Abstract

In this paper we present a photon number resolving detector at infrared wavelengths, operating at room temperature and with a large dynamic range. It is based on the up-conversion of a signal at 1559 nm into visible wavelength and on its detection by a thermoelectrically cooled multi-pixel silicon avalanche photodiodode, also known as a Silicon Photon Multiplier. With the appropriate up-conversion this scheme can be implemented for arbitrary wavelengths above the visible spectral window. The preservation of the poissonian statistics when detecting coherent states is studied and the cross-talk effects on the detected signal can be easily estimated in order to calibrate the detector. This system is well suited for measuring very low intensities at infrared wavelengths and for analyzing multiphoton quantum states.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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2010 (1)

M. Avenhaus, K. Laiho, M. V. Chekhova, and C. Silberhorn, “Accessing higher order correlations in quantum optical states by time multiplexing,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 063602 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (9)

P. Sekatski, N. Brunner, C. Branciard, N. Gisin, and C. Simon, “Towards quantum experiments with human eyes as detectors based on cloning via stimulated emission,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 113601 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. H. Hadfield, “Single-photon detectors for optical quantum information applications,” Nat. Photonics 3, 696–705 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Fukuda, G. Fujii, T. Numata, A. Yoshizawa, H. Tsuchida, H. Fujino, H. Ishii, T. Itatani, S. Inoue, and T. Zama, “Photon number resolving detection with high speed and high quantum efficiency,” Metrologia 46, 288–292 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhang, R. Thew, C. Barreiro, and H. Zbinden, “Practical fast gate rate ingaas/inp single-photon avalanche photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 091103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Feito, J. S. Lundeen, H. Coldenstrodt-Ronge, J. Eisert, M. B. Plenio, and I. A. Walmsley, “Measuring measurement: theory and practice,” N. J. Phys. 11, 093038 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Vinogradov, T. Vinogradova, V. Shubin, D. Shushakov, and K. Sitarsky, “Probability distribution and noise factor of solid state photomultiplier signals with cross-talk and afterpulsing,” IEEE Nucl. Sc. Symp. Conf. Rec. 25, 111 (2009).

M. Akiba, K. Tsujino, K. Sato, and M. Sasaki, “Multipixel silicon avalanche photodiode with ultralow dark count rate at liquid nitrogen temperature,” Opt. Express 17, 16885–16897 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Wu, Y. Jian, E. Wu, and H. Zeng, “Photon-number-resolving detection based on ingaas/inp avalanche photodiode in the sub-saturated mode,” Opt. Express 17, 18782–18787 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X. Hu, T. Zhong, J. E. White, E. A. Dauler, F. Najafi, C. H. Herder, F. N. C. Wong, and K. K. Berggren, “Fiber coupled nanowire photon counter at 1550 nm with 24% system detection efficiency,” Opt. Lett. 34, 3607–3609 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (7)

D. Fukuda, G. Fujii, A. Yoshizawa, H. Tsuchida, R. Damayanthi, H. Takahashi, S. Inoue, and M. Ohkubo, “High speed photon number resolving detector with titanium transition edge sensor,” J. Low Temp. Phys. 151, 100–105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

I. Rech, A. Ingargiola, R. Spinelli, I. Labanca, S. Marangoni, M. Ghioni, and S. Cova, “Optical crosstalk in single photon avalanche diode arrays: a new complete model,” Opt. Express 16, 8381–8394 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Divochiy, F. Marsili, D. Bitauld, A. Gaggero, R. Leoni, F. Mattioli, A. Korneev, V. Seleznev, N. Kaurova, O. Minaeva, G. Gol’tsman, K. G. Lagoudakis, M. Benkhaoul, F. Levy, and A. Fiore, “Superconducting nanowire photon-number-resolving detector at telecommunication wavelengths,” Nat. Photonics 2, 302–306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. E. Kardynal, Z. L. Yuan, and A. J. Shields, “An avalanche-photodiode-based photon-number-resolving detector,” Nat. Photonics 2, 425–428 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. T. Thew, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Tunable upconversion photon detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 071104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Welsher, Z. Liu, D. Daranciang, and H. Dai, “Selective probing and imaging of cells with single walled carbon nanotubes as near-infrared fluorescent molecules,” Nano Lett. 8, 586–590 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Kondepati, H. Heise, and J. Backhaus, “Recent applications of near-infrared spectroscopy in cancer diagnosis and therapy,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 390, 125–139 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

2006 (4)

2005 (2)

G. Zambra, A. Andreoni, M. Bondani, M. Gramegna, M. Genovese, G. Brida, A. Rossi, and M. G. A. Paris, “Experimental reconstruction of photon statistics without photon counting,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 063602 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Rosenberg, A. E. Lita, A. J. Miller, and S. W. Nam, “Noise-free high-efficiency photon-number-resolving detectors,” Phys. Rev. A 71, 061803 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

2003 (1)

J. ?ehá?ek, Z. Hradil, O. Haderka, J. Pe?ina, and M. Hamar, “Multiple-photon resolving fiber-loop detector,” Phys. Rev. A 67, 061801 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

F. Scholder, J. Gautier, M. Wegmuller, and N. Gisin, “Long-distance OTDR using photon counting and large detection gates at telecom wavelength,” Opt. Commun. 213, 57–61 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Aellen, T.

Akiba, M.

Andreoni, A.

G. Zambra, A. Andreoni, M. Bondani, M. Gramegna, M. Genovese, G. Brida, A. Rossi, and M. G. A. Paris, “Experimental reconstruction of photon statistics without photon counting,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 063602 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Avenhaus, M.

M. Avenhaus, K. Laiho, M. V. Chekhova, and C. Silberhorn, “Accessing higher order correlations in quantum optical states by time multiplexing,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 063602 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Backhaus, J.

V. Kondepati, H. Heise, and J. Backhaus, “Recent applications of near-infrared spectroscopy in cancer diagnosis and therapy,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 390, 125–139 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Barreiro, C.

J. Zhang, R. Thew, C. Barreiro, and H. Zbinden, “Practical fast gate rate ingaas/inp single-photon avalanche photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 091103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Barth, A.

A. Barth, “Infrared spectroscopy of proteins,” Biotech. Biophys. Acta 1767, 1073–1101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Benkhaoul, M.

A. Divochiy, F. Marsili, D. Bitauld, A. Gaggero, R. Leoni, F. Mattioli, A. Korneev, V. Seleznev, N. Kaurova, O. Minaeva, G. Gol’tsman, K. G. Lagoudakis, M. Benkhaoul, F. Levy, and A. Fiore, “Superconducting nanowire photon-number-resolving detector at telecommunication wavelengths,” Nat. Photonics 2, 302–306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Berggren, K. K.

Bitauld, D.

A. Divochiy, F. Marsili, D. Bitauld, A. Gaggero, R. Leoni, F. Mattioli, A. Korneev, V. Seleznev, N. Kaurova, O. Minaeva, G. Gol’tsman, K. G. Lagoudakis, M. Benkhaoul, F. Levy, and A. Fiore, “Superconducting nanowire photon-number-resolving detector at telecommunication wavelengths,” Nat. Photonics 2, 302–306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bondani, M.

G. Zambra, A. Andreoni, M. Bondani, M. Gramegna, M. Genovese, G. Brida, A. Rossi, and M. G. A. Paris, “Experimental reconstruction of photon statistics without photon counting,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 063602 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Branciard, C.

P. Sekatski, N. Brunner, C. Branciard, N. Gisin, and C. Simon, “Towards quantum experiments with human eyes as detectors based on cloning via stimulated emission,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 113601 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brida, G.

G. Zambra, A. Andreoni, M. Bondani, M. Gramegna, M. Genovese, G. Brida, A. Rossi, and M. G. A. Paris, “Experimental reconstruction of photon statistics without photon counting,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 063602 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brunner, N.

P. Sekatski, N. Brunner, C. Branciard, N. Gisin, and C. Simon, “Towards quantum experiments with human eyes as detectors based on cloning via stimulated emission,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 113601 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chekhova, M. V.

M. Avenhaus, K. Laiho, M. V. Chekhova, and C. Silberhorn, “Accessing higher order correlations in quantum optical states by time multiplexing,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 063602 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Coldenstrodt-Ronge, H.

A. Feito, J. S. Lundeen, H. Coldenstrodt-Ronge, J. Eisert, M. B. Plenio, and I. A. Walmsley, “Measuring measurement: theory and practice,” N. J. Phys. 11, 093038 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cova, S.

I. Rech, A. Ingargiola, R. Spinelli, I. Labanca, S. Marangoni, M. Ghioni, and S. Cova, “Optical crosstalk in single photon avalanche diode arrays: a new complete model,” Opt. Express 16, 8381–8394 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Thew, S. Tanzilli, L. Krainer, S. C. Zeller, A. Rochas, I. Rech, S. Cova, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Low jitter up-conversion detectors for telecom wavelength GHz QKD,” N. J. Phys. 8, 32 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dai, H.

K. Welsher, Z. Liu, D. Daranciang, and H. Dai, “Selective probing and imaging of cells with single walled carbon nanotubes as near-infrared fluorescent molecules,” Nano Lett. 8, 586–590 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Damayanthi, R.

D. Fukuda, G. Fujii, A. Yoshizawa, H. Tsuchida, R. Damayanthi, H. Takahashi, S. Inoue, and M. Ohkubo, “High speed photon number resolving detector with titanium transition edge sensor,” J. Low Temp. Phys. 151, 100–105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Daranciang, D.

K. Welsher, Z. Liu, D. Daranciang, and H. Dai, “Selective probing and imaging of cells with single walled carbon nanotubes as near-infrared fluorescent molecules,” Nano Lett. 8, 586–590 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dauler, E. A.

Diamanti, E.

Divochiy, A.

A. Divochiy, F. Marsili, D. Bitauld, A. Gaggero, R. Leoni, F. Mattioli, A. Korneev, V. Seleznev, N. Kaurova, O. Minaeva, G. Gol’tsman, K. G. Lagoudakis, M. Benkhaoul, F. Levy, and A. Fiore, “Superconducting nanowire photon-number-resolving detector at telecommunication wavelengths,” Nat. Photonics 2, 302–306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Eisert, J.

A. Feito, J. S. Lundeen, H. Coldenstrodt-Ronge, J. Eisert, M. B. Plenio, and I. A. Walmsley, “Measuring measurement: theory and practice,” N. J. Phys. 11, 093038 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Eraerds, P.

Faist, J.

Feito, A.

A. Feito, J. S. Lundeen, H. Coldenstrodt-Ronge, J. Eisert, M. B. Plenio, and I. A. Walmsley, “Measuring measurement: theory and practice,” N. J. Phys. 11, 093038 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fejer, M. M.

Fiore, A.

A. Divochiy, F. Marsili, D. Bitauld, A. Gaggero, R. Leoni, F. Mattioli, A. Korneev, V. Seleznev, N. Kaurova, O. Minaeva, G. Gol’tsman, K. G. Lagoudakis, M. Benkhaoul, F. Levy, and A. Fiore, “Superconducting nanowire photon-number-resolving detector at telecommunication wavelengths,” Nat. Photonics 2, 302–306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fujii, G.

D. Fukuda, G. Fujii, T. Numata, A. Yoshizawa, H. Tsuchida, H. Fujino, H. Ishii, T. Itatani, S. Inoue, and T. Zama, “Photon number resolving detection with high speed and high quantum efficiency,” Metrologia 46, 288–292 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Fukuda, G. Fujii, A. Yoshizawa, H. Tsuchida, R. Damayanthi, H. Takahashi, S. Inoue, and M. Ohkubo, “High speed photon number resolving detector with titanium transition edge sensor,” J. Low Temp. Phys. 151, 100–105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fujino, H.

D. Fukuda, G. Fujii, T. Numata, A. Yoshizawa, H. Tsuchida, H. Fujino, H. Ishii, T. Itatani, S. Inoue, and T. Zama, “Photon number resolving detection with high speed and high quantum efficiency,” Metrologia 46, 288–292 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fujiwara, M.

Fukuda, D.

D. Fukuda, G. Fujii, T. Numata, A. Yoshizawa, H. Tsuchida, H. Fujino, H. Ishii, T. Itatani, S. Inoue, and T. Zama, “Photon number resolving detection with high speed and high quantum efficiency,” Metrologia 46, 288–292 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Fukuda, G. Fujii, A. Yoshizawa, H. Tsuchida, R. Damayanthi, H. Takahashi, S. Inoue, and M. Ohkubo, “High speed photon number resolving detector with titanium transition edge sensor,” J. Low Temp. Phys. 151, 100–105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gaggero, A.

A. Divochiy, F. Marsili, D. Bitauld, A. Gaggero, R. Leoni, F. Mattioli, A. Korneev, V. Seleznev, N. Kaurova, O. Minaeva, G. Gol’tsman, K. G. Lagoudakis, M. Benkhaoul, F. Levy, and A. Fiore, “Superconducting nanowire photon-number-resolving detector at telecommunication wavelengths,” Nat. Photonics 2, 302–306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gautier, J.

F. Scholder, J. Gautier, M. Wegmuller, and N. Gisin, “Long-distance OTDR using photon counting and large detection gates at telecom wavelength,” Opt. Commun. 213, 57–61 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Genovese, M.

G. Zambra, A. Andreoni, M. Bondani, M. Gramegna, M. Genovese, G. Brida, A. Rossi, and M. G. A. Paris, “Experimental reconstruction of photon statistics without photon counting,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 063602 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ghioni, M.

Giovannini, M.

Gisin, N.

P. Sekatski, N. Brunner, C. Branciard, N. Gisin, and C. Simon, “Towards quantum experiments with human eyes as detectors based on cloning via stimulated emission,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 113601 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. T. Thew, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Tunable upconversion photon detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 071104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Eraerds, M. Legré, A. Rochas, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “SiPM for fast photon-counting and multiphoton detection,” Opt. Express 15, 14539–14549 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Temporão, S. Tanzilli, H. Zbinden, N. Gisin, T. Aellen, M. Giovannini, and J. Faist, “Mid-infrared single photon counting,” Opt. Lett. 31, 1094–1096 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Thew, S. Tanzilli, L. Krainer, S. C. Zeller, A. Rochas, I. Rech, S. Cova, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Low jitter up-conversion detectors for telecom wavelength GHz QKD,” N. J. Phys. 8, 32 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Scholder, J. Gautier, M. Wegmuller, and N. Gisin, “Long-distance OTDR using photon counting and large detection gates at telecom wavelength,” Opt. Commun. 213, 57–61 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gol’tsman, G.

A. Divochiy, F. Marsili, D. Bitauld, A. Gaggero, R. Leoni, F. Mattioli, A. Korneev, V. Seleznev, N. Kaurova, O. Minaeva, G. Gol’tsman, K. G. Lagoudakis, M. Benkhaoul, F. Levy, and A. Fiore, “Superconducting nanowire photon-number-resolving detector at telecommunication wavelengths,” Nat. Photonics 2, 302–306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gramegna, M.

G. Zambra, A. Andreoni, M. Bondani, M. Gramegna, M. Genovese, G. Brida, A. Rossi, and M. G. A. Paris, “Experimental reconstruction of photon statistics without photon counting,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 063602 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haderka, O.

J. ?ehá?ek, Z. Hradil, O. Haderka, J. Pe?ina, and M. Hamar, “Multiple-photon resolving fiber-loop detector,” Phys. Rev. A 67, 061801 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hadfield, R. H.

R. H. Hadfield, “Single-photon detectors for optical quantum information applications,” Nat. Photonics 3, 696–705 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hamar, M.

J. ?ehá?ek, Z. Hradil, O. Haderka, J. Pe?ina, and M. Hamar, “Multiple-photon resolving fiber-loop detector,” Phys. Rev. A 67, 061801 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Heise, H.

V. Kondepati, H. Heise, and J. Backhaus, “Recent applications of near-infrared spectroscopy in cancer diagnosis and therapy,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 390, 125–139 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Herder, C. H.

Hradil, Z.

J. ?ehá?ek, Z. Hradil, O. Haderka, J. Pe?ina, and M. Hamar, “Multiple-photon resolving fiber-loop detector,” Phys. Rev. A 67, 061801 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hu, X.

Ingargiola, A.

Inoue, S.

D. Fukuda, G. Fujii, T. Numata, A. Yoshizawa, H. Tsuchida, H. Fujino, H. Ishii, T. Itatani, S. Inoue, and T. Zama, “Photon number resolving detection with high speed and high quantum efficiency,” Metrologia 46, 288–292 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Fukuda, G. Fujii, A. Yoshizawa, H. Tsuchida, R. Damayanthi, H. Takahashi, S. Inoue, and M. Ohkubo, “High speed photon number resolving detector with titanium transition edge sensor,” J. Low Temp. Phys. 151, 100–105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ishii, H.

D. Fukuda, G. Fujii, T. Numata, A. Yoshizawa, H. Tsuchida, H. Fujino, H. Ishii, T. Itatani, S. Inoue, and T. Zama, “Photon number resolving detection with high speed and high quantum efficiency,” Metrologia 46, 288–292 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Itatani, T.

D. Fukuda, G. Fujii, T. Numata, A. Yoshizawa, H. Tsuchida, H. Fujino, H. Ishii, T. Itatani, S. Inoue, and T. Zama, “Photon number resolving detection with high speed and high quantum efficiency,” Metrologia 46, 288–292 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jian, Y.

Kardynal, B. E.

B. E. Kardynal, Z. L. Yuan, and A. J. Shields, “An avalanche-photodiode-based photon-number-resolving detector,” Nat. Photonics 2, 425–428 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kaurova, N.

A. Divochiy, F. Marsili, D. Bitauld, A. Gaggero, R. Leoni, F. Mattioli, A. Korneev, V. Seleznev, N. Kaurova, O. Minaeva, G. Gol’tsman, K. G. Lagoudakis, M. Benkhaoul, F. Levy, and A. Fiore, “Superconducting nanowire photon-number-resolving detector at telecommunication wavelengths,” Nat. Photonics 2, 302–306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kondepati, V.

V. Kondepati, H. Heise, and J. Backhaus, “Recent applications of near-infrared spectroscopy in cancer diagnosis and therapy,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 390, 125–139 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Korneev, A.

A. Divochiy, F. Marsili, D. Bitauld, A. Gaggero, R. Leoni, F. Mattioli, A. Korneev, V. Seleznev, N. Kaurova, O. Minaeva, G. Gol’tsman, K. G. Lagoudakis, M. Benkhaoul, F. Levy, and A. Fiore, “Superconducting nanowire photon-number-resolving detector at telecommunication wavelengths,” Nat. Photonics 2, 302–306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Krainer, L.

R. Thew, S. Tanzilli, L. Krainer, S. C. Zeller, A. Rochas, I. Rech, S. Cova, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Low jitter up-conversion detectors for telecom wavelength GHz QKD,” N. J. Phys. 8, 32 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kurz, J. R.

Labanca, I.

Lagoudakis, K. G.

A. Divochiy, F. Marsili, D. Bitauld, A. Gaggero, R. Leoni, F. Mattioli, A. Korneev, V. Seleznev, N. Kaurova, O. Minaeva, G. Gol’tsman, K. G. Lagoudakis, M. Benkhaoul, F. Levy, and A. Fiore, “Superconducting nanowire photon-number-resolving detector at telecommunication wavelengths,” Nat. Photonics 2, 302–306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Laiho, K.

M. Avenhaus, K. Laiho, M. V. Chekhova, and C. Silberhorn, “Accessing higher order correlations in quantum optical states by time multiplexing,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 063602 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Langrock, C.

Legré, M.

Leoni, R.

A. Divochiy, F. Marsili, D. Bitauld, A. Gaggero, R. Leoni, F. Mattioli, A. Korneev, V. Seleznev, N. Kaurova, O. Minaeva, G. Gol’tsman, K. G. Lagoudakis, M. Benkhaoul, F. Levy, and A. Fiore, “Superconducting nanowire photon-number-resolving detector at telecommunication wavelengths,” Nat. Photonics 2, 302–306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Levy, F.

A. Divochiy, F. Marsili, D. Bitauld, A. Gaggero, R. Leoni, F. Mattioli, A. Korneev, V. Seleznev, N. Kaurova, O. Minaeva, G. Gol’tsman, K. G. Lagoudakis, M. Benkhaoul, F. Levy, and A. Fiore, “Superconducting nanowire photon-number-resolving detector at telecommunication wavelengths,” Nat. Photonics 2, 302–306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lita, A. E.

D. Rosenberg, A. E. Lita, A. J. Miller, and S. W. Nam, “Noise-free high-efficiency photon-number-resolving detectors,” Phys. Rev. A 71, 061803 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Z.

K. Welsher, Z. Liu, D. Daranciang, and H. Dai, “Selective probing and imaging of cells with single walled carbon nanotubes as near-infrared fluorescent molecules,” Nano Lett. 8, 586–590 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lundeen, J. S.

A. Feito, J. S. Lundeen, H. Coldenstrodt-Ronge, J. Eisert, M. B. Plenio, and I. A. Walmsley, “Measuring measurement: theory and practice,” N. J. Phys. 11, 093038 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Marangoni, S.

Marsili, F.

A. Divochiy, F. Marsili, D. Bitauld, A. Gaggero, R. Leoni, F. Mattioli, A. Korneev, V. Seleznev, N. Kaurova, O. Minaeva, G. Gol’tsman, K. G. Lagoudakis, M. Benkhaoul, F. Levy, and A. Fiore, “Superconducting nanowire photon-number-resolving detector at telecommunication wavelengths,” Nat. Photonics 2, 302–306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mattioli, F.

A. Divochiy, F. Marsili, D. Bitauld, A. Gaggero, R. Leoni, F. Mattioli, A. Korneev, V. Seleznev, N. Kaurova, O. Minaeva, G. Gol’tsman, K. G. Lagoudakis, M. Benkhaoul, F. Levy, and A. Fiore, “Superconducting nanowire photon-number-resolving detector at telecommunication wavelengths,” Nat. Photonics 2, 302–306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Miller, A. J.

D. Rosenberg, A. E. Lita, A. J. Miller, and S. W. Nam, “Noise-free high-efficiency photon-number-resolving detectors,” Phys. Rev. A 71, 061803 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Minaeva, O.

A. Divochiy, F. Marsili, D. Bitauld, A. Gaggero, R. Leoni, F. Mattioli, A. Korneev, V. Seleznev, N. Kaurova, O. Minaeva, G. Gol’tsman, K. G. Lagoudakis, M. Benkhaoul, F. Levy, and A. Fiore, “Superconducting nanowire photon-number-resolving detector at telecommunication wavelengths,” Nat. Photonics 2, 302–306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Najafi, F.

Nam, S. W.

D. Rosenberg, A. E. Lita, A. J. Miller, and S. W. Nam, “Noise-free high-efficiency photon-number-resolving detectors,” Phys. Rev. A 71, 061803 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Numata, T.

D. Fukuda, G. Fujii, T. Numata, A. Yoshizawa, H. Tsuchida, H. Fujino, H. Ishii, T. Itatani, S. Inoue, and T. Zama, “Photon number resolving detection with high speed and high quantum efficiency,” Metrologia 46, 288–292 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ohkubo, M.

D. Fukuda, G. Fujii, A. Yoshizawa, H. Tsuchida, R. Damayanthi, H. Takahashi, S. Inoue, and M. Ohkubo, “High speed photon number resolving detector with titanium transition edge sensor,” J. Low Temp. Phys. 151, 100–105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Paris, M. G. A.

G. Zambra, A. Andreoni, M. Bondani, M. Gramegna, M. Genovese, G. Brida, A. Rossi, and M. G. A. Paris, “Experimental reconstruction of photon statistics without photon counting,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 063602 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Perina, J.

J. ?ehá?ek, Z. Hradil, O. Haderka, J. Pe?ina, and M. Hamar, “Multiple-photon resolving fiber-loop detector,” Phys. Rev. A 67, 061801 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Plenio, M. B.

A. Feito, J. S. Lundeen, H. Coldenstrodt-Ronge, J. Eisert, M. B. Plenio, and I. A. Walmsley, “Measuring measurement: theory and practice,” N. J. Phys. 11, 093038 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rech, I.

I. Rech, A. Ingargiola, R. Spinelli, I. Labanca, S. Marangoni, M. Ghioni, and S. Cova, “Optical crosstalk in single photon avalanche diode arrays: a new complete model,” Opt. Express 16, 8381–8394 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Thew, S. Tanzilli, L. Krainer, S. C. Zeller, A. Rochas, I. Rech, S. Cova, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Low jitter up-conversion detectors for telecom wavelength GHz QKD,” N. J. Phys. 8, 32 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rehácek, J.

J. ?ehá?ek, Z. Hradil, O. Haderka, J. Pe?ina, and M. Hamar, “Multiple-photon resolving fiber-loop detector,” Phys. Rev. A 67, 061801 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rochas, A.

P. Eraerds, M. Legré, A. Rochas, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “SiPM for fast photon-counting and multiphoton detection,” Opt. Express 15, 14539–14549 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Thew, S. Tanzilli, L. Krainer, S. C. Zeller, A. Rochas, I. Rech, S. Cova, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Low jitter up-conversion detectors for telecom wavelength GHz QKD,” N. J. Phys. 8, 32 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rosenberg, D.

D. Rosenberg, A. E. Lita, A. J. Miller, and S. W. Nam, “Noise-free high-efficiency photon-number-resolving detectors,” Phys. Rev. A 71, 061803 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rossi, A.

G. Zambra, A. Andreoni, M. Bondani, M. Gramegna, M. Genovese, G. Brida, A. Rossi, and M. G. A. Paris, “Experimental reconstruction of photon statistics without photon counting,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 063602 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roussev, R. V.

Sasaki, M.

Sato, K.

Scholder, F.

F. Scholder, J. Gautier, M. Wegmuller, and N. Gisin, “Long-distance OTDR using photon counting and large detection gates at telecom wavelength,” Opt. Commun. 213, 57–61 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sekatski, P.

P. Sekatski, N. Brunner, C. Branciard, N. Gisin, and C. Simon, “Towards quantum experiments with human eyes as detectors based on cloning via stimulated emission,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 113601 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Seleznev, V.

A. Divochiy, F. Marsili, D. Bitauld, A. Gaggero, R. Leoni, F. Mattioli, A. Korneev, V. Seleznev, N. Kaurova, O. Minaeva, G. Gol’tsman, K. G. Lagoudakis, M. Benkhaoul, F. Levy, and A. Fiore, “Superconducting nanowire photon-number-resolving detector at telecommunication wavelengths,” Nat. Photonics 2, 302–306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shields, A. J.

B. E. Kardynal, Z. L. Yuan, and A. J. Shields, “An avalanche-photodiode-based photon-number-resolving detector,” Nat. Photonics 2, 425–428 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shubin, V.

S. Vinogradov, T. Vinogradova, V. Shubin, D. Shushakov, and K. Sitarsky, “Probability distribution and noise factor of solid state photomultiplier signals with cross-talk and afterpulsing,” IEEE Nucl. Sc. Symp. Conf. Rec. 25, 111 (2009).

Shushakov, D.

S. Vinogradov, T. Vinogradova, V. Shubin, D. Shushakov, and K. Sitarsky, “Probability distribution and noise factor of solid state photomultiplier signals with cross-talk and afterpulsing,” IEEE Nucl. Sc. Symp. Conf. Rec. 25, 111 (2009).

Silberhorn, C.

M. Avenhaus, K. Laiho, M. V. Chekhova, and C. Silberhorn, “Accessing higher order correlations in quantum optical states by time multiplexing,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 063602 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Simon, C.

P. Sekatski, N. Brunner, C. Branciard, N. Gisin, and C. Simon, “Towards quantum experiments with human eyes as detectors based on cloning via stimulated emission,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 113601 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sitarsky, K.

S. Vinogradov, T. Vinogradova, V. Shubin, D. Shushakov, and K. Sitarsky, “Probability distribution and noise factor of solid state photomultiplier signals with cross-talk and afterpulsing,” IEEE Nucl. Sc. Symp. Conf. Rec. 25, 111 (2009).

Spinelli, R.

Takahashi, H.

D. Fukuda, G. Fujii, A. Yoshizawa, H. Tsuchida, R. Damayanthi, H. Takahashi, S. Inoue, and M. Ohkubo, “High speed photon number resolving detector with titanium transition edge sensor,” J. Low Temp. Phys. 151, 100–105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Takesue, H.

Tanzilli, S.

G. Temporão, S. Tanzilli, H. Zbinden, N. Gisin, T. Aellen, M. Giovannini, and J. Faist, “Mid-infrared single photon counting,” Opt. Lett. 31, 1094–1096 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Thew, S. Tanzilli, L. Krainer, S. C. Zeller, A. Rochas, I. Rech, S. Cova, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Low jitter up-conversion detectors for telecom wavelength GHz QKD,” N. J. Phys. 8, 32 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Temporão, G.

Thew, R.

J. Zhang, R. Thew, C. Barreiro, and H. Zbinden, “Practical fast gate rate ingaas/inp single-photon avalanche photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 091103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Thew, S. Tanzilli, L. Krainer, S. C. Zeller, A. Rochas, I. Rech, S. Cova, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Low jitter up-conversion detectors for telecom wavelength GHz QKD,” N. J. Phys. 8, 32 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Thew, R. T.

R. T. Thew, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Tunable upconversion photon detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 071104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tsuchida, H.

D. Fukuda, G. Fujii, T. Numata, A. Yoshizawa, H. Tsuchida, H. Fujino, H. Ishii, T. Itatani, S. Inoue, and T. Zama, “Photon number resolving detection with high speed and high quantum efficiency,” Metrologia 46, 288–292 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Fukuda, G. Fujii, A. Yoshizawa, H. Tsuchida, R. Damayanthi, H. Takahashi, S. Inoue, and M. Ohkubo, “High speed photon number resolving detector with titanium transition edge sensor,” J. Low Temp. Phys. 151, 100–105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tsujino, K.

Vinogradov, S.

S. Vinogradov, T. Vinogradova, V. Shubin, D. Shushakov, and K. Sitarsky, “Probability distribution and noise factor of solid state photomultiplier signals with cross-talk and afterpulsing,” IEEE Nucl. Sc. Symp. Conf. Rec. 25, 111 (2009).

Vinogradova, T.

S. Vinogradov, T. Vinogradova, V. Shubin, D. Shushakov, and K. Sitarsky, “Probability distribution and noise factor of solid state photomultiplier signals with cross-talk and afterpulsing,” IEEE Nucl. Sc. Symp. Conf. Rec. 25, 111 (2009).

Walmsley, I. A.

A. Feito, J. S. Lundeen, H. Coldenstrodt-Ronge, J. Eisert, M. B. Plenio, and I. A. Walmsley, “Measuring measurement: theory and practice,” N. J. Phys. 11, 093038 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wegmuller, M.

F. Scholder, J. Gautier, M. Wegmuller, and N. Gisin, “Long-distance OTDR using photon counting and large detection gates at telecom wavelength,” Opt. Commun. 213, 57–61 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Welsher, K.

K. Welsher, Z. Liu, D. Daranciang, and H. Dai, “Selective probing and imaging of cells with single walled carbon nanotubes as near-infrared fluorescent molecules,” Nano Lett. 8, 586–590 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

White, J. E.

Wong, F. N. C.

Wu, E.

Wu, G.

Yamamoto, Y.

Yoshizawa, A.

D. Fukuda, G. Fujii, T. Numata, A. Yoshizawa, H. Tsuchida, H. Fujino, H. Ishii, T. Itatani, S. Inoue, and T. Zama, “Photon number resolving detection with high speed and high quantum efficiency,” Metrologia 46, 288–292 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Fukuda, G. Fujii, A. Yoshizawa, H. Tsuchida, R. Damayanthi, H. Takahashi, S. Inoue, and M. Ohkubo, “High speed photon number resolving detector with titanium transition edge sensor,” J. Low Temp. Phys. 151, 100–105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yuan, Z. L.

B. E. Kardynal, Z. L. Yuan, and A. J. Shields, “An avalanche-photodiode-based photon-number-resolving detector,” Nat. Photonics 2, 425–428 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zama, T.

D. Fukuda, G. Fujii, T. Numata, A. Yoshizawa, H. Tsuchida, H. Fujino, H. Ishii, T. Itatani, S. Inoue, and T. Zama, “Photon number resolving detection with high speed and high quantum efficiency,” Metrologia 46, 288–292 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zambra, G.

G. Zambra, A. Andreoni, M. Bondani, M. Gramegna, M. Genovese, G. Brida, A. Rossi, and M. G. A. Paris, “Experimental reconstruction of photon statistics without photon counting,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 063602 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zbinden, H.

J. Zhang, R. Thew, C. Barreiro, and H. Zbinden, “Practical fast gate rate ingaas/inp single-photon avalanche photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 091103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. T. Thew, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Tunable upconversion photon detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 071104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Eraerds, M. Legré, A. Rochas, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “SiPM for fast photon-counting and multiphoton detection,” Opt. Express 15, 14539–14549 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Temporão, S. Tanzilli, H. Zbinden, N. Gisin, T. Aellen, M. Giovannini, and J. Faist, “Mid-infrared single photon counting,” Opt. Lett. 31, 1094–1096 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Thew, S. Tanzilli, L. Krainer, S. C. Zeller, A. Rochas, I. Rech, S. Cova, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Low jitter up-conversion detectors for telecom wavelength GHz QKD,” N. J. Phys. 8, 32 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zeller, S. C.

R. Thew, S. Tanzilli, L. Krainer, S. C. Zeller, A. Rochas, I. Rech, S. Cova, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Low jitter up-conversion detectors for telecom wavelength GHz QKD,” N. J. Phys. 8, 32 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zeng, H.

Zhang, J.

J. Zhang, R. Thew, C. Barreiro, and H. Zbinden, “Practical fast gate rate ingaas/inp single-photon avalanche photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 091103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhong, T.

Anal. Bioanal. Chem. (1)

V. Kondepati, H. Heise, and J. Backhaus, “Recent applications of near-infrared spectroscopy in cancer diagnosis and therapy,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 390, 125–139 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

J. Zhang, R. Thew, C. Barreiro, and H. Zbinden, “Practical fast gate rate ingaas/inp single-photon avalanche photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 091103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. T. Thew, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Tunable upconversion photon detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 071104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Biotech. Biophys. Acta (1)

A. Barth, “Infrared spectroscopy of proteins,” Biotech. Biophys. Acta 1767, 1073–1101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Nucl. Sc. Symp. Conf. Rec. (1)

S. Vinogradov, T. Vinogradova, V. Shubin, D. Shushakov, and K. Sitarsky, “Probability distribution and noise factor of solid state photomultiplier signals with cross-talk and afterpulsing,” IEEE Nucl. Sc. Symp. Conf. Rec. 25, 111 (2009).

J. Low Temp. Phys. (1)

D. Fukuda, G. Fujii, A. Yoshizawa, H. Tsuchida, R. Damayanthi, H. Takahashi, S. Inoue, and M. Ohkubo, “High speed photon number resolving detector with titanium transition edge sensor,” J. Low Temp. Phys. 151, 100–105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Metrologia (1)

D. Fukuda, G. Fujii, T. Numata, A. Yoshizawa, H. Tsuchida, H. Fujino, H. Ishii, T. Itatani, S. Inoue, and T. Zama, “Photon number resolving detection with high speed and high quantum efficiency,” Metrologia 46, 288–292 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. J. Phys. (2)

R. Thew, S. Tanzilli, L. Krainer, S. C. Zeller, A. Rochas, I. Rech, S. Cova, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Low jitter up-conversion detectors for telecom wavelength GHz QKD,” N. J. Phys. 8, 32 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic of the up-conversion multi-pixel APD detector. Pulses from a diode laser at 1559 nm are attenuated (variable attenuator (VA) in the figure) and injected, toghether with a pump laser at 980 nm, into a PPLN waveguide (PPLN wg), where the up-conversion takes place. Polarization controllers (PC) are used for optimizing the nonlinear process. Light at 600 nm is then filtered by a dispersion prism and an interference filter (IF), and detected by the SiPM. The electical signal is registered on the oscilloscope.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Superposition of the waveforms of the detected signal on the oscilloscope.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Top: pulse height histograms for coherent states with mean number simultaneous detections 〈ndet of 0.6, 5.0 and 10.4 respectively. Bottom: corresponding histograms of the relative frequencies of the simultaneous detections, fitted by poissonian distributions (red lines). n is the number of simultaneous detections.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Efficiency ηtot of the UC multi-pixel APD detector as a function of the mean numbers of simultaneous detections 〈ndet.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Efficiency ηtot of the UC multi-pixel APD detector as a function of the excess bias voltage applied to the SiPM. The dotted line corresponds to a linear fit of the data.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Experimental variances σ2det as a function of the corresponding mean numbers of simultaneous detections 〈ndet. The dashed red line corresponds to ideally detected coherent states, for which σ2det = 〈ndet. In the inset the data for low 〈ndet are shown. The blue line corresponds to the fit of the first data for the calculation of the cross-talk probability of the SiPM.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Cross-talk probability as a function of the excess bias voltage applied to the SiPM. The error bars represent the statistical errors.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Qualitative comparison between the main PNR detection approaches in the telecom regime. CIPD = charge integration photodiode; TES = transistor edge sensor; PND = parallel nanowire detector; Lin APDs = linear APDs; Non Sat APDs = Non saturated mode APDs. ’Room temperature’ refers to temperatures achievable by thermoelectric cooling. With ’Large Dynamic Range’ we mean a range between 0 and thousands of input photons.

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