Abstract

Emerged as an upgrade of currently available Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) biosensing in terms of sensitivity, phase-sensitive SPR technology still requires the minimization of instrumental noises to profit from its projected ultra-low detection limit (10−8 refractive index units and lower). We present a polarimetry-based methodology for the efficient reduction of main instrumental noises in phase-sensitive measurements. The proposed approach employs a sinusoidal phase modulation of pumping light and is based on selection of proper modulation amplitude and initial phase relation for the first two modulation harmonics (F1 and F2), which enables to subtract amplitude drifts in the difference (F1 - F2) signal while doubling the phase response. The resulting effect can be called self-noise-filtering, since it implies an inherent noise subtraction in every phase sensing measurement. This methodology allows one to tackle drifts related to instabilities of light sources and optical elements and thus drastically lower the detection limit of phase-sensitive SPR sensing even in relatively simple and noisy experimental implementations.

© 2010 OSA

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2010 (1)

2009 (4)

2008 (1)

2007 (4)

W. Yuan, H. P. Ho, C. L. Wong, S. K. Kong, and C. Lin, “Surface Plasmon Resonance Biosensor incorporated in a Michelson Interferometer with enhanced sensitivity,” IEEE Sens. J. 7(1), 70–73 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. P. Ho, W. Yuan, C. L. Wong, S. Y. Wu, Y. K. Suen, S. K. Kong, and C. Lin, “Sensitivity enhancement based on application of multi-pass interferometry in phase-sensitive surface plasmon resonance biosensor,” Opt. Commun. 275(2), 491–496 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. P. Markowicz, W. C. Law, A. Baev, P. Prasad, S. Patskovsky, and A. V. Kabashin, “Phase-sensitive time-modulated SPR polarimetry for wide dynamic range biosensing,” Opt. Express 15, 1745 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Patskovsky, M. Meunier, and A. V. Kabashin, “Phase-sensitive silicon-based total internal reflection sensor,” Opt. Express 15(19), 12523–12528 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

Y.-D. Su, S.-J. Chen, and T.-L. Yeh, “Common-path phase-shift interferometry surface plasmon resonance imaging system,” Opt. Lett. 30(12), 1488–1490 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Xinglong, W. Dingxin, W. Xing, D. Xiang, L. Wei, and Z. Xinsheng, “A surface plasmon resonance imaging interferometry for protein micro-array detection,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 108(1-2), 765–771 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

I. R. Hooper and J. R. Sambles, “Differential ellipsometric surface plasmon resonance sensors with liquid crystal polarization modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(15), 3017–3019 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Sheridan, R. D. Harris, P. N. Bartlett, and J. S. Wilkinson, “Phase interrogation of an integrated optical SPR sensor,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 97(1), 114–121 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

H. P. Ho, W. W. Lam, and S. Y. Wu, “Surface plasmon resonance sensor based on the measurement of differential phase,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73(10), 3534–3539 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

A. G. Notcovich, V. Zhuk, and S. G. Lipson, “Surface plasmon resonance phase imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(13), 1665–1667 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

A. N. Grigorenko, P. I. Nikitin, and A. V. Kabashin, “Phase Jumps and Interferometric Surface Plasmon Resonance Imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(25), 3917–3919 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Kabashin, V. E. Kochergin, and P. I. Nikitin, “Surface plasmon resonance bio- and chemical sensors with phase-polarisation contrast,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 54(1-2), 51–56 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

A. V. Kabashin and P. I. Nikitin, “Surface plasmon resonance interferometer for bio- and chemical-sensors,” Opt. Commun. 150(1-6), 5–8 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

B. Liedberg, C. Nylander, and I. Lundstrom, “Biosensing with surface plasmon resonance - how it all started,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 10(8), 1–9 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

1966 (1)

1949 (1)

A. Michels and A. Botzen, “Refractive index and Lorentz-Lorenz function of argon up to 2300 atmospheres at 25°C,” Physica 15(8-9), 769–773 (1949).
[CrossRef]

Atkinson, R.

A. V. Kabashin, P. Evans, S. Pastkovsky, W. Hendren, G. A. Wurtz, R. Atkinson, R. J. Pollard, V. A. Podolskiy, and A. V. Zayats, “Plasmonic nanorod metamaterials for biosensing,” Nat. Mater. 8(11), 867–871 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baev, A.

Bartlett, P. N.

A. K. Sheridan, R. D. Harris, P. N. Bartlett, and J. S. Wilkinson, “Phase interrogation of an integrated optical SPR sensor,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 97(1), 114–121 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Botzen, A.

A. Michels and A. Botzen, “Refractive index and Lorentz-Lorenz function of argon up to 2300 atmospheres at 25°C,” Physica 15(8-9), 769–773 (1949).
[CrossRef]

Chen, S.-J.

Dingxin, W.

Y. Xinglong, W. Dingxin, W. Xing, D. Xiang, L. Wei, and Z. Xinsheng, “A surface plasmon resonance imaging interferometry for protein micro-array detection,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 108(1-2), 765–771 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Evans, P.

A. V. Kabashin, P. Evans, S. Pastkovsky, W. Hendren, G. A. Wurtz, R. Atkinson, R. J. Pollard, V. A. Podolskiy, and A. V. Zayats, “Plasmonic nanorod metamaterials for biosensing,” Nat. Mater. 8(11), 867–871 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gass, P. A.

Grigorenko, A. N.

Harris, R. D.

A. K. Sheridan, R. D. Harris, P. N. Bartlett, and J. S. Wilkinson, “Phase interrogation of an integrated optical SPR sensor,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 97(1), 114–121 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hendren, W.

A. V. Kabashin, P. Evans, S. Pastkovsky, W. Hendren, G. A. Wurtz, R. Atkinson, R. J. Pollard, V. A. Podolskiy, and A. V. Zayats, “Plasmonic nanorod metamaterials for biosensing,” Nat. Mater. 8(11), 867–871 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ho, H. P.

W. Yuan, H. P. Ho, C. L. Wong, S. K. Kong, and C. Lin, “Surface Plasmon Resonance Biosensor incorporated in a Michelson Interferometer with enhanced sensitivity,” IEEE Sens. J. 7(1), 70–73 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. P. Ho, W. Yuan, C. L. Wong, S. Y. Wu, Y. K. Suen, S. K. Kong, and C. Lin, “Sensitivity enhancement based on application of multi-pass interferometry in phase-sensitive surface plasmon resonance biosensor,” Opt. Commun. 275(2), 491–496 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. P. Ho, W. W. Lam, and S. Y. Wu, “Surface plasmon resonance sensor based on the measurement of differential phase,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73(10), 3534–3539 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hooper, I. R.

I. R. Hooper and J. R. Sambles, “Differential ellipsometric surface plasmon resonance sensors with liquid crystal polarization modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(15), 3017–3019 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kabashin, A. V.

V. G. Kravets, F. Schedin, A. V. Kabashin, and A. N. Grigorenko, “Sensitivity of collective plasmon modes of gold nanoresonators to local environment,” Opt. Lett. 35(7), 956–958 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. V. Kabashin, P. Evans, S. Pastkovsky, W. Hendren, G. A. Wurtz, R. Atkinson, R. J. Pollard, V. A. Podolskiy, and A. V. Zayats, “Plasmonic nanorod metamaterials for biosensing,” Nat. Mater. 8(11), 867–871 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. V. Kabashin, S. Patskovsky, and A. N. Grigorenko, “Phase and amplitude sensitivities in surface plasmon resonance bio and chemical sensing,” Opt. Express 17(23), 21191–21204 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Patskovsky, M. Vallieres, M. Maisonneuve, I.-H. Song, M. Meunier, and A. V. Kabashin, “Designing efficient zero calibration point for phase-sensitive surface plasmon resonance biosensing,” Opt. Express 17(4), 2255–2263 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Patskovsky, I.-H. Song, M. Meunier, and A. V. Kabashin, “Silicon based total internal reflection bio and chemical sensing with spectral phase detection,” Opt. Express 17(23), 20847–20852 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Patskovsky, M. Maisonneuve, M. Meunier, and A. V. Kabashin, “Mechanical modulation method for ultrasensitive phase measurements in photonics biosensing,” Opt. Express 16(26), 21305–21314 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. P. Markowicz, W. C. Law, A. Baev, P. Prasad, S. Patskovsky, and A. V. Kabashin, “Phase-sensitive time-modulated SPR polarimetry for wide dynamic range biosensing,” Opt. Express 15, 1745 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Patskovsky, M. Meunier, and A. V. Kabashin, “Phase-sensitive silicon-based total internal reflection sensor,” Opt. Express 15(19), 12523–12528 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. N. Grigorenko, P. I. Nikitin, and A. V. Kabashin, “Phase Jumps and Interferometric Surface Plasmon Resonance Imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(25), 3917–3919 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Kabashin, V. E. Kochergin, and P. I. Nikitin, “Surface plasmon resonance bio- and chemical sensors with phase-polarisation contrast,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 54(1-2), 51–56 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Kabashin and P. I. Nikitin, “Surface plasmon resonance interferometer for bio- and chemical-sensors,” Opt. Commun. 150(1-6), 5–8 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Khanna, B. N.

Kochergin, V. E.

A. V. Kabashin, V. E. Kochergin, and P. I. Nikitin, “Surface plasmon resonance bio- and chemical sensors with phase-polarisation contrast,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 54(1-2), 51–56 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kong, S. K.

W. Yuan, H. P. Ho, C. L. Wong, S. K. Kong, and C. Lin, “Surface Plasmon Resonance Biosensor incorporated in a Michelson Interferometer with enhanced sensitivity,” IEEE Sens. J. 7(1), 70–73 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. P. Ho, W. Yuan, C. L. Wong, S. Y. Wu, Y. K. Suen, S. K. Kong, and C. Lin, “Sensitivity enhancement based on application of multi-pass interferometry in phase-sensitive surface plasmon resonance biosensor,” Opt. Commun. 275(2), 491–496 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kravets, V. G.

Lam, W. W.

H. P. Ho, W. W. Lam, and S. Y. Wu, “Surface plasmon resonance sensor based on the measurement of differential phase,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73(10), 3534–3539 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Law, W. C.

Liedberg, B.

B. Liedberg, C. Nylander, and I. Lundstrom, “Biosensing with surface plasmon resonance - how it all started,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 10(8), 1–9 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C.

H. P. Ho, W. Yuan, C. L. Wong, S. Y. Wu, Y. K. Suen, S. K. Kong, and C. Lin, “Sensitivity enhancement based on application of multi-pass interferometry in phase-sensitive surface plasmon resonance biosensor,” Opt. Commun. 275(2), 491–496 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. Yuan, H. P. Ho, C. L. Wong, S. K. Kong, and C. Lin, “Surface Plasmon Resonance Biosensor incorporated in a Michelson Interferometer with enhanced sensitivity,” IEEE Sens. J. 7(1), 70–73 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lipson, S. G.

A. G. Notcovich, V. Zhuk, and S. G. Lipson, “Surface plasmon resonance phase imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(13), 1665–1667 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lundstrom, I.

B. Liedberg, C. Nylander, and I. Lundstrom, “Biosensing with surface plasmon resonance - how it all started,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 10(8), 1–9 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Maisonneuve, M.

Markowicz, P. P.

Meunier, M.

Michels, A.

A. Michels and A. Botzen, “Refractive index and Lorentz-Lorenz function of argon up to 2300 atmospheres at 25°C,” Physica 15(8-9), 769–773 (1949).
[CrossRef]

Nikitin, P. I.

A. V. Kabashin, V. E. Kochergin, and P. I. Nikitin, “Surface plasmon resonance bio- and chemical sensors with phase-polarisation contrast,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 54(1-2), 51–56 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. N. Grigorenko, P. I. Nikitin, and A. V. Kabashin, “Phase Jumps and Interferometric Surface Plasmon Resonance Imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(25), 3917–3919 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Kabashin and P. I. Nikitin, “Surface plasmon resonance interferometer for bio- and chemical-sensors,” Opt. Commun. 150(1-6), 5–8 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Notcovich, A. G.

A. G. Notcovich, V. Zhuk, and S. G. Lipson, “Surface plasmon resonance phase imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(13), 1665–1667 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nylander, C.

B. Liedberg, C. Nylander, and I. Lundstrom, “Biosensing with surface plasmon resonance - how it all started,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 10(8), 1–9 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Pastkovsky, S.

A. V. Kabashin, P. Evans, S. Pastkovsky, W. Hendren, G. A. Wurtz, R. Atkinson, R. J. Pollard, V. A. Podolskiy, and A. V. Zayats, “Plasmonic nanorod metamaterials for biosensing,” Nat. Mater. 8(11), 867–871 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Patskovsky, S.

Peck, E. D.

Podolskiy, V. A.

A. V. Kabashin, P. Evans, S. Pastkovsky, W. Hendren, G. A. Wurtz, R. Atkinson, R. J. Pollard, V. A. Podolskiy, and A. V. Zayats, “Plasmonic nanorod metamaterials for biosensing,” Nat. Mater. 8(11), 867–871 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pollard, R. J.

A. V. Kabashin, P. Evans, S. Pastkovsky, W. Hendren, G. A. Wurtz, R. Atkinson, R. J. Pollard, V. A. Podolskiy, and A. V. Zayats, “Plasmonic nanorod metamaterials for biosensing,” Nat. Mater. 8(11), 867–871 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prasad, P.

Sambles, J. R.

I. R. Hooper and J. R. Sambles, “Differential ellipsometric surface plasmon resonance sensors with liquid crystal polarization modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(15), 3017–3019 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Gass, S. Schalk, and J. R. Sambles, “Highly sensitive optical measurement techniques based on acousto-optic devices,” Appl. Opt. 33(31), 7501–7510 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schalk, S.

Schedin, F.

Sheridan, A. K.

A. K. Sheridan, R. D. Harris, P. N. Bartlett, and J. S. Wilkinson, “Phase interrogation of an integrated optical SPR sensor,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 97(1), 114–121 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Song, I.-H.

Su, Y.-D.

Suen, Y. K.

H. P. Ho, W. Yuan, C. L. Wong, S. Y. Wu, Y. K. Suen, S. K. Kong, and C. Lin, “Sensitivity enhancement based on application of multi-pass interferometry in phase-sensitive surface plasmon resonance biosensor,” Opt. Commun. 275(2), 491–496 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Vallieres, M.

Wei, L.

Y. Xinglong, W. Dingxin, W. Xing, D. Xiang, L. Wei, and Z. Xinsheng, “A surface plasmon resonance imaging interferometry for protein micro-array detection,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 108(1-2), 765–771 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wilkinson, J. S.

A. K. Sheridan, R. D. Harris, P. N. Bartlett, and J. S. Wilkinson, “Phase interrogation of an integrated optical SPR sensor,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 97(1), 114–121 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wong, C. L.

W. Yuan, H. P. Ho, C. L. Wong, S. K. Kong, and C. Lin, “Surface Plasmon Resonance Biosensor incorporated in a Michelson Interferometer with enhanced sensitivity,” IEEE Sens. J. 7(1), 70–73 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. P. Ho, W. Yuan, C. L. Wong, S. Y. Wu, Y. K. Suen, S. K. Kong, and C. Lin, “Sensitivity enhancement based on application of multi-pass interferometry in phase-sensitive surface plasmon resonance biosensor,” Opt. Commun. 275(2), 491–496 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wu, S. Y.

H. P. Ho, W. Yuan, C. L. Wong, S. Y. Wu, Y. K. Suen, S. K. Kong, and C. Lin, “Sensitivity enhancement based on application of multi-pass interferometry in phase-sensitive surface plasmon resonance biosensor,” Opt. Commun. 275(2), 491–496 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. P. Ho, W. W. Lam, and S. Y. Wu, “Surface plasmon resonance sensor based on the measurement of differential phase,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73(10), 3534–3539 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wurtz, G. A.

A. V. Kabashin, P. Evans, S. Pastkovsky, W. Hendren, G. A. Wurtz, R. Atkinson, R. J. Pollard, V. A. Podolskiy, and A. V. Zayats, “Plasmonic nanorod metamaterials for biosensing,” Nat. Mater. 8(11), 867–871 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xiang, D.

Y. Xinglong, W. Dingxin, W. Xing, D. Xiang, L. Wei, and Z. Xinsheng, “A surface plasmon resonance imaging interferometry for protein micro-array detection,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 108(1-2), 765–771 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Xing, W.

Y. Xinglong, W. Dingxin, W. Xing, D. Xiang, L. Wei, and Z. Xinsheng, “A surface plasmon resonance imaging interferometry for protein micro-array detection,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 108(1-2), 765–771 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Xinglong, Y.

Y. Xinglong, W. Dingxin, W. Xing, D. Xiang, L. Wei, and Z. Xinsheng, “A surface plasmon resonance imaging interferometry for protein micro-array detection,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 108(1-2), 765–771 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Xinsheng, Z.

Y. Xinglong, W. Dingxin, W. Xing, D. Xiang, L. Wei, and Z. Xinsheng, “A surface plasmon resonance imaging interferometry for protein micro-array detection,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 108(1-2), 765–771 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yeh, T.-L.

Yuan, W.

W. Yuan, H. P. Ho, C. L. Wong, S. K. Kong, and C. Lin, “Surface Plasmon Resonance Biosensor incorporated in a Michelson Interferometer with enhanced sensitivity,” IEEE Sens. J. 7(1), 70–73 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. P. Ho, W. Yuan, C. L. Wong, S. Y. Wu, Y. K. Suen, S. K. Kong, and C. Lin, “Sensitivity enhancement based on application of multi-pass interferometry in phase-sensitive surface plasmon resonance biosensor,” Opt. Commun. 275(2), 491–496 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zayats, A. V.

A. V. Kabashin, P. Evans, S. Pastkovsky, W. Hendren, G. A. Wurtz, R. Atkinson, R. J. Pollard, V. A. Podolskiy, and A. V. Zayats, “Plasmonic nanorod metamaterials for biosensing,” Nat. Mater. 8(11), 867–871 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhuk, V.

A. G. Notcovich, V. Zhuk, and S. G. Lipson, “Surface plasmon resonance phase imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(13), 1665–1667 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

A. N. Grigorenko, P. I. Nikitin, and A. V. Kabashin, “Phase Jumps and Interferometric Surface Plasmon Resonance Imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(25), 3917–3919 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Notcovich, V. Zhuk, and S. G. Lipson, “Surface plasmon resonance phase imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(13), 1665–1667 (2000).
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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematics of the experimental arrangement

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Dependence of Bessel functions J1 , J2 and J3 on the PEM modulation amplitude M; (b) Responses of F1, F2 harmonics and differential F1– F2 signal to initial phase relation Δφ0 under the modulation amplitude of 150.7° deg.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Noise ratio of F1 and F2 signals to the harmonic difference (F1 – F2) as a function of initial phase relation Δφ0 (M = 150.7° deg); (b) Real time phase measurements using F1, F2 and F1– F2. Data are shown for lock-in integration times of 300ms, 3s and 10 s

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Signals from the first F1 and second F2 harmonics, as well as the differential signal F1-F2, under the replacement of pure N2 by 10%Ar/90%N2 mixture. The plots were obtained under optimal modulation amplitude and phase retardation.

Equations (7)

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F 1 = A · J 1 ( M ) · cos ( φ ) , F 2 = A · J 2 ( M ) · sin ( φ ) , F 3 = A · J 3 ( M ) · cos ( φ )
F 1 ' = F 1 + Δ F 1 = ( A + Δ A ) · J · cos ( φ ) = F 1 + Δ A · J · cos ( φ )
Δ F 1 = Δ A · J · cos ( φ )
F 2 ' = F 2 + Δ F 2 = ( A + Δ A ) · J · sin ( φ ) = F 2 + Δ A · J · sin ( φ )
Δ F 2 = Δ A · J · sin ( φ )
Δ F 2 Δ F 1 Δ F 2 = sin φ cos φ sin φ
Δ F 1 Δ F 1 Δ F 2 = cos φ cos φ sin φ

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