Abstract

We employ the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) technique as a numerical approach to studying the effects of scatterers’ sizes on near-field coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy under tightly focused radially and linearly polarized light excitations. The FDTD results show that in a uniform medium (water), the full width at half maximum (FWHM) (transverse resolution) of radially polarized near-field CARS (RP-CARS) radiation is approximately 7.7% narrower than that of linearly polarized near-field CARS (LP-CARS) imaging, whereas the depth of focus (DOF) of RP-CARS radiation is 6.5% longer than LP-CARS. However, with the presence of scatterers in the uniform medium, both the FHWM and DOF of near-field RP-CARS radiation become much narrower compared to those of near-field LP-CARS radiation. In addition, the signal to nonresonant background ratio of near-field RP-CARS is significantly improved when the scatterer’s size is larger than a half wavelength of the pump light field. This work suggests that near-field CARS radiations are strongly influenced by the scatterers’ sizes in the medium; and near-field RP-CARS microscopy is superior to the near-field LP-CARS by providing both higher transverse and axial resolutions for three-dimensional molecular imaging of fine structures in biological systems.

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  3. F. Lu, W. Zheng, and Z. Huang, “Heterodyne polarization coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(12), 123901 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  4. X. Nan, E. O. Potma, and X. S. Xie, “Nonperturbative chemical imaging of organelle transport in living cells with coherent anti-stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” Biophys. J. 91(2), 728–735 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  5. F. Lu, W. Zheng, C. Sheppard, and Z. Huang, “Interferometric polarization coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (IP-CARS) microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 33(6), 602–604 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  6. N. Djaker, D. Gachet, N. Sandeau, P. F. Lenne, and H. Rigneault, “Refractive effects in coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” Appl. Opt. 45(27), 7005–7011 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  8. V. V. Krishnamachari and E. O. Potma, “Focus-engineered coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy: a numerical investigation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24(4), 1138–1147 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  10. H. Wang, L. Shi, B. Lukyanchuk, C. Sheppard, and C. T. Chong, “Creation of a needle of longitudinally polarized light in vacuum using binary optics,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 501–505 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  18. K. S. Yee, “Numerical solution of initial boundary value problem involving Maxwell equations in isotropic media,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 14(3), 302–307 (1966).
    [CrossRef]
  19. A. Volkmer, “Vibrational imaging and microspectroscopies based on coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 38(5), R59–R81 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  20. K. Takeda, Y. Ito, and C. Munakata, “Simultaneous measurement of size and refractive index of a fine particle in flowing liquid,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 3(1), 27–32 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  21. B. Richards and E. Wolf, “Electromagnetic diffraction in optical systems. II. Structure of the image field in an aplanatic system,” Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A Math. Phys. Sci. 253(1274), 358–379 (1959).
    [CrossRef]
  22. D. Courjon and C. Bainier, “Near field microscopy and near field optics,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 57(10), 989–1028 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  23. B. Jia, X. Gan, and M. Gu, “Direct observation of a pure focused evanescent field of a high numerical aperture objective lens by scanning near-field optical microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(13), 131110 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  24. R. D. Schaller, J. Ziegelbauer, L. F. Lee, L. H. Haber, and R. J. Saykally, “Chemically selective imaging of subcellular structure in human hepatocytes with coherent anti-stokes Raman scattering (CARS) near-field scanning optical microscopy (NSOM),” J. Phys. Chem. B 106(34), 8489–8492 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  25. S. Kawata, Y. Inouye, and T. Ichimura, “Near-field optics and spectroscopy for molecular nano-imaging,” Sci. Prog. 87(1), 25–49 (2004).
    [CrossRef]

2009

2008

F. Lu, W. Zheng, C. Sheppard, and Z. Huang, “Interferometric polarization coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (IP-CARS) microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 33(6), 602–604 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Lu, W. Zheng, and Z. Huang, “Heterodyne polarization coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(12), 123901 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Wang, L. Shi, B. Lukyanchuk, C. Sheppard, and C. T. Chong, “Creation of a needle of longitudinally polarized light in vacuum using binary optics,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 501–505 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Yang and Q. Zhan, “Third-harmonic generation microscopy with tightly focused radial polarization,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 10(12), 125103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

2006

N. Djaker, D. Gachet, N. Sandeau, P. F. Lenne, and H. Rigneault, “Refractive effects in coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” Appl. Opt. 45(27), 7005–7011 (2006).
[CrossRef]

X. Nan, E. O. Potma, and X. S. Xie, “Nonperturbative chemical imaging of organelle transport in living cells with coherent anti-stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” Biophys. J. 91(2), 728–735 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Saito, M. Motohashi, N. Hayazawa, M. Iyoki, and S. Kawata, “Nanoscale characterization of strained silicon by tip-enhanced Raman spectroscope in reflection mode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(14), 143109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

A. Volkmer, “Vibrational imaging and microspectroscopies based on coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 38(5), R59–R81 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. Jia, X. Gan, and M. Gu, “Direct observation of a pure focused evanescent field of a high numerical aperture objective lens by scanning near-field optical microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(13), 131110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

S. Kawata, Y. Inouye, and T. Ichimura, “Near-field optics and spectroscopy for molecular nano-imaging,” Sci. Prog. 87(1), 25–49 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

R. Dorn, S. Quabis, and G. Leuchs, “Sharper focus for a radially polarized light beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(23), 233901 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

R. D. Schaller, J. Ziegelbauer, L. F. Lee, L. H. Haber, and R. J. Saykally, “Chemically selective imaging of subcellular structure in human hepatocytes with coherent anti-stokes Raman scattering (CARS) near-field scanning optical microscopy (NSOM),” J. Phys. Chem. B 106(34), 8489–8492 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. X. Cheng and X. S. Xie, “Green’s function formulation for third-harmonic generation microscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19(7), 1604–1610 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

L. Novotny, M. R. Beversluis, K. S. Youngworth, and T. G. Brown, “Longitudinal field modes probed by single molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(23), 5251–5254 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999

A. Zumbusch, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Three-dimensional vibrational imaging by coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(20), 4142–4145 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1994

D. Courjon and C. Bainier, “Near field microscopy and near field optics,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 57(10), 989–1028 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992

K. Takeda, Y. Ito, and C. Munakata, “Simultaneous measurement of size and refractive index of a fine particle in flowing liquid,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 3(1), 27–32 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1966

K. S. Yee, “Numerical solution of initial boundary value problem involving Maxwell equations in isotropic media,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 14(3), 302–307 (1966).
[CrossRef]

1959

B. Richards and E. Wolf, “Electromagnetic diffraction in optical systems. II. Structure of the image field in an aplanatic system,” Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A Math. Phys. Sci. 253(1274), 358–379 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Araki, T.

Bainier, C.

D. Courjon and C. Bainier, “Near field microscopy and near field optics,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 57(10), 989–1028 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Beversluis, M. R.

L. Novotny, M. R. Beversluis, K. S. Youngworth, and T. G. Brown, “Longitudinal field modes probed by single molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(23), 5251–5254 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Brown, T. G.

L. Novotny, M. R. Beversluis, K. S. Youngworth, and T. G. Brown, “Longitudinal field modes probed by single molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(23), 5251–5254 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, J. X.

Chong, C. T.

H. Wang, L. Shi, B. Lukyanchuk, C. Sheppard, and C. T. Chong, “Creation of a needle of longitudinally polarized light in vacuum using binary optics,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 501–505 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Courjon, D.

D. Courjon and C. Bainier, “Near field microscopy and near field optics,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 57(10), 989–1028 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Djaker, N.

Dorn, R.

R. Dorn, S. Quabis, and G. Leuchs, “Sharper focus for a radially polarized light beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(23), 233901 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Evans, C. L.

Gachet, D.

Gan, X.

B. Jia, X. Gan, and M. Gu, “Direct observation of a pure focused evanescent field of a high numerical aperture objective lens by scanning near-field optical microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(13), 131110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gu, M.

B. Jia, X. Gan, and M. Gu, “Direct observation of a pure focused evanescent field of a high numerical aperture objective lens by scanning near-field optical microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(13), 131110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Haber, L. H.

R. D. Schaller, J. Ziegelbauer, L. F. Lee, L. H. Haber, and R. J. Saykally, “Chemically selective imaging of subcellular structure in human hepatocytes with coherent anti-stokes Raman scattering (CARS) near-field scanning optical microscopy (NSOM),” J. Phys. Chem. B 106(34), 8489–8492 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hashimoto, M.

Hashimoto, N.

Hayazawa, N.

Y. Saito, M. Motohashi, N. Hayazawa, M. Iyoki, and S. Kawata, “Nanoscale characterization of strained silicon by tip-enhanced Raman spectroscope in reflection mode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(14), 143109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Holtom, G. R.

A. Zumbusch, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Three-dimensional vibrational imaging by coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(20), 4142–4145 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Huang, Z.

Hutmacher, D. W.

Ichimura, T.

S. Kawata, Y. Inouye, and T. Ichimura, “Near-field optics and spectroscopy for molecular nano-imaging,” Sci. Prog. 87(1), 25–49 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Inouye, Y.

S. Kawata, Y. Inouye, and T. Ichimura, “Near-field optics and spectroscopy for molecular nano-imaging,” Sci. Prog. 87(1), 25–49 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ito, Y.

K. Takeda, Y. Ito, and C. Munakata, “Simultaneous measurement of size and refractive index of a fine particle in flowing liquid,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 3(1), 27–32 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Iyoki, M.

Y. Saito, M. Motohashi, N. Hayazawa, M. Iyoki, and S. Kawata, “Nanoscale characterization of strained silicon by tip-enhanced Raman spectroscope in reflection mode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(14), 143109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jia, B.

B. Jia, X. Gan, and M. Gu, “Direct observation of a pure focused evanescent field of a high numerical aperture objective lens by scanning near-field optical microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(13), 131110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kawata, S.

Y. Saito, M. Motohashi, N. Hayazawa, M. Iyoki, and S. Kawata, “Nanoscale characterization of strained silicon by tip-enhanced Raman spectroscope in reflection mode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(14), 143109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Kawata, Y. Inouye, and T. Ichimura, “Near-field optics and spectroscopy for molecular nano-imaging,” Sci. Prog. 87(1), 25–49 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kesari, S.

Krishnamachari, V. V.

Lee, L. F.

R. D. Schaller, J. Ziegelbauer, L. F. Lee, L. H. Haber, and R. J. Saykally, “Chemically selective imaging of subcellular structure in human hepatocytes with coherent anti-stokes Raman scattering (CARS) near-field scanning optical microscopy (NSOM),” J. Phys. Chem. B 106(34), 8489–8492 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lenne, P. F.

Leuchs, G.

R. Dorn, S. Quabis, and G. Leuchs, “Sharper focus for a radially polarized light beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(23), 233901 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lin, J.

Liu, C.

Lu, F.

Lukyanchuk, B.

H. Wang, L. Shi, B. Lukyanchuk, C. Sheppard, and C. T. Chong, “Creation of a needle of longitudinally polarized light in vacuum using binary optics,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 501–505 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Motohashi, M.

Y. Saito, M. Motohashi, N. Hayazawa, M. Iyoki, and S. Kawata, “Nanoscale characterization of strained silicon by tip-enhanced Raman spectroscope in reflection mode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(14), 143109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Munakata, C.

K. Takeda, Y. Ito, and C. Munakata, “Simultaneous measurement of size and refractive index of a fine particle in flowing liquid,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 3(1), 27–32 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Nan, X.

X. Nan, E. O. Potma, and X. S. Xie, “Nonperturbative chemical imaging of organelle transport in living cells with coherent anti-stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” Biophys. J. 91(2), 728–735 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Novotny, L.

L. Novotny, M. R. Beversluis, K. S. Youngworth, and T. G. Brown, “Longitudinal field modes probed by single molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(23), 5251–5254 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Potma, E. O.

V. V. Krishnamachari and E. O. Potma, “Focus-engineered coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy: a numerical investigation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24(4), 1138–1147 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. Nan, E. O. Potma, and X. S. Xie, “Nonperturbative chemical imaging of organelle transport in living cells with coherent anti-stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” Biophys. J. 91(2), 728–735 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Quabis, S.

R. Dorn, S. Quabis, and G. Leuchs, “Sharper focus for a radially polarized light beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(23), 233901 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Richards, B.

B. Richards and E. Wolf, “Electromagnetic diffraction in optical systems. II. Structure of the image field in an aplanatic system,” Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A Math. Phys. Sci. 253(1274), 358–379 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Rigneault, H.

Ryosuke, K.

Saito, Y.

Y. Saito, M. Motohashi, N. Hayazawa, M. Iyoki, and S. Kawata, “Nanoscale characterization of strained silicon by tip-enhanced Raman spectroscope in reflection mode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(14), 143109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sandeau, N.

Saykally, R. J.

R. D. Schaller, J. Ziegelbauer, L. F. Lee, L. H. Haber, and R. J. Saykally, “Chemically selective imaging of subcellular structure in human hepatocytes with coherent anti-stokes Raman scattering (CARS) near-field scanning optical microscopy (NSOM),” J. Phys. Chem. B 106(34), 8489–8492 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Schaller, R. D.

R. D. Schaller, J. Ziegelbauer, L. F. Lee, L. H. Haber, and R. J. Saykally, “Chemically selective imaging of subcellular structure in human hepatocytes with coherent anti-stokes Raman scattering (CARS) near-field scanning optical microscopy (NSOM),” J. Phys. Chem. B 106(34), 8489–8492 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sheppard, C.

Shi, L.

H. Wang, L. Shi, B. Lukyanchuk, C. Sheppard, and C. T. Chong, “Creation of a needle of longitudinally polarized light in vacuum using binary optics,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 501–505 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Takeda, K.

K. Takeda, Y. Ito, and C. Munakata, “Simultaneous measurement of size and refractive index of a fine particle in flowing liquid,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 3(1), 27–32 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Volkmer, A.

A. Volkmer, “Vibrational imaging and microspectroscopies based on coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 38(5), R59–R81 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wang, H.

J. Lin, H. Wang, W. Zheng, F. Lu, C. Sheppard, and Z. Huang, “Numerical study of effects of light polarization, scatterer sizes and orientations on near-field coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” Opt. Express 17(4), 2423–2434 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Wang, L. Shi, B. Lukyanchuk, C. Sheppard, and C. T. Chong, “Creation of a needle of longitudinally polarized light in vacuum using binary optics,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 501–505 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wolf, E.

B. Richards and E. Wolf, “Electromagnetic diffraction in optical systems. II. Structure of the image field in an aplanatic system,” Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A Math. Phys. Sci. 253(1274), 358–379 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Wong, S. T. C.

Xie, X. S.

C. L. Evans, X. Xu, S. Kesari, X. S. Xie, S. T. C. Wong, and G. S. Young, “Chemically-selective imaging of brain structures with CARS microscopy,” Opt. Express 15(19), 12076–12087 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. Nan, E. O. Potma, and X. S. Xie, “Nonperturbative chemical imaging of organelle transport in living cells with coherent anti-stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” Biophys. J. 91(2), 728–735 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. X. Cheng and X. S. Xie, “Green’s function formulation for third-harmonic generation microscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19(7), 1604–1610 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Zumbusch, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Three-dimensional vibrational imaging by coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(20), 4142–4145 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Xu, X.

Yang, S.

S. Yang and Q. Zhan, “Third-harmonic generation microscopy with tightly focused radial polarization,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 10(12), 125103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yee, K. S.

K. S. Yee, “Numerical solution of initial boundary value problem involving Maxwell equations in isotropic media,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 14(3), 302–307 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Yoshiki, K.

Young, G. S.

Youngworth, K. S.

L. Novotny, M. R. Beversluis, K. S. Youngworth, and T. G. Brown, “Longitudinal field modes probed by single molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(23), 5251–5254 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zhan, Q.

S. Yang and Q. Zhan, “Third-harmonic generation microscopy with tightly focused radial polarization,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 10(12), 125103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, W.

Ziegelbauer, J.

R. D. Schaller, J. Ziegelbauer, L. F. Lee, L. H. Haber, and R. J. Saykally, “Chemically selective imaging of subcellular structure in human hepatocytes with coherent anti-stokes Raman scattering (CARS) near-field scanning optical microscopy (NSOM),” J. Phys. Chem. B 106(34), 8489–8492 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zumbusch, A.

A. Zumbusch, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Three-dimensional vibrational imaging by coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(20), 4142–4145 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

Y. Saito, M. Motohashi, N. Hayazawa, M. Iyoki, and S. Kawata, “Nanoscale characterization of strained silicon by tip-enhanced Raman spectroscope in reflection mode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(14), 143109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Lu, W. Zheng, and Z. Huang, “Heterodyne polarization coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(12), 123901 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Jia, X. Gan, and M. Gu, “Direct observation of a pure focused evanescent field of a high numerical aperture objective lens by scanning near-field optical microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(13), 131110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Biophys. J.

X. Nan, E. O. Potma, and X. S. Xie, “Nonperturbative chemical imaging of organelle transport in living cells with coherent anti-stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” Biophys. J. 91(2), 728–735 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag.

K. S. Yee, “Numerical solution of initial boundary value problem involving Maxwell equations in isotropic media,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 14(3), 302–307 (1966).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt.

S. Yang and Q. Zhan, “Third-harmonic generation microscopy with tightly focused radial polarization,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 10(12), 125103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

J. Phys. Chem. B

R. D. Schaller, J. Ziegelbauer, L. F. Lee, L. H. Haber, and R. J. Saykally, “Chemically selective imaging of subcellular structure in human hepatocytes with coherent anti-stokes Raman scattering (CARS) near-field scanning optical microscopy (NSOM),” J. Phys. Chem. B 106(34), 8489–8492 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.

A. Volkmer, “Vibrational imaging and microspectroscopies based on coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 38(5), R59–R81 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Meas. Sci. Technol.

K. Takeda, Y. Ito, and C. Munakata, “Simultaneous measurement of size and refractive index of a fine particle in flowing liquid,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 3(1), 27–32 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics

H. Wang, L. Shi, B. Lukyanchuk, C. Sheppard, and C. T. Chong, “Creation of a needle of longitudinally polarized light in vacuum using binary optics,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 501–505 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. Lett.

R. Dorn, S. Quabis, and G. Leuchs, “Sharper focus for a radially polarized light beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(23), 233901 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. Novotny, M. R. Beversluis, K. S. Youngworth, and T. G. Brown, “Longitudinal field modes probed by single molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(23), 5251–5254 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Zumbusch, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Three-dimensional vibrational imaging by coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(20), 4142–4145 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A Math. Phys. Sci.

B. Richards and E. Wolf, “Electromagnetic diffraction in optical systems. II. Structure of the image field in an aplanatic system,” Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A Math. Phys. Sci. 253(1274), 358–379 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Rep. Prog. Phys.

D. Courjon and C. Bainier, “Near field microscopy and near field optics,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 57(10), 989–1028 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Sci. Prog.

S. Kawata, Y. Inouye, and T. Ichimura, “Near-field optics and spectroscopy for molecular nano-imaging,” Sci. Prog. 87(1), 25–49 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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