Abstract

We propose an excitation method for the localization of photons at the apex of a metal coated axicon prism. The cone angle of the prism and the metallic film thickness are designed to match the excitation conditions for surface plasmons. The plasmons propagate along the sides of the prism and converge at its apex. The resulting nanofocusing was investigated by simulating the intensity distributions around the apex of the prism using a finite-difference time-domain algorithm. For incident radial polarization, a localized and field enhanced spot is generated by the constructive interference of surface plasmons.

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References

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  1. U. Kreibig, and M. Vollmer, Optical Properties of Metal Clusters (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1995).
  2. Y. Inouye and S. Kawata, “Near-field scanning optical microscope with a metallic probe tip,” Opt. Lett. 19(3), 159–161 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. N. Hayazawa, Y. Inouye, Z. Sekkat, and S. Kawata, “Near-field Raman imaging of organic molecules by an apertureless metallic probe scanning optical microscope,” J. Chem. Phys. 117(3), 1296–1301 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  4. T. Ichimura, N. Hayazawa, M. Hashimoto, Y. Inouye, and S. Kawata, “Tip-enhanced coherent anti-stokes Raman scattering for vibrational nanoimaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(22), 220801 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. T. Okamoto, I. Yamaguchi, and T. Kobayashi, “Local plasmon sensor with gold colloid monolayers deposited upon glass substrates,” Opt. Lett. 25(6), 372–374 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  6. P. Zijlstra, J. W. M. Chon, and M. Gu, “Five-dimensional optical recording mediated by surface plasmons in gold nanorods,” Nature 459(7245), 410–413 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. W. Srituravanich, N. Fang, C. Sun, Q. Luo, and X. Zhang, “Plasmonic nanolithography,” Nano Lett. 4(6), 1085–1088 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  8. A. F. Koenderink, J. V. Hernández, F. Robicheaux, L. D. Noordam, and A. Polman, “Programmable nanolithography with plasmon nanoparticle arrays,” Nano Lett. 7(3), 745–749 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. E. Kretschmann and H. Raether, “Radiative decay of non-radiative surface plasmons excited by light,” Z. Naturforsch. A 23, 2135–2136 (1968).
  10. M. I. Stockman, “Nanofocusing of optical energy in tapered plasmonic waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(13), 137404 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. W. Ding, S. R. Andrews, and S. A. Maier, “Internal excitation and superfocusing of surface plasmon polaritons on a silver-coated optical fiber tip,” Phys. Rev. A 75(6), 063822 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  12. N. A. Issa and R. Guckenberger, “Optical nanofocusing on tapered metallic waveguides,” Plasmonics 2(1), 31–37 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  13. N. A. Janunts, K. S. Baghdasaryan, Kh. V. Nerkararyan, and B. Hecht, “Excitation and superfocusing of surface plasmon polaritons on a silver-coated optical fiber tip,” Opt. Commun. 253(1-3), 118–124 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  14. A. E. Babayan and Kh. V. Nerkararyan, “The strong localization of surface plasmon polariton on a metal-coated tip of optical fiber,” Ultramicrosc. 107(12), 1136–1140 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  15. A. Bouhelier, J. Renger, M. R. Beversluis, and L. Novotny, “Plasmon-coupled tip-enhanced near-field optical microscopy,” J. Microsc. 210(3), 220–224 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. H. Kano and W. Knoll, “Locally excited surface-plasmon-polaritons for thickness measurement of LBK films,” Opt. Commun. 153(4-6), 235–239 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  17. K. Watanabe, G. Terakado, and H. Kano, “Localized surface plasmon microscope with an illumination system employing a radially polarized zeroth-order Bessel beam,” Opt. Lett. 34(8), 1180–1182 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Beaming light from a subwavelength aperture,” Science 297(5582), 820–822 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. G. M. Lerman, A. Yanai, and U. Levy, “Demonstration of nanofocusing by the use of plasmonic lens illuminated with radially polarized light,” Nano Lett. 9(5), 2139–2143 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. W. Wolfe, Handbook of Optics, 2nd ed. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1978).
  21. A. Taflove, and S. C. Hagness, Computational Electrodynamics: The Finite-Difference Time-Domain Method, 3rd ed. (Artech House, Norwood, 2005).

2009 (3)

P. Zijlstra, J. W. M. Chon, and M. Gu, “Five-dimensional optical recording mediated by surface plasmons in gold nanorods,” Nature 459(7245), 410–413 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. M. Lerman, A. Yanai, and U. Levy, “Demonstration of nanofocusing by the use of plasmonic lens illuminated with radially polarized light,” Nano Lett. 9(5), 2139–2143 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Watanabe, G. Terakado, and H. Kano, “Localized surface plasmon microscope with an illumination system employing a radially polarized zeroth-order Bessel beam,” Opt. Lett. 34(8), 1180–1182 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (4)

A. F. Koenderink, J. V. Hernández, F. Robicheaux, L. D. Noordam, and A. Polman, “Programmable nanolithography with plasmon nanoparticle arrays,” Nano Lett. 7(3), 745–749 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Ding, S. R. Andrews, and S. A. Maier, “Internal excitation and superfocusing of surface plasmon polaritons on a silver-coated optical fiber tip,” Phys. Rev. A 75(6), 063822 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. A. Issa and R. Guckenberger, “Optical nanofocusing on tapered metallic waveguides,” Plasmonics 2(1), 31–37 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. E. Babayan and Kh. V. Nerkararyan, “The strong localization of surface plasmon polariton on a metal-coated tip of optical fiber,” Ultramicrosc. 107(12), 1136–1140 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

N. A. Janunts, K. S. Baghdasaryan, Kh. V. Nerkararyan, and B. Hecht, “Excitation and superfocusing of surface plasmon polaritons on a silver-coated optical fiber tip,” Opt. Commun. 253(1-3), 118–124 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

W. Srituravanich, N. Fang, C. Sun, Q. Luo, and X. Zhang, “Plasmonic nanolithography,” Nano Lett. 4(6), 1085–1088 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Stockman, “Nanofocusing of optical energy in tapered plasmonic waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(13), 137404 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Ichimura, N. Hayazawa, M. Hashimoto, Y. Inouye, and S. Kawata, “Tip-enhanced coherent anti-stokes Raman scattering for vibrational nanoimaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(22), 220801 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

A. Bouhelier, J. Renger, M. R. Beversluis, and L. Novotny, “Plasmon-coupled tip-enhanced near-field optical microscopy,” J. Microsc. 210(3), 220–224 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Beaming light from a subwavelength aperture,” Science 297(5582), 820–822 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Hayazawa, Y. Inouye, Z. Sekkat, and S. Kawata, “Near-field Raman imaging of organic molecules by an apertureless metallic probe scanning optical microscope,” J. Chem. Phys. 117(3), 1296–1301 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

1998 (1)

H. Kano and W. Knoll, “Locally excited surface-plasmon-polaritons for thickness measurement of LBK films,” Opt. Commun. 153(4-6), 235–239 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

1968 (1)

E. Kretschmann and H. Raether, “Radiative decay of non-radiative surface plasmons excited by light,” Z. Naturforsch. A 23, 2135–2136 (1968).

Andrews, S. R.

W. Ding, S. R. Andrews, and S. A. Maier, “Internal excitation and superfocusing of surface plasmon polaritons on a silver-coated optical fiber tip,” Phys. Rev. A 75(6), 063822 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Babayan, A. E.

A. E. Babayan and Kh. V. Nerkararyan, “The strong localization of surface plasmon polariton on a metal-coated tip of optical fiber,” Ultramicrosc. 107(12), 1136–1140 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Baghdasaryan, K. S.

N. A. Janunts, K. S. Baghdasaryan, Kh. V. Nerkararyan, and B. Hecht, “Excitation and superfocusing of surface plasmon polaritons on a silver-coated optical fiber tip,” Opt. Commun. 253(1-3), 118–124 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Beversluis, M. R.

A. Bouhelier, J. Renger, M. R. Beversluis, and L. Novotny, “Plasmon-coupled tip-enhanced near-field optical microscopy,” J. Microsc. 210(3), 220–224 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bouhelier, A.

A. Bouhelier, J. Renger, M. R. Beversluis, and L. Novotny, “Plasmon-coupled tip-enhanced near-field optical microscopy,” J. Microsc. 210(3), 220–224 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chon, J. W. M.

P. Zijlstra, J. W. M. Chon, and M. Gu, “Five-dimensional optical recording mediated by surface plasmons in gold nanorods,” Nature 459(7245), 410–413 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Degiron, A.

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Beaming light from a subwavelength aperture,” Science 297(5582), 820–822 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Devaux, E.

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Beaming light from a subwavelength aperture,” Science 297(5582), 820–822 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ding, W.

W. Ding, S. R. Andrews, and S. A. Maier, “Internal excitation and superfocusing of surface plasmon polaritons on a silver-coated optical fiber tip,” Phys. Rev. A 75(6), 063822 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ebbesen, T. W.

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Beaming light from a subwavelength aperture,” Science 297(5582), 820–822 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fang, N.

W. Srituravanich, N. Fang, C. Sun, Q. Luo, and X. Zhang, “Plasmonic nanolithography,” Nano Lett. 4(6), 1085–1088 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Garcia-Vidal, F. J.

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Beaming light from a subwavelength aperture,” Science 297(5582), 820–822 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gu, M.

P. Zijlstra, J. W. M. Chon, and M. Gu, “Five-dimensional optical recording mediated by surface plasmons in gold nanorods,” Nature 459(7245), 410–413 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guckenberger, R.

N. A. Issa and R. Guckenberger, “Optical nanofocusing on tapered metallic waveguides,” Plasmonics 2(1), 31–37 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hashimoto, M.

T. Ichimura, N. Hayazawa, M. Hashimoto, Y. Inouye, and S. Kawata, “Tip-enhanced coherent anti-stokes Raman scattering for vibrational nanoimaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(22), 220801 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hayazawa, N.

T. Ichimura, N. Hayazawa, M. Hashimoto, Y. Inouye, and S. Kawata, “Tip-enhanced coherent anti-stokes Raman scattering for vibrational nanoimaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(22), 220801 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Hayazawa, Y. Inouye, Z. Sekkat, and S. Kawata, “Near-field Raman imaging of organic molecules by an apertureless metallic probe scanning optical microscope,” J. Chem. Phys. 117(3), 1296–1301 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hecht, B.

N. A. Janunts, K. S. Baghdasaryan, Kh. V. Nerkararyan, and B. Hecht, “Excitation and superfocusing of surface plasmon polaritons on a silver-coated optical fiber tip,” Opt. Commun. 253(1-3), 118–124 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hernández, J. V.

A. F. Koenderink, J. V. Hernández, F. Robicheaux, L. D. Noordam, and A. Polman, “Programmable nanolithography with plasmon nanoparticle arrays,” Nano Lett. 7(3), 745–749 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ichimura, T.

T. Ichimura, N. Hayazawa, M. Hashimoto, Y. Inouye, and S. Kawata, “Tip-enhanced coherent anti-stokes Raman scattering for vibrational nanoimaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(22), 220801 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Inouye, Y.

T. Ichimura, N. Hayazawa, M. Hashimoto, Y. Inouye, and S. Kawata, “Tip-enhanced coherent anti-stokes Raman scattering for vibrational nanoimaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(22), 220801 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Hayazawa, Y. Inouye, Z. Sekkat, and S. Kawata, “Near-field Raman imaging of organic molecules by an apertureless metallic probe scanning optical microscope,” J. Chem. Phys. 117(3), 1296–1301 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y. Inouye and S. Kawata, “Near-field scanning optical microscope with a metallic probe tip,” Opt. Lett. 19(3), 159–161 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Issa, N. A.

N. A. Issa and R. Guckenberger, “Optical nanofocusing on tapered metallic waveguides,” Plasmonics 2(1), 31–37 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Janunts, N. A.

N. A. Janunts, K. S. Baghdasaryan, Kh. V. Nerkararyan, and B. Hecht, “Excitation and superfocusing of surface plasmon polaritons on a silver-coated optical fiber tip,” Opt. Commun. 253(1-3), 118–124 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kano, H.

Kawata, S.

T. Ichimura, N. Hayazawa, M. Hashimoto, Y. Inouye, and S. Kawata, “Tip-enhanced coherent anti-stokes Raman scattering for vibrational nanoimaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(22), 220801 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Hayazawa, Y. Inouye, Z. Sekkat, and S. Kawata, “Near-field Raman imaging of organic molecules by an apertureless metallic probe scanning optical microscope,” J. Chem. Phys. 117(3), 1296–1301 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y. Inouye and S. Kawata, “Near-field scanning optical microscope with a metallic probe tip,” Opt. Lett. 19(3), 159–161 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Knoll, W.

H. Kano and W. Knoll, “Locally excited surface-plasmon-polaritons for thickness measurement of LBK films,” Opt. Commun. 153(4-6), 235–239 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kobayashi, T.

Koenderink, A. F.

A. F. Koenderink, J. V. Hernández, F. Robicheaux, L. D. Noordam, and A. Polman, “Programmable nanolithography with plasmon nanoparticle arrays,” Nano Lett. 7(3), 745–749 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kretschmann, E.

E. Kretschmann and H. Raether, “Radiative decay of non-radiative surface plasmons excited by light,” Z. Naturforsch. A 23, 2135–2136 (1968).

Lerman, G. M.

G. M. Lerman, A. Yanai, and U. Levy, “Demonstration of nanofocusing by the use of plasmonic lens illuminated with radially polarized light,” Nano Lett. 9(5), 2139–2143 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Levy, U.

G. M. Lerman, A. Yanai, and U. Levy, “Demonstration of nanofocusing by the use of plasmonic lens illuminated with radially polarized light,” Nano Lett. 9(5), 2139–2143 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lezec, H. J.

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Beaming light from a subwavelength aperture,” Science 297(5582), 820–822 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Linke, R. A.

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Beaming light from a subwavelength aperture,” Science 297(5582), 820–822 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Luo, Q.

W. Srituravanich, N. Fang, C. Sun, Q. Luo, and X. Zhang, “Plasmonic nanolithography,” Nano Lett. 4(6), 1085–1088 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Maier, S. A.

W. Ding, S. R. Andrews, and S. A. Maier, “Internal excitation and superfocusing of surface plasmon polaritons on a silver-coated optical fiber tip,” Phys. Rev. A 75(6), 063822 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Martin-Moreno, L.

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Beaming light from a subwavelength aperture,” Science 297(5582), 820–822 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nerkararyan, Kh. V.

A. E. Babayan and Kh. V. Nerkararyan, “The strong localization of surface plasmon polariton on a metal-coated tip of optical fiber,” Ultramicrosc. 107(12), 1136–1140 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. A. Janunts, K. S. Baghdasaryan, Kh. V. Nerkararyan, and B. Hecht, “Excitation and superfocusing of surface plasmon polaritons on a silver-coated optical fiber tip,” Opt. Commun. 253(1-3), 118–124 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Noordam, L. D.

A. F. Koenderink, J. V. Hernández, F. Robicheaux, L. D. Noordam, and A. Polman, “Programmable nanolithography with plasmon nanoparticle arrays,” Nano Lett. 7(3), 745–749 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Novotny, L.

A. Bouhelier, J. Renger, M. R. Beversluis, and L. Novotny, “Plasmon-coupled tip-enhanced near-field optical microscopy,” J. Microsc. 210(3), 220–224 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Okamoto, T.

Polman, A.

A. F. Koenderink, J. V. Hernández, F. Robicheaux, L. D. Noordam, and A. Polman, “Programmable nanolithography with plasmon nanoparticle arrays,” Nano Lett. 7(3), 745–749 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Raether, H.

E. Kretschmann and H. Raether, “Radiative decay of non-radiative surface plasmons excited by light,” Z. Naturforsch. A 23, 2135–2136 (1968).

Renger, J.

A. Bouhelier, J. Renger, M. R. Beversluis, and L. Novotny, “Plasmon-coupled tip-enhanced near-field optical microscopy,” J. Microsc. 210(3), 220–224 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Robicheaux, F.

A. F. Koenderink, J. V. Hernández, F. Robicheaux, L. D. Noordam, and A. Polman, “Programmable nanolithography with plasmon nanoparticle arrays,” Nano Lett. 7(3), 745–749 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sekkat, Z.

N. Hayazawa, Y. Inouye, Z. Sekkat, and S. Kawata, “Near-field Raman imaging of organic molecules by an apertureless metallic probe scanning optical microscope,” J. Chem. Phys. 117(3), 1296–1301 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Srituravanich, W.

W. Srituravanich, N. Fang, C. Sun, Q. Luo, and X. Zhang, “Plasmonic nanolithography,” Nano Lett. 4(6), 1085–1088 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Stockman, M. I.

M. I. Stockman, “Nanofocusing of optical energy in tapered plasmonic waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(13), 137404 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, C.

W. Srituravanich, N. Fang, C. Sun, Q. Luo, and X. Zhang, “Plasmonic nanolithography,” Nano Lett. 4(6), 1085–1088 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Terakado, G.

Watanabe, K.

Yamaguchi, I.

Yanai, A.

G. M. Lerman, A. Yanai, and U. Levy, “Demonstration of nanofocusing by the use of plasmonic lens illuminated with radially polarized light,” Nano Lett. 9(5), 2139–2143 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.

W. Srituravanich, N. Fang, C. Sun, Q. Luo, and X. Zhang, “Plasmonic nanolithography,” Nano Lett. 4(6), 1085–1088 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zijlstra, P.

P. Zijlstra, J. W. M. Chon, and M. Gu, “Five-dimensional optical recording mediated by surface plasmons in gold nanorods,” Nature 459(7245), 410–413 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

N. Hayazawa, Y. Inouye, Z. Sekkat, and S. Kawata, “Near-field Raman imaging of organic molecules by an apertureless metallic probe scanning optical microscope,” J. Chem. Phys. 117(3), 1296–1301 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Microsc. (1)

A. Bouhelier, J. Renger, M. R. Beversluis, and L. Novotny, “Plasmon-coupled tip-enhanced near-field optical microscopy,” J. Microsc. 210(3), 220–224 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nano Lett. (3)

G. M. Lerman, A. Yanai, and U. Levy, “Demonstration of nanofocusing by the use of plasmonic lens illuminated with radially polarized light,” Nano Lett. 9(5), 2139–2143 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Srituravanich, N. Fang, C. Sun, Q. Luo, and X. Zhang, “Plasmonic nanolithography,” Nano Lett. 4(6), 1085–1088 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Koenderink, J. V. Hernández, F. Robicheaux, L. D. Noordam, and A. Polman, “Programmable nanolithography with plasmon nanoparticle arrays,” Nano Lett. 7(3), 745–749 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature (1)

P. Zijlstra, J. W. M. Chon, and M. Gu, “Five-dimensional optical recording mediated by surface plasmons in gold nanorods,” Nature 459(7245), 410–413 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (2)

N. A. Janunts, K. S. Baghdasaryan, Kh. V. Nerkararyan, and B. Hecht, “Excitation and superfocusing of surface plasmon polaritons on a silver-coated optical fiber tip,” Opt. Commun. 253(1-3), 118–124 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Kano and W. Knoll, “Locally excited surface-plasmon-polaritons for thickness measurement of LBK films,” Opt. Commun. 153(4-6), 235–239 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

W. Ding, S. R. Andrews, and S. A. Maier, “Internal excitation and superfocusing of surface plasmon polaritons on a silver-coated optical fiber tip,” Phys. Rev. A 75(6), 063822 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

M. I. Stockman, “Nanofocusing of optical energy in tapered plasmonic waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(13), 137404 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Ichimura, N. Hayazawa, M. Hashimoto, Y. Inouye, and S. Kawata, “Tip-enhanced coherent anti-stokes Raman scattering for vibrational nanoimaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(22), 220801 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Plasmonics (1)

N. A. Issa and R. Guckenberger, “Optical nanofocusing on tapered metallic waveguides,” Plasmonics 2(1), 31–37 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Beaming light from a subwavelength aperture,” Science 297(5582), 820–822 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ultramicrosc. (1)

A. E. Babayan and Kh. V. Nerkararyan, “The strong localization of surface plasmon polariton on a metal-coated tip of optical fiber,” Ultramicrosc. 107(12), 1136–1140 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Z. Naturforsch. A (1)

E. Kretschmann and H. Raether, “Radiative decay of non-radiative surface plasmons excited by light,” Z. Naturforsch. A 23, 2135–2136 (1968).

Other (3)

U. Kreibig, and M. Vollmer, Optical Properties of Metal Clusters (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1995).

W. Wolfe, Handbook of Optics, 2nd ed. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1978).

A. Taflove, and S. C. Hagness, Computational Electrodynamics: The Finite-Difference Time-Domain Method, 3rd ed. (Artech House, Norwood, 2005).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic for the localization of photons by a metal-coated axicon prism. A collimated Gaussian beam is incident on the prism and surface plasmons are excited along the sides. A nano spot is generated at the apex by constructive interference of surface plasmons. (b) Model of the device as simulated by an FDTD algorithm, for He-Ne laser excitation at a wavelength of 632.8 nm. A gold coating is used because of its chemical stability. The curvature at the apex corresponds to a diameter of 25 nm. The film thickness of gold and the half cone angle of axicon prism are determined to be mostly excited surface plasmons by normal incidence to the top surface of the prism.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Intensity distributions on a gold-coated axicon prism for radially polarized incident light. (a) A vertical (x-z) cross section including the central axis of the prism. Field enhancements are observed on the side surface due to excitations of surface plasmons. (b) Enlarged image showing a hot spot generated at the apex. (c) A horizontal (x-y) cross section 5 nm below the apex, corresponding to the dashed line in (b). (d) Intensity profile along line a-a’ in (c). The FWHM of 35 nm is obtained. The scale bar in each figure is 200 nm long.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Localization of photons for incident radial polarization for electric field component (a) Ex and (b) Ez. The upper figures show vertical cross sections of the intensity distributions of the electric field components. The lower figures plot profiles 5 nm below the apex, just as in Fig. 2. The Ex component near the apex bifurcates in two and is magnified 10 fold in the graph. The Ez component is maximized at the apex. The scale bar in the first photograph is 200 nm long.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Intensity distributions for incident (a) linear and (b) azimuthal polarizations. The insets show horizontal (x-y) cross sections of the intensity. The lower profiles plot the intensity along the dashed line located 5 nm below the apex. (a) Although enhanced fields are observed on the side surfaces for linear polarization, an enhanced spot is not observed at the apex. The surface plasmon is canceled by destructive interference there. (b) The fields on the surface are very small for incident s-polarization. The scale bars in the photographs are 400 nm long.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Simulation uncertainty due to the grid size in the FDTD calculations. (a) Schematic of a computer aided design on the side surface of an axicon prism. Each grid has a side of length 10 nm. The gold thickness is between 40 and 60 nm. (b) Numerical calculations of the reflectivity as a function of the incident angle and thickness in the Kretschmann configuration. The reflectance decreases at an incident angle of 44 degrees. The incident light couples with surface plasmons at this angle.

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