Abstract

An open source lesion sizing toolkit has been developed with a general architecture for implementing lesion segmentation algorithms and a reference algorithm for segmenting solid and part-solid lesions from lung CT scans. The CT lung lesion segmentation algorithm detects four three-dimensional features corresponding to the lung wall, vasculature, lesion boundary edges, and low density background lung parenchyma. These features form boundaries and propagation zones that guide the evolution of a subsequent level set algorithm. User input is used to determine an initial seed point for the level set and users may also define a region of interest around the lesion. The methods are validated against 18 nodules using CT scans of an anthropomorphic thorax phantom simulating lung anatomy. The scans were acquired under differing scanner parameters to characterize algorithm behavior under varying acquisition protocols. We also validated repeatability using six clinical cases in which the patient was rescanned on the same day (zero volume change). The source code, data sets, and a running application are all provided under an unrestrictive license to encourage reproducibility and foster scientific exchange.

© 2010 OSA

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2009

E.A. Eisenhauer, P. Therasse, J. Bogaerts, L.H. Schwartz, D. Sargent, R. Ford, J. Dancey, S. Arbuck, S. Gwyther, M. Mooney, L. Rubinstein, L. Shankar, L. Dodd, R. Kaplan, D. Lacombe, and J. Verweij, “New response evaluation criteria in solid tumours: Revised RECIST guideline (version 1.1),” Eur. J. Cancer 45(2), 228–247 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2000

P. Therasse, S. G. Arbuck, E. A. Eisenhauer, J. Wanders, R. S. Kaplan, L. Rubinstein, J. Verweij, M. Van Glabbeke, A. T. van Oosterom, M. C. Christian, and S. G. Gwyther, “New guidelines to evaluate the response to treatment in solid tumors,” J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 92(3), 205–216 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998

Y. Sato, S. Nakajima, N. Shiraga, H. Atsumi, S. Yoshida, T. Koller, G. Gerig, and R. Kikinis, “Three-dimensional multi-scale line filter for segmentation and visualization of curvilinear structures in medical images,” Med. Image Anal. 2(2), 143–168 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Frangi, W. J. Niessen, K. L. Vincken, and M. A. Viergever, “Multiscale vessel enhancement filtering,” Lect. Notes Comput. Sci. 1496, 130–137 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

V. Caselles, R. Kimmel, and G. Sapiro, “Geodesic active contours,” Int. J. Comput. Vis. 22(1), 61–79 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995

R. Malladi, J. A. Sethian, and B. C. Vemuri, “Shape modeling with front propagation: A level set approach,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 17(2), 158–175 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

A. M. Alyassin, J. L. Lancaster, J. H. Downs, and P. T. Fox, “Evaluation of new algorithms for the interactive measurement of surface area and volume,” Med. Phys. 21(6), 741–752 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987

W. E. Lorensen and H. E. Cline, “Marching cubes: A high resolution 3D surface construction algorithm,” ACM SIGGRAPH Comput. Graph. 21(4), 163–169 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986

J. F. Canny, “A computational approach to edge detection,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 8(6), 679–698 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1980

R. D. Hunter, “WHO Handbook for Reporting Results of Cancer Treatment,” Int. J. Radiat. Biol. 38(4), 481 (1980), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Alyassin, A. M.

A. M. Alyassin, J. L. Lancaster, J. H. Downs, and P. T. Fox, “Evaluation of new algorithms for the interactive measurement of surface area and volume,” Med. Phys. 21(6), 741–752 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arbuck, S.

E.A. Eisenhauer, P. Therasse, J. Bogaerts, L.H. Schwartz, D. Sargent, R. Ford, J. Dancey, S. Arbuck, S. Gwyther, M. Mooney, L. Rubinstein, L. Shankar, L. Dodd, R. Kaplan, D. Lacombe, and J. Verweij, “New response evaluation criteria in solid tumours: Revised RECIST guideline (version 1.1),” Eur. J. Cancer 45(2), 228–247 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Arbuck, S. G.

P. Therasse, S. G. Arbuck, E. A. Eisenhauer, J. Wanders, R. S. Kaplan, L. Rubinstein, J. Verweij, M. Van Glabbeke, A. T. van Oosterom, M. C. Christian, and S. G. Gwyther, “New guidelines to evaluate the response to treatment in solid tumors,” J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 92(3), 205–216 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Atsumi, H.

Y. Sato, S. Nakajima, N. Shiraga, H. Atsumi, S. Yoshida, T. Koller, G. Gerig, and R. Kikinis, “Three-dimensional multi-scale line filter for segmentation and visualization of curvilinear structures in medical images,” Med. Image Anal. 2(2), 143–168 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bogaerts, J.

E.A. Eisenhauer, P. Therasse, J. Bogaerts, L.H. Schwartz, D. Sargent, R. Ford, J. Dancey, S. Arbuck, S. Gwyther, M. Mooney, L. Rubinstein, L. Shankar, L. Dodd, R. Kaplan, D. Lacombe, and J. Verweij, “New response evaluation criteria in solid tumours: Revised RECIST guideline (version 1.1),” Eur. J. Cancer 45(2), 228–247 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Canny, J. F.

J. F. Canny, “A computational approach to edge detection,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 8(6), 679–698 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Caselles, V.

V. Caselles, R. Kimmel, and G. Sapiro, “Geodesic active contours,” Int. J. Comput. Vis. 22(1), 61–79 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Christian, M. C.

P. Therasse, S. G. Arbuck, E. A. Eisenhauer, J. Wanders, R. S. Kaplan, L. Rubinstein, J. Verweij, M. Van Glabbeke, A. T. van Oosterom, M. C. Christian, and S. G. Gwyther, “New guidelines to evaluate the response to treatment in solid tumors,” J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 92(3), 205–216 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cline, H. E.

W. E. Lorensen and H. E. Cline, “Marching cubes: A high resolution 3D surface construction algorithm,” ACM SIGGRAPH Comput. Graph. 21(4), 163–169 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Dancey, J.

E.A. Eisenhauer, P. Therasse, J. Bogaerts, L.H. Schwartz, D. Sargent, R. Ford, J. Dancey, S. Arbuck, S. Gwyther, M. Mooney, L. Rubinstein, L. Shankar, L. Dodd, R. Kaplan, D. Lacombe, and J. Verweij, “New response evaluation criteria in solid tumours: Revised RECIST guideline (version 1.1),” Eur. J. Cancer 45(2), 228–247 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dodd, L.

E.A. Eisenhauer, P. Therasse, J. Bogaerts, L.H. Schwartz, D. Sargent, R. Ford, J. Dancey, S. Arbuck, S. Gwyther, M. Mooney, L. Rubinstein, L. Shankar, L. Dodd, R. Kaplan, D. Lacombe, and J. Verweij, “New response evaluation criteria in solid tumours: Revised RECIST guideline (version 1.1),” Eur. J. Cancer 45(2), 228–247 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Downs, J. H.

A. M. Alyassin, J. L. Lancaster, J. H. Downs, and P. T. Fox, “Evaluation of new algorithms for the interactive measurement of surface area and volume,” Med. Phys. 21(6), 741–752 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eisenhauer, E. A.

P. Therasse, S. G. Arbuck, E. A. Eisenhauer, J. Wanders, R. S. Kaplan, L. Rubinstein, J. Verweij, M. Van Glabbeke, A. T. van Oosterom, M. C. Christian, and S. G. Gwyther, “New guidelines to evaluate the response to treatment in solid tumors,” J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 92(3), 205–216 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eisenhauer, E.A.

E.A. Eisenhauer, P. Therasse, J. Bogaerts, L.H. Schwartz, D. Sargent, R. Ford, J. Dancey, S. Arbuck, S. Gwyther, M. Mooney, L. Rubinstein, L. Shankar, L. Dodd, R. Kaplan, D. Lacombe, and J. Verweij, “New response evaluation criteria in solid tumours: Revised RECIST guideline (version 1.1),” Eur. J. Cancer 45(2), 228–247 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ford, R.

E.A. Eisenhauer, P. Therasse, J. Bogaerts, L.H. Schwartz, D. Sargent, R. Ford, J. Dancey, S. Arbuck, S. Gwyther, M. Mooney, L. Rubinstein, L. Shankar, L. Dodd, R. Kaplan, D. Lacombe, and J. Verweij, “New response evaluation criteria in solid tumours: Revised RECIST guideline (version 1.1),” Eur. J. Cancer 45(2), 228–247 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fox, P. T.

A. M. Alyassin, J. L. Lancaster, J. H. Downs, and P. T. Fox, “Evaluation of new algorithms for the interactive measurement of surface area and volume,” Med. Phys. 21(6), 741–752 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Frangi, A. F.

A. F. Frangi, W. J. Niessen, K. L. Vincken, and M. A. Viergever, “Multiscale vessel enhancement filtering,” Lect. Notes Comput. Sci. 1496, 130–137 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gerig, G.

Y. Sato, S. Nakajima, N. Shiraga, H. Atsumi, S. Yoshida, T. Koller, G. Gerig, and R. Kikinis, “Three-dimensional multi-scale line filter for segmentation and visualization of curvilinear structures in medical images,” Med. Image Anal. 2(2), 143–168 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gwyther, S.

E.A. Eisenhauer, P. Therasse, J. Bogaerts, L.H. Schwartz, D. Sargent, R. Ford, J. Dancey, S. Arbuck, S. Gwyther, M. Mooney, L. Rubinstein, L. Shankar, L. Dodd, R. Kaplan, D. Lacombe, and J. Verweij, “New response evaluation criteria in solid tumours: Revised RECIST guideline (version 1.1),” Eur. J. Cancer 45(2), 228–247 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gwyther, S. G.

P. Therasse, S. G. Arbuck, E. A. Eisenhauer, J. Wanders, R. S. Kaplan, L. Rubinstein, J. Verweij, M. Van Glabbeke, A. T. van Oosterom, M. C. Christian, and S. G. Gwyther, “New guidelines to evaluate the response to treatment in solid tumors,” J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 92(3), 205–216 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hunter, R. D.

R. D. Hunter, “WHO Handbook for Reporting Results of Cancer Treatment,” Int. J. Radiat. Biol. 38(4), 481 (1980), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Kaplan, R.

E.A. Eisenhauer, P. Therasse, J. Bogaerts, L.H. Schwartz, D. Sargent, R. Ford, J. Dancey, S. Arbuck, S. Gwyther, M. Mooney, L. Rubinstein, L. Shankar, L. Dodd, R. Kaplan, D. Lacombe, and J. Verweij, “New response evaluation criteria in solid tumours: Revised RECIST guideline (version 1.1),” Eur. J. Cancer 45(2), 228–247 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kaplan, R. S.

P. Therasse, S. G. Arbuck, E. A. Eisenhauer, J. Wanders, R. S. Kaplan, L. Rubinstein, J. Verweij, M. Van Glabbeke, A. T. van Oosterom, M. C. Christian, and S. G. Gwyther, “New guidelines to evaluate the response to treatment in solid tumors,” J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 92(3), 205–216 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kikinis, R.

Y. Sato, S. Nakajima, N. Shiraga, H. Atsumi, S. Yoshida, T. Koller, G. Gerig, and R. Kikinis, “Three-dimensional multi-scale line filter for segmentation and visualization of curvilinear structures in medical images,” Med. Image Anal. 2(2), 143–168 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kimmel, R.

V. Caselles, R. Kimmel, and G. Sapiro, “Geodesic active contours,” Int. J. Comput. Vis. 22(1), 61–79 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Koller, T.

Y. Sato, S. Nakajima, N. Shiraga, H. Atsumi, S. Yoshida, T. Koller, G. Gerig, and R. Kikinis, “Three-dimensional multi-scale line filter for segmentation and visualization of curvilinear structures in medical images,” Med. Image Anal. 2(2), 143–168 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lacombe, D.

E.A. Eisenhauer, P. Therasse, J. Bogaerts, L.H. Schwartz, D. Sargent, R. Ford, J. Dancey, S. Arbuck, S. Gwyther, M. Mooney, L. Rubinstein, L. Shankar, L. Dodd, R. Kaplan, D. Lacombe, and J. Verweij, “New response evaluation criteria in solid tumours: Revised RECIST guideline (version 1.1),” Eur. J. Cancer 45(2), 228–247 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lancaster, J. L.

A. M. Alyassin, J. L. Lancaster, J. H. Downs, and P. T. Fox, “Evaluation of new algorithms for the interactive measurement of surface area and volume,” Med. Phys. 21(6), 741–752 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lorensen, W. E.

W. E. Lorensen and H. E. Cline, “Marching cubes: A high resolution 3D surface construction algorithm,” ACM SIGGRAPH Comput. Graph. 21(4), 163–169 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Malladi, R.

R. Malladi, J. A. Sethian, and B. C. Vemuri, “Shape modeling with front propagation: A level set approach,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 17(2), 158–175 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Mooney, M.

E.A. Eisenhauer, P. Therasse, J. Bogaerts, L.H. Schwartz, D. Sargent, R. Ford, J. Dancey, S. Arbuck, S. Gwyther, M. Mooney, L. Rubinstein, L. Shankar, L. Dodd, R. Kaplan, D. Lacombe, and J. Verweij, “New response evaluation criteria in solid tumours: Revised RECIST guideline (version 1.1),” Eur. J. Cancer 45(2), 228–247 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nakajima, S.

Y. Sato, S. Nakajima, N. Shiraga, H. Atsumi, S. Yoshida, T. Koller, G. Gerig, and R. Kikinis, “Three-dimensional multi-scale line filter for segmentation and visualization of curvilinear structures in medical images,” Med. Image Anal. 2(2), 143–168 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Niessen, W. J.

A. F. Frangi, W. J. Niessen, K. L. Vincken, and M. A. Viergever, “Multiscale vessel enhancement filtering,” Lect. Notes Comput. Sci. 1496, 130–137 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Rubinstein, L.

E.A. Eisenhauer, P. Therasse, J. Bogaerts, L.H. Schwartz, D. Sargent, R. Ford, J. Dancey, S. Arbuck, S. Gwyther, M. Mooney, L. Rubinstein, L. Shankar, L. Dodd, R. Kaplan, D. Lacombe, and J. Verweij, “New response evaluation criteria in solid tumours: Revised RECIST guideline (version 1.1),” Eur. J. Cancer 45(2), 228–247 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. Therasse, S. G. Arbuck, E. A. Eisenhauer, J. Wanders, R. S. Kaplan, L. Rubinstein, J. Verweij, M. Van Glabbeke, A. T. van Oosterom, M. C. Christian, and S. G. Gwyther, “New guidelines to evaluate the response to treatment in solid tumors,” J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 92(3), 205–216 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sapiro, G.

V. Caselles, R. Kimmel, and G. Sapiro, “Geodesic active contours,” Int. J. Comput. Vis. 22(1), 61–79 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sargent, D.

E.A. Eisenhauer, P. Therasse, J. Bogaerts, L.H. Schwartz, D. Sargent, R. Ford, J. Dancey, S. Arbuck, S. Gwyther, M. Mooney, L. Rubinstein, L. Shankar, L. Dodd, R. Kaplan, D. Lacombe, and J. Verweij, “New response evaluation criteria in solid tumours: Revised RECIST guideline (version 1.1),” Eur. J. Cancer 45(2), 228–247 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sato, Y.

Y. Sato, S. Nakajima, N. Shiraga, H. Atsumi, S. Yoshida, T. Koller, G. Gerig, and R. Kikinis, “Three-dimensional multi-scale line filter for segmentation and visualization of curvilinear structures in medical images,” Med. Image Anal. 2(2), 143–168 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Schwartz, L.H.

E.A. Eisenhauer, P. Therasse, J. Bogaerts, L.H. Schwartz, D. Sargent, R. Ford, J. Dancey, S. Arbuck, S. Gwyther, M. Mooney, L. Rubinstein, L. Shankar, L. Dodd, R. Kaplan, D. Lacombe, and J. Verweij, “New response evaluation criteria in solid tumours: Revised RECIST guideline (version 1.1),” Eur. J. Cancer 45(2), 228–247 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sethian, J. A.

R. Malladi, J. A. Sethian, and B. C. Vemuri, “Shape modeling with front propagation: A level set approach,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 17(2), 158–175 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Shankar, L.

E.A. Eisenhauer, P. Therasse, J. Bogaerts, L.H. Schwartz, D. Sargent, R. Ford, J. Dancey, S. Arbuck, S. Gwyther, M. Mooney, L. Rubinstein, L. Shankar, L. Dodd, R. Kaplan, D. Lacombe, and J. Verweij, “New response evaluation criteria in solid tumours: Revised RECIST guideline (version 1.1),” Eur. J. Cancer 45(2), 228–247 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Shiraga, N.

Y. Sato, S. Nakajima, N. Shiraga, H. Atsumi, S. Yoshida, T. Koller, G. Gerig, and R. Kikinis, “Three-dimensional multi-scale line filter for segmentation and visualization of curvilinear structures in medical images,” Med. Image Anal. 2(2), 143–168 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Therasse, P.

E.A. Eisenhauer, P. Therasse, J. Bogaerts, L.H. Schwartz, D. Sargent, R. Ford, J. Dancey, S. Arbuck, S. Gwyther, M. Mooney, L. Rubinstein, L. Shankar, L. Dodd, R. Kaplan, D. Lacombe, and J. Verweij, “New response evaluation criteria in solid tumours: Revised RECIST guideline (version 1.1),” Eur. J. Cancer 45(2), 228–247 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. Therasse, S. G. Arbuck, E. A. Eisenhauer, J. Wanders, R. S. Kaplan, L. Rubinstein, J. Verweij, M. Van Glabbeke, A. T. van Oosterom, M. C. Christian, and S. G. Gwyther, “New guidelines to evaluate the response to treatment in solid tumors,” J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 92(3), 205–216 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Van Glabbeke, M.

P. Therasse, S. G. Arbuck, E. A. Eisenhauer, J. Wanders, R. S. Kaplan, L. Rubinstein, J. Verweij, M. Van Glabbeke, A. T. van Oosterom, M. C. Christian, and S. G. Gwyther, “New guidelines to evaluate the response to treatment in solid tumors,” J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 92(3), 205–216 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Oosterom, A. T.

P. Therasse, S. G. Arbuck, E. A. Eisenhauer, J. Wanders, R. S. Kaplan, L. Rubinstein, J. Verweij, M. Van Glabbeke, A. T. van Oosterom, M. C. Christian, and S. G. Gwyther, “New guidelines to evaluate the response to treatment in solid tumors,” J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 92(3), 205–216 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vemuri, B. C.

R. Malladi, J. A. Sethian, and B. C. Vemuri, “Shape modeling with front propagation: A level set approach,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 17(2), 158–175 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Verweij, J.

E.A. Eisenhauer, P. Therasse, J. Bogaerts, L.H. Schwartz, D. Sargent, R. Ford, J. Dancey, S. Arbuck, S. Gwyther, M. Mooney, L. Rubinstein, L. Shankar, L. Dodd, R. Kaplan, D. Lacombe, and J. Verweij, “New response evaluation criteria in solid tumours: Revised RECIST guideline (version 1.1),” Eur. J. Cancer 45(2), 228–247 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. Therasse, S. G. Arbuck, E. A. Eisenhauer, J. Wanders, R. S. Kaplan, L. Rubinstein, J. Verweij, M. Van Glabbeke, A. T. van Oosterom, M. C. Christian, and S. G. Gwyther, “New guidelines to evaluate the response to treatment in solid tumors,” J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 92(3), 205–216 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Viergever, M. A.

A. F. Frangi, W. J. Niessen, K. L. Vincken, and M. A. Viergever, “Multiscale vessel enhancement filtering,” Lect. Notes Comput. Sci. 1496, 130–137 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Vincken, K. L.

A. F. Frangi, W. J. Niessen, K. L. Vincken, and M. A. Viergever, “Multiscale vessel enhancement filtering,” Lect. Notes Comput. Sci. 1496, 130–137 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wanders, J.

P. Therasse, S. G. Arbuck, E. A. Eisenhauer, J. Wanders, R. S. Kaplan, L. Rubinstein, J. Verweij, M. Van Glabbeke, A. T. van Oosterom, M. C. Christian, and S. G. Gwyther, “New guidelines to evaluate the response to treatment in solid tumors,” J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 92(3), 205–216 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yoshida, S.

Y. Sato, S. Nakajima, N. Shiraga, H. Atsumi, S. Yoshida, T. Koller, G. Gerig, and R. Kikinis, “Three-dimensional multi-scale line filter for segmentation and visualization of curvilinear structures in medical images,” Med. Image Anal. 2(2), 143–168 (1998).
[CrossRef]

ACM SIGGRAPH Comput. Graph.

W. E. Lorensen and H. E. Cline, “Marching cubes: A high resolution 3D surface construction algorithm,” ACM SIGGRAPH Comput. Graph. 21(4), 163–169 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Eur. J. Cancer

E.A. Eisenhauer, P. Therasse, J. Bogaerts, L.H. Schwartz, D. Sargent, R. Ford, J. Dancey, S. Arbuck, S. Gwyther, M. Mooney, L. Rubinstein, L. Shankar, L. Dodd, R. Kaplan, D. Lacombe, and J. Verweij, “New response evaluation criteria in solid tumours: Revised RECIST guideline (version 1.1),” Eur. J. Cancer 45(2), 228–247 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell.

J. F. Canny, “A computational approach to edge detection,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 8(6), 679–698 (1986).
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The Optical Society of America, The National Library of Medicine, Kitware Inc, Interactive Science Publishing: http://www.opticsinfobase.org/isp.cfm

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Toolkit architecture.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Left: Segmentation of the lung wall by voting based front propagation on a lesion attached to the lung wall. The front starts with the red contour (obtained by thresholding the data set at −400 HU. In cyan are contours of the front at iterations of 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 80. The algorithm converges in 151 iterations at the green front. Right: The lesion segmented and volume rendered in ISP (View 1).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Top left: Lung wall features in cyan, Canny Edges features in red; a contour around the single voxel thick edges is shown. Note that the voxels may have a thickness of 1 along the Z dimension and hence several voxels thick in-plane as shown. Top right: Intensity features for solid lesion parameters in blue, Sato Vesselness features in yellow. Bottom: Lesion segmented and volume rendered using the ISP lesion sizing tool (View 2).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Left: A photograph of the anthropomorphic phantom and an inlaid nodule (courtesy US FDA). Middle, Right: Lesion segmented using the ISP wizard and volume rendered in ISP (View 3).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

The segmentation of a part-solid lesion (View 10).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

The segmentation of a lung cancer lesion at two time points, imaged 10 months apart. Quantitative analysis indicates that the lesion has more than doubled in volume (View 11).

Datasets

Datasets associated with ISP articles are stored in an online database called MIDAS. Clicking a "View" link in an OSA ISP article will launch the ISP software (if installed) and pull the relevant data from MIDAS. Visit MIDAS to browse and download the datasets directly. A package containing the PDF article and full datasets is available in MIDAS for offline viewing.

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Tables (1)

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Table 1 Zero change Volumes V1, V2, for 6 cases each acquired at two time points

Equations (2)

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φ t + F ( 1 w K ) | φ | = 0.
ξ = | ComputedVolume TrueVolume | / TrueVolume ,

Metrics