Abstract

A simple technique to incorporate microlenes with small photodiode arrays is demonstrated and analyzed. Using this method, the fill factor was increased from 2.6% to 22.4% for a two by two array. Simulation results are also shown. The photocurrent with microlens was approximately 8.6 times larger than without the microlens, which is consistent with simulation results.

© 2010 OSA

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  1. G. A. Shaw, A. M. Siegel, J. Model, and D. Greisokh, “Recent progress in short-range ultraviolet communication,” Proc. SPIE 5796, 214–225 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  2. H. Liu, D. McIntosh, X. Bai, H. Pan, M. Liu, and J. C. Campbell, “4H-SiC PIN recessed window avalanche photodiode,” LEOS 2007 20th Annu. Meet. IEEE Lasers Electro-Opt. Soc. (2007), pp. 517–518.
  3. H. Liu, D. McIntosh, X. Bai, H. Pan, M. Liu, J. C. Campbell, and H. Y. Cha, “4H-SiC PIN recessed window avalanche photodiode with high quantum efficiency,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(18), 1551–1553 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. Vert, S. Soloviev, J. Fronheiser, and P. Sandvik, “Solar-blind 4H-SiC single-photon avalanche diode operating in geiger mode,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(18), 1587–1589 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  5. H.-Y. Cha, S. Soloviev, S. Zelakiewiez, P. Waldrab, and P. M. Sandvik, “Temperature dependent characteristics of nonreach-through 4H-SiC separate absorption and multiplication APDs for UV detection,” IEEE Sens. J. 8(3), 233–237 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. Hu, X. Xin, X. Li, J. H. Zhao, B. L. VanMil, K. Lew, R. L. Myers-Ward, C. R. Eddy, and D. K. Gaskill, “4H-SiC visible-blind single-photon avalanche diode for ultraviolet detection at 280 and 350 nm,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 55(8), 1977–1983 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  7. H. Liu, S. Chen, S. Dong, and X. Yi, “Bionic ommatidia based on microlens array,” Opt. Eng. 48(6), 063401 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  8. Y. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, R. A. Arif, H. Tong, H. Zhao, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Optimization of light extraction efficiency of III-nitride LEDs with self-assembled colloidal-based microlenses,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1218–1225 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  9. H. Yang, C. Chao, M. Wei, and C. Lin, “High fill-factor microlens array mold insert fabrication using a thermal reflow process,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 14(8), 1197–1204 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  10. B. Lee, K. J. Cha, and T. H. Kwon, “Fabrication of polymer micro nano-hybrid lens array by microstructured anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) mold,” Microelectron. Eng. 86(4-6), 857–860 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  11. P. Nussbaum, R. Völkel, H. Herzig, M. Eisner, and S. Haselbeck, “Design, fabrication and testing of microlens arrays for sensors and Microsystems,” Pure Appl. Opt. 6(6), 617–636 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  12. P. Ruffieux, T. Scharf, I. Philipoussis, H. P. Herzig, R. Voelkel, and K. J. Weible, “Two step process for the fabrication of diffraction limited concave microlens arrays,” Opt. Express 16(24), 19541–19549 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. Y.-H. Huang, C.-C. Yang, T.-C. Peng, M.-C. Wu, C.-L. Ho, and W.-J. Ho, “Alignment tolerance Enlargement of a high-speed photodiode by a self-positioned microball lens,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(1), 112–114 (2006).
    [CrossRef]

2009

H. Liu, S. Chen, S. Dong, and X. Yi, “Bionic ommatidia based on microlens array,” Opt. Eng. 48(6), 063401 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, R. A. Arif, H. Tong, H. Zhao, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Optimization of light extraction efficiency of III-nitride LEDs with self-assembled colloidal-based microlenses,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1218–1225 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. Lee, K. J. Cha, and T. H. Kwon, “Fabrication of polymer micro nano-hybrid lens array by microstructured anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) mold,” Microelectron. Eng. 86(4-6), 857–860 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

H. Liu, D. McIntosh, X. Bai, H. Pan, M. Liu, J. C. Campbell, and H. Y. Cha, “4H-SiC PIN recessed window avalanche photodiode with high quantum efficiency,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(18), 1551–1553 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Vert, S. Soloviev, J. Fronheiser, and P. Sandvik, “Solar-blind 4H-SiC single-photon avalanche diode operating in geiger mode,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(18), 1587–1589 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H.-Y. Cha, S. Soloviev, S. Zelakiewiez, P. Waldrab, and P. M. Sandvik, “Temperature dependent characteristics of nonreach-through 4H-SiC separate absorption and multiplication APDs for UV detection,” IEEE Sens. J. 8(3), 233–237 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Hu, X. Xin, X. Li, J. H. Zhao, B. L. VanMil, K. Lew, R. L. Myers-Ward, C. R. Eddy, and D. K. Gaskill, “4H-SiC visible-blind single-photon avalanche diode for ultraviolet detection at 280 and 350 nm,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 55(8), 1977–1983 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Ruffieux, T. Scharf, I. Philipoussis, H. P. Herzig, R. Voelkel, and K. J. Weible, “Two step process for the fabrication of diffraction limited concave microlens arrays,” Opt. Express 16(24), 19541–19549 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

Y.-H. Huang, C.-C. Yang, T.-C. Peng, M.-C. Wu, C.-L. Ho, and W.-J. Ho, “Alignment tolerance Enlargement of a high-speed photodiode by a self-positioned microball lens,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(1), 112–114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

G. A. Shaw, A. M. Siegel, J. Model, and D. Greisokh, “Recent progress in short-range ultraviolet communication,” Proc. SPIE 5796, 214–225 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

H. Yang, C. Chao, M. Wei, and C. Lin, “High fill-factor microlens array mold insert fabrication using a thermal reflow process,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 14(8), 1197–1204 (2004).
[CrossRef]

1997

P. Nussbaum, R. Völkel, H. Herzig, M. Eisner, and S. Haselbeck, “Design, fabrication and testing of microlens arrays for sensors and Microsystems,” Pure Appl. Opt. 6(6), 617–636 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Arif, R. A.

Y. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, R. A. Arif, H. Tong, H. Zhao, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Optimization of light extraction efficiency of III-nitride LEDs with self-assembled colloidal-based microlenses,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1218–1225 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bai, X.

H. Liu, D. McIntosh, X. Bai, H. Pan, M. Liu, J. C. Campbell, and H. Y. Cha, “4H-SiC PIN recessed window avalanche photodiode with high quantum efficiency,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(18), 1551–1553 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Campbell, J. C.

H. Liu, D. McIntosh, X. Bai, H. Pan, M. Liu, J. C. Campbell, and H. Y. Cha, “4H-SiC PIN recessed window avalanche photodiode with high quantum efficiency,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(18), 1551–1553 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cha, H. Y.

H. Liu, D. McIntosh, X. Bai, H. Pan, M. Liu, J. C. Campbell, and H. Y. Cha, “4H-SiC PIN recessed window avalanche photodiode with high quantum efficiency,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(18), 1551–1553 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cha, H.-Y.

H.-Y. Cha, S. Soloviev, S. Zelakiewiez, P. Waldrab, and P. M. Sandvik, “Temperature dependent characteristics of nonreach-through 4H-SiC separate absorption and multiplication APDs for UV detection,” IEEE Sens. J. 8(3), 233–237 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cha, K. J.

B. Lee, K. J. Cha, and T. H. Kwon, “Fabrication of polymer micro nano-hybrid lens array by microstructured anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) mold,” Microelectron. Eng. 86(4-6), 857–860 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chao, C.

H. Yang, C. Chao, M. Wei, and C. Lin, “High fill-factor microlens array mold insert fabrication using a thermal reflow process,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 14(8), 1197–1204 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chen, S.

H. Liu, S. Chen, S. Dong, and X. Yi, “Bionic ommatidia based on microlens array,” Opt. Eng. 48(6), 063401 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dong, S.

H. Liu, S. Chen, S. Dong, and X. Yi, “Bionic ommatidia based on microlens array,” Opt. Eng. 48(6), 063401 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Eddy, C. R.

J. Hu, X. Xin, X. Li, J. H. Zhao, B. L. VanMil, K. Lew, R. L. Myers-Ward, C. R. Eddy, and D. K. Gaskill, “4H-SiC visible-blind single-photon avalanche diode for ultraviolet detection at 280 and 350 nm,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 55(8), 1977–1983 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ee, Y.

Y. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, R. A. Arif, H. Tong, H. Zhao, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Optimization of light extraction efficiency of III-nitride LEDs with self-assembled colloidal-based microlenses,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1218–1225 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Eisner, M.

P. Nussbaum, R. Völkel, H. Herzig, M. Eisner, and S. Haselbeck, “Design, fabrication and testing of microlens arrays for sensors and Microsystems,” Pure Appl. Opt. 6(6), 617–636 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fronheiser, J.

A. Vert, S. Soloviev, J. Fronheiser, and P. Sandvik, “Solar-blind 4H-SiC single-photon avalanche diode operating in geiger mode,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(18), 1587–1589 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gaskill, D. K.

J. Hu, X. Xin, X. Li, J. H. Zhao, B. L. VanMil, K. Lew, R. L. Myers-Ward, C. R. Eddy, and D. K. Gaskill, “4H-SiC visible-blind single-photon avalanche diode for ultraviolet detection at 280 and 350 nm,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 55(8), 1977–1983 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gilchrist, J. F.

Y. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, R. A. Arif, H. Tong, H. Zhao, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Optimization of light extraction efficiency of III-nitride LEDs with self-assembled colloidal-based microlenses,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1218–1225 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Greisokh, D.

G. A. Shaw, A. M. Siegel, J. Model, and D. Greisokh, “Recent progress in short-range ultraviolet communication,” Proc. SPIE 5796, 214–225 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Haselbeck, S.

P. Nussbaum, R. Völkel, H. Herzig, M. Eisner, and S. Haselbeck, “Design, fabrication and testing of microlens arrays for sensors and Microsystems,” Pure Appl. Opt. 6(6), 617–636 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Herzig, H.

P. Nussbaum, R. Völkel, H. Herzig, M. Eisner, and S. Haselbeck, “Design, fabrication and testing of microlens arrays for sensors and Microsystems,” Pure Appl. Opt. 6(6), 617–636 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Herzig, H. P.

Ho, C.-L.

Y.-H. Huang, C.-C. Yang, T.-C. Peng, M.-C. Wu, C.-L. Ho, and W.-J. Ho, “Alignment tolerance Enlargement of a high-speed photodiode by a self-positioned microball lens,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(1), 112–114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ho, W.-J.

Y.-H. Huang, C.-C. Yang, T.-C. Peng, M.-C. Wu, C.-L. Ho, and W.-J. Ho, “Alignment tolerance Enlargement of a high-speed photodiode by a self-positioned microball lens,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(1), 112–114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hu, J.

J. Hu, X. Xin, X. Li, J. H. Zhao, B. L. VanMil, K. Lew, R. L. Myers-Ward, C. R. Eddy, and D. K. Gaskill, “4H-SiC visible-blind single-photon avalanche diode for ultraviolet detection at 280 and 350 nm,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 55(8), 1977–1983 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Huang, Y.-H.

Y.-H. Huang, C.-C. Yang, T.-C. Peng, M.-C. Wu, C.-L. Ho, and W.-J. Ho, “Alignment tolerance Enlargement of a high-speed photodiode by a self-positioned microball lens,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(1), 112–114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kumnorkaew, P.

Y. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, R. A. Arif, H. Tong, H. Zhao, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Optimization of light extraction efficiency of III-nitride LEDs with self-assembled colloidal-based microlenses,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1218–1225 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kwon, T. H.

B. Lee, K. J. Cha, and T. H. Kwon, “Fabrication of polymer micro nano-hybrid lens array by microstructured anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) mold,” Microelectron. Eng. 86(4-6), 857–860 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lee, B.

B. Lee, K. J. Cha, and T. H. Kwon, “Fabrication of polymer micro nano-hybrid lens array by microstructured anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) mold,” Microelectron. Eng. 86(4-6), 857–860 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lew, K.

J. Hu, X. Xin, X. Li, J. H. Zhao, B. L. VanMil, K. Lew, R. L. Myers-Ward, C. R. Eddy, and D. K. Gaskill, “4H-SiC visible-blind single-photon avalanche diode for ultraviolet detection at 280 and 350 nm,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 55(8), 1977–1983 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Li, X.

J. Hu, X. Xin, X. Li, J. H. Zhao, B. L. VanMil, K. Lew, R. L. Myers-Ward, C. R. Eddy, and D. K. Gaskill, “4H-SiC visible-blind single-photon avalanche diode for ultraviolet detection at 280 and 350 nm,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 55(8), 1977–1983 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C.

H. Yang, C. Chao, M. Wei, and C. Lin, “High fill-factor microlens array mold insert fabrication using a thermal reflow process,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 14(8), 1197–1204 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Liu, H.

H. Liu, S. Chen, S. Dong, and X. Yi, “Bionic ommatidia based on microlens array,” Opt. Eng. 48(6), 063401 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Liu, D. McIntosh, X. Bai, H. Pan, M. Liu, J. C. Campbell, and H. Y. Cha, “4H-SiC PIN recessed window avalanche photodiode with high quantum efficiency,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(18), 1551–1553 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Liu, M.

H. Liu, D. McIntosh, X. Bai, H. Pan, M. Liu, J. C. Campbell, and H. Y. Cha, “4H-SiC PIN recessed window avalanche photodiode with high quantum efficiency,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(18), 1551–1553 (2008).
[CrossRef]

McIntosh, D.

H. Liu, D. McIntosh, X. Bai, H. Pan, M. Liu, J. C. Campbell, and H. Y. Cha, “4H-SiC PIN recessed window avalanche photodiode with high quantum efficiency,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(18), 1551–1553 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Model, J.

G. A. Shaw, A. M. Siegel, J. Model, and D. Greisokh, “Recent progress in short-range ultraviolet communication,” Proc. SPIE 5796, 214–225 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Myers-Ward, R. L.

J. Hu, X. Xin, X. Li, J. H. Zhao, B. L. VanMil, K. Lew, R. L. Myers-Ward, C. R. Eddy, and D. K. Gaskill, “4H-SiC visible-blind single-photon avalanche diode for ultraviolet detection at 280 and 350 nm,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 55(8), 1977–1983 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nussbaum, P.

P. Nussbaum, R. Völkel, H. Herzig, M. Eisner, and S. Haselbeck, “Design, fabrication and testing of microlens arrays for sensors and Microsystems,” Pure Appl. Opt. 6(6), 617–636 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Pan, H.

H. Liu, D. McIntosh, X. Bai, H. Pan, M. Liu, J. C. Campbell, and H. Y. Cha, “4H-SiC PIN recessed window avalanche photodiode with high quantum efficiency,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(18), 1551–1553 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Peng, T.-C.

Y.-H. Huang, C.-C. Yang, T.-C. Peng, M.-C. Wu, C.-L. Ho, and W.-J. Ho, “Alignment tolerance Enlargement of a high-speed photodiode by a self-positioned microball lens,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(1), 112–114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Philipoussis, I.

Ruffieux, P.

Sandvik, P.

A. Vert, S. Soloviev, J. Fronheiser, and P. Sandvik, “Solar-blind 4H-SiC single-photon avalanche diode operating in geiger mode,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(18), 1587–1589 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sandvik, P. M.

H.-Y. Cha, S. Soloviev, S. Zelakiewiez, P. Waldrab, and P. M. Sandvik, “Temperature dependent characteristics of nonreach-through 4H-SiC separate absorption and multiplication APDs for UV detection,” IEEE Sens. J. 8(3), 233–237 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Scharf, T.

Shaw, G. A.

G. A. Shaw, A. M. Siegel, J. Model, and D. Greisokh, “Recent progress in short-range ultraviolet communication,” Proc. SPIE 5796, 214–225 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Siegel, A. M.

G. A. Shaw, A. M. Siegel, J. Model, and D. Greisokh, “Recent progress in short-range ultraviolet communication,” Proc. SPIE 5796, 214–225 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Soloviev, S.

A. Vert, S. Soloviev, J. Fronheiser, and P. Sandvik, “Solar-blind 4H-SiC single-photon avalanche diode operating in geiger mode,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(18), 1587–1589 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H.-Y. Cha, S. Soloviev, S. Zelakiewiez, P. Waldrab, and P. M. Sandvik, “Temperature dependent characteristics of nonreach-through 4H-SiC separate absorption and multiplication APDs for UV detection,” IEEE Sens. J. 8(3), 233–237 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tansu, N.

Y. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, R. A. Arif, H. Tong, H. Zhao, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Optimization of light extraction efficiency of III-nitride LEDs with self-assembled colloidal-based microlenses,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1218–1225 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tong, H.

Y. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, R. A. Arif, H. Tong, H. Zhao, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Optimization of light extraction efficiency of III-nitride LEDs with self-assembled colloidal-based microlenses,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1218–1225 (2009).
[CrossRef]

VanMil, B. L.

J. Hu, X. Xin, X. Li, J. H. Zhao, B. L. VanMil, K. Lew, R. L. Myers-Ward, C. R. Eddy, and D. K. Gaskill, “4H-SiC visible-blind single-photon avalanche diode for ultraviolet detection at 280 and 350 nm,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 55(8), 1977–1983 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Vert, A.

A. Vert, S. Soloviev, J. Fronheiser, and P. Sandvik, “Solar-blind 4H-SiC single-photon avalanche diode operating in geiger mode,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(18), 1587–1589 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Voelkel, R.

Völkel, R.

P. Nussbaum, R. Völkel, H. Herzig, M. Eisner, and S. Haselbeck, “Design, fabrication and testing of microlens arrays for sensors and Microsystems,” Pure Appl. Opt. 6(6), 617–636 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Waldrab, P.

H.-Y. Cha, S. Soloviev, S. Zelakiewiez, P. Waldrab, and P. M. Sandvik, “Temperature dependent characteristics of nonreach-through 4H-SiC separate absorption and multiplication APDs for UV detection,” IEEE Sens. J. 8(3), 233–237 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wei, M.

H. Yang, C. Chao, M. Wei, and C. Lin, “High fill-factor microlens array mold insert fabrication using a thermal reflow process,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 14(8), 1197–1204 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Weible, K. J.

Wu, M.-C.

Y.-H. Huang, C.-C. Yang, T.-C. Peng, M.-C. Wu, C.-L. Ho, and W.-J. Ho, “Alignment tolerance Enlargement of a high-speed photodiode by a self-positioned microball lens,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(1), 112–114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Xin, X.

J. Hu, X. Xin, X. Li, J. H. Zhao, B. L. VanMil, K. Lew, R. L. Myers-Ward, C. R. Eddy, and D. K. Gaskill, “4H-SiC visible-blind single-photon avalanche diode for ultraviolet detection at 280 and 350 nm,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 55(8), 1977–1983 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yang, C.-C.

Y.-H. Huang, C.-C. Yang, T.-C. Peng, M.-C. Wu, C.-L. Ho, and W.-J. Ho, “Alignment tolerance Enlargement of a high-speed photodiode by a self-positioned microball lens,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(1), 112–114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yang, H.

H. Yang, C. Chao, M. Wei, and C. Lin, “High fill-factor microlens array mold insert fabrication using a thermal reflow process,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 14(8), 1197–1204 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yi, X.

H. Liu, S. Chen, S. Dong, and X. Yi, “Bionic ommatidia based on microlens array,” Opt. Eng. 48(6), 063401 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zelakiewiez, S.

H.-Y. Cha, S. Soloviev, S. Zelakiewiez, P. Waldrab, and P. M. Sandvik, “Temperature dependent characteristics of nonreach-through 4H-SiC separate absorption and multiplication APDs for UV detection,” IEEE Sens. J. 8(3), 233–237 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, H.

Y. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, R. A. Arif, H. Tong, H. Zhao, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Optimization of light extraction efficiency of III-nitride LEDs with self-assembled colloidal-based microlenses,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1218–1225 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, J. H.

J. Hu, X. Xin, X. Li, J. H. Zhao, B. L. VanMil, K. Lew, R. L. Myers-Ward, C. R. Eddy, and D. K. Gaskill, “4H-SiC visible-blind single-photon avalanche diode for ultraviolet detection at 280 and 350 nm,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 55(8), 1977–1983 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

Y. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, R. A. Arif, H. Tong, H. Zhao, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Optimization of light extraction efficiency of III-nitride LEDs with self-assembled colloidal-based microlenses,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1218–1225 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

H. Liu, D. McIntosh, X. Bai, H. Pan, M. Liu, J. C. Campbell, and H. Y. Cha, “4H-SiC PIN recessed window avalanche photodiode with high quantum efficiency,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(18), 1551–1553 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Vert, S. Soloviev, J. Fronheiser, and P. Sandvik, “Solar-blind 4H-SiC single-photon avalanche diode operating in geiger mode,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(18), 1587–1589 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y.-H. Huang, C.-C. Yang, T.-C. Peng, M.-C. Wu, C.-L. Ho, and W.-J. Ho, “Alignment tolerance Enlargement of a high-speed photodiode by a self-positioned microball lens,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(1), 112–114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Sens. J.

H.-Y. Cha, S. Soloviev, S. Zelakiewiez, P. Waldrab, and P. M. Sandvik, “Temperature dependent characteristics of nonreach-through 4H-SiC separate absorption and multiplication APDs for UV detection,” IEEE Sens. J. 8(3), 233–237 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev.

J. Hu, X. Xin, X. Li, J. H. Zhao, B. L. VanMil, K. Lew, R. L. Myers-Ward, C. R. Eddy, and D. K. Gaskill, “4H-SiC visible-blind single-photon avalanche diode for ultraviolet detection at 280 and 350 nm,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 55(8), 1977–1983 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Micromech. Microeng.

H. Yang, C. Chao, M. Wei, and C. Lin, “High fill-factor microlens array mold insert fabrication using a thermal reflow process,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 14(8), 1197–1204 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Microelectron. Eng.

B. Lee, K. J. Cha, and T. H. Kwon, “Fabrication of polymer micro nano-hybrid lens array by microstructured anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) mold,” Microelectron. Eng. 86(4-6), 857–860 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng.

H. Liu, S. Chen, S. Dong, and X. Yi, “Bionic ommatidia based on microlens array,” Opt. Eng. 48(6), 063401 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Proc. SPIE

G. A. Shaw, A. M. Siegel, J. Model, and D. Greisokh, “Recent progress in short-range ultraviolet communication,” Proc. SPIE 5796, 214–225 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pure Appl. Opt.

P. Nussbaum, R. Völkel, H. Herzig, M. Eisner, and S. Haselbeck, “Design, fabrication and testing of microlens arrays for sensors and Microsystems,” Pure Appl. Opt. 6(6), 617–636 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Other

H. Liu, D. McIntosh, X. Bai, H. Pan, M. Liu, and J. C. Campbell, “4H-SiC PIN recessed window avalanche photodiode,” LEOS 2007 20th Annu. Meet. IEEE Lasers Electro-Opt. Soc. (2007), pp. 517–518.

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Microlens configuration on SiC APD. (a) The cross section view. (b) The top view.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Microlens model.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Top view of a SiC APD.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The relationship between d and x.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Collected light versus distance.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Alignment tolerance in x, y and z and (b) alignment tolerance when the device is not vertically illuminated.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) SiC APD structure, (b) SiC APDs with SU-8 photoresist pedestal, and (c) lenses mounted on SiC array.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Current – voltage characteristic with microball lens.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Quantum efficiency at different wavelength.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Photocurrent vs. wavelength.

Equations (1)

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n = I w i t h  lens I d a r k I w i t h o u t  lens I d a r k × δ = π × ( R l e n s ) 2 π × ( R d e v i c e ) 2 × T 1 × T 2 × δ

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