. G. Christodoulou, and J. Kim, “Accuracy of the CT numbers of simulated lung nodules imaged with multi-detector CT scanners,” Med. Phys. 33(8), 3006–3017 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Nioutsikou, N. Richard, J. Symonds-Tayler, J. L. Bedford, and S. Webb, “Quantifying the effect of respiratory motion on lung tumour dosimetry with the aid of a breathing phantom with deforming lungs,” Phys. Med. Biol. 51, 3359–3374 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Marten, F. Auer, S. Schmidt, G. Kohl, E. J. Rummeny, and C. Engelke, “Inadequacy of manual measurements compared to automated CT volumetry in assessment of treatment response of pulmonary metastases using RECIST criteria,” Eur. Radiol. 16(4), 781–790 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. Zhao, L. H. Schwartz, C. S. Moskowitz, M. S. Ginsberg, N. A. Rizvi, and M. G. Kris, “Lung cancer: computerized quantification of tumor response--initial results,” Radiology 241(3), 892–898 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

N. R. Bogot, E. A. Kazerooni, A. M. Kelly, L. E. Quint, B. Desjardins, and B. Nan, “Interobserver and intraobserver variability in the assessment of pulmonary nodule size on CT using film and computer display methods,” Acad. Radiol. 12(8), 948–956 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

M.-P. Revel, C. Lefort, A. Bissery, M. Bienvenu, L. Aycard, G. Chatellier, and G. Frija, “Pulmonary nodules: preliminary experience with three-dimensional evaluation,” Radiology 231(2), 459–466 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

J. J. Erasmus, G. W. Gladish, L. Broemeling, B. S. Sabloff, M. T. Truong, R. S. Herbst, and R. F. Munden, “Interobserver and intraobserver variability in measurement of non-small-cell carcinoma lung lesions: implications for assessment of tumor response,” J. Clin. Oncol. 21(13), 2574–2582 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1980 (1)

J. M. Quivey, J. R. Castro, G. T. Chen, A. Moss, and W. M. Marks, “Computerized tomography in the quantitative assessment of tumour response,” Br. J. Cancer Suppl. 4, 30–34 (1980).
[PubMed]

1977 (1)

J. E. Munzenrider, M. Pilepich, J. B. Rene-Ferrero, I. Tchakarova, and B. L. Carter, “Use of body scanner in radiotherapy treatment planning,” Cancer 40(1), 170–179 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1976 (1)

C. G. Moertel and J. A. Hanley, “The effect of measuring error on the results of therapeutic trials in advanced cancer,” Cancer 38(1), 388–394 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bendtsen, C.

P. D. Mozley, L. H. Schwartz, C. Bendtsen, B. Zhao, N. Petrick, and A. J. Buckler, “Change in lung tumor volume as a biomarker of treatment response: A critical review of the evidence,” Ann. Oncol. (to be published).
[PubMed]

Gavrielides, M. A.

Kinnard, L. M.

Mozley, P. D.

P. D. Mozley, L. H. Schwartz, C. Bendtsen, B. Zhao, N. Petrick, and A. J. Buckler, “Change in lung tumor volume as a biomarker of treatment response: A critical review of the evidence,” Ann. Oncol. (to be published).
[PubMed]

Myers, K. J.

Nioutsikou, E.

E. Nioutsikou, N. Richard, J. Symonds-Tayler, J. L. Bedford, and S. Webb, “Quantifying the effect of respiratory motion on lung tumour dosimetry with the aid of a breathing phantom with deforming lungs,” Phys. Med. Biol. 51, 3359–3374 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Petrick, N.

P. D. Mozley, L. H. Schwartz, C. Bendtsen, B. Zhao, N. Petrick, and A. J. Buckler, “Change in lung tumor volume as a biomarker of treatment response: A critical review of the evidence,” Ann. Oncol. (to be published).
[PubMed]

Richard, N.

E. Nioutsikou, N. Richard, J. Symonds-Tayler, J. L. Bedford, and S. Webb, “Quantifying the effect of respiratory motion on lung tumour dosimetry with the aid of a breathing phantom with deforming lungs,” Phys. Med. Biol. 51, 3359–3374 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schwartz, L. H.

P. D. Mozley, L. H. Schwartz, C. Bendtsen, B. Zhao, N. Petrick, and A. J. Buckler, “Change in lung tumor volume as a biomarker of treatment response: A critical review of the evidence,” Ann. Oncol. (to be published).
[PubMed]

Zhao, B.

P. D. Mozley, L. H. Schwartz, C. Bendtsen, B. Zhao, N. Petrick, and A. J. Buckler, “Change in lung tumor volume as a biomarker of treatment response: A critical review of the evidence,” Ann. Oncol. (to be published).
[PubMed]

Aberle, D. R.

A. P. Reeves, A. M. Biancardi, T. V. Apanasovich, C. R. Meyer, H. MacMahon, E. J. van Beek, E. A. Kazerooni, D. Yankelevitz, M. F. McNitt-Gray, G. McLennan, S. G. Armato, C. I. Henschke, D. R. Aberle, B. Y. Croft, and L. P. Clarke, “The Lung Image Database Consortium (LIDC): a comparison of different size metrics for pulmonary nodule measurements,” Acad. Radiol. 14(12), 1475–1485 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Altorki, N.

N. Altorki, J. Heymach, M. Guarino, P. Lee, E. Felip, T. Bauer, S. Swann, D. Roychowdhury, L. H. Ottesen, and D. Yankelevitz, “Phase II study of pazopanib (GW786034) given preoperatively in stage I–II non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC): a proof-of-concept study,” Ann. Oncol. 19(Supplement 8), 124 (2008).

Apanasovich, T. V.

A. P. Reeves, A. M. Biancardi, T. V. Apanasovich, C. R. Meyer, H. MacMahon, E. J. van Beek, E. A. Kazerooni, D. Yankelevitz, M. F. McNitt-Gray, G. McLennan, S. G. Armato, C. I. Henschke, D. R. Aberle, B. Y. Croft, and L. P. Clarke, “The Lung Image Database Consortium (LIDC): a comparison of different size metrics for pulmonary nodule measurements,” Acad. Radiol. 14(12), 1475–1485 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arbuck, S.

E. A. Eisenhauer, P. Therasse, J. Bogaerts, L. H. Schwartz, D. Sargent, R. Ford, J. Dancey, S. Arbuck, S. Gwyther, M. Mooney, L. Rubinstein, L. Shankar, L. Dodd, R. Kaplan, D. Lacombe, and J. Verweij, “New response evaluation criteria in solid tumours: revised RECIST guideline (version 1.1),” Eur. J. Cancer 45(2), 228–247 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Armato, S. G.

C. R. Meyer, S. G. Armato, C. P. Fenimore, G. McLennan, L. M. Bidaut, D. P. Barboriak, M. A. Gavrielides, E. F. Jackson, M. F. McNitt-Gray, P. E. Kinahan, N. Petrick, and B. Zhao, “Quantitative imaging to assess tumor response to therapy: common themes of measurement, truth data, and error sources,” Transl. Oncol. 2(4), 198–210 (2009).
[PubMed]

M. F. McNitt-Gray, L. M. Bidaut, S. G. Armato, C. R. Meyer, M. A. Gavrielides, C. Fenimore, G. McLennan, N. Petrick, B. Zhao, A. P. Reeves, R. Beichel, H. J. Kim, and L. Kinnard, “Computed tomography assessment of response to therapy: tumor volume change measurement, truth data, and error,” Transl. Oncol. 2(4), 216–222 (2009).
[PubMed]

S. G. Armato, C. R. Meyer, M. F. Mcnitt-Gray, G. McLennan, A. P. Reeves, B. Y. Croft, L. P. Clarke, and RIDER Research Group, “The Reference Image Database to Evaluate Response to therapy in lung cancer (RIDER) project: a resource for the development of change-analysis software,” Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. 84(4), 448–456 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. P. Reeves, A. M. Biancardi, T. V. Apanasovich, C. R. Meyer, H. MacMahon, E. J. van Beek, E. A. Kazerooni, D. Yankelevitz, M. F. McNitt-Gray, G. McLennan, S. G. Armato, C. I. Henschke, D. R. Aberle, B. Y. Croft, and L. P. Clarke, “The Lung Image Database Consortium (LIDC): a comparison of different size metrics for pulmonary nodule measurements,” Acad. Radiol. 14(12), 1475–1485 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Auer, F.

K. Marten, F. Auer, S. Schmidt, G. Kohl, E. J. Rummeny, and C. Engelke, “Inadequacy of manual measurements compared to automated CT volumetry in assessment of treatment response of pulmonary metastases using RECIST criteria,” Eur. Radiol. 16(4), 781–790 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Aycard, L.

M.-P. Revel, C. Lefort, A. Bissery, M. Bienvenu, L. Aycard, G. Chatellier, and G. Frija, “Pulmonary nodules: preliminary experience with three-dimensional evaluation,” Radiology 231(2), 459–466 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barboriak, D. P.

C. R. Meyer, S. G. Armato, C. P. Fenimore, G. McLennan, L. M. Bidaut, D. P. Barboriak, M. A. Gavrielides, E. F. Jackson, M. F. McNitt-Gray, P. E. Kinahan, N. Petrick, and B. Zhao, “Quantitative imaging to assess tumor response to therapy: common themes of measurement, truth data, and error sources,” Transl. Oncol. 2(4), 198–210 (2009).
[PubMed]

Bauer, T.

N. Altorki, J. Heymach, M. Guarino, P. Lee, E. Felip, T. Bauer, S. Swann, D. Roychowdhury, L. H. Ottesen, and D. Yankelevitz, “Phase II study of pazopanib (GW786034) given preoperatively in stage I–II non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC): a proof-of-concept study,” Ann. Oncol. 19(Supplement 8), 124 (2008).

Bedford, J. L.

E. Nioutsikou, N. Richard, J. Symonds-Tayler, J. L. Bedford, and S. Webb, “Quantifying the effect of respiratory motion on lung tumour dosimetry with the aid of a breathing phantom with deforming lungs,” Phys. Med. Biol. 51, 3359–3374 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beichel, R.

M. F. McNitt-Gray, L. M. Bidaut, S. G. Armato, C. R. Meyer, M. A. Gavrielides, C. Fenimore, G. McLennan, N. Petrick, B. Zhao, A. P. Reeves, R. Beichel, H. J. Kim, and L. Kinnard, “Computed tomography assessment of response to therapy: tumor volume change measurement, truth data, and error,” Transl. Oncol. 2(4), 216–222 (2009).
[PubMed]

Biancardi, A. M.

A. P. Reeves, A. M. Biancardi, T. V. Apanasovich, C. R. Meyer, H. MacMahon, E. J. van Beek, E. A. Kazerooni, D. Yankelevitz, M. F. McNitt-Gray, G. McLennan, S. G. Armato, C. I. Henschke, D. R. Aberle, B. Y. Croft, and L. P. Clarke, “The Lung Image Database Consortium (LIDC): a comparison of different size metrics for pulmonary nodule measurements,” Acad. Radiol. 14(12), 1475–1485 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bidaut, L. M.

M. F. McNitt-Gray, L. M. Bidaut, S. G. Armato, C. R. Meyer, M. A. Gavrielides, C. Fenimore, G. McLennan, N. Petrick, B. Zhao, A. P. Reeves, R. Beichel, H. J. Kim, and L. Kinnard, “Computed tomography assessment of response to therapy: tumor volume change measurement, truth data, and error,” Transl. Oncol. 2(4), 216–222 (2009).
[PubMed]

C. R. Meyer, S. G. Armato, C. P. Fenimore, G. McLennan, L. M. Bidaut, D. P. Barboriak, M. A. Gavrielides, E. F. Jackson, M. F. McNitt-Gray, P. E. Kinahan, N. Petrick, and B. Zhao, “Quantitative imaging to assess tumor response to therapy: common themes of measurement, truth data, and error sources,” Transl. Oncol. 2(4), 198–210 (2009).
[PubMed]

Bienvenu, M.

M.-P. Revel, C. Lefort, A. Bissery, M. Bienvenu, L. Aycard, G. Chatellier, and G. Frija, “Pulmonary nodules: preliminary experience with three-dimensional evaluation,” Radiology 231(2), 459–466 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bissery, A.

M.-P. Revel, C. Lefort, A. Bissery, M. Bienvenu, L. Aycard, G. Chatellier, and G. Frija, “Pulmonary nodules: preliminary experience with three-dimensional evaluation,” Radiology 231(2), 459–466 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bogaerts, J.

E. A. Eisenhauer, P. Therasse, J. Bogaerts, L. H. Schwartz, D. Sargent, R. Ford, J. Dancey, S. Arbuck, S. Gwyther, M. Mooney, L. Rubinstein, L. Shankar, L. Dodd, R. Kaplan, D. Lacombe, and J. Verweij, “New response evaluation criteria in solid tumours: revised RECIST guideline (version 1.1),” Eur. J. Cancer 45(2), 228–247 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bogot, N. R.

N. R. Bogot, E. A. Kazerooni, A. M. Kelly, L. E. Quint, B. Desjardins, and B. Nan, “Interobserver and intraobserver variability in the assessment of pulmonary nodule size on CT using film and computer display methods,” Acad. Radiol. 12(8), 948–956 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Broemeling, L.

J. J. Erasmus, G. W. Gladish, L. Broemeling, B. S. Sabloff, M. T. Truong, R. S. Herbst, and R. F. Munden, “Interobserver and intraobserver variability in measurement of non-small-cell carcinoma lung lesions: implications for assessment of tumor response,” J. Clin. Oncol. 21(13), 2574–2582 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brown, D. G.

N. Petrick, D. G. Brown, O. Suleiman, and K. J. Myers, “Imaging as a tumor biomarker in oncology drug trials for lung cancer: the FDA perspective,” Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. 84(4), 523–525 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Buckler, A. J.

P. D. Mozley, L. H. Schwartz, C. Bendtsen, B. Zhao, N. Petrick, and A. J. Buckler, “Change in lung tumor volume as a biomarker of treatment response: A critical review of the evidence,” Ann. Oncol. (to be published).
[PubMed]

Carter, B. L.

J. E. Munzenrider, M. Pilepich, J. B. Rene-Ferrero, I. Tchakarova, and B. L. Carter, “Use of body scanner in radiotherapy treatment planning,” Cancer 40(1), 170–179 (1977).
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Castro, J. R.

J. M. Quivey, J. R. Castro, G. T. Chen, A. Moss, and W. M. Marks, “Computerized tomography in the quantitative assessment of tumour response,” Br. J. Cancer Suppl. 4, 30–34 (1980).
[PubMed]

Chan, H.-P.

T. W. Way, H.-P. Chan, M. M. Goodsitt, B. Sahiner, L. M. Hadjiiski, C. Zhou, and A. Chughtai, “Effect of CT scanning parameters on volumetric measurements of pulmonary nodules by 3D active contour segmentation: a phantom study,” Phys. Med. Biol. 53(5), 1295–1312 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. M. Goodsitt, H.-P. Chan, T. W. Way, S. C. Larson, E. G. Christodoulou, and J. Kim, “Accuracy of the CT numbers of simulated lung nodules imaged with multi-detector CT scanners,” Med. Phys. 33(8), 3006–3017 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chatellier, G.

M.-P. Revel, C. Lefort, A. Bissery, M. Bienvenu, L. Aycard, G. Chatellier, and G. Frija, “Pulmonary nodules: preliminary experience with three-dimensional evaluation,” Radiology 231(2), 459–466 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, G. T.

J. M. Quivey, J. R. Castro, G. T. Chen, A. Moss, and W. M. Marks, “Computerized tomography in the quantitative assessment of tumour response,” Br. J. Cancer Suppl. 4, 30–34 (1980).
[PubMed]

Christodoulou, E. G.

M. M. Goodsitt, H.-P. Chan, T. W. Way, S. C. Larson, E. G. Christodoulou, and J. Kim, “Accuracy of the CT numbers of simulated lung nodules imaged with multi-detector CT scanners,” Med. Phys. 33(8), 3006–3017 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chughtai, A.

T. W. Way, H.-P. Chan, M. M. Goodsitt, B. Sahiner, L. M. Hadjiiski, C. Zhou, and A. Chughtai, “Effect of CT scanning parameters on volumetric measurements of pulmonary nodules by 3D active contour segmentation: a phantom study,” Phys. Med. Biol. 53(5), 1295–1312 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Clarke, L. P.

L. P. Clarke, R. D. Sriram, and L. B. Schilling, “Imaging as a biomarker: standards for change measurements in therapy workshop summary,” Acad. Radiol. 15(4), 501–530 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. G. Armato, C. R. Meyer, M. F. Mcnitt-Gray, G. McLennan, A. P. Reeves, B. Y. Croft, L. P. Clarke, and RIDER Research Group, “The Reference Image Database to Evaluate Response to therapy in lung cancer (RIDER) project: a resource for the development of change-analysis software,” Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. 84(4), 448–456 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. McLennan, L. P. Clarke, and R. J. Hohl, “Imaging as a biomarker for therapy response: cancer as a prototype for the creation of research resources,” Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. 84(4), 433–436 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. P. Reeves, A. M. Biancardi, T. V. Apanasovich, C. R. Meyer, H. MacMahon, E. J. van Beek, E. A. Kazerooni, D. Yankelevitz, M. F. McNitt-Gray, G. McLennan, S. G. Armato, C. I. Henschke, D. R. Aberle, B. Y. Croft, and L. P. Clarke, “The Lung Image Database Consortium (LIDC): a comparison of different size metrics for pulmonary nodule measurements,” Acad. Radiol. 14(12), 1475–1485 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Croft, B. Y.

S. G. Armato, C. R. Meyer, M. F. Mcnitt-Gray, G. McLennan, A. P. Reeves, B. Y. Croft, L. P. Clarke, and RIDER Research Group, “The Reference Image Database to Evaluate Response to therapy in lung cancer (RIDER) project: a resource for the development of change-analysis software,” Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. 84(4), 448–456 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. P. Reeves, A. M. Biancardi, T. V. Apanasovich, C. R. Meyer, H. MacMahon, E. J. van Beek, E. A. Kazerooni, D. Yankelevitz, M. F. McNitt-Gray, G. McLennan, S. G. Armato, C. I. Henschke, D. R. Aberle, B. Y. Croft, and L. P. Clarke, “The Lung Image Database Consortium (LIDC): a comparison of different size metrics for pulmonary nodule measurements,” Acad. Radiol. 14(12), 1475–1485 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Curran, S.

L. Schwartz, S. Curran, R. Trocola, J. Randazzo, D. Ilson, D. Kelsen, and M. Shah, “Volumetric 3D CT analysis–an early predictor of response to therapy,” J. Clin. Oncol. 25(18S), 4576 (2007).

Dancey, J.

E. A. Eisenhauer, P. Therasse, J. Bogaerts, L. H. Schwartz, D. Sargent, R. Ford, J. Dancey, S. Arbuck, S. Gwyther, M. Mooney, L. Rubinstein, L. Shankar, L. Dodd, R. Kaplan, D. Lacombe, and J. Verweij, “New response evaluation criteria in solid tumours: revised RECIST guideline (version 1.1),” Eur. J. Cancer 45(2), 228–247 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Desjardins, B.

N. R. Bogot, E. A. Kazerooni, A. M. Kelly, L. E. Quint, B. Desjardins, and B. Nan, “Interobserver and intraobserver variability in the assessment of pulmonary nodule size on CT using film and computer display methods,” Acad. Radiol. 12(8), 948–956 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dodd, L.

E. A. Eisenhauer, P. Therasse, J. Bogaerts, L. H. Schwartz, D. Sargent, R. Ford, J. Dancey, S. Arbuck, S. Gwyther, M. Mooney, L. Rubinstein, L. Shankar, L. Dodd, R. Kaplan, D. Lacombe, and J. Verweij, “New response evaluation criteria in solid tumours: revised RECIST guideline (version 1.1),” Eur. J. Cancer 45(2), 228–247 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Eisenhauer, E. A.

E. A. Eisenhauer, P. Therasse, J. Bogaerts, L. H. Schwartz, D. Sargent, R. Ford, J. Dancey, S. Arbuck, S. Gwyther, M. Mooney, L. Rubinstein, L. Shankar, L. Dodd, R. Kaplan, D. Lacombe, and J. Verweij, “New response evaluation criteria in solid tumours: revised RECIST guideline (version 1.1),” Eur. J. Cancer 45(2), 228–247 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Engelke, C.

K. Marten, F. Auer, S. Schmidt, G. Kohl, E. J. Rummeny, and C. Engelke, “Inadequacy of manual measurements compared to automated CT volumetry in assessment of treatment response of pulmonary metastases using RECIST criteria,” Eur. Radiol. 16(4), 781–790 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Erasmus, J. J.

J. J. Erasmus, G. W. Gladish, L. Broemeling, B. S. Sabloff, M. T. Truong, R. S. Herbst, and R. F. Munden, “Interobserver and intraobserver variability in measurement of non-small-cell carcinoma lung lesions: implications for assessment of tumor response,” J. Clin. Oncol. 21(13), 2574–2582 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Esparza, J.

Felip, E.

N. Altorki, J. Heymach, M. Guarino, P. Lee, E. Felip, T. Bauer, S. Swann, D. Roychowdhury, L. H. Ottesen, and D. Yankelevitz, “Phase II study of pazopanib (GW786034) given preoperatively in stage I–II non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC): a proof-of-concept study,” Ann. Oncol. 19(Supplement 8), 124 (2008).

Fenimore, C.

M. F. McNitt-Gray, L. M. Bidaut, S. G. Armato, C. R. Meyer, M. A. Gavrielides, C. Fenimore, G. McLennan, N. Petrick, B. Zhao, A. P. Reeves, R. Beichel, H. J. Kim, and L. Kinnard, “Computed tomography assessment of response to therapy: tumor volume change measurement, truth data, and error,” Transl. Oncol. 2(4), 216–222 (2009).
[PubMed]

Fenimore, C. P.

C. R. Meyer, S. G. Armato, C. P. Fenimore, G. McLennan, L. M. Bidaut, D. P. Barboriak, M. A. Gavrielides, E. F. Jackson, M. F. McNitt-Gray, P. E. Kinahan, N. Petrick, and B. Zhao, “Quantitative imaging to assess tumor response to therapy: common themes of measurement, truth data, and error sources,” Transl. Oncol. 2(4), 198–210 (2009).
[PubMed]

Ford, R.

E. A. Eisenhauer, P. Therasse, J. Bogaerts, L. H. Schwartz, D. Sargent, R. Ford, J. Dancey, S. Arbuck, S. Gwyther, M. Mooney, L. Rubinstein, L. Shankar, L. Dodd, R. Kaplan, D. Lacombe, and J. Verweij, “New response evaluation criteria in solid tumours: revised RECIST guideline (version 1.1),” Eur. J. Cancer 45(2), 228–247 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Frija, G.

M.-P. Revel, C. Lefort, A. Bissery, M. Bienvenu, L. Aycard, G. Chatellier, and G. Frija, “Pulmonary nodules: preliminary experience with three-dimensional evaluation,” Radiology 231(2), 459–466 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gavrielides, M. A.

M. A. Gavrielides, L. M. Kinnard, K. J. Myers, and N. Petrick, “Noncalcified lung nodules: volumetric assessment with thoracic CT,” Radiology 251(1), 26–37 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Gavrielides, R. Zeng, L. M. Kinnard, K. J. Myers, and N. Petrick, “A template-based approach for the analysis of lung nodules in a volumetric CT phantom study,” Proc. SPIE 7260, 726009–726011 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Meyer, S. G. Armato, C. P. Fenimore, G. McLennan, L. M. Bidaut, D. P. Barboriak, M. A. Gavrielides, E. F. Jackson, M. F. McNitt-Gray, P. E. Kinahan, N. Petrick, and B. Zhao, “Quantitative imaging to assess tumor response to therapy: common themes of measurement, truth data, and error sources,” Transl. Oncol. 2(4), 198–210 (2009).
[PubMed]

M. F. McNitt-Gray, L. M. Bidaut, S. G. Armato, C. R. Meyer, M. A. Gavrielides, C. Fenimore, G. McLennan, N. Petrick, B. Zhao, A. P. Reeves, R. Beichel, H. J. Kim, and L. Kinnard, “Computed tomography assessment of response to therapy: tumor volume change measurement, truth data, and error,” Transl. Oncol. 2(4), 216–222 (2009).
[PubMed]

Ginsberg, M. S.

B. Zhao, L. P. James, C. S. Moskowitz, P. Guo, M. S. Ginsberg, R. A. Lefkowitz, Y. Qin, G. J. Riely, M. G. Kris, and L. H. Schwartz, “Evaluating variability in tumor measurements from same-day repeat CT scans of patients with non-small cell lung cancer,” Radiology 252(1), 263–272 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Zhao, L. H. Schwartz, C. S. Moskowitz, M. S. Ginsberg, N. A. Rizvi, and M. G. Kris, “Lung cancer: computerized quantification of tumor response--initial results,” Radiology 241(3), 892–898 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gladish, G. W.

J. J. Erasmus, G. W. Gladish, L. Broemeling, B. S. Sabloff, M. T. Truong, R. S. Herbst, and R. F. Munden, “Interobserver and intraobserver variability in measurement of non-small-cell carcinoma lung lesions: implications for assessment of tumor response,” J. Clin. Oncol. 21(13), 2574–2582 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goodsitt, M. M.

T. W. Way, H.-P. Chan, M. M. Goodsitt, B. Sahiner, L. M. Hadjiiski, C. Zhou, and A. Chughtai, “Effect of CT scanning parameters on volumetric measurements of pulmonary nodules by 3D active contour segmentation: a phantom study,” Phys. Med. Biol. 53(5), 1295–1312 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. M. Goodsitt, H.-P. Chan, T. W. Way, S. C. Larson, E. G. Christodoulou, and J. Kim, “Accuracy of the CT numbers of simulated lung nodules imaged with multi-detector CT scanners,” Med. Phys. 33(8), 3006–3017 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guarino, M.

N. Altorki, J. Heymach, M. Guarino, P. Lee, E. Felip, T. Bauer, S. Swann, D. Roychowdhury, L. H. Ottesen, and D. Yankelevitz, “Phase II study of pazopanib (GW786034) given preoperatively in stage I–II non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC): a proof-of-concept study,” Ann. Oncol. 19(Supplement 8), 124 (2008).

Guo, P.

B. Zhao, L. P. James, C. S. Moskowitz, P. Guo, M. S. Ginsberg, R. A. Lefkowitz, Y. Qin, G. J. Riely, M. G. Kris, and L. H. Schwartz, “Evaluating variability in tumor measurements from same-day repeat CT scans of patients with non-small cell lung cancer,” Radiology 252(1), 263–272 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gwyther, S.

E. A. Eisenhauer, P. Therasse, J. Bogaerts, L. H. Schwartz, D. Sargent, R. Ford, J. Dancey, S. Arbuck, S. Gwyther, M. Mooney, L. Rubinstein, L. Shankar, L. Dodd, R. Kaplan, D. Lacombe, and J. Verweij, “New response evaluation criteria in solid tumours: revised RECIST guideline (version 1.1),” Eur. J. Cancer 45(2), 228–247 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hadjiiski, L. M.

T. W. Way, H.-P. Chan, M. M. Goodsitt, B. Sahiner, L. M. Hadjiiski, C. Zhou, and A. Chughtai, “Effect of CT scanning parameters on volumetric measurements of pulmonary nodules by 3D active contour segmentation: a phantom study,” Phys. Med. Biol. 53(5), 1295–1312 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hanley, J. A.

C. G. Moertel and J. A. Hanley, “The effect of measuring error on the results of therapeutic trials in advanced cancer,” Cancer 38(1), 388–394 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Henschke, C. I.

A. P. Reeves, A. M. Biancardi, T. V. Apanasovich, C. R. Meyer, H. MacMahon, E. J. van Beek, E. A. Kazerooni, D. Yankelevitz, M. F. McNitt-Gray, G. McLennan, S. G. Armato, C. I. Henschke, D. R. Aberle, B. Y. Croft, and L. P. Clarke, “The Lung Image Database Consortium (LIDC): a comparison of different size metrics for pulmonary nodule measurements,” Acad. Radiol. 14(12), 1475–1485 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Herbst, R. S.

J. J. Erasmus, G. W. Gladish, L. Broemeling, B. S. Sabloff, M. T. Truong, R. S. Herbst, and R. F. Munden, “Interobserver and intraobserver variability in measurement of non-small-cell carcinoma lung lesions: implications for assessment of tumor response,” J. Clin. Oncol. 21(13), 2574–2582 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heymach, J.

N. Altorki, J. Heymach, M. Guarino, P. Lee, E. Felip, T. Bauer, S. Swann, D. Roychowdhury, L. H. Ottesen, and D. Yankelevitz, “Phase II study of pazopanib (GW786034) given preoperatively in stage I–II non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC): a proof-of-concept study,” Ann. Oncol. 19(Supplement 8), 124 (2008).

Hohl, R. J.

G. McLennan, L. P. Clarke, and R. J. Hohl, “Imaging as a biomarker for therapy response: cancer as a prototype for the creation of research resources,” Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. 84(4), 433–436 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ilson, D.

L. Schwartz, S. Curran, R. Trocola, J. Randazzo, D. Ilson, D. Kelsen, and M. Shah, “Volumetric 3D CT analysis–an early predictor of response to therapy,” J. Clin. Oncol. 25(18S), 4576 (2007).

Jackson, E. F.

C. R. Meyer, S. G. Armato, C. P. Fenimore, G. McLennan, L. M. Bidaut, D. P. Barboriak, M. A. Gavrielides, E. F. Jackson, M. F. McNitt-Gray, P. E. Kinahan, N. Petrick, and B. Zhao, “Quantitative imaging to assess tumor response to therapy: common themes of measurement, truth data, and error sources,” Transl. Oncol. 2(4), 198–210 (2009).
[PubMed]

James, L. P.

B. Zhao, L. P. James, C. S. Moskowitz, P. Guo, M. S. Ginsberg, R. A. Lefkowitz, Y. Qin, G. J. Riely, M. G. Kris, and L. H. Schwartz, “Evaluating variability in tumor measurements from same-day repeat CT scans of patients with non-small cell lung cancer,” Radiology 252(1), 263–272 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kaplan, R.

E. A. Eisenhauer, P. Therasse, J. Bogaerts, L. H. Schwartz, D. Sargent, R. Ford, J. Dancey, S. Arbuck, S. Gwyther, M. Mooney, L. Rubinstein, L. Shankar, L. Dodd, R. Kaplan, D. Lacombe, and J. Verweij, “New response evaluation criteria in solid tumours: revised RECIST guideline (version 1.1),” Eur. J. Cancer 45(2), 228–247 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Karanian, J.

Kazerooni, E. A.

A. P. Reeves, A. M. Biancardi, T. V. Apanasovich, C. R. Meyer, H. MacMahon, E. J. van Beek, E. A. Kazerooni, D. Yankelevitz, M. F. McNitt-Gray, G. McLennan, S. G. Armato, C. I. Henschke, D. R. Aberle, B. Y. Croft, and L. P. Clarke, “The Lung Image Database Consortium (LIDC): a comparison of different size metrics for pulmonary nodule measurements,” Acad. Radiol. 14(12), 1475–1485 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. R. Bogot, E. A. Kazerooni, A. M. Kelly, L. E. Quint, B. Desjardins, and B. Nan, “Interobserver and intraobserver variability in the assessment of pulmonary nodule size on CT using film and computer display methods,” Acad. Radiol. 12(8), 948–956 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kelly, A. M.

N. R. Bogot, E. A. Kazerooni, A. M. Kelly, L. E. Quint, B. Desjardins, and B. Nan, “Interobserver and intraobserver variability in the assessment of pulmonary nodule size on CT using film and computer display methods,” Acad. Radiol. 12(8), 948–956 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kelsen, D.

L. Schwartz, S. Curran, R. Trocola, J. Randazzo, D. Ilson, D. Kelsen, and M. Shah, “Volumetric 3D CT analysis–an early predictor of response to therapy,” J. Clin. Oncol. 25(18S), 4576 (2007).

Kim, H. J.

M. F. McNitt-Gray, L. M. Bidaut, S. G. Armato, C. R. Meyer, M. A. Gavrielides, C. Fenimore, G. McLennan, N. Petrick, B. Zhao, A. P. Reeves, R. Beichel, H. J. Kim, and L. Kinnard, “Computed tomography assessment of response to therapy: tumor volume change measurement, truth data, and error,” Transl. Oncol. 2(4), 216–222 (2009).
[PubMed]

Kim, J.

M. M. Goodsitt, H.-P. Chan, T. W. Way, S. C. Larson, E. G. Christodoulou, and J. Kim, “Accuracy of the CT numbers of simulated lung nodules imaged with multi-detector CT scanners,” Med. Phys. 33(8), 3006–3017 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kinahan, P. E.

C. R. Meyer, S. G. Armato, C. P. Fenimore, G. McLennan, L. M. Bidaut, D. P. Barboriak, M. A. Gavrielides, E. F. Jackson, M. F. McNitt-Gray, P. E. Kinahan, N. Petrick, and B. Zhao, “Quantitative imaging to assess tumor response to therapy: common themes of measurement, truth data, and error sources,” Transl. Oncol. 2(4), 198–210 (2009).
[PubMed]

Kinnard, L.

M. F. McNitt-Gray, L. M. Bidaut, S. G. Armato, C. R. Meyer, M. A. Gavrielides, C. Fenimore, G. McLennan, N. Petrick, B. Zhao, A. P. Reeves, R. Beichel, H. J. Kim, and L. Kinnard, “Computed tomography assessment of response to therapy: tumor volume change measurement, truth data, and error,” Transl. Oncol. 2(4), 216–222 (2009).
[PubMed]

Kinnard, L. M.

M. A. Gavrielides, R. Zeng, L. M. Kinnard, K. J. Myers, and N. Petrick, “A template-based approach for the analysis of lung nodules in a volumetric CT phantom study,” Proc. SPIE 7260, 726009–726011 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Gavrielides, L. M. Kinnard, K. J. Myers, and N. Petrick, “Noncalcified lung nodules: volumetric assessment with thoracic CT,” Radiology 251(1), 26–37 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kohl, G.

K. Marten, F. Auer, S. Schmidt, G. Kohl, E. J. Rummeny, and C. Engelke, “Inadequacy of manual measurements compared to automated CT volumetry in assessment of treatment response of pulmonary metastases using RECIST criteria,” Eur. Radiol. 16(4), 781–790 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kris, M. G.

B. Zhao, L. P. James, C. S. Moskowitz, P. Guo, M. S. Ginsberg, R. A. Lefkowitz, Y. Qin, G. J. Riely, M. G. Kris, and L. H. Schwartz, “Evaluating variability in tumor measurements from same-day repeat CT scans of patients with non-small cell lung cancer,” Radiology 252(1), 263–272 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Zhao, L. H. Schwartz, C. S. Moskowitz, M. S. Ginsberg, N. A. Rizvi, and M. G. Kris, “Lung cancer: computerized quantification of tumor response--initial results,” Radiology 241(3), 892–898 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lacombe, D.

E. A. Eisenhauer, P. Therasse, J. Bogaerts, L. H. Schwartz, D. Sargent, R. Ford, J. Dancey, S. Arbuck, S. Gwyther, M. Mooney, L. Rubinstein, L. Shankar, L. Dodd, R. Kaplan, D. Lacombe, and J. Verweij, “New response evaluation criteria in solid tumours: revised RECIST guideline (version 1.1),” Eur. J. Cancer 45(2), 228–247 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Larson, S. C.

M. M. Goodsitt, H.-P. Chan, T. W. Way, S. C. Larson, E. G. Christodoulou, and J. Kim, “Accuracy of the CT numbers of simulated lung nodules imaged with multi-detector CT scanners,” Med. Phys. 33(8), 3006–3017 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, P.

N. Altorki, J. Heymach, M. Guarino, P. Lee, E. Felip, T. Bauer, S. Swann, D. Roychowdhury, L. H. Ottesen, and D. Yankelevitz, “Phase II study of pazopanib (GW786034) given preoperatively in stage I–II non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC): a proof-of-concept study,” Ann. Oncol. 19(Supplement 8), 124 (2008).

Lefkowitz, R. A.

B. Zhao, L. P. James, C. S. Moskowitz, P. Guo, M. S. Ginsberg, R. A. Lefkowitz, Y. Qin, G. J. Riely, M. G. Kris, and L. H. Schwartz, “Evaluating variability in tumor measurements from same-day repeat CT scans of patients with non-small cell lung cancer,” Radiology 252(1), 263–272 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lefort, C.

M.-P. Revel, C. Lefort, A. Bissery, M. Bienvenu, L. Aycard, G. Chatellier, and G. Frija, “Pulmonary nodules: preliminary experience with three-dimensional evaluation,” Radiology 231(2), 459–466 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

MacMahon, H.

A. P. Reeves, A. M. Biancardi, T. V. Apanasovich, C. R. Meyer, H. MacMahon, E. J. van Beek, E. A. Kazerooni, D. Yankelevitz, M. F. McNitt-Gray, G. McLennan, S. G. Armato, C. I. Henschke, D. R. Aberle, B. Y. Croft, and L. P. Clarke, “The Lung Image Database Consortium (LIDC): a comparison of different size metrics for pulmonary nodule measurements,” Acad. Radiol. 14(12), 1475–1485 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marks, W. M.

J. M. Quivey, J. R. Castro, G. T. Chen, A. Moss, and W. M. Marks, “Computerized tomography in the quantitative assessment of tumour response,” Br. J. Cancer Suppl. 4, 30–34 (1980).
[PubMed]

Marten, K.

K. Marten, F. Auer, S. Schmidt, G. Kohl, E. J. Rummeny, and C. Engelke, “Inadequacy of manual measurements compared to automated CT volumetry in assessment of treatment response of pulmonary metastases using RECIST criteria,” Eur. Radiol. 16(4), 781–790 (2006).
[CrossRef]

McLennan, G.

M. F. McNitt-Gray, L. M. Bidaut, S. G. Armato, C. R. Meyer, M. A. Gavrielides, C. Fenimore, G. McLennan, N. Petrick, B. Zhao, A. P. Reeves, R. Beichel, H. J. Kim, and L. Kinnard, “Computed tomography assessment of response to therapy: tumor volume change measurement, truth data, and error,” Transl. Oncol. 2(4), 216–222 (2009).
[PubMed]

C. R. Meyer, S. G. Armato, C. P. Fenimore, G. McLennan, L. M. Bidaut, D. P. Barboriak, M. A. Gavrielides, E. F. Jackson, M. F. McNitt-Gray, P. E. Kinahan, N. Petrick, and B. Zhao, “Quantitative imaging to assess tumor response to therapy: common themes of measurement, truth data, and error sources,” Transl. Oncol. 2(4), 198–210 (2009).
[PubMed]

S. G. Armato, C. R. Meyer, M. F. Mcnitt-Gray, G. McLennan, A. P. Reeves, B. Y. Croft, L. P. Clarke, and RIDER Research Group, “The Reference Image Database to Evaluate Response to therapy in lung cancer (RIDER) project: a resource for the development of change-analysis software,” Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. 84(4), 448–456 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. McLennan, L. P. Clarke, and R. J. Hohl, “Imaging as a biomarker for therapy response: cancer as a prototype for the creation of research resources,” Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. 84(4), 433–436 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. P. Reeves, A. M. Biancardi, T. V. Apanasovich, C. R. Meyer, H. MacMahon, E. J. van Beek, E. A. Kazerooni, D. Yankelevitz, M. F. McNitt-Gray, G. McLennan, S. G. Armato, C. I. Henschke, D. R. Aberle, B. Y. Croft, and L. P. Clarke, “The Lung Image Database Consortium (LIDC): a comparison of different size metrics for pulmonary nodule measurements,” Acad. Radiol. 14(12), 1475–1485 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McNitt-Gray, M. F.

M. F. McNitt-Gray, L. M. Bidaut, S. G. Armato, C. R. Meyer, M. A. Gavrielides, C. Fenimore, G. McLennan, N. Petrick, B. Zhao, A. P. Reeves, R. Beichel, H. J. Kim, and L. Kinnard, “Computed tomography assessment of response to therapy: tumor volume change measurement, truth data, and error,” Transl. Oncol. 2(4), 216–222 (2009).
[PubMed]

C. R. Meyer, S. G. Armato, C. P. Fenimore, G. McLennan, L. M. Bidaut, D. P. Barboriak, M. A. Gavrielides, E. F. Jackson, M. F. McNitt-Gray, P. E. Kinahan, N. Petrick, and B. Zhao, “Quantitative imaging to assess tumor response to therapy: common themes of measurement, truth data, and error sources,” Transl. Oncol. 2(4), 198–210 (2009).
[PubMed]

S. G. Armato, C. R. Meyer, M. F. Mcnitt-Gray, G. McLennan, A. P. Reeves, B. Y. Croft, L. P. Clarke, and RIDER Research Group, “The Reference Image Database to Evaluate Response to therapy in lung cancer (RIDER) project: a resource for the development of change-analysis software,” Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. 84(4), 448–456 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. P. Reeves, A. M. Biancardi, T. V. Apanasovich, C. R. Meyer, H. MacMahon, E. J. van Beek, E. A. Kazerooni, D. Yankelevitz, M. F. McNitt-Gray, G. McLennan, S. G. Armato, C. I. Henschke, D. R. Aberle, B. Y. Croft, and L. P. Clarke, “The Lung Image Database Consortium (LIDC): a comparison of different size metrics for pulmonary nodule measurements,” Acad. Radiol. 14(12), 1475–1485 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meyer, C. R.

C. R. Meyer, S. G. Armato, C. P. Fenimore, G. McLennan, L. M. Bidaut, D. P. Barboriak, M. A. Gavrielides, E. F. Jackson, M. F. McNitt-Gray, P. E. Kinahan, N. Petrick, and B. Zhao, “Quantitative imaging to assess tumor response to therapy: common themes of measurement, truth data, and error sources,” Transl. Oncol. 2(4), 198–210 (2009).
[PubMed]

M. F. McNitt-Gray, L. M. Bidaut, S. G. Armato, C. R. Meyer, M. A. Gavrielides, C. Fenimore, G. McLennan, N. Petrick, B. Zhao, A. P. Reeves, R. Beichel, H. J. Kim, and L. Kinnard, “Computed tomography assessment of response to therapy: tumor volume change measurement, truth data, and error,” Transl. Oncol. 2(4), 216–222 (2009).
[PubMed]

S. G. Armato, C. R. Meyer, M. F. Mcnitt-Gray, G. McLennan, A. P. Reeves, B. Y. Croft, L. P. Clarke, and RIDER Research Group, “The Reference Image Database to Evaluate Response to therapy in lung cancer (RIDER) project: a resource for the development of change-analysis software,” Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. 84(4), 448–456 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. P. Reeves, A. M. Biancardi, T. V. Apanasovich, C. R. Meyer, H. MacMahon, E. J. van Beek, E. A. Kazerooni, D. Yankelevitz, M. F. McNitt-Gray, G. McLennan, S. G. Armato, C. I. Henschke, D. R. Aberle, B. Y. Croft, and L. P. Clarke, “The Lung Image Database Consortium (LIDC): a comparison of different size metrics for pulmonary nodule measurements,” Acad. Radiol. 14(12), 1475–1485 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moertel, C. G.

C. G. Moertel and J. A. Hanley, “The effect of measuring error on the results of therapeutic trials in advanced cancer,” Cancer 38(1), 388–394 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mooney, M.

E. A. Eisenhauer, P. Therasse, J. Bogaerts, L. H. Schwartz, D. Sargent, R. Ford, J. Dancey, S. Arbuck, S. Gwyther, M. Mooney, L. Rubinstein, L. Shankar, L. Dodd, R. Kaplan, D. Lacombe, and J. Verweij, “New response evaluation criteria in solid tumours: revised RECIST guideline (version 1.1),” Eur. J. Cancer 45(2), 228–247 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Moskowitz, C. S.

B. Zhao, L. P. James, C. S. Moskowitz, P. Guo, M. S. Ginsberg, R. A. Lefkowitz, Y. Qin, G. J. Riely, M. G. Kris, and L. H. Schwartz, “Evaluating variability in tumor measurements from same-day repeat CT scans of patients with non-small cell lung cancer,” Radiology 252(1), 263–272 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Zhao, L. H. Schwartz, C. S. Moskowitz, M. S. Ginsberg, N. A. Rizvi, and M. G. Kris, “Lung cancer: computerized quantification of tumor response--initial results,” Radiology 241(3), 892–898 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moss, A.

J. M. Quivey, J. R. Castro, G. T. Chen, A. Moss, and W. M. Marks, “Computerized tomography in the quantitative assessment of tumour response,” Br. J. Cancer Suppl. 4, 30–34 (1980).
[PubMed]

Munden, R. F.

J. J. Erasmus, G. W. Gladish, L. Broemeling, B. S. Sabloff, M. T. Truong, R. S. Herbst, and R. F. Munden, “Interobserver and intraobserver variability in measurement of non-small-cell carcinoma lung lesions: implications for assessment of tumor response,” J. Clin. Oncol. 21(13), 2574–2582 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Munzenrider, J. E.

J. E. Munzenrider, M. Pilepich, J. B. Rene-Ferrero, I. Tchakarova, and B. L. Carter, “Use of body scanner in radiotherapy treatment planning,” Cancer 40(1), 170–179 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Myers, K. J.

M. A. Gavrielides, L. M. Kinnard, K. J. Myers, and N. Petrick, “Noncalcified lung nodules: volumetric assessment with thoracic CT,” Radiology 251(1), 26–37 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Gavrielides, R. Zeng, L. M. Kinnard, K. J. Myers, and N. Petrick, “A template-based approach for the analysis of lung nodules in a volumetric CT phantom study,” Proc. SPIE 7260, 726009–726011 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Petrick, D. G. Brown, O. Suleiman, and K. J. Myers, “Imaging as a tumor biomarker in oncology drug trials for lung cancer: the FDA perspective,” Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. 84(4), 523–525 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nan, B.

N. R. Bogot, E. A. Kazerooni, A. M. Kelly, L. E. Quint, B. Desjardins, and B. Nan, “Interobserver and intraobserver variability in the assessment of pulmonary nodule size on CT using film and computer display methods,” Acad. Radiol. 12(8), 948–956 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ottesen, L. H.

N. Altorki, J. Heymach, M. Guarino, P. Lee, E. Felip, T. Bauer, S. Swann, D. Roychowdhury, L. H. Ottesen, and D. Yankelevitz, “Phase II study of pazopanib (GW786034) given preoperatively in stage I–II non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC): a proof-of-concept study,” Ann. Oncol. 19(Supplement 8), 124 (2008).

Peregoy, J.

Petrick, N.

M. A. Gavrielides, L. M. Kinnard, K. J. Myers, J. Peregoy, W. F. Pritchard, R. Zeng, J. Esparza, J. Karanian, and N. Petrick, “A resource for the development of methodologies for lung nodule size estimation: database of thoracic CT scans of an anthropomorphic phantom,” Opt. Express 18(14), 15244–15255 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Gavrielides, R. Zeng, L. M. Kinnard, K. J. Myers, and N. Petrick, “A template-based approach for the analysis of lung nodules in a volumetric CT phantom study,” Proc. SPIE 7260, 726009–726011 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Gavrielides, L. M. Kinnard, K. J. Myers, and N. Petrick, “Noncalcified lung nodules: volumetric assessment with thoracic CT,” Radiology 251(1), 26–37 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. R. Meyer, S. G. Armato, C. P. Fenimore, G. McLennan, L. M. Bidaut, D. P. Barboriak, M. A. Gavrielides, E. F. Jackson, M. F. McNitt-Gray, P. E. Kinahan, N. Petrick, and B. Zhao, “Quantitative imaging to assess tumor response to therapy: common themes of measurement, truth data, and error sources,” Transl. Oncol. 2(4), 198–210 (2009).
[PubMed]

M. F. McNitt-Gray, L. M. Bidaut, S. G. Armato, C. R. Meyer, M. A. Gavrielides, C. Fenimore, G. McLennan, N. Petrick, B. Zhao, A. P. Reeves, R. Beichel, H. J. Kim, and L. Kinnard, “Computed tomography assessment of response to therapy: tumor volume change measurement, truth data, and error,” Transl. Oncol. 2(4), 216–222 (2009).
[PubMed]

N. Petrick, D. G. Brown, O. Suleiman, and K. J. Myers, “Imaging as a tumor biomarker in oncology drug trials for lung cancer: the FDA perspective,” Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. 84(4), 523–525 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pilepich, M.

J. E. Munzenrider, M. Pilepich, J. B. Rene-Ferrero, I. Tchakarova, and B. L. Carter, “Use of body scanner in radiotherapy treatment planning,” Cancer 40(1), 170–179 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pritchard, W. F.

Qin, Y.

B. Zhao, L. P. James, C. S. Moskowitz, P. Guo, M. S. Ginsberg, R. A. Lefkowitz, Y. Qin, G. J. Riely, M. G. Kris, and L. H. Schwartz, “Evaluating variability in tumor measurements from same-day repeat CT scans of patients with non-small cell lung cancer,” Radiology 252(1), 263–272 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Quint, L. E.

N. R. Bogot, E. A. Kazerooni, A. M. Kelly, L. E. Quint, B. Desjardins, and B. Nan, “Interobserver and intraobserver variability in the assessment of pulmonary nodule size on CT using film and computer display methods,” Acad. Radiol. 12(8), 948–956 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Quivey, J. M.

J. M. Quivey, J. R. Castro, G. T. Chen, A. Moss, and W. M. Marks, “Computerized tomography in the quantitative assessment of tumour response,” Br. J. Cancer Suppl. 4, 30–34 (1980).
[PubMed]

Randazzo, J.

L. Schwartz, S. Curran, R. Trocola, J. Randazzo, D. Ilson, D. Kelsen, and M. Shah, “Volumetric 3D CT analysis–an early predictor of response to therapy,” J. Clin. Oncol. 25(18S), 4576 (2007).

Reeves, A. P.

M. F. McNitt-Gray, L. M. Bidaut, S. G. Armato, C. R. Meyer, M. A. Gavrielides, C. Fenimore, G. McLennan, N. Petrick, B. Zhao, A. P. Reeves, R. Beichel, H. J. Kim, and L. Kinnard, “Computed tomography assessment of response to therapy: tumor volume change measurement, truth data, and error,” Transl. Oncol. 2(4), 216–222 (2009).
[PubMed]

S. G. Armato, C. R. Meyer, M. F. Mcnitt-Gray, G. McLennan, A. P. Reeves, B. Y. Croft, L. P. Clarke, and RIDER Research Group, “The Reference Image Database to Evaluate Response to therapy in lung cancer (RIDER) project: a resource for the development of change-analysis software,” Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. 84(4), 448–456 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. P. Reeves, A. M. Biancardi, T. V. Apanasovich, C. R. Meyer, H. MacMahon, E. J. van Beek, E. A. Kazerooni, D. Yankelevitz, M. F. McNitt-Gray, G. McLennan, S. G. Armato, C. I. Henschke, D. R. Aberle, B. Y. Croft, and L. P. Clarke, “The Lung Image Database Consortium (LIDC): a comparison of different size metrics for pulmonary nodule measurements,” Acad. Radiol. 14(12), 1475–1485 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rene-Ferrero, J. B.

J. E. Munzenrider, M. Pilepich, J. B. Rene-Ferrero, I. Tchakarova, and B. L. Carter, “Use of body scanner in radiotherapy treatment planning,” Cancer 40(1), 170–179 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Revel, M.-P.

M.-P. Revel, C. Lefort, A. Bissery, M. Bienvenu, L. Aycard, G. Chatellier, and G. Frija, “Pulmonary nodules: preliminary experience with three-dimensional evaluation,” Radiology 231(2), 459–466 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Riely, G. J.

B. Zhao, L. P. James, C. S. Moskowitz, P. Guo, M. S. Ginsberg, R. A. Lefkowitz, Y. Qin, G. J. Riely, M. G. Kris, and L. H. Schwartz, “Evaluating variability in tumor measurements from same-day repeat CT scans of patients with non-small cell lung cancer,” Radiology 252(1), 263–272 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rizvi, N. A.

B. Zhao, L. H. Schwartz, C. S. Moskowitz, M. S. Ginsberg, N. A. Rizvi, and M. G. Kris, “Lung cancer: computerized quantification of tumor response--initial results,” Radiology 241(3), 892–898 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roychowdhury, D.

N. Altorki, J. Heymach, M. Guarino, P. Lee, E. Felip, T. Bauer, S. Swann, D. Roychowdhury, L. H. Ottesen, and D. Yankelevitz, “Phase II study of pazopanib (GW786034) given preoperatively in stage I–II non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC): a proof-of-concept study,” Ann. Oncol. 19(Supplement 8), 124 (2008).

Rubinstein, L.

E. A. Eisenhauer, P. Therasse, J. Bogaerts, L. H. Schwartz, D. Sargent, R. Ford, J. Dancey, S. Arbuck, S. Gwyther, M. Mooney, L. Rubinstein, L. Shankar, L. Dodd, R. Kaplan, D. Lacombe, and J. Verweij, “New response evaluation criteria in solid tumours: revised RECIST guideline (version 1.1),” Eur. J. Cancer 45(2), 228–247 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rummeny, E. J.

K. Marten, F. Auer, S. Schmidt, G. Kohl, E. J. Rummeny, and C. Engelke, “Inadequacy of manual measurements compared to automated CT volumetry in assessment of treatment response of pulmonary metastases using RECIST criteria,” Eur. Radiol. 16(4), 781–790 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sabloff, B. S.

J. J. Erasmus, G. W. Gladish, L. Broemeling, B. S. Sabloff, M. T. Truong, R. S. Herbst, and R. F. Munden, “Interobserver and intraobserver variability in measurement of non-small-cell carcinoma lung lesions: implications for assessment of tumor response,” J. Clin. Oncol. 21(13), 2574–2582 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sahiner, B.

T. W. Way, H.-P. Chan, M. M. Goodsitt, B. Sahiner, L. M. Hadjiiski, C. Zhou, and A. Chughtai, “Effect of CT scanning parameters on volumetric measurements of pulmonary nodules by 3D active contour segmentation: a phantom study,” Phys. Med. Biol. 53(5), 1295–1312 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sargent, D.

E. A. Eisenhauer, P. Therasse, J. Bogaerts, L. H. Schwartz, D. Sargent, R. Ford, J. Dancey, S. Arbuck, S. Gwyther, M. Mooney, L. Rubinstein, L. Shankar, L. Dodd, R. Kaplan, D. Lacombe, and J. Verweij, “New response evaluation criteria in solid tumours: revised RECIST guideline (version 1.1),” Eur. J. Cancer 45(2), 228–247 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Schilling, L. B.

L. P. Clarke, R. D. Sriram, and L. B. Schilling, “Imaging as a biomarker: standards for change measurements in therapy workshop summary,” Acad. Radiol. 15(4), 501–530 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmidt, S.

K. Marten, F. Auer, S. Schmidt, G. Kohl, E. J. Rummeny, and C. Engelke, “Inadequacy of manual measurements compared to automated CT volumetry in assessment of treatment response of pulmonary metastases using RECIST criteria,” Eur. Radiol. 16(4), 781–790 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schwartz, L.

L. Schwartz, S. Curran, R. Trocola, J. Randazzo, D. Ilson, D. Kelsen, and M. Shah, “Volumetric 3D CT analysis–an early predictor of response to therapy,” J. Clin. Oncol. 25(18S), 4576 (2007).

Schwartz, L. H.

E. A. Eisenhauer, P. Therasse, J. Bogaerts, L. H. Schwartz, D. Sargent, R. Ford, J. Dancey, S. Arbuck, S. Gwyther, M. Mooney, L. Rubinstein, L. Shankar, L. Dodd, R. Kaplan, D. Lacombe, and J. Verweij, “New response evaluation criteria in solid tumours: revised RECIST guideline (version 1.1),” Eur. J. Cancer 45(2), 228–247 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. Zhao, L. P. James, C. S. Moskowitz, P. Guo, M. S. Ginsberg, R. A. Lefkowitz, Y. Qin, G. J. Riely, M. G. Kris, and L. H. Schwartz, “Evaluating variability in tumor measurements from same-day repeat CT scans of patients with non-small cell lung cancer,” Radiology 252(1), 263–272 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Zhao, L. H. Schwartz, C. S. Moskowitz, M. S. Ginsberg, N. A. Rizvi, and M. G. Kris, “Lung cancer: computerized quantification of tumor response--initial results,” Radiology 241(3), 892–898 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shah, M.

L. Schwartz, S. Curran, R. Trocola, J. Randazzo, D. Ilson, D. Kelsen, and M. Shah, “Volumetric 3D CT analysis–an early predictor of response to therapy,” J. Clin. Oncol. 25(18S), 4576 (2007).

Shankar, L.

E. A. Eisenhauer, P. Therasse, J. Bogaerts, L. H. Schwartz, D. Sargent, R. Ford, J. Dancey, S. Arbuck, S. Gwyther, M. Mooney, L. Rubinstein, L. Shankar, L. Dodd, R. Kaplan, D. Lacombe, and J. Verweij, “New response evaluation criteria in solid tumours: revised RECIST guideline (version 1.1),” Eur. J. Cancer 45(2), 228–247 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sriram, R. D.

L. P. Clarke, R. D. Sriram, and L. B. Schilling, “Imaging as a biomarker: standards for change measurements in therapy workshop summary,” Acad. Radiol. 15(4), 501–530 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Suleiman, O.

N. Petrick, D. G. Brown, O. Suleiman, and K. J. Myers, “Imaging as a tumor biomarker in oncology drug trials for lung cancer: the FDA perspective,” Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. 84(4), 523–525 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swann, S.

N. Altorki, J. Heymach, M. Guarino, P. Lee, E. Felip, T. Bauer, S. Swann, D. Roychowdhury, L. H. Ottesen, and D. Yankelevitz, “Phase II study of pazopanib (GW786034) given preoperatively in stage I–II non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC): a proof-of-concept study,” Ann. Oncol. 19(Supplement 8), 124 (2008).

Symonds-Tayler, J.

E. Nioutsikou, N. Richard, J. Symonds-Tayler, J. L. Bedford, and S. Webb, “Quantifying the effect of respiratory motion on lung tumour dosimetry with the aid of a breathing phantom with deforming lungs,” Phys. Med. Biol. 51, 3359–3374 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tchakarova, I.

J. E. Munzenrider, M. Pilepich, J. B. Rene-Ferrero, I. Tchakarova, and B. L. Carter, “Use of body scanner in radiotherapy treatment planning,” Cancer 40(1), 170–179 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Therasse, P.

E. A. Eisenhauer, P. Therasse, J. Bogaerts, L. H. Schwartz, D. Sargent, R. Ford, J. Dancey, S. Arbuck, S. Gwyther, M. Mooney, L. Rubinstein, L. Shankar, L. Dodd, R. Kaplan, D. Lacombe, and J. Verweij, “New response evaluation criteria in solid tumours: revised RECIST guideline (version 1.1),” Eur. J. Cancer 45(2), 228–247 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Trocola, R.

L. Schwartz, S. Curran, R. Trocola, J. Randazzo, D. Ilson, D. Kelsen, and M. Shah, “Volumetric 3D CT analysis–an early predictor of response to therapy,” J. Clin. Oncol. 25(18S), 4576 (2007).

Truong, M. T.

J. J. Erasmus, G. W. Gladish, L. Broemeling, B. S. Sabloff, M. T. Truong, R. S. Herbst, and R. F. Munden, “Interobserver and intraobserver variability in measurement of non-small-cell carcinoma lung lesions: implications for assessment of tumor response,” J. Clin. Oncol. 21(13), 2574–2582 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Beek, E. J.

A. P. Reeves, A. M. Biancardi, T. V. Apanasovich, C. R. Meyer, H. MacMahon, E. J. van Beek, E. A. Kazerooni, D. Yankelevitz, M. F. McNitt-Gray, G. McLennan, S. G. Armato, C. I. Henschke, D. R. Aberle, B. Y. Croft, and L. P. Clarke, “The Lung Image Database Consortium (LIDC): a comparison of different size metrics for pulmonary nodule measurements,” Acad. Radiol. 14(12), 1475–1485 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Verweij, J.

E. A. Eisenhauer, P. Therasse, J. Bogaerts, L. H. Schwartz, D. Sargent, R. Ford, J. Dancey, S. Arbuck, S. Gwyther, M. Mooney, L. Rubinstein, L. Shankar, L. Dodd, R. Kaplan, D. Lacombe, and J. Verweij, “New response evaluation criteria in solid tumours: revised RECIST guideline (version 1.1),” Eur. J. Cancer 45(2), 228–247 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Way, T. W.

T. W. Way, H.-P. Chan, M. M. Goodsitt, B. Sahiner, L. M. Hadjiiski, C. Zhou, and A. Chughtai, “Effect of CT scanning parameters on volumetric measurements of pulmonary nodules by 3D active contour segmentation: a phantom study,” Phys. Med. Biol. 53(5), 1295–1312 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. M. Goodsitt, H.-P. Chan, T. W. Way, S. C. Larson, E. G. Christodoulou, and J. Kim, “Accuracy of the CT numbers of simulated lung nodules imaged with multi-detector CT scanners,” Med. Phys. 33(8), 3006–3017 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Webb, S.

E. Nioutsikou, N. Richard, J. Symonds-Tayler, J. L. Bedford, and S. Webb, “Quantifying the effect of respiratory motion on lung tumour dosimetry with the aid of a breathing phantom with deforming lungs,” Phys. Med. Biol. 51, 3359–3374 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yankelevitz, D.

N. Altorki, J. Heymach, M. Guarino, P. Lee, E. Felip, T. Bauer, S. Swann, D. Roychowdhury, L. H. Ottesen, and D. Yankelevitz, “Phase II study of pazopanib (GW786034) given preoperatively in stage I–II non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC): a proof-of-concept study,” Ann. Oncol. 19(Supplement 8), 124 (2008).

A. P. Reeves, A. M. Biancardi, T. V. Apanasovich, C. R. Meyer, H. MacMahon, E. J. van Beek, E. A. Kazerooni, D. Yankelevitz, M. F. McNitt-Gray, G. McLennan, S. G. Armato, C. I. Henschke, D. R. Aberle, B. Y. Croft, and L. P. Clarke, “The Lung Image Database Consortium (LIDC): a comparison of different size metrics for pulmonary nodule measurements,” Acad. Radiol. 14(12), 1475–1485 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zeng, R.

Zhao, B.

B. Zhao, L. P. James, C. S. Moskowitz, P. Guo, M. S. Ginsberg, R. A. Lefkowitz, Y. Qin, G. J. Riely, M. G. Kris, and L. H. Schwartz, “Evaluating variability in tumor measurements from same-day repeat CT scans of patients with non-small cell lung cancer,” Radiology 252(1), 263–272 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. R. Meyer, S. G. Armato, C. P. Fenimore, G. McLennan, L. M. Bidaut, D. P. Barboriak, M. A. Gavrielides, E. F. Jackson, M. F. McNitt-Gray, P. E. Kinahan, N. Petrick, and B. Zhao, “Quantitative imaging to assess tumor response to therapy: common themes of measurement, truth data, and error sources,” Transl. Oncol. 2(4), 198–210 (2009).
[PubMed]

M. F. McNitt-Gray, L. M. Bidaut, S. G. Armato, C. R. Meyer, M. A. Gavrielides, C. Fenimore, G. McLennan, N. Petrick, B. Zhao, A. P. Reeves, R. Beichel, H. J. Kim, and L. Kinnard, “Computed tomography assessment of response to therapy: tumor volume change measurement, truth data, and error,” Transl. Oncol. 2(4), 216–222 (2009).
[PubMed]

B. Zhao, L. H. Schwartz, C. S. Moskowitz, M. S. Ginsberg, N. A. Rizvi, and M. G. Kris, “Lung cancer: computerized quantification of tumor response--initial results,” Radiology 241(3), 892–898 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhou, C.

T. W. Way, H.-P. Chan, M. M. Goodsitt, B. Sahiner, L. M. Hadjiiski, C. Zhou, and A. Chughtai, “Effect of CT scanning parameters on volumetric measurements of pulmonary nodules by 3D active contour segmentation: a phantom study,” Phys. Med. Biol. 53(5), 1295–1312 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Acad. Radiol. (3)

N. R. Bogot, E. A. Kazerooni, A. M. Kelly, L. E. Quint, B. Desjardins, and B. Nan, “Interobserver and intraobserver variability in the assessment of pulmonary nodule size on CT using film and computer display methods,” Acad. Radiol. 12(8), 948–956 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. P. Clarke, R. D. Sriram, and L. B. Schilling, “Imaging as a biomarker: standards for change measurements in therapy workshop summary,” Acad. Radiol. 15(4), 501–530 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. P. Reeves, A. M. Biancardi, T. V. Apanasovich, C. R. Meyer, H. MacMahon, E. J. van Beek, E. A. Kazerooni, D. Yankelevitz, M. F. McNitt-Gray, G. McLennan, S. G. Armato, C. I. Henschke, D. R. Aberle, B. Y. Croft, and L. P. Clarke, “The Lung Image Database Consortium (LIDC): a comparison of different size metrics for pulmonary nodule measurements,” Acad. Radiol. 14(12), 1475–1485 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ann. Oncol. (2)

N. Altorki, J. Heymach, M. Guarino, P. Lee, E. Felip, T. Bauer, S. Swann, D. Roychowdhury, L. H. Ottesen, and D. Yankelevitz, “Phase II study of pazopanib (GW786034) given preoperatively in stage I–II non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC): a proof-of-concept study,” Ann. Oncol. 19(Supplement 8), 124 (2008).

P. D. Mozley, L. H. Schwartz, C. Bendtsen, B. Zhao, N. Petrick, and A. J. Buckler, “Change in lung tumor volume as a biomarker of treatment response: A critical review of the evidence,” Ann. Oncol. (to be published).
[PubMed]

Br. J. Cancer Suppl. (1)

J. M. Quivey, J. R. Castro, G. T. Chen, A. Moss, and W. M. Marks, “Computerized tomography in the quantitative assessment of tumour response,” Br. J. Cancer Suppl. 4, 30–34 (1980).
[PubMed]

Cancer (2)

C. G. Moertel and J. A. Hanley, “The effect of measuring error on the results of therapeutic trials in advanced cancer,” Cancer 38(1), 388–394 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. E. Munzenrider, M. Pilepich, J. B. Rene-Ferrero, I. Tchakarova, and B. L. Carter, “Use of body scanner in radiotherapy treatment planning,” Cancer 40(1), 170–179 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. (3)

G. McLennan, L. P. Clarke, and R. J. Hohl, “Imaging as a biomarker for therapy response: cancer as a prototype for the creation of research resources,” Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. 84(4), 433–436 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. G. Armato, C. R. Meyer, M. F. Mcnitt-Gray, G. McLennan, A. P. Reeves, B. Y. Croft, L. P. Clarke, and RIDER Research Group, “The Reference Image Database to Evaluate Response to therapy in lung cancer (RIDER) project: a resource for the development of change-analysis software,” Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. 84(4), 448–456 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Petrick, D. G. Brown, O. Suleiman, and K. J. Myers, “Imaging as a tumor biomarker in oncology drug trials for lung cancer: the FDA perspective,” Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. 84(4), 523–525 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eur. J. Cancer (1)

E. A. Eisenhauer, P. Therasse, J. Bogaerts, L. H. Schwartz, D. Sargent, R. Ford, J. Dancey, S. Arbuck, S. Gwyther, M. Mooney, L. Rubinstein, L. Shankar, L. Dodd, R. Kaplan, D. Lacombe, and J. Verweij, “New response evaluation criteria in solid tumours: revised RECIST guideline (version 1.1),” Eur. J. Cancer 45(2), 228–247 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Eur. Radiol. (1)

K. Marten, F. Auer, S. Schmidt, G. Kohl, E. J. Rummeny, and C. Engelke, “Inadequacy of manual measurements compared to automated CT volumetry in assessment of treatment response of pulmonary metastases using RECIST criteria,” Eur. Radiol. 16(4), 781–790 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Clin. Oncol. (2)

J. J. Erasmus, G. W. Gladish, L. Broemeling, B. S. Sabloff, M. T. Truong, R. S. Herbst, and R. F. Munden, “Interobserver and intraobserver variability in measurement of non-small-cell carcinoma lung lesions: implications for assessment of tumor response,” J. Clin. Oncol. 21(13), 2574–2582 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Schwartz, S. Curran, R. Trocola, J. Randazzo, D. Ilson, D. Kelsen, and M. Shah, “Volumetric 3D CT analysis–an early predictor of response to therapy,” J. Clin. Oncol. 25(18S), 4576 (2007).

Med. Phys. (1)

M. M. Goodsitt, H.-P. Chan, T. W. Way, S. C. Larson, E. G. Christodoulou, and J. Kim, “Accuracy of the CT numbers of simulated lung nodules imaged with multi-detector CT scanners,” Med. Phys. 33(8), 3006–3017 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

Phys. Med. Biol. (2)

E. Nioutsikou, N. Richard, J. Symonds-Tayler, J. L. Bedford, and S. Webb, “Quantifying the effect of respiratory motion on lung tumour dosimetry with the aid of a breathing phantom with deforming lungs,” Phys. Med. Biol. 51, 3359–3374 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. W. Way, H.-P. Chan, M. M. Goodsitt, B. Sahiner, L. M. Hadjiiski, C. Zhou, and A. Chughtai, “Effect of CT scanning parameters on volumetric measurements of pulmonary nodules by 3D active contour segmentation: a phantom study,” Phys. Med. Biol. 53(5), 1295–1312 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE (1)

M. A. Gavrielides, R. Zeng, L. M. Kinnard, K. J. Myers, and N. Petrick, “A template-based approach for the analysis of lung nodules in a volumetric CT phantom study,” Proc. SPIE 7260, 726009–726011 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Radiology (4)

B. Zhao, L. P. James, C. S. Moskowitz, P. Guo, M. S. Ginsberg, R. A. Lefkowitz, Y. Qin, G. J. Riely, M. G. Kris, and L. H. Schwartz, “Evaluating variability in tumor measurements from same-day repeat CT scans of patients with non-small cell lung cancer,” Radiology 252(1), 263–272 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Gavrielides, L. M. Kinnard, K. J. Myers, and N. Petrick, “Noncalcified lung nodules: volumetric assessment with thoracic CT,” Radiology 251(1), 26–37 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M.-P. Revel, C. Lefort, A. Bissery, M. Bienvenu, L. Aycard, G. Chatellier, and G. Frija, “Pulmonary nodules: preliminary experience with three-dimensional evaluation,” Radiology 231(2), 459–466 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Zhao, L. H. Schwartz, C. S. Moskowitz, M. S. Ginsberg, N. A. Rizvi, and M. G. Kris, “Lung cancer: computerized quantification of tumor response--initial results,” Radiology 241(3), 892–898 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Transl. Oncol. (2)

M. F. McNitt-Gray, L. M. Bidaut, S. G. Armato, C. R. Meyer, M. A. Gavrielides, C. Fenimore, G. McLennan, N. Petrick, B. Zhao, A. P. Reeves, R. Beichel, H. J. Kim, and L. Kinnard, “Computed tomography assessment of response to therapy: tumor volume change measurement, truth data, and error,” Transl. Oncol. 2(4), 216–222 (2009).
[PubMed]

C. R. Meyer, S. G. Armato, C. P. Fenimore, G. McLennan, L. M. Bidaut, D. P. Barboriak, M. A. Gavrielides, E. F. Jackson, M. F. McNitt-Gray, P. E. Kinahan, N. Petrick, and B. Zhao, “Quantitative imaging to assess tumor response to therapy: common themes of measurement, truth data, and error sources,” Transl. Oncol. 2(4), 198–210 (2009).
[PubMed]

Other (10)

http://www.via.cornell.edu/volcaman/ Draft version of the VOLCAMAN study.

http://qibawiki.rsna.org/index.php?title=Volumetric_CT.

A. P. Reeves, A. M. Biancardi, D. Yankelevitz, S. Fotin, B. M. Keller, A. Jirapatnakul, and J. Lee, “A public image database to support research in computer aided diagnosis,” in 31st Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, Sept. 2009, pp. 3715–3718.

http://www.via.cornell.edu/databases/crpf.html.

http://www.grand-challenge.org/index.php/MICCAI_2010_Workshop.

https://wiki.nci.nih.gov/display/Imaging/Algorithm+Validation+Toolkit+(AVT).

http://www.itl.nist.gov/iad/894.05/biochange2008/Biochange2008-webpage.htm.

A. P. Reeves, A. C. Jirapatnakul, A. M. Biancardi, et al., “The VOLCANO'09 challenge: preliminary results,” in Second International Workshop of Pulmonary Image Analysis, Sept. 2009, pp. 353–364.

http://preventcancer.org/.

B. Zhao, G. R. Oxnard, P. Guo, et al., “A pilot study comparing computerized volume measurement with diameter measurement as an early biomarker of the biologic activity of EGFR targeted therapy,” IASLC 13th World Conference on Lung Cancer, July 31–August 4, 2009, San Francisco, California.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Data for a patient who participated in a clinical trial of a new treatment for advanced stage lung cancer

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) tissue equivalent thorax section phantom (center) containing 9.5 mm diameter simulated spherical lung nodules, with two water-equivalent bolus sections (top and bottom), (b) the exterior shell of an anthropomorphic thoracic phantom and its vasculature insert; and (c) a mechanical lung phantom used to simulate breathing. Images in (a)-(c) are reprinted with permission.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

CT scan from acquisition 9111 of the FDA phantom data set. The thorax phantom contained six spherical nodules (20 mm diameter with −630 HU density; 5 mm. 8 mm, 10 mm, 20 mm and 40 mm diameter with −10 HU density; 10 mm and 20 mm with + 100 HU density). The scan was acquired on a Philips Mx8000 IDT scan at 120 KVp and 200 mAs using a 16x0.75 collimation. 1.5 mm reconstruction thickness, 0.75 reconstruction increment, pitch of 1.2 and a medium reconstruction kernel (View 1).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

An example taken from the same-day repeat CT study. Computer-aided tumor measurements were different on the two repeat CT scans even if there was no biological change of the tumor (View 2).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Longitudinal Scans where Patient has Known Tumor (View 3).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Comparison of (non-dimensional) reported fractional volume change of RIDER image pairs for four Biochange’08 participants (a, b, c, and d) to the computed fractional change (in diameter) based on the two readers’ diameter readings (1 and 2). The two dashed (purple) lines correspond to the RECIST criteria for progressive disease (20% increase in diameter, top), and partial response (30% decrease in diameter). The readers disagree on one case, RIDER 2. The two dotted (light blue) lines correspond to 73% increase in volume (top) and 65% decrease in volume. The software submissions also disagree on a single case, RIDER 6 (View 4).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Two scans of a lesion in the VOLCANO Data set (View 5).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

An example of computer assisted segmentation for the lesions shown in Fig. 7

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