Abstract

Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has been utilized to evaluate pearls including their nuclei noninvasively. By visualizing the internal structure of a pearl, we could measure the thickness of its nacre layer, observe the fine sub-structure of the nacre, and inspect the nucleus through the nacre. The system also allowed us to classify pearls into beaded- and non-beaded ones; usually, the saltwater ones have nuclei even though there are beaded freshwater pears and non-beaded saltwater pearls. Any cracks, crevices, or blemishes not only in the nacre but in the nucleus of a pearl could be clearly visualized. The OCT system was based on a 20 kHz swept-source of a 1.31μm central wavelength and an 110 nm full-width-at-half-maximum (FWHM) bandwidth. To get the 2-D images all around the circumference of a pearl, the pearl was rotated by a motorized rotating stage. And to achieve 3-D volume images, galvano-scans were made along two axes. Of all things, the OCT allowed us to check the use of a forbidden nucleus, usually made of a Giant Clam shell thus fragile, without hurting the pearl. With this modality, we believe, it would be possible evaluating pearls both in qualitative and quantitative. Comparison with the images taken with an optical microscope and X-ray radiograph gives the refractive index of pearl as about 1.53 in average.

© 2010 OSA

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References

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  1. R. Y. Park, Y. C. Kim, and P. C. Kim, “The comparative analyses of akoya pearls using the bio-bead nucleus and bead nucleus made from washboard shell,” J. Korean Gems and Jewelry 1, 23–25 (2007).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  11. http://www.cites.org/eng/resources/pub/checklist08/Checklist.pdf
  12. http://www.iucnredlist.org/apps/redlist/details/22137/0
  13. http://www.pearl-guide.com/forum/cultured-pearls/20-illegal-use-giant-clam-nuclei.html
  14. K. T. Wada and A. Komaru, “Color and weight of pearl produced by grafting the mantle tissue from a selected population for white shell color of the Japanese pearl oyster pinctada fucata martensii (Dunker),” Aquaculture 142(1-2), 25–32 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  15. K. Wada, “The relation between the crystalline structure of the cultured pearls and elongation of the transplants mantle tissue in the process of pearl-sac formation,” Bull. Jap. Soc. Sci. Fish. 14, 549 (1960).
    [CrossRef]
  16. K. Wada, “Science of the pearl; formation and grading,” 2nd ed., publish a newspaper of pearl, Japan, 248 (1999).

2008

U. Wehrmeister, H. Goetz, D. E. Jacob, A. Soldati, W. Xu, H. Duschner, and W. Hofmeister, “Visualization of the internal structures of cultured pearls by computerized X-ray microtomography,” J. Geol. 31, 15–21 (2008).

N. Zeng, Y. He, and H. Ma, “Application of optical coherence tomography in nacre identification and characterization,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 50(2), 442–445 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

R. Y. Park, Y. C. Kim, and P. C. Kim, “The comparative analyses of akoya pearls using the bio-bead nucleus and bead nucleus made from washboard shell,” J. Korean Gems and Jewelry 1, 23–25 (2007).

2005

2002

G. S. Zhang, X. D. Xie, S. Q. Qi, and P. C. Hu, “X-ray diffraction study of nacre in shell of hyriopsis cumingii (LEA),” J. Miner. Petrol. 22, 8–11 (2002).

2001

Zh. Song, Xh. Yu, and Xh. Zhang, “Analysis on various factors influencing the quality of cultured pearl,” J. Gemol. 3, 18–21 (2001).

1998

H. C. Song, G. Xiang, L. Su, and Y. Fan, “Fluorescence spectrum analysis of freshwater pipless pearl,” J. Fishery Sci. China 5, 1–5 (1998).

1996

K. T. Wada and A. Komaru, “Color and weight of pearl produced by grafting the mantle tissue from a selected population for white shell color of the Japanese pearl oyster pinctada fucata martensii (Dunker),” Aquaculture 142(1-2), 25–32 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1991

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1960

K. Wada, “The relation between the crystalline structure of the cultured pearls and elongation of the transplants mantle tissue in the process of pearl-sac formation,” Bull. Jap. Soc. Sci. Fish. 14, 549 (1960).
[CrossRef]

Akiba, M.

Chan, K.-P.

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chong, C.

Duschner, H.

U. Wehrmeister, H. Goetz, D. E. Jacob, A. Soldati, W. Xu, H. Duschner, and W. Hofmeister, “Visualization of the internal structures of cultured pearls by computerized X-ray microtomography,” J. Geol. 31, 15–21 (2008).

Fan, Y.

H. C. Song, G. Xiang, L. Su, and Y. Fan, “Fluorescence spectrum analysis of freshwater pipless pearl,” J. Fishery Sci. China 5, 1–5 (1998).

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goetz, H.

U. Wehrmeister, H. Goetz, D. E. Jacob, A. Soldati, W. Xu, H. Duschner, and W. Hofmeister, “Visualization of the internal structures of cultured pearls by computerized X-ray microtomography,” J. Geol. 31, 15–21 (2008).

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

He, Y.

N. Zeng, Y. He, and H. Ma, “Application of optical coherence tomography in nacre identification and characterization,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 50(2), 442–445 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hee, M. R.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hofmeister, W.

U. Wehrmeister, H. Goetz, D. E. Jacob, A. Soldati, W. Xu, H. Duschner, and W. Hofmeister, “Visualization of the internal structures of cultured pearls by computerized X-ray microtomography,” J. Geol. 31, 15–21 (2008).

Hu, P. C.

G. S. Zhang, X. D. Xie, S. Q. Qi, and P. C. Hu, “X-ray diffraction study of nacre in shell of hyriopsis cumingii (LEA),” J. Miner. Petrol. 22, 8–11 (2002).

Huang, D.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Itoh, M.

Jacob, D. E.

U. Wehrmeister, H. Goetz, D. E. Jacob, A. Soldati, W. Xu, H. Duschner, and W. Hofmeister, “Visualization of the internal structures of cultured pearls by computerized X-ray microtomography,” J. Geol. 31, 15–21 (2008).

Kim, P. C.

R. Y. Park, Y. C. Kim, and P. C. Kim, “The comparative analyses of akoya pearls using the bio-bead nucleus and bead nucleus made from washboard shell,” J. Korean Gems and Jewelry 1, 23–25 (2007).

Kim, Y. C.

R. Y. Park, Y. C. Kim, and P. C. Kim, “The comparative analyses of akoya pearls using the bio-bead nucleus and bead nucleus made from washboard shell,” J. Korean Gems and Jewelry 1, 23–25 (2007).

Komaru, A.

K. T. Wada and A. Komaru, “Color and weight of pearl produced by grafting the mantle tissue from a selected population for white shell color of the Japanese pearl oyster pinctada fucata martensii (Dunker),” Aquaculture 142(1-2), 25–32 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ma, H.

N. Zeng, Y. He, and H. Ma, “Application of optical coherence tomography in nacre identification and characterization,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 50(2), 442–445 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Madjarova, V. D.

Makita, S.

Morosawa, A.

Park, R. Y.

R. Y. Park, Y. C. Kim, and P. C. Kim, “The comparative analyses of akoya pearls using the bio-bead nucleus and bead nucleus made from washboard shell,” J. Korean Gems and Jewelry 1, 23–25 (2007).

Puliafito, C. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Qi, S. Q.

G. S. Zhang, X. D. Xie, S. Q. Qi, and P. C. Hu, “X-ray diffraction study of nacre in shell of hyriopsis cumingii (LEA),” J. Miner. Petrol. 22, 8–11 (2002).

Sakai, T.

Schuman, J. S.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Soldati, A.

U. Wehrmeister, H. Goetz, D. E. Jacob, A. Soldati, W. Xu, H. Duschner, and W. Hofmeister, “Visualization of the internal structures of cultured pearls by computerized X-ray microtomography,” J. Geol. 31, 15–21 (2008).

Song, H. C.

H. C. Song, G. Xiang, L. Su, and Y. Fan, “Fluorescence spectrum analysis of freshwater pipless pearl,” J. Fishery Sci. China 5, 1–5 (1998).

Song, Zh.

Zh. Song, Xh. Yu, and Xh. Zhang, “Analysis on various factors influencing the quality of cultured pearl,” J. Gemol. 3, 18–21 (2001).

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Su, L.

H. C. Song, G. Xiang, L. Su, and Y. Fan, “Fluorescence spectrum analysis of freshwater pipless pearl,” J. Fishery Sci. China 5, 1–5 (1998).

Swanson, E. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wada, K.

K. Wada, “The relation between the crystalline structure of the cultured pearls and elongation of the transplants mantle tissue in the process of pearl-sac formation,” Bull. Jap. Soc. Sci. Fish. 14, 549 (1960).
[CrossRef]

Wada, K. T.

K. T. Wada and A. Komaru, “Color and weight of pearl produced by grafting the mantle tissue from a selected population for white shell color of the Japanese pearl oyster pinctada fucata martensii (Dunker),” Aquaculture 142(1-2), 25–32 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wehrmeister, U.

U. Wehrmeister, H. Goetz, D. E. Jacob, A. Soldati, W. Xu, H. Duschner, and W. Hofmeister, “Visualization of the internal structures of cultured pearls by computerized X-ray microtomography,” J. Geol. 31, 15–21 (2008).

Xiang, G.

H. C. Song, G. Xiang, L. Su, and Y. Fan, “Fluorescence spectrum analysis of freshwater pipless pearl,” J. Fishery Sci. China 5, 1–5 (1998).

Xie, X. D.

G. S. Zhang, X. D. Xie, S. Q. Qi, and P. C. Hu, “X-ray diffraction study of nacre in shell of hyriopsis cumingii (LEA),” J. Miner. Petrol. 22, 8–11 (2002).

Xu, W.

U. Wehrmeister, H. Goetz, D. E. Jacob, A. Soldati, W. Xu, H. Duschner, and W. Hofmeister, “Visualization of the internal structures of cultured pearls by computerized X-ray microtomography,” J. Geol. 31, 15–21 (2008).

Yasuno, Y.

Yatagai, T.

Yu, Xh.

Zh. Song, Xh. Yu, and Xh. Zhang, “Analysis on various factors influencing the quality of cultured pearl,” J. Gemol. 3, 18–21 (2001).

Zeng, N.

N. Zeng, Y. He, and H. Ma, “Application of optical coherence tomography in nacre identification and characterization,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 50(2), 442–445 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, G. S.

G. S. Zhang, X. D. Xie, S. Q. Qi, and P. C. Hu, “X-ray diffraction study of nacre in shell of hyriopsis cumingii (LEA),” J. Miner. Petrol. 22, 8–11 (2002).

Zhang, Xh.

Zh. Song, Xh. Yu, and Xh. Zhang, “Analysis on various factors influencing the quality of cultured pearl,” J. Gemol. 3, 18–21 (2001).

Aquaculture

K. T. Wada and A. Komaru, “Color and weight of pearl produced by grafting the mantle tissue from a selected population for white shell color of the Japanese pearl oyster pinctada fucata martensii (Dunker),” Aquaculture 142(1-2), 25–32 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bull. Jap. Soc. Sci. Fish.

K. Wada, “The relation between the crystalline structure of the cultured pearls and elongation of the transplants mantle tissue in the process of pearl-sac formation,” Bull. Jap. Soc. Sci. Fish. 14, 549 (1960).
[CrossRef]

J. Fishery Sci. China

H. C. Song, G. Xiang, L. Su, and Y. Fan, “Fluorescence spectrum analysis of freshwater pipless pearl,” J. Fishery Sci. China 5, 1–5 (1998).

J. Gemol.

Zh. Song, Xh. Yu, and Xh. Zhang, “Analysis on various factors influencing the quality of cultured pearl,” J. Gemol. 3, 18–21 (2001).

J. Geol.

U. Wehrmeister, H. Goetz, D. E. Jacob, A. Soldati, W. Xu, H. Duschner, and W. Hofmeister, “Visualization of the internal structures of cultured pearls by computerized X-ray microtomography,” J. Geol. 31, 15–21 (2008).

J. Korean Gems and Jewelry

R. Y. Park, Y. C. Kim, and P. C. Kim, “The comparative analyses of akoya pearls using the bio-bead nucleus and bead nucleus made from washboard shell,” J. Korean Gems and Jewelry 1, 23–25 (2007).

J. Miner. Petrol.

G. S. Zhang, X. D. Xie, S. Q. Qi, and P. C. Hu, “X-ray diffraction study of nacre in shell of hyriopsis cumingii (LEA),” J. Miner. Petrol. 22, 8–11 (2002).

Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett.

N. Zeng, Y. He, and H. Ma, “Application of optical coherence tomography in nacre identification and characterization,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 50(2), 442–445 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Science

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

K. Wada, “Science of the pearl; formation and grading,” 2nd ed., publish a newspaper of pearl, Japan, 248 (1999).

K. Wada, “Science of the pearl; formation and grading,” 2nd ed., publish a newspaper of pearl, Japan, 254–255 (1999).

http://www.cites.org/eng/resources/pub/checklist08/Checklist.pdf

http://www.iucnredlist.org/apps/redlist/details/22137/0

http://www.pearl-guide.com/forum/cultured-pearls/20-illegal-use-giant-clam-nuclei.html

J. Y. Kim, Korea Pearl Laboratory, 141–1 Bongik-dong, Jongno-gu, Seoul 110–390, Korea (personal communication, 2009).

Supplementary Material (2)

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the system. SS: frequency swept laser source, PC: in-line polarization controller, C: circulator, L1-2: collimation lens, RM: reference mirror, OL: objective lens, RS: motorized rotation stage, BPD: balanced photo-detector.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

OCT images of a bead-nucleated saltwater pearl (a) and a non bead-nucleated freshwater pearl (b), respectively. The image represents an area of 360 degree (horizontal)x2 mm (vertical) along the angle and the depth, respectively. The pearls are in round shapes of course.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

OCT images of freshwater pearl that retains no defects and cracks (a), and the one contains thick crevices (b). The image represents an area of 360 degree (horizontal)x3 mm (vertical) along the angle and the depth, respectively. The same OCT images are presented in a polar coordinate; (c) is for (a) and (d) is for (b), respectively.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

3D volume OCT images of the freshwater pearls used for Fig. 3 which are single frames excerpted from video recordings. One has no defects and cracks (a) (Media 1), and the other contains thick crevices (b) (Media 2).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Microscope image of a sliced Tihitian-black cultured pearl (a), and the corresponding A-scan OCT taken along the yellow line (b).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

The OCT image of a bead-nucleated saltwater pearl (a). The image represents an area of 360 degree (horizontal)x2 mm (vertical) along the angle and the depth. Its A-scan images taken at the scan angles of 90 (b), 180 (c), 270 (d), and 360 (e) degree, respectively.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Photographs of a typical freshwater shell nucleus (a) and a Giant Clam nucleus (b), and their 2D tomography images (c) for (a) and (d) for (b), respectively.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

X-ray radiography image of the saltwater pearl holding a standard freshwater shell bead (a), 3D volume OCT image (b), and 2D tomography images taken along; XY-plane (c), XZ-plane (d), and YZ-plane (e).

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

X-ray radiography image of the saltwater pearl that contains a Giant Clam nucleus (a), 3D volume OCT image (b), and 2D tomography images taken along; XY-plane (c), XZ-plane (d), and YZ-plane (e).

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Refractive indices of some representative saltwater pearls.

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