Abstract

We analyze optical absorption enhancements and quasiguided mode properties of organic solar cells with highly ordered nanostructured photoactive layers comprised of the bulk heterojunction blend, poly-3-hexylthiophene/[6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (P3HT:PCBM) and a low index of refraction conducting material (LICM). This photonic crystal geometry is capable of enhancing spectral absorption by ~17% in part due to the excitation of quasiguided modes near the band edge of P3HT:PCBM. A nanostructure thickness between 200 nm and 300 nm is determined to be optimal, while the LICM must have an index of refraction ~0.3 lower than P3HT:PCBM to produce absorption enhancements. Quasiguided modes that differ in lifetime by an order of magnitude are also identified and yield absorption that is concentrated in the P3HT:PCBM flash layer.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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2008 (1)

S.-I. Na, S.-S. Kim, J. Jo, S.-H. Oh, J. Kim, and D.-Y. Kim, "Efficient polymer solar cells with surface relief gratings fabricated by simple soft lithography," Adv. Funct. Mater. 18, 3956-3963 (2008).

2007 (5)

J. Peet, J. Y. Kim, N. E. Coates, W. L. Ma, D. Moses, A. J. Heeger, and G. C. Bazan, "Efficiency enhancement in low-bandgap polymer solar cells by processing with alkane dithiols," Nature Mater. 6, 497-500 (2007).

P. W. M. Blom, V. D. Mihailetchi, L. J. A. Koster, and D. E. Markov, "Device physics of polymer:fullerene bulk heterojunction solar cells," Adv. Mater. 19, 1551-1566 (2007).

F. Monestier, J.-J. Simon, P. Torchio, L. Escoubas, F. Flory, S. Bailly, R. de Bettignies, S. Guillerez, and C. Defranoux, "Modeling the short-circuit current density of polymer solar cells based on P3HT:PCBMblend," Sol. Energy Mat. Sol. Cells 91405-410 (2007).

G. A. Buxton and N. Clarke, "Computer simulation of polymer solar cells," Modeling Simul. Mater. Sci. Eng. 1513-26 (2007).

P. Bermel, C. Luo, L. Zeng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. D. Joannopoulos, "Improving thin-film crystalline silicon solar cell efficiencies with photonic crystals," Opt. Express 15, 16986-17000 (2007).
[PubMed]

2006 (3)

V. D. Mihailetchi, H. Xie, B. de Boer, L. J. A. Koster, and P. W. M. Blom, "Charge transport and photocurrent generation in poly(3-hexylthiophene):methanofullerene bulk-heterojunction solar cells," Adv. Funct. Mater. 16, 699-708 (2006).

J. Y. Kim, S.H. Kim, H. Lee, K. Lee, W. Ma, X. Gong, and A. J. Heeger, "New architecture for high-efficiency polymer photovoltaic cells using solution-based titanium oxide as an optical spacer," Adv. Mater. 18, 572-576 (2006).

M. Niggemann, M. Glatthaar, P. Lewer, C. Muller, J. Wagner, and A. Gombert, "Functional microprism substrate for organic solar cells," Thin Solid Films 511-512, 628-633 (2006).

2005 (3)

W. Ma, C. Yang, X. Gong, K. Lee, and A. J. Heeger, "Thermally stable, efficient polymer solar cells with nanoscale control of the interpenetrating network morphology," Adv. Funct. Mater. 15, 1617-1622 (2005).

G. Li, V. Shrotriya, J. Huang, Y. Yao, T. Moriarty, K. Emery, and Y. Yang, "High-efficiency solution processable polymer photovoltaic cells by self-organization of polymer blends," Nature Mater. 4, 864-868 (2005).

W. J. E. Beek,M.M. Wienk,M. Kemerink, X. Yang, and R. A. J. Janssen, "Hybrid zinc oxide conjugated polymer bulk heterojunction solar cells," J. Phys. Chem. B 109, 9505-9516 (2005).

2004 (1)

M. Niggemann, M. Glatthaar, A. Gombert, A. Hinsch, and V. Wittwer, "Diffraction gratings and buried nanoelectrodes- architectures for organic solar cells," Thin Solid Films 451-452, 619-623 (2004).

2002 (2)

H. Hoppe, N. S. Sariciftci, and D. Meissner, "Optical constants of conjugated polymer/fullerene based bulkheterojunction organic solar cells," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 385, 113-119 (2002).

R. Shimada, A. L. Yablonskii, S. G. Tikhodeev, and T. Ishihara, "Transmission properties of a two-dimensional photonic crystal slab with an excitonic resonance," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 872-879 (2002).

1999 (2)

D. M. Whittaker and I. S. Culshaw, "Scattering-matrix treatment of patterned multilayer photonic structures," Phys. Rev. B 60, 2610-2618 (1999).

L. A. A. Pettersson, L. S. Roman, and O. Inganas, "Modeling photocurrent action spectra of photovoltaic devices based on organic thin films," J. Appl. Phys. 86, 487-496 (1999).

1998 (1)

T. Fujita, Y. Sato, T. Kuitani, and T. Ishihara, "Tunable polariton absorption of distributed feedback microcavities at room temperature," Phys. Rev. B 57, 12428-12434 (1998).

1995 (1)

G. Yu and A. J. Heeger, "Charge separation and photovoltaic conversion in polymer composites with internal donor/acceptor heterojunctions," J. Appl. Phys. 78, 4510-4515 (1995).

1986 (1)

C. W. Tang, "Two-layer organic photovoltaic cell," Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 183-185 (1986).

Alamariu, B. A.

L. Zeng, P. Bermel, Y. Yi, B. A. Alamariu, K. A. Broderick, J. Liu, C. Hong, X. Duan, J. Joannopoulos, and L. C. Kimerling, "Demonstration of enhanced absorption in thin film Si solar cells with textured photonic crystal back reflector," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 221105-1-3 (2008).

L. Zeng, Y. Yi, C. Hong, J. Liu, N. Feng, X. Duan, L. C. Kimerling, and B. A. Alamariu, "Efficiency enhancement in Si solar cells by textured photonic crystal back reflector," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 111111-1-3 (2006).

Arwin, H.

N.-K. Persson, H. Arwin, and O. Inganas, "Optical optimization of polyfluorene-fullerene blend photodiodes," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 034503-1-8 (2005).

Bailly, S.

F. Monestier, J.-J. Simon, P. Torchio, L. Escoubas, F. Flory, S. Bailly, R. de Bettignies, S. Guillerez, and C. Defranoux, "Modeling the short-circuit current density of polymer solar cells based on P3HT:PCBMblend," Sol. Energy Mat. Sol. Cells 91405-410 (2007).

Barbu, I.

J. Gilot, I. Barbu, M. M. Wienk, and R. A. J. Janssen, "The use of ZnO as optical spacer in polymer solar cells: Theoretical and experimental study," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 113520-1-3 (2007).

Bazan, G. C.

J. Peet, J. Y. Kim, N. E. Coates, W. L. Ma, D. Moses, A. J. Heeger, and G. C. Bazan, "Efficiency enhancement in low-bandgap polymer solar cells by processing with alkane dithiols," Nature Mater. 6, 497-500 (2007).

Beek, W. J. E.

W. J. E. Beek,M.M. Wienk,M. Kemerink, X. Yang, and R. A. J. Janssen, "Hybrid zinc oxide conjugated polymer bulk heterojunction solar cells," J. Phys. Chem. B 109, 9505-9516 (2005).

Bermel, P.

P. Bermel, C. Luo, L. Zeng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. D. Joannopoulos, "Improving thin-film crystalline silicon solar cell efficiencies with photonic crystals," Opt. Express 15, 16986-17000 (2007).
[PubMed]

L. Zeng, P. Bermel, Y. Yi, B. A. Alamariu, K. A. Broderick, J. Liu, C. Hong, X. Duan, J. Joannopoulos, and L. C. Kimerling, "Demonstration of enhanced absorption in thin film Si solar cells with textured photonic crystal back reflector," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 221105-1-3 (2008).

Biswas, R.

D. Zhou and R. Biswas, "Photonic crystal enhanced light-trapping in thin film solar cells," J. Appl. Phys. 103, 093102-1-5 (2008).

Blom, P. W. M.

P. W. M. Blom, V. D. Mihailetchi, L. J. A. Koster, and D. E. Markov, "Device physics of polymer:fullerene bulk heterojunction solar cells," Adv. Mater. 19, 1551-1566 (2007).

V. D. Mihailetchi, H. Xie, B. de Boer, L. J. A. Koster, and P. W. M. Blom, "Charge transport and photocurrent generation in poly(3-hexylthiophene):methanofullerene bulk-heterojunction solar cells," Adv. Funct. Mater. 16, 699-708 (2006).

V. D. Mihailetchi, L. J. A. Koster, J. C. Hummelen, and P. W. M. Blom, "Photocurrent generation in polymerfullerene bulk heterojunctions," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 216601-1-4 (2004).

J. D. Kotlarski, P. W. M. Blom, L. A. J. Koster, M. Lenes, and L. H. Slooff, "Combined optical and electrical modeling of polymer:fullerene bulk heterojunction solar cells," J. Appl. Phys. 103, 804502-1-5 (2008).

L. J. A. Koster, E. C. P. Smits, V. D. Mihailetchi, and P. W. M. Blom, "Device model for the operation of polymer/fullerene bulk heterojunction solar cells," Phys. Rev. B 72, 085205-1-9 (2005).

Broderick, K. A.

L. Zeng, P. Bermel, Y. Yi, B. A. Alamariu, K. A. Broderick, J. Liu, C. Hong, X. Duan, J. Joannopoulos, and L. C. Kimerling, "Demonstration of enhanced absorption in thin film Si solar cells with textured photonic crystal back reflector," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 221105-1-3 (2008).

Buxton, G. A.

G. A. Buxton and N. Clarke, "Computer simulation of polymer solar cells," Modeling Simul. Mater. Sci. Eng. 1513-26 (2007).

Clarke, N.

G. A. Buxton and N. Clarke, "Computer simulation of polymer solar cells," Modeling Simul. Mater. Sci. Eng. 1513-26 (2007).

Coates, N. E.

J. Peet, J. Y. Kim, N. E. Coates, W. L. Ma, D. Moses, A. J. Heeger, and G. C. Bazan, "Efficiency enhancement in low-bandgap polymer solar cells by processing with alkane dithiols," Nature Mater. 6, 497-500 (2007).

Culshaw, I. S.

D. M. Whittaker and I. S. Culshaw, "Scattering-matrix treatment of patterned multilayer photonic structures," Phys. Rev. B 60, 2610-2618 (1999).

de Bettignies, R.

F. Monestier, J.-J. Simon, P. Torchio, L. Escoubas, F. Flory, S. Bailly, R. de Bettignies, S. Guillerez, and C. Defranoux, "Modeling the short-circuit current density of polymer solar cells based on P3HT:PCBMblend," Sol. Energy Mat. Sol. Cells 91405-410 (2007).

de Boer, B.

V. D. Mihailetchi, H. Xie, B. de Boer, L. J. A. Koster, and P. W. M. Blom, "Charge transport and photocurrent generation in poly(3-hexylthiophene):methanofullerene bulk-heterojunction solar cells," Adv. Funct. Mater. 16, 699-708 (2006).

Defranoux, C.

F. Monestier, J.-J. Simon, P. Torchio, L. Escoubas, F. Flory, S. Bailly, R. de Bettignies, S. Guillerez, and C. Defranoux, "Modeling the short-circuit current density of polymer solar cells based on P3HT:PCBMblend," Sol. Energy Mat. Sol. Cells 91405-410 (2007).

Duan, X.

L. Zeng, P. Bermel, Y. Yi, B. A. Alamariu, K. A. Broderick, J. Liu, C. Hong, X. Duan, J. Joannopoulos, and L. C. Kimerling, "Demonstration of enhanced absorption in thin film Si solar cells with textured photonic crystal back reflector," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 221105-1-3 (2008).

L. Zeng, Y. Yi, C. Hong, J. Liu, N. Feng, X. Duan, L. C. Kimerling, and B. A. Alamariu, "Efficiency enhancement in Si solar cells by textured photonic crystal back reflector," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 111111-1-3 (2006).

Duche, D.

D. Duche, L. Escoubas, J.-J. Simon, P. Torchio,W. Vervisch, and F. Flory, "Slow Bloch modes for enhancing the absorption of light in thin films for photovoltaic cells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 193310-1-3 (2008).

Emery, K.

G. Li, V. Shrotriya, J. Huang, Y. Yao, T. Moriarty, K. Emery, and Y. Yang, "High-efficiency solution processable polymer photovoltaic cells by self-organization of polymer blends," Nature Mater. 4, 864-868 (2005).

Escoubas, L.

F. Monestier, J.-J. Simon, P. Torchio, L. Escoubas, F. Flory, S. Bailly, R. de Bettignies, S. Guillerez, and C. Defranoux, "Modeling the short-circuit current density of polymer solar cells based on P3HT:PCBMblend," Sol. Energy Mat. Sol. Cells 91405-410 (2007).

D. Duche, L. Escoubas, J.-J. Simon, P. Torchio,W. Vervisch, and F. Flory, "Slow Bloch modes for enhancing the absorption of light in thin films for photovoltaic cells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 193310-1-3 (2008).

Feng, N.

L. Zeng, Y. Yi, C. Hong, J. Liu, N. Feng, X. Duan, L. C. Kimerling, and B. A. Alamariu, "Efficiency enhancement in Si solar cells by textured photonic crystal back reflector," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 111111-1-3 (2006).

Flory, F.

F. Monestier, J.-J. Simon, P. Torchio, L. Escoubas, F. Flory, S. Bailly, R. de Bettignies, S. Guillerez, and C. Defranoux, "Modeling the short-circuit current density of polymer solar cells based on P3HT:PCBMblend," Sol. Energy Mat. Sol. Cells 91405-410 (2007).

Fujita, T.

T. Fujita, Y. Sato, T. Kuitani, and T. Ishihara, "Tunable polariton absorption of distributed feedback microcavities at room temperature," Phys. Rev. B 57, 12428-12434 (1998).

Gilot, J.

J. Gilot, I. Barbu, M. M. Wienk, and R. A. J. Janssen, "The use of ZnO as optical spacer in polymer solar cells: Theoretical and experimental study," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 113520-1-3 (2007).

Gippius, N. A.

S. G. Tikhodeev, A. L. Yablonskii, E. A. Muljarov, N. A. Gippius, and T. Ishihara, "Quasiguided modes and optical properties of photonic crystal slabs," Phys. Rev. B 66, 045102-1-17 (2002).

Glatthaar, M.

M. Niggemann, M. Glatthaar, P. Lewer, C. Muller, J. Wagner, and A. Gombert, "Functional microprism substrate for organic solar cells," Thin Solid Films 511-512, 628-633 (2006).

M. Niggemann, M. Glatthaar, A. Gombert, A. Hinsch, and V. Wittwer, "Diffraction gratings and buried nanoelectrodes- architectures for organic solar cells," Thin Solid Films 451-452, 619-623 (2004).

Gombert, A.

M. Niggemann, M. Glatthaar, P. Lewer, C. Muller, J. Wagner, and A. Gombert, "Functional microprism substrate for organic solar cells," Thin Solid Films 511-512, 628-633 (2006).

M. Niggemann, M. Glatthaar, A. Gombert, A. Hinsch, and V. Wittwer, "Diffraction gratings and buried nanoelectrodes- architectures for organic solar cells," Thin Solid Films 451-452, 619-623 (2004).

Gong, X.

J. Y. Kim, S.H. Kim, H. Lee, K. Lee, W. Ma, X. Gong, and A. J. Heeger, "New architecture for high-efficiency polymer photovoltaic cells using solution-based titanium oxide as an optical spacer," Adv. Mater. 18, 572-576 (2006).

W. Ma, C. Yang, X. Gong, K. Lee, and A. J. Heeger, "Thermally stable, efficient polymer solar cells with nanoscale control of the interpenetrating network morphology," Adv. Funct. Mater. 15, 1617-1622 (2005).

Guillerez, S.

F. Monestier, J.-J. Simon, P. Torchio, L. Escoubas, F. Flory, S. Bailly, R. de Bettignies, S. Guillerez, and C. Defranoux, "Modeling the short-circuit current density of polymer solar cells based on P3HT:PCBMblend," Sol. Energy Mat. Sol. Cells 91405-410 (2007).

Heeger, A. J.

J. Peet, J. Y. Kim, N. E. Coates, W. L. Ma, D. Moses, A. J. Heeger, and G. C. Bazan, "Efficiency enhancement in low-bandgap polymer solar cells by processing with alkane dithiols," Nature Mater. 6, 497-500 (2007).

J. Y. Kim, S.H. Kim, H. Lee, K. Lee, W. Ma, X. Gong, and A. J. Heeger, "New architecture for high-efficiency polymer photovoltaic cells using solution-based titanium oxide as an optical spacer," Adv. Mater. 18, 572-576 (2006).

W. Ma, C. Yang, X. Gong, K. Lee, and A. J. Heeger, "Thermally stable, efficient polymer solar cells with nanoscale control of the interpenetrating network morphology," Adv. Funct. Mater. 15, 1617-1622 (2005).

G. Yu and A. J. Heeger, "Charge separation and photovoltaic conversion in polymer composites with internal donor/acceptor heterojunctions," J. Appl. Phys. 78, 4510-4515 (1995).

Hinsch, A.

M. Niggemann, M. Glatthaar, A. Gombert, A. Hinsch, and V. Wittwer, "Diffraction gratings and buried nanoelectrodes- architectures for organic solar cells," Thin Solid Films 451-452, 619-623 (2004).

Hong, C.

L. Zeng, Y. Yi, C. Hong, J. Liu, N. Feng, X. Duan, L. C. Kimerling, and B. A. Alamariu, "Efficiency enhancement in Si solar cells by textured photonic crystal back reflector," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 111111-1-3 (2006).

L. Zeng, P. Bermel, Y. Yi, B. A. Alamariu, K. A. Broderick, J. Liu, C. Hong, X. Duan, J. Joannopoulos, and L. C. Kimerling, "Demonstration of enhanced absorption in thin film Si solar cells with textured photonic crystal back reflector," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 221105-1-3 (2008).

Hoppe, H.

H. Hoppe, N. S. Sariciftci, and D. Meissner, "Optical constants of conjugated polymer/fullerene based bulkheterojunction organic solar cells," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 385, 113-119 (2002).

Huang, J.

G. Li, V. Shrotriya, J. Huang, Y. Yao, T. Moriarty, K. Emery, and Y. Yang, "High-efficiency solution processable polymer photovoltaic cells by self-organization of polymer blends," Nature Mater. 4, 864-868 (2005).

Hummelen, J. C.

V. D. Mihailetchi, L. J. A. Koster, J. C. Hummelen, and P. W. M. Blom, "Photocurrent generation in polymerfullerene bulk heterojunctions," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 216601-1-4 (2004).

Inganas, O.

L. A. A. Pettersson, L. S. Roman, and O. Inganas, "Modeling photocurrent action spectra of photovoltaic devices based on organic thin films," J. Appl. Phys. 86, 487-496 (1999).

Y. Zhou, F. Zhang, K. Tvingstedt, W. Tian, and O. Inganas, "Multifolded polymer solar cells on flexible substrates," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 033302-1-3 (2007).

N.-K. Persson, H. Arwin, and O. Inganas, "Optical optimization of polyfluorene-fullerene blend photodiodes," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 034503-1-8 (2005).

Ishihara, T.

R. Shimada, A. L. Yablonskii, S. G. Tikhodeev, and T. Ishihara, "Transmission properties of a two-dimensional photonic crystal slab with an excitonic resonance," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 872-879 (2002).

T. Fujita, Y. Sato, T. Kuitani, and T. Ishihara, "Tunable polariton absorption of distributed feedback microcavities at room temperature," Phys. Rev. B 57, 12428-12434 (1998).

S. G. Tikhodeev, A. L. Yablonskii, E. A. Muljarov, N. A. Gippius, and T. Ishihara, "Quasiguided modes and optical properties of photonic crystal slabs," Phys. Rev. B 66, 045102-1-17 (2002).

Janssen, R. A. J.

W. J. E. Beek,M.M. Wienk,M. Kemerink, X. Yang, and R. A. J. Janssen, "Hybrid zinc oxide conjugated polymer bulk heterojunction solar cells," J. Phys. Chem. B 109, 9505-9516 (2005).

J. Gilot, I. Barbu, M. M. Wienk, and R. A. J. Janssen, "The use of ZnO as optical spacer in polymer solar cells: Theoretical and experimental study," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 113520-1-3 (2007).

Jo, J.

S.-I. Na, S.-S. Kim, J. Jo, S.-H. Oh, J. Kim, and D.-Y. Kim, "Efficient polymer solar cells with surface relief gratings fabricated by simple soft lithography," Adv. Funct. Mater. 18, 3956-3963 (2008).

Joannopoulos, J.

L. Zeng, P. Bermel, Y. Yi, B. A. Alamariu, K. A. Broderick, J. Liu, C. Hong, X. Duan, J. Joannopoulos, and L. C. Kimerling, "Demonstration of enhanced absorption in thin film Si solar cells with textured photonic crystal back reflector," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 221105-1-3 (2008).

Joannopoulos, J. D.

Kemerink, M.

W. J. E. Beek,M.M. Wienk,M. Kemerink, X. Yang, and R. A. J. Janssen, "Hybrid zinc oxide conjugated polymer bulk heterojunction solar cells," J. Phys. Chem. B 109, 9505-9516 (2005).

Kim, D.-Y.

S.-I. Na, S.-S. Kim, J. Jo, S.-H. Oh, J. Kim, and D.-Y. Kim, "Efficient polymer solar cells with surface relief gratings fabricated by simple soft lithography," Adv. Funct. Mater. 18, 3956-3963 (2008).

Kim, J.

S.-I. Na, S.-S. Kim, J. Jo, S.-H. Oh, J. Kim, and D.-Y. Kim, "Efficient polymer solar cells with surface relief gratings fabricated by simple soft lithography," Adv. Funct. Mater. 18, 3956-3963 (2008).

Kim, J. Y.

J. Peet, J. Y. Kim, N. E. Coates, W. L. Ma, D. Moses, A. J. Heeger, and G. C. Bazan, "Efficiency enhancement in low-bandgap polymer solar cells by processing with alkane dithiols," Nature Mater. 6, 497-500 (2007).

J. Y. Kim, S.H. Kim, H. Lee, K. Lee, W. Ma, X. Gong, and A. J. Heeger, "New architecture for high-efficiency polymer photovoltaic cells using solution-based titanium oxide as an optical spacer," Adv. Mater. 18, 572-576 (2006).

Kim, S.H.

J. Y. Kim, S.H. Kim, H. Lee, K. Lee, W. Ma, X. Gong, and A. J. Heeger, "New architecture for high-efficiency polymer photovoltaic cells using solution-based titanium oxide as an optical spacer," Adv. Mater. 18, 572-576 (2006).

Kim, S.-S.

S.-I. Na, S.-S. Kim, J. Jo, S.-H. Oh, J. Kim, and D.-Y. Kim, "Efficient polymer solar cells with surface relief gratings fabricated by simple soft lithography," Adv. Funct. Mater. 18, 3956-3963 (2008).

Kimerling, L. C.

P. Bermel, C. Luo, L. Zeng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. D. Joannopoulos, "Improving thin-film crystalline silicon solar cell efficiencies with photonic crystals," Opt. Express 15, 16986-17000 (2007).
[PubMed]

L. Zeng, Y. Yi, C. Hong, J. Liu, N. Feng, X. Duan, L. C. Kimerling, and B. A. Alamariu, "Efficiency enhancement in Si solar cells by textured photonic crystal back reflector," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 111111-1-3 (2006).

L. Zeng, P. Bermel, Y. Yi, B. A. Alamariu, K. A. Broderick, J. Liu, C. Hong, X. Duan, J. Joannopoulos, and L. C. Kimerling, "Demonstration of enhanced absorption in thin film Si solar cells with textured photonic crystal back reflector," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 221105-1-3 (2008).

Ko, D.-H.

J. R. Tumbleston, D.-H. Ko, E.T. Samulski, and R. Lopez, "Electrophotonic enhancement of bulk heterojunction organic solar cells through photonic crystal photoactive layer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 043305-1-3 (2009).

Koster, L. A. J.

J. D. Kotlarski, P. W. M. Blom, L. A. J. Koster, M. Lenes, and L. H. Slooff, "Combined optical and electrical modeling of polymer:fullerene bulk heterojunction solar cells," J. Appl. Phys. 103, 804502-1-5 (2008).

Koster, L. J. A.

P. W. M. Blom, V. D. Mihailetchi, L. J. A. Koster, and D. E. Markov, "Device physics of polymer:fullerene bulk heterojunction solar cells," Adv. Mater. 19, 1551-1566 (2007).

V. D. Mihailetchi, H. Xie, B. de Boer, L. J. A. Koster, and P. W. M. Blom, "Charge transport and photocurrent generation in poly(3-hexylthiophene):methanofullerene bulk-heterojunction solar cells," Adv. Funct. Mater. 16, 699-708 (2006).

V. D. Mihailetchi, L. J. A. Koster, J. C. Hummelen, and P. W. M. Blom, "Photocurrent generation in polymerfullerene bulk heterojunctions," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 216601-1-4 (2004).

L. J. A. Koster, E. C. P. Smits, V. D. Mihailetchi, and P. W. M. Blom, "Device model for the operation of polymer/fullerene bulk heterojunction solar cells," Phys. Rev. B 72, 085205-1-9 (2005).

Kotlarski, J. D.

J. D. Kotlarski, P. W. M. Blom, L. A. J. Koster, M. Lenes, and L. H. Slooff, "Combined optical and electrical modeling of polymer:fullerene bulk heterojunction solar cells," J. Appl. Phys. 103, 804502-1-5 (2008).

Kuitani, T.

T. Fujita, Y. Sato, T. Kuitani, and T. Ishihara, "Tunable polariton absorption of distributed feedback microcavities at room temperature," Phys. Rev. B 57, 12428-12434 (1998).

Lee, H.

J. Y. Kim, S.H. Kim, H. Lee, K. Lee, W. Ma, X. Gong, and A. J. Heeger, "New architecture for high-efficiency polymer photovoltaic cells using solution-based titanium oxide as an optical spacer," Adv. Mater. 18, 572-576 (2006).

Lee, K.

J. Y. Kim, S.H. Kim, H. Lee, K. Lee, W. Ma, X. Gong, and A. J. Heeger, "New architecture for high-efficiency polymer photovoltaic cells using solution-based titanium oxide as an optical spacer," Adv. Mater. 18, 572-576 (2006).

W. Ma, C. Yang, X. Gong, K. Lee, and A. J. Heeger, "Thermally stable, efficient polymer solar cells with nanoscale control of the interpenetrating network morphology," Adv. Funct. Mater. 15, 1617-1622 (2005).

Lenes, M.

J. D. Kotlarski, P. W. M. Blom, L. A. J. Koster, M. Lenes, and L. H. Slooff, "Combined optical and electrical modeling of polymer:fullerene bulk heterojunction solar cells," J. Appl. Phys. 103, 804502-1-5 (2008).

Lewer, P.

M. Niggemann, M. Glatthaar, P. Lewer, C. Muller, J. Wagner, and A. Gombert, "Functional microprism substrate for organic solar cells," Thin Solid Films 511-512, 628-633 (2006).

Li, G.

G. Li, V. Shrotriya, J. Huang, Y. Yao, T. Moriarty, K. Emery, and Y. Yang, "High-efficiency solution processable polymer photovoltaic cells by self-organization of polymer blends," Nature Mater. 4, 864-868 (2005).

G. Li, V. Shrotriya, Y. Yao, and Y. Yang, "Investigation of annealing effects and film thickness dependence of polymer solar cells based on poly(3-hexylthiophene)," J. Appl. Phys. 98, 043704-1-5 (2005).

Liu, J.

L. Zeng, Y. Yi, C. Hong, J. Liu, N. Feng, X. Duan, L. C. Kimerling, and B. A. Alamariu, "Efficiency enhancement in Si solar cells by textured photonic crystal back reflector," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 111111-1-3 (2006).

L. Zeng, P. Bermel, Y. Yi, B. A. Alamariu, K. A. Broderick, J. Liu, C. Hong, X. Duan, J. Joannopoulos, and L. C. Kimerling, "Demonstration of enhanced absorption in thin film Si solar cells with textured photonic crystal back reflector," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 221105-1-3 (2008).

Lopez, R.

J. R. Tumbleston, D.-H. Ko, E.T. Samulski, and R. Lopez, "Electrophotonic enhancement of bulk heterojunction organic solar cells through photonic crystal photoactive layer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 043305-1-3 (2009).

Luo, C.

Ma, W.

J. Y. Kim, S.H. Kim, H. Lee, K. Lee, W. Ma, X. Gong, and A. J. Heeger, "New architecture for high-efficiency polymer photovoltaic cells using solution-based titanium oxide as an optical spacer," Adv. Mater. 18, 572-576 (2006).

W. Ma, C. Yang, X. Gong, K. Lee, and A. J. Heeger, "Thermally stable, efficient polymer solar cells with nanoscale control of the interpenetrating network morphology," Adv. Funct. Mater. 15, 1617-1622 (2005).

Ma, W. L.

J. Peet, J. Y. Kim, N. E. Coates, W. L. Ma, D. Moses, A. J. Heeger, and G. C. Bazan, "Efficiency enhancement in low-bandgap polymer solar cells by processing with alkane dithiols," Nature Mater. 6, 497-500 (2007).

Markov, D. E.

P. W. M. Blom, V. D. Mihailetchi, L. J. A. Koster, and D. E. Markov, "Device physics of polymer:fullerene bulk heterojunction solar cells," Adv. Mater. 19, 1551-1566 (2007).

McGehee, M. D.

S. Rim, S. Zhao, S. R. Scully, M. D. McGehee, and P. Peumans, "An effective light trapping configuration for thin-film solar cells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 243501-1-3 (2007).

Meissner, D.

H. Hoppe, N. S. Sariciftci, and D. Meissner, "Optical constants of conjugated polymer/fullerene based bulkheterojunction organic solar cells," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 385, 113-119 (2002).

Mihailetchi, V. D.

P. W. M. Blom, V. D. Mihailetchi, L. J. A. Koster, and D. E. Markov, "Device physics of polymer:fullerene bulk heterojunction solar cells," Adv. Mater. 19, 1551-1566 (2007).

V. D. Mihailetchi, H. Xie, B. de Boer, L. J. A. Koster, and P. W. M. Blom, "Charge transport and photocurrent generation in poly(3-hexylthiophene):methanofullerene bulk-heterojunction solar cells," Adv. Funct. Mater. 16, 699-708 (2006).

V. D. Mihailetchi, L. J. A. Koster, J. C. Hummelen, and P. W. M. Blom, "Photocurrent generation in polymerfullerene bulk heterojunctions," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 216601-1-4 (2004).

L. J. A. Koster, E. C. P. Smits, V. D. Mihailetchi, and P. W. M. Blom, "Device model for the operation of polymer/fullerene bulk heterojunction solar cells," Phys. Rev. B 72, 085205-1-9 (2005).

Monestier, F.

F. Monestier, J.-J. Simon, P. Torchio, L. Escoubas, F. Flory, S. Bailly, R. de Bettignies, S. Guillerez, and C. Defranoux, "Modeling the short-circuit current density of polymer solar cells based on P3HT:PCBMblend," Sol. Energy Mat. Sol. Cells 91405-410 (2007).

Moriarty, T.

G. Li, V. Shrotriya, J. Huang, Y. Yao, T. Moriarty, K. Emery, and Y. Yang, "High-efficiency solution processable polymer photovoltaic cells by self-organization of polymer blends," Nature Mater. 4, 864-868 (2005).

Moses, D.

J. Peet, J. Y. Kim, N. E. Coates, W. L. Ma, D. Moses, A. J. Heeger, and G. C. Bazan, "Efficiency enhancement in low-bandgap polymer solar cells by processing with alkane dithiols," Nature Mater. 6, 497-500 (2007).

Muljarov, E. A.

S. G. Tikhodeev, A. L. Yablonskii, E. A. Muljarov, N. A. Gippius, and T. Ishihara, "Quasiguided modes and optical properties of photonic crystal slabs," Phys. Rev. B 66, 045102-1-17 (2002).

Muller, C.

M. Niggemann, M. Glatthaar, P. Lewer, C. Muller, J. Wagner, and A. Gombert, "Functional microprism substrate for organic solar cells," Thin Solid Films 511-512, 628-633 (2006).

Na, S.-I.

S.-I. Na, S.-S. Kim, J. Jo, S.-H. Oh, J. Kim, and D.-Y. Kim, "Efficient polymer solar cells with surface relief gratings fabricated by simple soft lithography," Adv. Funct. Mater. 18, 3956-3963 (2008).

Niggemann, M.

M. Niggemann, M. Glatthaar, P. Lewer, C. Muller, J. Wagner, and A. Gombert, "Functional microprism substrate for organic solar cells," Thin Solid Films 511-512, 628-633 (2006).

M. Niggemann, M. Glatthaar, A. Gombert, A. Hinsch, and V. Wittwer, "Diffraction gratings and buried nanoelectrodes- architectures for organic solar cells," Thin Solid Films 451-452, 619-623 (2004).

Oh, S.-H.

S.-I. Na, S.-S. Kim, J. Jo, S.-H. Oh, J. Kim, and D.-Y. Kim, "Efficient polymer solar cells with surface relief gratings fabricated by simple soft lithography," Adv. Funct. Mater. 18, 3956-3963 (2008).

Peet, J.

J. Peet, J. Y. Kim, N. E. Coates, W. L. Ma, D. Moses, A. J. Heeger, and G. C. Bazan, "Efficiency enhancement in low-bandgap polymer solar cells by processing with alkane dithiols," Nature Mater. 6, 497-500 (2007).

Persson, N.-K.

N.-K. Persson, H. Arwin, and O. Inganas, "Optical optimization of polyfluorene-fullerene blend photodiodes," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 034503-1-8 (2005).

Pettersson, L. A. A.

L. A. A. Pettersson, L. S. Roman, and O. Inganas, "Modeling photocurrent action spectra of photovoltaic devices based on organic thin films," J. Appl. Phys. 86, 487-496 (1999).

Peumans, P.

S. Rim, S. Zhao, S. R. Scully, M. D. McGehee, and P. Peumans, "An effective light trapping configuration for thin-film solar cells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 243501-1-3 (2007).

Rim, S.

S. Rim, S. Zhao, S. R. Scully, M. D. McGehee, and P. Peumans, "An effective light trapping configuration for thin-film solar cells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 243501-1-3 (2007).

Roman, L. S.

L. A. A. Pettersson, L. S. Roman, and O. Inganas, "Modeling photocurrent action spectra of photovoltaic devices based on organic thin films," J. Appl. Phys. 86, 487-496 (1999).

Samulski, E.T.

J. R. Tumbleston, D.-H. Ko, E.T. Samulski, and R. Lopez, "Electrophotonic enhancement of bulk heterojunction organic solar cells through photonic crystal photoactive layer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 043305-1-3 (2009).

Sariciftci, N. S.

H. Hoppe, N. S. Sariciftci, and D. Meissner, "Optical constants of conjugated polymer/fullerene based bulkheterojunction organic solar cells," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 385, 113-119 (2002).

Sato, Y.

T. Fujita, Y. Sato, T. Kuitani, and T. Ishihara, "Tunable polariton absorption of distributed feedback microcavities at room temperature," Phys. Rev. B 57, 12428-12434 (1998).

Scully, S. R.

S. Rim, S. Zhao, S. R. Scully, M. D. McGehee, and P. Peumans, "An effective light trapping configuration for thin-film solar cells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 243501-1-3 (2007).

Shimada, R.

R. Shimada, A. L. Yablonskii, S. G. Tikhodeev, and T. Ishihara, "Transmission properties of a two-dimensional photonic crystal slab with an excitonic resonance," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 872-879 (2002).

Shrotriya, V.

G. Li, V. Shrotriya, J. Huang, Y. Yao, T. Moriarty, K. Emery, and Y. Yang, "High-efficiency solution processable polymer photovoltaic cells by self-organization of polymer blends," Nature Mater. 4, 864-868 (2005).

D.W. Sievers, V. Shrotriya, and Y. Yang, "Modeling optical effects and thickness dependent current in polymer bulk-heterojunction solar cells," J. Appl. Phys. 100, 114509-1-7 (2006).

G. Li, V. Shrotriya, Y. Yao, and Y. Yang, "Investigation of annealing effects and film thickness dependence of polymer solar cells based on poly(3-hexylthiophene)," J. Appl. Phys. 98, 043704-1-5 (2005).

Sievers, D.W.

D.W. Sievers, V. Shrotriya, and Y. Yang, "Modeling optical effects and thickness dependent current in polymer bulk-heterojunction solar cells," J. Appl. Phys. 100, 114509-1-7 (2006).

Simon, J.-J.

F. Monestier, J.-J. Simon, P. Torchio, L. Escoubas, F. Flory, S. Bailly, R. de Bettignies, S. Guillerez, and C. Defranoux, "Modeling the short-circuit current density of polymer solar cells based on P3HT:PCBMblend," Sol. Energy Mat. Sol. Cells 91405-410 (2007).

D. Duche, L. Escoubas, J.-J. Simon, P. Torchio,W. Vervisch, and F. Flory, "Slow Bloch modes for enhancing the absorption of light in thin films for photovoltaic cells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 193310-1-3 (2008).

Slooff, L. H.

J. D. Kotlarski, P. W. M. Blom, L. A. J. Koster, M. Lenes, and L. H. Slooff, "Combined optical and electrical modeling of polymer:fullerene bulk heterojunction solar cells," J. Appl. Phys. 103, 804502-1-5 (2008).

Smits, E. C. P.

L. J. A. Koster, E. C. P. Smits, V. D. Mihailetchi, and P. W. M. Blom, "Device model for the operation of polymer/fullerene bulk heterojunction solar cells," Phys. Rev. B 72, 085205-1-9 (2005).

Tang, C. W.

C. W. Tang, "Two-layer organic photovoltaic cell," Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 183-185 (1986).

Tian, W.

Y. Zhou, F. Zhang, K. Tvingstedt, W. Tian, and O. Inganas, "Multifolded polymer solar cells on flexible substrates," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 033302-1-3 (2007).

Tikhodeev, S. G.

R. Shimada, A. L. Yablonskii, S. G. Tikhodeev, and T. Ishihara, "Transmission properties of a two-dimensional photonic crystal slab with an excitonic resonance," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 872-879 (2002).

S. G. Tikhodeev, A. L. Yablonskii, E. A. Muljarov, N. A. Gippius, and T. Ishihara, "Quasiguided modes and optical properties of photonic crystal slabs," Phys. Rev. B 66, 045102-1-17 (2002).

Torchio, P.

F. Monestier, J.-J. Simon, P. Torchio, L. Escoubas, F. Flory, S. Bailly, R. de Bettignies, S. Guillerez, and C. Defranoux, "Modeling the short-circuit current density of polymer solar cells based on P3HT:PCBMblend," Sol. Energy Mat. Sol. Cells 91405-410 (2007).

D. Duche, L. Escoubas, J.-J. Simon, P. Torchio,W. Vervisch, and F. Flory, "Slow Bloch modes for enhancing the absorption of light in thin films for photovoltaic cells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 193310-1-3 (2008).

Tumbleston, J. R.

J. R. Tumbleston, D.-H. Ko, E.T. Samulski, and R. Lopez, "Electrophotonic enhancement of bulk heterojunction organic solar cells through photonic crystal photoactive layer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 043305-1-3 (2009).

Tvingstedt, K.

Y. Zhou, F. Zhang, K. Tvingstedt, W. Tian, and O. Inganas, "Multifolded polymer solar cells on flexible substrates," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 033302-1-3 (2007).

Wagner, J.

M. Niggemann, M. Glatthaar, P. Lewer, C. Muller, J. Wagner, and A. Gombert, "Functional microprism substrate for organic solar cells," Thin Solid Films 511-512, 628-633 (2006).

Whittaker, D. M.

D. M. Whittaker and I. S. Culshaw, "Scattering-matrix treatment of patterned multilayer photonic structures," Phys. Rev. B 60, 2610-2618 (1999).

Wienk, M. M.

J. Gilot, I. Barbu, M. M. Wienk, and R. A. J. Janssen, "The use of ZnO as optical spacer in polymer solar cells: Theoretical and experimental study," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 113520-1-3 (2007).

Wienk, M.M.

W. J. E. Beek,M.M. Wienk,M. Kemerink, X. Yang, and R. A. J. Janssen, "Hybrid zinc oxide conjugated polymer bulk heterojunction solar cells," J. Phys. Chem. B 109, 9505-9516 (2005).

Wittwer, V.

M. Niggemann, M. Glatthaar, A. Gombert, A. Hinsch, and V. Wittwer, "Diffraction gratings and buried nanoelectrodes- architectures for organic solar cells," Thin Solid Films 451-452, 619-623 (2004).

Xie, H.

V. D. Mihailetchi, H. Xie, B. de Boer, L. J. A. Koster, and P. W. M. Blom, "Charge transport and photocurrent generation in poly(3-hexylthiophene):methanofullerene bulk-heterojunction solar cells," Adv. Funct. Mater. 16, 699-708 (2006).

Yablonskii, A. L.

R. Shimada, A. L. Yablonskii, S. G. Tikhodeev, and T. Ishihara, "Transmission properties of a two-dimensional photonic crystal slab with an excitonic resonance," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 872-879 (2002).

S. G. Tikhodeev, A. L. Yablonskii, E. A. Muljarov, N. A. Gippius, and T. Ishihara, "Quasiguided modes and optical properties of photonic crystal slabs," Phys. Rev. B 66, 045102-1-17 (2002).

Yang, C.

W. Ma, C. Yang, X. Gong, K. Lee, and A. J. Heeger, "Thermally stable, efficient polymer solar cells with nanoscale control of the interpenetrating network morphology," Adv. Funct. Mater. 15, 1617-1622 (2005).

Yang, X.

W. J. E. Beek,M.M. Wienk,M. Kemerink, X. Yang, and R. A. J. Janssen, "Hybrid zinc oxide conjugated polymer bulk heterojunction solar cells," J. Phys. Chem. B 109, 9505-9516 (2005).

Yang, Y.

G. Li, V. Shrotriya, J. Huang, Y. Yao, T. Moriarty, K. Emery, and Y. Yang, "High-efficiency solution processable polymer photovoltaic cells by self-organization of polymer blends," Nature Mater. 4, 864-868 (2005).

D.W. Sievers, V. Shrotriya, and Y. Yang, "Modeling optical effects and thickness dependent current in polymer bulk-heterojunction solar cells," J. Appl. Phys. 100, 114509-1-7 (2006).

G. Li, V. Shrotriya, Y. Yao, and Y. Yang, "Investigation of annealing effects and film thickness dependence of polymer solar cells based on poly(3-hexylthiophene)," J. Appl. Phys. 98, 043704-1-5 (2005).

Yao, Y.

G. Li, V. Shrotriya, J. Huang, Y. Yao, T. Moriarty, K. Emery, and Y. Yang, "High-efficiency solution processable polymer photovoltaic cells by self-organization of polymer blends," Nature Mater. 4, 864-868 (2005).

G. Li, V. Shrotriya, Y. Yao, and Y. Yang, "Investigation of annealing effects and film thickness dependence of polymer solar cells based on poly(3-hexylthiophene)," J. Appl. Phys. 98, 043704-1-5 (2005).

Yi, Y.

L. Zeng, Y. Yi, C. Hong, J. Liu, N. Feng, X. Duan, L. C. Kimerling, and B. A. Alamariu, "Efficiency enhancement in Si solar cells by textured photonic crystal back reflector," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 111111-1-3 (2006).

L. Zeng, P. Bermel, Y. Yi, B. A. Alamariu, K. A. Broderick, J. Liu, C. Hong, X. Duan, J. Joannopoulos, and L. C. Kimerling, "Demonstration of enhanced absorption in thin film Si solar cells with textured photonic crystal back reflector," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 221105-1-3 (2008).

Yu, G.

G. Yu and A. J. Heeger, "Charge separation and photovoltaic conversion in polymer composites with internal donor/acceptor heterojunctions," J. Appl. Phys. 78, 4510-4515 (1995).

Zeng, L.

P. Bermel, C. Luo, L. Zeng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. D. Joannopoulos, "Improving thin-film crystalline silicon solar cell efficiencies with photonic crystals," Opt. Express 15, 16986-17000 (2007).
[PubMed]

L. Zeng, Y. Yi, C. Hong, J. Liu, N. Feng, X. Duan, L. C. Kimerling, and B. A. Alamariu, "Efficiency enhancement in Si solar cells by textured photonic crystal back reflector," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 111111-1-3 (2006).

L. Zeng, P. Bermel, Y. Yi, B. A. Alamariu, K. A. Broderick, J. Liu, C. Hong, X. Duan, J. Joannopoulos, and L. C. Kimerling, "Demonstration of enhanced absorption in thin film Si solar cells with textured photonic crystal back reflector," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 221105-1-3 (2008).

Zhang, F.

Y. Zhou, F. Zhang, K. Tvingstedt, W. Tian, and O. Inganas, "Multifolded polymer solar cells on flexible substrates," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 033302-1-3 (2007).

Zhao, S.

S. Rim, S. Zhao, S. R. Scully, M. D. McGehee, and P. Peumans, "An effective light trapping configuration for thin-film solar cells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 243501-1-3 (2007).

Zhou, D.

D. Zhou and R. Biswas, "Photonic crystal enhanced light-trapping in thin film solar cells," J. Appl. Phys. 103, 093102-1-5 (2008).

Zhou, Y.

Y. Zhou, F. Zhang, K. Tvingstedt, W. Tian, and O. Inganas, "Multifolded polymer solar cells on flexible substrates," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 033302-1-3 (2007).

Adv. Funct. Mater. (3)

V. D. Mihailetchi, H. Xie, B. de Boer, L. J. A. Koster, and P. W. M. Blom, "Charge transport and photocurrent generation in poly(3-hexylthiophene):methanofullerene bulk-heterojunction solar cells," Adv. Funct. Mater. 16, 699-708 (2006).

W. Ma, C. Yang, X. Gong, K. Lee, and A. J. Heeger, "Thermally stable, efficient polymer solar cells with nanoscale control of the interpenetrating network morphology," Adv. Funct. Mater. 15, 1617-1622 (2005).

S.-I. Na, S.-S. Kim, J. Jo, S.-H. Oh, J. Kim, and D.-Y. Kim, "Efficient polymer solar cells with surface relief gratings fabricated by simple soft lithography," Adv. Funct. Mater. 18, 3956-3963 (2008).

Adv. Mater. (2)

J. Y. Kim, S.H. Kim, H. Lee, K. Lee, W. Ma, X. Gong, and A. J. Heeger, "New architecture for high-efficiency polymer photovoltaic cells using solution-based titanium oxide as an optical spacer," Adv. Mater. 18, 572-576 (2006).

P. W. M. Blom, V. D. Mihailetchi, L. J. A. Koster, and D. E. Markov, "Device physics of polymer:fullerene bulk heterojunction solar cells," Adv. Mater. 19, 1551-1566 (2007).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

C. W. Tang, "Two-layer organic photovoltaic cell," Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 183-185 (1986).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

R. Shimada, A. L. Yablonskii, S. G. Tikhodeev, and T. Ishihara, "Transmission properties of a two-dimensional photonic crystal slab with an excitonic resonance," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 872-879 (2002).

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

G. Yu and A. J. Heeger, "Charge separation and photovoltaic conversion in polymer composites with internal donor/acceptor heterojunctions," J. Appl. Phys. 78, 4510-4515 (1995).

L. A. A. Pettersson, L. S. Roman, and O. Inganas, "Modeling photocurrent action spectra of photovoltaic devices based on organic thin films," J. Appl. Phys. 86, 487-496 (1999).

J. Phys. Chem. B (1)

W. J. E. Beek,M.M. Wienk,M. Kemerink, X. Yang, and R. A. J. Janssen, "Hybrid zinc oxide conjugated polymer bulk heterojunction solar cells," J. Phys. Chem. B 109, 9505-9516 (2005).

Modeling Simul. Mater. Sci. Eng. (1)

G. A. Buxton and N. Clarke, "Computer simulation of polymer solar cells," Modeling Simul. Mater. Sci. Eng. 1513-26 (2007).

Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (1)

H. Hoppe, N. S. Sariciftci, and D. Meissner, "Optical constants of conjugated polymer/fullerene based bulkheterojunction organic solar cells," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 385, 113-119 (2002).

Nature Mater. (2)

G. Li, V. Shrotriya, J. Huang, Y. Yao, T. Moriarty, K. Emery, and Y. Yang, "High-efficiency solution processable polymer photovoltaic cells by self-organization of polymer blends," Nature Mater. 4, 864-868 (2005).

J. Peet, J. Y. Kim, N. E. Coates, W. L. Ma, D. Moses, A. J. Heeger, and G. C. Bazan, "Efficiency enhancement in low-bandgap polymer solar cells by processing with alkane dithiols," Nature Mater. 6, 497-500 (2007).

Opt. Express (1)

Phys. Rev. B (2)

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D. M. Whittaker and I. S. Culshaw, "Scattering-matrix treatment of patterned multilayer photonic structures," Phys. Rev. B 60, 2610-2618 (1999).

Sol. Energy Mat. Sol. Cells (1)

F. Monestier, J.-J. Simon, P. Torchio, L. Escoubas, F. Flory, S. Bailly, R. de Bettignies, S. Guillerez, and C. Defranoux, "Modeling the short-circuit current density of polymer solar cells based on P3HT:PCBMblend," Sol. Energy Mat. Sol. Cells 91405-410 (2007).

Thin Solid Films (2)

M. Niggemann, M. Glatthaar, A. Gombert, A. Hinsch, and V. Wittwer, "Diffraction gratings and buried nanoelectrodes- architectures for organic solar cells," Thin Solid Films 451-452, 619-623 (2004).

M. Niggemann, M. Glatthaar, P. Lewer, C. Muller, J. Wagner, and A. Gombert, "Functional microprism substrate for organic solar cells," Thin Solid Films 511-512, 628-633 (2006).

Other (20)

S. Rim, S. Zhao, S. R. Scully, M. D. McGehee, and P. Peumans, "An effective light trapping configuration for thin-film solar cells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 243501-1-3 (2007).

Y. Zhou, F. Zhang, K. Tvingstedt, W. Tian, and O. Inganas, "Multifolded polymer solar cells on flexible substrates," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 033302-1-3 (2007).

J. Gilot, I. Barbu, M. M. Wienk, and R. A. J. Janssen, "The use of ZnO as optical spacer in polymer solar cells: Theoretical and experimental study," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 113520-1-3 (2007).

G. Li, V. Shrotriya, Y. Yao, and Y. Yang, "Investigation of annealing effects and film thickness dependence of polymer solar cells based on poly(3-hexylthiophene)," J. Appl. Phys. 98, 043704-1-5 (2005).

J. D. Joannopoulos, R. D. Meade, and J. N. Winn, Photonic crystals: molding the flow of light. Princeton University Press, 1995.

NREL, "Reference Solar Spectral Irradiance: Air Mass 1.5," http://rredc.nrel.gov/solar/spectra/am1.5/.

V. D. Mihailetchi, L. J. A. Koster, J. C. Hummelen, and P. W. M. Blom, "Photocurrent generation in polymerfullerene bulk heterojunctions," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 216601-1-4 (2004).

D.W. Sievers, V. Shrotriya, and Y. Yang, "Modeling optical effects and thickness dependent current in polymer bulk-heterojunction solar cells," J. Appl. Phys. 100, 114509-1-7 (2006).

J. D. Kotlarski, P. W. M. Blom, L. A. J. Koster, M. Lenes, and L. H. Slooff, "Combined optical and electrical modeling of polymer:fullerene bulk heterojunction solar cells," J. Appl. Phys. 103, 804502-1-5 (2008).

E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids. (Academic, 1985), pp. 369.

N.-K. Persson, H. Arwin, and O. Inganas, "Optical optimization of polyfluorene-fullerene blend photodiodes," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 034503-1-8 (2005).

L. J. A. Koster, E. C. P. Smits, V. D. Mihailetchi, and P. W. M. Blom, "Device model for the operation of polymer/fullerene bulk heterojunction solar cells," Phys. Rev. B 72, 085205-1-9 (2005).

S. G. Tikhodeev, A. L. Yablonskii, E. A. Muljarov, N. A. Gippius, and T. Ishihara, "Quasiguided modes and optical properties of photonic crystal slabs," Phys. Rev. B 66, 045102-1-17 (2002).

D. Zhou and R. Biswas, "Photonic crystal enhanced light-trapping in thin film solar cells," J. Appl. Phys. 103, 093102-1-5 (2008).

L. Zeng, Y. Yi, C. Hong, J. Liu, N. Feng, X. Duan, L. C. Kimerling, and B. A. Alamariu, "Efficiency enhancement in Si solar cells by textured photonic crystal back reflector," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 111111-1-3 (2006).

L. Zeng, P. Bermel, Y. Yi, B. A. Alamariu, K. A. Broderick, J. Liu, C. Hong, X. Duan, J. Joannopoulos, and L. C. Kimerling, "Demonstration of enhanced absorption in thin film Si solar cells with textured photonic crystal back reflector," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 221105-1-3 (2008).

D. Duche, L. Escoubas, J.-J. Simon, P. Torchio,W. Vervisch, and F. Flory, "Slow Bloch modes for enhancing the absorption of light in thin films for photovoltaic cells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 193310-1-3 (2008).

J. R. Tumbleston, D.-H. Ko, E.T. Samulski, and R. Lopez, "Electrophotonic enhancement of bulk heterojunction organic solar cells through photonic crystal photoactive layer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 043305-1-3 (2009).

J. R. Tumbleston, D.-H. Ko, R. Lopez, and E. T. Samulski, "Characterizing enhanced performance of nanopatterned bulk heterojunction organic photovoltaics," Proc. SPIE 7047, 70470S-1-9 (2008).

D.-H. Ko, Department of Chemistry, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Kenan Laboratories CB 3290, Chapel Hill, N.C. 27599, and J.R. Tumbleston, L. Zhang, S.Williams, J. DeSimone, R. Lopez, and E.T. Samulski are preparing a manuscript to be called "Photonic crystal geometry for organic solar cells."

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Illustration of three photovoltaic devices studied: (a) Conventional planar control stack, (b) 2-D periodic posts with 395 nm square periodicity, and (c) 1-D periodic channels with 400 nm periodicity. S- and p-polarized light have electric fields oriented in y- and x-directions, respectively. The LICM flash thickness, d 1, P3HT:PCBM flash thickness, d 2, and nanostructure thickness, d 3, will be changed for optimization while all labeled values remain constant.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Integrated absorption for varying thicknesses of LICM flash layer, d 1, for the 2-D periodic device and LICM optical spacer film for planar control. Comparisons between planar and control devices are made for LICM thicknesses that result in maximum integrated absorption (squares).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Integrated absorption enhancements for variable (a) ratio of P3HT:PCBM flash thickness, d 2, to nanostructure thickness, d 3, (b) nanostructure thickness, d 3, and (c) LICM index of refraction of the nanostructured layer. The 1-D periodic device design is used in each optimization.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Normal incidence absorption spectrum for (a) 1-D and (b) 2-D periodic nanostructured devices and comparable planar cells for both polarizations. P- and s-polarization for the 2-D periodic device are equivalent due to square symmetry. Quasiguided modes are labeled 1a, 2a, and 3a for the 1-D periodic cell, while modes for the 2-D periodic device are referenced 1b and 2b. Convergence of the solution method is also shown in (b) for one, nine, and twenty-five diffraction orders. The solution using one order corresponds to the main zeroth order. The AM 1.5 absorbed flux of solar photons ( 1 m 3 s ) is presented for the (c) 1-D and (d) 2-D periodic cells to demonstrate the interplay between device absorption and the solar spectrum.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Photonic band diagram for the (a) 1-D and (b) 2-D periodic nanostructured devices. Bands corresponding to optically active modes that result in quasiguided mode spectral absorption spikes for the Γ-point are referenced.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

(a) Exciton creation profile of one unit cell for the 2-D periodic device at a depth, z = 150 nm, into the nanostructured layer for λ = 550 nm. (b) Integrated exciton creation profile as a function of depth, z, for the 2-D periodic device for λ = 550 nm (general absorption) and λ = 652 nm (quasiguided mode 2b). The integrated exciton creation profile for the comparable planar device is also shown for λ = 550 nm.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Q + · S = 0
Q = πc ε 0 ε 2 E 2 λ
( F sub + F sub ) = T tot ( F inc + F inc )
( F z 0 + F z 0 ) = T z 0 ( F inc + F inc )

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