Abstract

We have investigated the 2D photoelectron momentum spectra for ATI of atoms exposed to linearly polarized pulses by quantum mechanical calculations. By comparing the 2D momentum spectra for the long-range and short-range Coulomb potentials, the focusing of the electron transverse momentum by the long-range interaction is clearly revealed. Analysis indicates that the Coulomb attraction of the parent core to the returning electron is responsible for the focusing of the electron transverse momentum. Moreover, the strong dependence of the focusing of the electron transverse momentum on the laser wavelength and intensity is discussed.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. P. Agostini, F. Fabre, G. Mainfray, and G. Petite, “Free-Free Transitions Following Six-Photon Ionization of Xenon Atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 42, 1127–1130 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  2. C. I. Blaga, F. Catoire, P. Colosimo, G. G. Paulus, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, “Strong-field photoionization revisited,” Nat. Phys. 5, 335–338 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  3. W. Quan, Z. Lin, M. Wu, H. Kang, H. Liu, X. Liu, J. Chen, J. Liu, X. T. He, S. G. Chen, H. Xiong, L. Guo, H. Xu, Y. Fu, Y. Cheng, and Z. Z. Xu, “Classical Aspects in Above-Threshold Ionization with a Mid-infrared Strong Laser Field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 093001 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. A. Becker, and F. H. M. Faisal, “Intense-field many-body S-matrix theory,” J. Phys. B 38, R1–R56 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  5. Q. Liao, P. X. Lu, P. F. Lan, W. Cao, and Y. H. Li, “Phase dependence of high-order above-threshold ionization in asymmetric molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 77, 013408 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  6. P. B. Corkum, “Plasma Perspective Strong-Field Multiphoton Ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1994–1997 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. G. G. Paulus, W. Becker, W. Nicklich, and H. Walther, “Rescattering effects in above-threshold ionization: a classical model,” J. Phys. B 27, L703–L708 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. Lein, J. P. Marangos, and P. L. Knight, “Electron diffraction in above-threshold ionization of molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 66, 051404 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  9. R. Moshammer, J. Ullrich, B. Feuerstein, D. Fischer, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, J. R. C. Lopez-Uremia, and C. Höher, “Rescattering of Ultralow-Energy Electrons for Single Ionization of Ne in the Tunneling Regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 113002 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. Y. M. Zhou, Q. Liao, and P. X. Lu, “Mechanism for high-energy electrons in nonsequential double ionization below the recollision-excitation threshold,” Phys. Rev. A 80, 023412 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. Chen, and C. H. Nam, “Ion momentum distributions for He single and double ionization in strong laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 66, 053415 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  12. K. I. Dimitriou, D. G. Arbó, S. Yoshida, E. Persson, and J. Burgdöfer, “Origin of the double-peak structure in the momentum distribution of ionization of hydrogen atoms driven by strong laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 70, 061401 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  13. T. Brabec, M. Yu. Ivanov, and P. B. Corkum, “Coulomb focusing in intense field atomic processes,” Phys. Rev. A 54, R2551–R2554 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. V. R. Bhardwaj, S. A. Aseyev, M. Mehendale, G. L. Yudin, D. M. Villeneuve, D. M. Rayner, M. Yu. Ivanov, and P. B. Corkum, “Few Cycle Dynamics of Multiphoton Double Ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 3522–3525 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. D. Comtois, D. Zeidler, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Observation of Coulomb focusing in tunneling ionization of noble gases,” J. Phys. B 38, 1923–1933 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  16. Z. J. Chen, T. Morishita, A. Le, M. Wickenhauser, X. M. Tong, and C. D. Lin, “Analysis of two-dimensional photoelectron momentum spectra and the effect of the long-range Coulomb potential in single ionization of atoms by intense lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 74, 053405 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  17. M. D. Feit, J. A. Fleck, Jr., and A. Steiger, “Solution of the Schrödinger Equation by a Spectral Method,” J. Comput. Phys. 47, 412–433 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  18. S. Chelkowski, C. Foisy, and A. D. Bandrauk, “Electron-nuclear dynamics of multiphoton H+ 2 dissociative ionization in intense laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 57, 1176–1185 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  19. X. M. Tong, K. Hino, and N. Toshima, “Phase-dependent atomic ionization in few-cycle intense laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 74, 031405 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  20. Q. Liao, P. X. Lu, Q. B. Zhang, W. Y. Hong, and Z. Y. Yang, “Phase-dependent nonsequential double ionization by few-cycle laser pulses,” J. Phys. B 41, 125601 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  21. Q. Liao, P. X. Lu, Q. B. Zhang, Z. Y. Yang, and X. B. Wang, “Double ionization of HeH+ molecules in intense laser fields,” Opt. Express 16, 17070–17075 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. Q. Liao, P. X. Lu, P. F. Lan, Z. Y. Yang, and Y. H. Li, “Method to precisely measure the phase of few-cycle laser pulses,” Opt. Express 16, 6455–6460 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. A. Rudenko, K. Zrost, Th. Ergler, A. B. Voitkiv, B. Najjari, V. L. B. de Jesus, B. Feuerstein, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Coulomb singularity in the transverse momentum distribution for strong-field single ionization,” J. Phys. B 38, L191–L198 (2005).
    [CrossRef]

2009

C. I. Blaga, F. Catoire, P. Colosimo, G. G. Paulus, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, “Strong-field photoionization revisited,” Nat. Phys. 5, 335–338 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. Quan, Z. Lin, M. Wu, H. Kang, H. Liu, X. Liu, J. Chen, J. Liu, X. T. He, S. G. Chen, H. Xiong, L. Guo, H. Xu, Y. Fu, Y. Cheng, and Z. Z. Xu, “Classical Aspects in Above-Threshold Ionization with a Mid-infrared Strong Laser Field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 093001 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. M. Zhou, Q. Liao, and P. X. Lu, “Mechanism for high-energy electrons in nonsequential double ionization below the recollision-excitation threshold,” Phys. Rev. A 80, 023412 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

Q. Liao, P. X. Lu, P. F. Lan, W. Cao, and Y. H. Li, “Phase dependence of high-order above-threshold ionization in asymmetric molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 77, 013408 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Q. Liao, P. X. Lu, Q. B. Zhang, W. Y. Hong, and Z. Y. Yang, “Phase-dependent nonsequential double ionization by few-cycle laser pulses,” J. Phys. B 41, 125601 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Q. Liao, P. X. Lu, P. F. Lan, Z. Y. Yang, and Y. H. Li, “Method to precisely measure the phase of few-cycle laser pulses,” Opt. Express 16, 6455–6460 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Liao, P. X. Lu, Q. B. Zhang, Z. Y. Yang, and X. B. Wang, “Double ionization of HeH+ molecules in intense laser fields,” Opt. Express 16, 17070–17075 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

X. M. Tong, K. Hino, and N. Toshima, “Phase-dependent atomic ionization in few-cycle intense laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 74, 031405 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Z. J. Chen, T. Morishita, A. Le, M. Wickenhauser, X. M. Tong, and C. D. Lin, “Analysis of two-dimensional photoelectron momentum spectra and the effect of the long-range Coulomb potential in single ionization of atoms by intense lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 74, 053405 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

D. Comtois, D. Zeidler, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Observation of Coulomb focusing in tunneling ionization of noble gases,” J. Phys. B 38, 1923–1933 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Becker, and F. H. M. Faisal, “Intense-field many-body S-matrix theory,” J. Phys. B 38, R1–R56 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Rudenko, K. Zrost, Th. Ergler, A. B. Voitkiv, B. Najjari, V. L. B. de Jesus, B. Feuerstein, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Coulomb singularity in the transverse momentum distribution for strong-field single ionization,” J. Phys. B 38, L191–L198 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

K. I. Dimitriou, D. G. Arbó, S. Yoshida, E. Persson, and J. Burgdöfer, “Origin of the double-peak structure in the momentum distribution of ionization of hydrogen atoms driven by strong laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 70, 061401 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

R. Moshammer, J. Ullrich, B. Feuerstein, D. Fischer, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, J. R. C. Lopez-Uremia, and C. Höher, “Rescattering of Ultralow-Energy Electrons for Single Ionization of Ne in the Tunneling Regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 113002 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

M. Lein, J. P. Marangos, and P. L. Knight, “Electron diffraction in above-threshold ionization of molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 66, 051404 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Chen, and C. H. Nam, “Ion momentum distributions for He single and double ionization in strong laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 66, 053415 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

V. R. Bhardwaj, S. A. Aseyev, M. Mehendale, G. L. Yudin, D. M. Villeneuve, D. M. Rayner, M. Yu. Ivanov, and P. B. Corkum, “Few Cycle Dynamics of Multiphoton Double Ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 3522–3525 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998

S. Chelkowski, C. Foisy, and A. D. Bandrauk, “Electron-nuclear dynamics of multiphoton H+ 2 dissociative ionization in intense laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 57, 1176–1185 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996

T. Brabec, M. Yu. Ivanov, and P. B. Corkum, “Coulomb focusing in intense field atomic processes,” Phys. Rev. A 54, R2551–R2554 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994

G. G. Paulus, W. Becker, W. Nicklich, and H. Walther, “Rescattering effects in above-threshold ionization: a classical model,” J. Phys. B 27, L703–L708 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

P. B. Corkum, “Plasma Perspective Strong-Field Multiphoton Ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1994–1997 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1982

M. D. Feit, J. A. Fleck, Jr., and A. Steiger, “Solution of the Schrödinger Equation by a Spectral Method,” J. Comput. Phys. 47, 412–433 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1979

P. Agostini, F. Fabre, G. Mainfray, and G. Petite, “Free-Free Transitions Following Six-Photon Ionization of Xenon Atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 42, 1127–1130 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Agostini, P.

C. I. Blaga, F. Catoire, P. Colosimo, G. G. Paulus, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, “Strong-field photoionization revisited,” Nat. Phys. 5, 335–338 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. Agostini, F. Fabre, G. Mainfray, and G. Petite, “Free-Free Transitions Following Six-Photon Ionization of Xenon Atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 42, 1127–1130 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Arbó, D. G.

K. I. Dimitriou, D. G. Arbó, S. Yoshida, E. Persson, and J. Burgdöfer, “Origin of the double-peak structure in the momentum distribution of ionization of hydrogen atoms driven by strong laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 70, 061401 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Aseyev, S. A.

V. R. Bhardwaj, S. A. Aseyev, M. Mehendale, G. L. Yudin, D. M. Villeneuve, D. M. Rayner, M. Yu. Ivanov, and P. B. Corkum, “Few Cycle Dynamics of Multiphoton Double Ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 3522–3525 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bandrauk, A. D.

S. Chelkowski, C. Foisy, and A. D. Bandrauk, “Electron-nuclear dynamics of multiphoton H+ 2 dissociative ionization in intense laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 57, 1176–1185 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Becker, A.

A. Becker, and F. H. M. Faisal, “Intense-field many-body S-matrix theory,” J. Phys. B 38, R1–R56 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Becker, W.

G. G. Paulus, W. Becker, W. Nicklich, and H. Walther, “Rescattering effects in above-threshold ionization: a classical model,” J. Phys. B 27, L703–L708 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bhardwaj, V. R.

V. R. Bhardwaj, S. A. Aseyev, M. Mehendale, G. L. Yudin, D. M. Villeneuve, D. M. Rayner, M. Yu. Ivanov, and P. B. Corkum, “Few Cycle Dynamics of Multiphoton Double Ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 3522–3525 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Blaga, C. I.

C. I. Blaga, F. Catoire, P. Colosimo, G. G. Paulus, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, “Strong-field photoionization revisited,” Nat. Phys. 5, 335–338 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Brabec, T.

T. Brabec, M. Yu. Ivanov, and P. B. Corkum, “Coulomb focusing in intense field atomic processes,” Phys. Rev. A 54, R2551–R2554 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burgdöfer, J.

K. I. Dimitriou, D. G. Arbó, S. Yoshida, E. Persson, and J. Burgdöfer, “Origin of the double-peak structure in the momentum distribution of ionization of hydrogen atoms driven by strong laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 70, 061401 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cao, W.

Q. Liao, P. X. Lu, P. F. Lan, W. Cao, and Y. H. Li, “Phase dependence of high-order above-threshold ionization in asymmetric molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 77, 013408 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Catoire, F.

C. I. Blaga, F. Catoire, P. Colosimo, G. G. Paulus, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, “Strong-field photoionization revisited,” Nat. Phys. 5, 335–338 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chelkowski, S.

S. Chelkowski, C. Foisy, and A. D. Bandrauk, “Electron-nuclear dynamics of multiphoton H+ 2 dissociative ionization in intense laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 57, 1176–1185 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J.

W. Quan, Z. Lin, M. Wu, H. Kang, H. Liu, X. Liu, J. Chen, J. Liu, X. T. He, S. G. Chen, H. Xiong, L. Guo, H. Xu, Y. Fu, Y. Cheng, and Z. Z. Xu, “Classical Aspects in Above-Threshold Ionization with a Mid-infrared Strong Laser Field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 093001 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Chen, and C. H. Nam, “Ion momentum distributions for He single and double ionization in strong laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 66, 053415 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chen, S. G.

W. Quan, Z. Lin, M. Wu, H. Kang, H. Liu, X. Liu, J. Chen, J. Liu, X. T. He, S. G. Chen, H. Xiong, L. Guo, H. Xu, Y. Fu, Y. Cheng, and Z. Z. Xu, “Classical Aspects in Above-Threshold Ionization with a Mid-infrared Strong Laser Field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 093001 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Z. J.

Z. J. Chen, T. Morishita, A. Le, M. Wickenhauser, X. M. Tong, and C. D. Lin, “Analysis of two-dimensional photoelectron momentum spectra and the effect of the long-range Coulomb potential in single ionization of atoms by intense lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 74, 053405 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, Y.

W. Quan, Z. Lin, M. Wu, H. Kang, H. Liu, X. Liu, J. Chen, J. Liu, X. T. He, S. G. Chen, H. Xiong, L. Guo, H. Xu, Y. Fu, Y. Cheng, and Z. Z. Xu, “Classical Aspects in Above-Threshold Ionization with a Mid-infrared Strong Laser Field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 093001 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Colosimo, P.

C. I. Blaga, F. Catoire, P. Colosimo, G. G. Paulus, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, “Strong-field photoionization revisited,” Nat. Phys. 5, 335–338 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Comtois, D.

D. Comtois, D. Zeidler, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Observation of Coulomb focusing in tunneling ionization of noble gases,” J. Phys. B 38, 1923–1933 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Corkum, P. B.

D. Comtois, D. Zeidler, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Observation of Coulomb focusing in tunneling ionization of noble gases,” J. Phys. B 38, 1923–1933 (2005).
[CrossRef]

V. R. Bhardwaj, S. A. Aseyev, M. Mehendale, G. L. Yudin, D. M. Villeneuve, D. M. Rayner, M. Yu. Ivanov, and P. B. Corkum, “Few Cycle Dynamics of Multiphoton Double Ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 3522–3525 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Brabec, M. Yu. Ivanov, and P. B. Corkum, “Coulomb focusing in intense field atomic processes,” Phys. Rev. A 54, R2551–R2554 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. B. Corkum, “Plasma Perspective Strong-Field Multiphoton Ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1994–1997 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Jesus, V. L. B.

A. Rudenko, K. Zrost, Th. Ergler, A. B. Voitkiv, B. Najjari, V. L. B. de Jesus, B. Feuerstein, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Coulomb singularity in the transverse momentum distribution for strong-field single ionization,” J. Phys. B 38, L191–L198 (2005).
[CrossRef]

DiMauro, L. F.

C. I. Blaga, F. Catoire, P. Colosimo, G. G. Paulus, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, “Strong-field photoionization revisited,” Nat. Phys. 5, 335–338 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dimitriou, K. I.

K. I. Dimitriou, D. G. Arbó, S. Yoshida, E. Persson, and J. Burgdöfer, “Origin of the double-peak structure in the momentum distribution of ionization of hydrogen atoms driven by strong laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 70, 061401 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dorn, A.

R. Moshammer, J. Ullrich, B. Feuerstein, D. Fischer, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, J. R. C. Lopez-Uremia, and C. Höher, “Rescattering of Ultralow-Energy Electrons for Single Ionization of Ne in the Tunneling Regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 113002 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ergler, Th.

A. Rudenko, K. Zrost, Th. Ergler, A. B. Voitkiv, B. Najjari, V. L. B. de Jesus, B. Feuerstein, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Coulomb singularity in the transverse momentum distribution for strong-field single ionization,” J. Phys. B 38, L191–L198 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fabre, F.

P. Agostini, F. Fabre, G. Mainfray, and G. Petite, “Free-Free Transitions Following Six-Photon Ionization of Xenon Atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 42, 1127–1130 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Faisal, F. H. M.

A. Becker, and F. H. M. Faisal, “Intense-field many-body S-matrix theory,” J. Phys. B 38, R1–R56 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Feit, M. D.

M. D. Feit, J. A. Fleck, Jr., and A. Steiger, “Solution of the Schrödinger Equation by a Spectral Method,” J. Comput. Phys. 47, 412–433 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Feuerstein, B.

A. Rudenko, K. Zrost, Th. Ergler, A. B. Voitkiv, B. Najjari, V. L. B. de Jesus, B. Feuerstein, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Coulomb singularity in the transverse momentum distribution for strong-field single ionization,” J. Phys. B 38, L191–L198 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Moshammer, J. Ullrich, B. Feuerstein, D. Fischer, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, J. R. C. Lopez-Uremia, and C. Höher, “Rescattering of Ultralow-Energy Electrons for Single Ionization of Ne in the Tunneling Regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 113002 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fischer, D.

R. Moshammer, J. Ullrich, B. Feuerstein, D. Fischer, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, J. R. C. Lopez-Uremia, and C. Höher, “Rescattering of Ultralow-Energy Electrons for Single Ionization of Ne in the Tunneling Regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 113002 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fleck, J. A.

M. D. Feit, J. A. Fleck, Jr., and A. Steiger, “Solution of the Schrödinger Equation by a Spectral Method,” J. Comput. Phys. 47, 412–433 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Foisy, C.

S. Chelkowski, C. Foisy, and A. D. Bandrauk, “Electron-nuclear dynamics of multiphoton H+ 2 dissociative ionization in intense laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 57, 1176–1185 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fu, Y.

W. Quan, Z. Lin, M. Wu, H. Kang, H. Liu, X. Liu, J. Chen, J. Liu, X. T. He, S. G. Chen, H. Xiong, L. Guo, H. Xu, Y. Fu, Y. Cheng, and Z. Z. Xu, “Classical Aspects in Above-Threshold Ionization with a Mid-infrared Strong Laser Field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 093001 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guo, L.

W. Quan, Z. Lin, M. Wu, H. Kang, H. Liu, X. Liu, J. Chen, J. Liu, X. T. He, S. G. Chen, H. Xiong, L. Guo, H. Xu, Y. Fu, Y. Cheng, and Z. Z. Xu, “Classical Aspects in Above-Threshold Ionization with a Mid-infrared Strong Laser Field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 093001 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

He, X. T.

W. Quan, Z. Lin, M. Wu, H. Kang, H. Liu, X. Liu, J. Chen, J. Liu, X. T. He, S. G. Chen, H. Xiong, L. Guo, H. Xu, Y. Fu, Y. Cheng, and Z. Z. Xu, “Classical Aspects in Above-Threshold Ionization with a Mid-infrared Strong Laser Field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 093001 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hino, K.

X. M. Tong, K. Hino, and N. Toshima, “Phase-dependent atomic ionization in few-cycle intense laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 74, 031405 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Höher, C.

R. Moshammer, J. Ullrich, B. Feuerstein, D. Fischer, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, J. R. C. Lopez-Uremia, and C. Höher, “Rescattering of Ultralow-Energy Electrons for Single Ionization of Ne in the Tunneling Regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 113002 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hong, W. Y.

Q. Liao, P. X. Lu, Q. B. Zhang, W. Y. Hong, and Z. Y. Yang, “Phase-dependent nonsequential double ionization by few-cycle laser pulses,” J. Phys. B 41, 125601 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ivanov, M. Yu.

V. R. Bhardwaj, S. A. Aseyev, M. Mehendale, G. L. Yudin, D. M. Villeneuve, D. M. Rayner, M. Yu. Ivanov, and P. B. Corkum, “Few Cycle Dynamics of Multiphoton Double Ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 3522–3525 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Brabec, M. Yu. Ivanov, and P. B. Corkum, “Coulomb focusing in intense field atomic processes,” Phys. Rev. A 54, R2551–R2554 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kang, H.

W. Quan, Z. Lin, M. Wu, H. Kang, H. Liu, X. Liu, J. Chen, J. Liu, X. T. He, S. G. Chen, H. Xiong, L. Guo, H. Xu, Y. Fu, Y. Cheng, and Z. Z. Xu, “Classical Aspects in Above-Threshold Ionization with a Mid-infrared Strong Laser Field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 093001 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kieffer, J. C.

D. Comtois, D. Zeidler, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Observation of Coulomb focusing in tunneling ionization of noble gases,” J. Phys. B 38, 1923–1933 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Knight, P. L.

M. Lein, J. P. Marangos, and P. L. Knight, “Electron diffraction in above-threshold ionization of molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 66, 051404 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lan, P. F.

Q. Liao, P. X. Lu, P. F. Lan, Z. Y. Yang, and Y. H. Li, “Method to precisely measure the phase of few-cycle laser pulses,” Opt. Express 16, 6455–6460 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Liao, P. X. Lu, P. F. Lan, W. Cao, and Y. H. Li, “Phase dependence of high-order above-threshold ionization in asymmetric molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 77, 013408 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Le, A.

Z. J. Chen, T. Morishita, A. Le, M. Wickenhauser, X. M. Tong, and C. D. Lin, “Analysis of two-dimensional photoelectron momentum spectra and the effect of the long-range Coulomb potential in single ionization of atoms by intense lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 74, 053405 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lein, M.

M. Lein, J. P. Marangos, and P. L. Knight, “Electron diffraction in above-threshold ionization of molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 66, 051404 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y. H.

Q. Liao, P. X. Lu, P. F. Lan, W. Cao, and Y. H. Li, “Phase dependence of high-order above-threshold ionization in asymmetric molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 77, 013408 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Q. Liao, P. X. Lu, P. F. Lan, Z. Y. Yang, and Y. H. Li, “Method to precisely measure the phase of few-cycle laser pulses,” Opt. Express 16, 6455–6460 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liao, Q.

Y. M. Zhou, Q. Liao, and P. X. Lu, “Mechanism for high-energy electrons in nonsequential double ionization below the recollision-excitation threshold,” Phys. Rev. A 80, 023412 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Q. Liao, P. X. Lu, Q. B. Zhang, Z. Y. Yang, and X. B. Wang, “Double ionization of HeH+ molecules in intense laser fields,” Opt. Express 16, 17070–17075 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Liao, P. X. Lu, Q. B. Zhang, W. Y. Hong, and Z. Y. Yang, “Phase-dependent nonsequential double ionization by few-cycle laser pulses,” J. Phys. B 41, 125601 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Q. Liao, P. X. Lu, P. F. Lan, Z. Y. Yang, and Y. H. Li, “Method to precisely measure the phase of few-cycle laser pulses,” Opt. Express 16, 6455–6460 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Liao, P. X. Lu, P. F. Lan, W. Cao, and Y. H. Li, “Phase dependence of high-order above-threshold ionization in asymmetric molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 77, 013408 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C. D.

Z. J. Chen, T. Morishita, A. Le, M. Wickenhauser, X. M. Tong, and C. D. Lin, “Analysis of two-dimensional photoelectron momentum spectra and the effect of the long-range Coulomb potential in single ionization of atoms by intense lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 74, 053405 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lin, Z.

W. Quan, Z. Lin, M. Wu, H. Kang, H. Liu, X. Liu, J. Chen, J. Liu, X. T. He, S. G. Chen, H. Xiong, L. Guo, H. Xu, Y. Fu, Y. Cheng, and Z. Z. Xu, “Classical Aspects in Above-Threshold Ionization with a Mid-infrared Strong Laser Field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 093001 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, H.

W. Quan, Z. Lin, M. Wu, H. Kang, H. Liu, X. Liu, J. Chen, J. Liu, X. T. He, S. G. Chen, H. Xiong, L. Guo, H. Xu, Y. Fu, Y. Cheng, and Z. Z. Xu, “Classical Aspects in Above-Threshold Ionization with a Mid-infrared Strong Laser Field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 093001 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, J.

W. Quan, Z. Lin, M. Wu, H. Kang, H. Liu, X. Liu, J. Chen, J. Liu, X. T. He, S. G. Chen, H. Xiong, L. Guo, H. Xu, Y. Fu, Y. Cheng, and Z. Z. Xu, “Classical Aspects in Above-Threshold Ionization with a Mid-infrared Strong Laser Field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 093001 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, X.

W. Quan, Z. Lin, M. Wu, H. Kang, H. Liu, X. Liu, J. Chen, J. Liu, X. T. He, S. G. Chen, H. Xiong, L. Guo, H. Xu, Y. Fu, Y. Cheng, and Z. Z. Xu, “Classical Aspects in Above-Threshold Ionization with a Mid-infrared Strong Laser Field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 093001 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lopez-Uremia, J. R. C.

R. Moshammer, J. Ullrich, B. Feuerstein, D. Fischer, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, J. R. C. Lopez-Uremia, and C. Höher, “Rescattering of Ultralow-Energy Electrons for Single Ionization of Ne in the Tunneling Regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 113002 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lu, P. X.

Y. M. Zhou, Q. Liao, and P. X. Lu, “Mechanism for high-energy electrons in nonsequential double ionization below the recollision-excitation threshold,” Phys. Rev. A 80, 023412 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Q. Liao, P. X. Lu, Q. B. Zhang, Z. Y. Yang, and X. B. Wang, “Double ionization of HeH+ molecules in intense laser fields,” Opt. Express 16, 17070–17075 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Liao, P. X. Lu, Q. B. Zhang, W. Y. Hong, and Z. Y. Yang, “Phase-dependent nonsequential double ionization by few-cycle laser pulses,” J. Phys. B 41, 125601 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Q. Liao, P. X. Lu, P. F. Lan, W. Cao, and Y. H. Li, “Phase dependence of high-order above-threshold ionization in asymmetric molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 77, 013408 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Q. Liao, P. X. Lu, P. F. Lan, Z. Y. Yang, and Y. H. Li, “Method to precisely measure the phase of few-cycle laser pulses,” Opt. Express 16, 6455–6460 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mainfray, G.

P. Agostini, F. Fabre, G. Mainfray, and G. Petite, “Free-Free Transitions Following Six-Photon Ionization of Xenon Atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 42, 1127–1130 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Marangos, J. P.

M. Lein, J. P. Marangos, and P. L. Knight, “Electron diffraction in above-threshold ionization of molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 66, 051404 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mehendale, M.

V. R. Bhardwaj, S. A. Aseyev, M. Mehendale, G. L. Yudin, D. M. Villeneuve, D. M. Rayner, M. Yu. Ivanov, and P. B. Corkum, “Few Cycle Dynamics of Multiphoton Double Ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 3522–3525 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Morishita, T.

Z. J. Chen, T. Morishita, A. Le, M. Wickenhauser, X. M. Tong, and C. D. Lin, “Analysis of two-dimensional photoelectron momentum spectra and the effect of the long-range Coulomb potential in single ionization of atoms by intense lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 74, 053405 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Moshammer, R.

A. Rudenko, K. Zrost, Th. Ergler, A. B. Voitkiv, B. Najjari, V. L. B. de Jesus, B. Feuerstein, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Coulomb singularity in the transverse momentum distribution for strong-field single ionization,” J. Phys. B 38, L191–L198 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Moshammer, J. Ullrich, B. Feuerstein, D. Fischer, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, J. R. C. Lopez-Uremia, and C. Höher, “Rescattering of Ultralow-Energy Electrons for Single Ionization of Ne in the Tunneling Regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 113002 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Muller, H. G.

C. I. Blaga, F. Catoire, P. Colosimo, G. G. Paulus, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, “Strong-field photoionization revisited,” Nat. Phys. 5, 335–338 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Najjari, B.

A. Rudenko, K. Zrost, Th. Ergler, A. B. Voitkiv, B. Najjari, V. L. B. de Jesus, B. Feuerstein, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Coulomb singularity in the transverse momentum distribution for strong-field single ionization,” J. Phys. B 38, L191–L198 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nam, C. H.

J. Chen, and C. H. Nam, “Ion momentum distributions for He single and double ionization in strong laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 66, 053415 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nicklich, W.

G. G. Paulus, W. Becker, W. Nicklich, and H. Walther, “Rescattering effects in above-threshold ionization: a classical model,” J. Phys. B 27, L703–L708 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Paulus, G. G.

C. I. Blaga, F. Catoire, P. Colosimo, G. G. Paulus, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, “Strong-field photoionization revisited,” Nat. Phys. 5, 335–338 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Paulus, W. Becker, W. Nicklich, and H. Walther, “Rescattering effects in above-threshold ionization: a classical model,” J. Phys. B 27, L703–L708 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Pépin, H.

D. Comtois, D. Zeidler, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Observation of Coulomb focusing in tunneling ionization of noble gases,” J. Phys. B 38, 1923–1933 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Persson, E.

K. I. Dimitriou, D. G. Arbó, S. Yoshida, E. Persson, and J. Burgdöfer, “Origin of the double-peak structure in the momentum distribution of ionization of hydrogen atoms driven by strong laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 70, 061401 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Petite, G.

P. Agostini, F. Fabre, G. Mainfray, and G. Petite, “Free-Free Transitions Following Six-Photon Ionization of Xenon Atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 42, 1127–1130 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Quan, W.

W. Quan, Z. Lin, M. Wu, H. Kang, H. Liu, X. Liu, J. Chen, J. Liu, X. T. He, S. G. Chen, H. Xiong, L. Guo, H. Xu, Y. Fu, Y. Cheng, and Z. Z. Xu, “Classical Aspects in Above-Threshold Ionization with a Mid-infrared Strong Laser Field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 093001 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rayner, D. M.

V. R. Bhardwaj, S. A. Aseyev, M. Mehendale, G. L. Yudin, D. M. Villeneuve, D. M. Rayner, M. Yu. Ivanov, and P. B. Corkum, “Few Cycle Dynamics of Multiphoton Double Ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 3522–3525 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rudenko, A.

A. Rudenko, K. Zrost, Th. Ergler, A. B. Voitkiv, B. Najjari, V. L. B. de Jesus, B. Feuerstein, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Coulomb singularity in the transverse momentum distribution for strong-field single ionization,” J. Phys. B 38, L191–L198 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Schröter, C. D.

A. Rudenko, K. Zrost, Th. Ergler, A. B. Voitkiv, B. Najjari, V. L. B. de Jesus, B. Feuerstein, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Coulomb singularity in the transverse momentum distribution for strong-field single ionization,” J. Phys. B 38, L191–L198 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Moshammer, J. Ullrich, B. Feuerstein, D. Fischer, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, J. R. C. Lopez-Uremia, and C. Höher, “Rescattering of Ultralow-Energy Electrons for Single Ionization of Ne in the Tunneling Regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 113002 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Steiger, A.

M. D. Feit, J. A. Fleck, Jr., and A. Steiger, “Solution of the Schrödinger Equation by a Spectral Method,” J. Comput. Phys. 47, 412–433 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Tong, X. M.

Z. J. Chen, T. Morishita, A. Le, M. Wickenhauser, X. M. Tong, and C. D. Lin, “Analysis of two-dimensional photoelectron momentum spectra and the effect of the long-range Coulomb potential in single ionization of atoms by intense lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 74, 053405 (2006).
[CrossRef]

X. M. Tong, K. Hino, and N. Toshima, “Phase-dependent atomic ionization in few-cycle intense laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 74, 031405 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Toshima, N.

X. M. Tong, K. Hino, and N. Toshima, “Phase-dependent atomic ionization in few-cycle intense laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 74, 031405 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ullrich, J.

A. Rudenko, K. Zrost, Th. Ergler, A. B. Voitkiv, B. Najjari, V. L. B. de Jesus, B. Feuerstein, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Coulomb singularity in the transverse momentum distribution for strong-field single ionization,” J. Phys. B 38, L191–L198 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Moshammer, J. Ullrich, B. Feuerstein, D. Fischer, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, J. R. C. Lopez-Uremia, and C. Höher, “Rescattering of Ultralow-Energy Electrons for Single Ionization of Ne in the Tunneling Regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 113002 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Villeneuve, D. M.

D. Comtois, D. Zeidler, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Observation of Coulomb focusing in tunneling ionization of noble gases,” J. Phys. B 38, 1923–1933 (2005).
[CrossRef]

V. R. Bhardwaj, S. A. Aseyev, M. Mehendale, G. L. Yudin, D. M. Villeneuve, D. M. Rayner, M. Yu. Ivanov, and P. B. Corkum, “Few Cycle Dynamics of Multiphoton Double Ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 3522–3525 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Voitkiv, A. B.

A. Rudenko, K. Zrost, Th. Ergler, A. B. Voitkiv, B. Najjari, V. L. B. de Jesus, B. Feuerstein, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Coulomb singularity in the transverse momentum distribution for strong-field single ionization,” J. Phys. B 38, L191–L198 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Walther, H.

G. G. Paulus, W. Becker, W. Nicklich, and H. Walther, “Rescattering effects in above-threshold ionization: a classical model,” J. Phys. B 27, L703–L708 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X. B.

Wickenhauser, M.

Z. J. Chen, T. Morishita, A. Le, M. Wickenhauser, X. M. Tong, and C. D. Lin, “Analysis of two-dimensional photoelectron momentum spectra and the effect of the long-range Coulomb potential in single ionization of atoms by intense lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 74, 053405 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wu, M.

W. Quan, Z. Lin, M. Wu, H. Kang, H. Liu, X. Liu, J. Chen, J. Liu, X. T. He, S. G. Chen, H. Xiong, L. Guo, H. Xu, Y. Fu, Y. Cheng, and Z. Z. Xu, “Classical Aspects in Above-Threshold Ionization with a Mid-infrared Strong Laser Field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 093001 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xiong, H.

W. Quan, Z. Lin, M. Wu, H. Kang, H. Liu, X. Liu, J. Chen, J. Liu, X. T. He, S. G. Chen, H. Xiong, L. Guo, H. Xu, Y. Fu, Y. Cheng, and Z. Z. Xu, “Classical Aspects in Above-Threshold Ionization with a Mid-infrared Strong Laser Field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 093001 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, H.

W. Quan, Z. Lin, M. Wu, H. Kang, H. Liu, X. Liu, J. Chen, J. Liu, X. T. He, S. G. Chen, H. Xiong, L. Guo, H. Xu, Y. Fu, Y. Cheng, and Z. Z. Xu, “Classical Aspects in Above-Threshold Ionization with a Mid-infrared Strong Laser Field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 093001 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, Z. Z.

W. Quan, Z. Lin, M. Wu, H. Kang, H. Liu, X. Liu, J. Chen, J. Liu, X. T. He, S. G. Chen, H. Xiong, L. Guo, H. Xu, Y. Fu, Y. Cheng, and Z. Z. Xu, “Classical Aspects in Above-Threshold Ionization with a Mid-infrared Strong Laser Field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 093001 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, Z. Y.

Yoshida, S.

K. I. Dimitriou, D. G. Arbó, S. Yoshida, E. Persson, and J. Burgdöfer, “Origin of the double-peak structure in the momentum distribution of ionization of hydrogen atoms driven by strong laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 70, 061401 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yudin, G. L.

V. R. Bhardwaj, S. A. Aseyev, M. Mehendale, G. L. Yudin, D. M. Villeneuve, D. M. Rayner, M. Yu. Ivanov, and P. B. Corkum, “Few Cycle Dynamics of Multiphoton Double Ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 3522–3525 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zeidler, D.

D. Comtois, D. Zeidler, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Observation of Coulomb focusing in tunneling ionization of noble gases,” J. Phys. B 38, 1923–1933 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Q. B.

Q. Liao, P. X. Lu, Q. B. Zhang, Z. Y. Yang, and X. B. Wang, “Double ionization of HeH+ molecules in intense laser fields,” Opt. Express 16, 17070–17075 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Liao, P. X. Lu, Q. B. Zhang, W. Y. Hong, and Z. Y. Yang, “Phase-dependent nonsequential double ionization by few-cycle laser pulses,” J. Phys. B 41, 125601 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, Y. M.

Y. M. Zhou, Q. Liao, and P. X. Lu, “Mechanism for high-energy electrons in nonsequential double ionization below the recollision-excitation threshold,” Phys. Rev. A 80, 023412 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zrost, K.

A. Rudenko, K. Zrost, Th. Ergler, A. B. Voitkiv, B. Najjari, V. L. B. de Jesus, B. Feuerstein, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Coulomb singularity in the transverse momentum distribution for strong-field single ionization,” J. Phys. B 38, L191–L198 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Comput. Phys.

M. D. Feit, J. A. Fleck, Jr., and A. Steiger, “Solution of the Schrödinger Equation by a Spectral Method,” J. Comput. Phys. 47, 412–433 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. B

A. Becker, and F. H. M. Faisal, “Intense-field many-body S-matrix theory,” J. Phys. B 38, R1–R56 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Paulus, W. Becker, W. Nicklich, and H. Walther, “Rescattering effects in above-threshold ionization: a classical model,” J. Phys. B 27, L703–L708 (1994).
[CrossRef]

D. Comtois, D. Zeidler, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Observation of Coulomb focusing in tunneling ionization of noble gases,” J. Phys. B 38, 1923–1933 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Q. Liao, P. X. Lu, Q. B. Zhang, W. Y. Hong, and Z. Y. Yang, “Phase-dependent nonsequential double ionization by few-cycle laser pulses,” J. Phys. B 41, 125601 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Rudenko, K. Zrost, Th. Ergler, A. B. Voitkiv, B. Najjari, V. L. B. de Jesus, B. Feuerstein, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Coulomb singularity in the transverse momentum distribution for strong-field single ionization,” J. Phys. B 38, L191–L198 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Phys.

C. I. Blaga, F. Catoire, P. Colosimo, G. G. Paulus, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, “Strong-field photoionization revisited,” Nat. Phys. 5, 335–338 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Phys. Rev. A

Z. J. Chen, T. Morishita, A. Le, M. Wickenhauser, X. M. Tong, and C. D. Lin, “Analysis of two-dimensional photoelectron momentum spectra and the effect of the long-range Coulomb potential in single ionization of atoms by intense lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 74, 053405 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Lein, J. P. Marangos, and P. L. Knight, “Electron diffraction in above-threshold ionization of molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 66, 051404 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Q. Liao, P. X. Lu, P. F. Lan, W. Cao, and Y. H. Li, “Phase dependence of high-order above-threshold ionization in asymmetric molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 77, 013408 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. M. Zhou, Q. Liao, and P. X. Lu, “Mechanism for high-energy electrons in nonsequential double ionization below the recollision-excitation threshold,” Phys. Rev. A 80, 023412 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Chen, and C. H. Nam, “Ion momentum distributions for He single and double ionization in strong laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 66, 053415 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. I. Dimitriou, D. G. Arbó, S. Yoshida, E. Persson, and J. Burgdöfer, “Origin of the double-peak structure in the momentum distribution of ionization of hydrogen atoms driven by strong laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 70, 061401 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Brabec, M. Yu. Ivanov, and P. B. Corkum, “Coulomb focusing in intense field atomic processes,” Phys. Rev. A 54, R2551–R2554 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Chelkowski, C. Foisy, and A. D. Bandrauk, “Electron-nuclear dynamics of multiphoton H+ 2 dissociative ionization in intense laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 57, 1176–1185 (1998).
[CrossRef]

X. M. Tong, K. Hino, and N. Toshima, “Phase-dependent atomic ionization in few-cycle intense laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 74, 031405 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

P. Agostini, F. Fabre, G. Mainfray, and G. Petite, “Free-Free Transitions Following Six-Photon Ionization of Xenon Atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 42, 1127–1130 (1979).
[CrossRef]

V. R. Bhardwaj, S. A. Aseyev, M. Mehendale, G. L. Yudin, D. M. Villeneuve, D. M. Rayner, M. Yu. Ivanov, and P. B. Corkum, “Few Cycle Dynamics of Multiphoton Double Ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 3522–3525 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. B. Corkum, “Plasma Perspective Strong-Field Multiphoton Ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1994–1997 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Quan, Z. Lin, M. Wu, H. Kang, H. Liu, X. Liu, J. Chen, J. Liu, X. T. He, S. G. Chen, H. Xiong, L. Guo, H. Xu, Y. Fu, Y. Cheng, and Z. Z. Xu, “Classical Aspects in Above-Threshold Ionization with a Mid-infrared Strong Laser Field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 093001 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Moshammer, J. Ullrich, B. Feuerstein, D. Fischer, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, J. R. C. Lopez-Uremia, and C. Höher, “Rescattering of Ultralow-Energy Electrons for Single Ionization of Ne in the Tunneling Regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 113002 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

The long-range Coulomb potential (blue solid curve) and the short-range Coulomb potential (red dashed curve).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

2D photoelectron momentum spectra for ATI by a 10 cycles trapezoidally shaped laser pulse with wavelength of 1200 nm at the peak intensity of 8×1013 W/cm 2. (a) corresponds to the long-range Coulomb potential; (b) corresponds to the short-range Coulomb potential. The maximum differential probabilities in the photoelectron momentum spectra are normalized to 1 respectively.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Transverse momentum spectra from the 2D momentum spectra of Fig. 2. Blue solid curve: the long-range Coulomb potential; Red dashed curve: the short-range Coulomb potential. The curves are normalized so that the area under each curve is unit.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

2D photoelectron momentum spectra for ATI with spatial averaging over the Gaussian intensity distribution in a laser focal volume with the wavelength of 1200 nm at the intensity of 8×1013 W/cm 2 in the focal center. (a) corresponds to the long-range Coulomb potential; (b) corresponds to the short-range Coulomb potential. The maximum differential probabilities in the photoelectron momentum spectra are normalized to 1 respectively.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

2D photoelectron momentum spectra for ATI by 10 cycles trapezoidally shaped laser pulses with intensities and wavelengths: panels (a)–(d) I = 8×1013 W/cm 2; (e), (f) I =4×1013 W/cm 2; (a), (b) λ =1600 nm, (c)–(f) λ =2000 nm. (a), (c) and (e) correspond to the long-range Coulomb potential; (b), (d) and (f) correspond to the short-range Coulomb potential. The maximum differential probabilities in the photoelectron momentum spectra are normalized to 1 respectively.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Transverse momentum spectra for ATI by intense laser fields with different intensities and wavelengths. (a) the laser intensities are I = 8×1013 W/cm 2 (Blue solid curve), I = 4×1013 W/cm 2 (Red dashed curve), and the wavelength is 2000 nm for both curves; (b) the laser intensity is I = 8×1013 W/cm 2 for all of the cures, and the wavelengths are 1200 nm (Blue solid curve), 1600 nm (Green solid curve), and 2000 nm (Red dashed curve), respectively.

Metrics