Abstract

We present the results of a study of light emissions from a polarized micro-cavity Organic Light-Emitting Device (OLED), which consisted of a flexible, anisotropic one-dimensional (1-D) photonic crystal (PC) film substrate. It is shown that luminous Electroluminescent (EL) emissions from the polarized micro-cavity OLED were produced at relatively low operating voltages. It was also found that the peak wavelengths of the emitted EL light corresponded to the two split eigen modes of the high-energy band edges of the anisotropic PC film, with a strong dependence on the polarization state of the emitting light. For polarization along the ordinary axis of the anisotropic PC film, the optical split micro-cavity modes occurred at the longer high-energy photonic band gap (PBG) edge, while for polarization along the extraordinary axis, the split micro-cavity modes occurred at the shorter high-energy PBG edge, with narrow band widths. We demonstrated that the polarization and emission mode of the micro-cavity OLED may be selected by choosing the appropriate optical axis of the anisotropic 1-D PC film.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. J. D. Joannopoulos, P. R. Villeneuve, and S. Fan, "Photonic crystals: putting a new twist on light," Nature 386, 143-149 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  3. S. John, "Strong localization of photons in certain disordered dielectric superlattices," Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2486-2489 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. J. S. Foresi, P. R. Villeneuve, J. Ferrera, E. R. Thoen, G. Steinmeyer, S. Fan, J. D. Joannopoulos, L. C. Kimerling, I. H. Smith, and E. P. Ippen, "Photonic-bandgap microcavities in optical waveguides," Nature 390, 143-145 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  5. K. Busch and S. John, "Liquid-crystal photonic-band-gap materials: the tunable electromagnetic vacuum," Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 967-970 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  6. F. Jin, C. F. Li, X. Z. Dong, W. Q. Chen, and X. M. Duana, "Laser emission from dye-doped polymer film in opal photonic crystal cavity, " Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 241101 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  7. B. Maune, J. Witzens, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Kolodrubetz, H. Atwater, A. Scherer, R. Hagen, and Y. Qiu, "Optically triggered Q-switched photonic crystal laser," Opt. Express 13, 4699-4707 (2005).
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  8. P.-T. Lee, T.-W. Lu, J.-H. Fan, and F.-M. Tsai, "High quality factor microcavity lasers realized by circular photonic crystal with isotropic photonic band gap effect," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 151125 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. P. Dowling, M. Scalora, M. J. Bloemer, and C. M. Bowden, "The photonic band edge laser: a new approach to gain enhancement," J. Appl. Phys. 75, 1896-1899 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  10. V. I. Kopp, B. Fan, H. K. M. Vithana, and A. Z. Genack, "Low-threshold lasing at the edge of a photonic stop band in cholesteric liquid crystals," Opt. Lett. 23, 1707-1709 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  11. D. J. Broer, J. Lub, and G. N. Mol, "Wide-band reflective polarizers from cholesteric polymer networks with a pitch gradient," Nature 378, 467-469 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. Schmidtke, W. Stille, H. Finkelmann, and S. T. Kim, "Laser emission in a dye doped cholesteric polymer network," Adv. Mater. 14, 746-749 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  13. H. Finkelmann, S. T. Kim, F. A. Munoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, and B. Taheri, "Tunable mirrorless lasing in cholesteric liquid crystalline elastomers," Adv. Mat. 13, 1069-1072 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  14. T. Nakayama, Y. Itoh, and A. Kakuta, "Organic photo- and electroluminescent devices with double mirrors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 594-595 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  15. A. Dodabalapur, L. J. Rothberg, and T. Miller, "Color variation with electroluminescent organic semiconductors in multimode resonant cavities," Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 2308-2310 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  16. T. Shiga, H. Fujikawa, and Y. Taga, "Design of multiwavelength resonant cavities for white organic light-emitting diodes," J. Appl. Phys. 93, 19-22 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  17. P. Dyreklev, M. Berggren, O. Inganas, M. R. Andersson, O. Wennerstrom, T. Hjertberg, "Polarized electroluminescence from an oriented substituted polythiophene in a light emitting diode," Adv. Mater. 7, 43-45 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  18. V. Cimrova, M. Remmers, D. Neher, and G. Wegner, "Polarized light emission from LEDs prepared by the Langmuir-Blodgett technique," Adv. Mater. 8, 146-149 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  19. D. X. Zhu, H. Y. Zhen, H. Ye, and X. Liu, "Highly polarized white-light emission from a single copolymer based on fluorene," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 163309 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  20. M. Grell, M. Oda, K. S. Whitehead, A. Asimakis, D. Neher, and D. D. C. Bradley, "A compact device for the efficient, electrically driven generation of highly circularly polarized light," Adv. Mater. 13, 557-580 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  21. I. H. H. Zabel and D. Stroud, "Photonic band structures of optically anisotropic periodic arrays," Phys. Rev. B 48, 5004-5012 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  22. Z. Y. Li, J. Wang, and B. Y. Gu, "Creation of partial band gaps in anisotropic photonic-band-gap structures," Phys. Rev. B 58, 3721-3729 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  23. G. Alagappan, X. W. Sun, P. Shum, M. B. Yu, and M. T. Doan, "One-dimensional anisotropic photonic crystal with a tunable bandgap," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23, 159-167 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  24. S. W. Kim, B. Park, and Y. P. Lee, "Polarized laser emission from an anisotropic one-dimensional photonic crystal laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 161108 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  25. B. Park, M. Y. Han, and S. S. Oh, "Solution processable ionic p-i-n phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 093302 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  26. G. Björk, "Modification of spontaneous emission rate in planar dielectric microcavity structures," Phys. Rev. A 44, 669-681 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. R. H. Jordan, L. J. Rothberg, A. Dodabalapur, and R. E. Slusher, "Efficiency-enhancement of microcavity organic light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1997-1999 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  28. C.-L. Lin, H.-C. Chang, K.-C. Tien, and C.-C. Wu, "Influences of resonant wavelengths on performances of microcavity organic light-emitting devices," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 071111 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  29. J. M. Bendickson, J. P. Dowling, and M. Scalora, "Analytic expressions for the electromagnetic mode density in finite, one-dimensional, photonic band-gap structures," Phys. Rev. E 53, 4107 - 4121 (1996).
    [CrossRef]

2008 (2)

D. X. Zhu, H. Y. Zhen, H. Ye, and X. Liu, "Highly polarized white-light emission from a single copolymer based on fluorene," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 163309 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Park, M. Y. Han, and S. S. Oh, "Solution processable ionic p-i-n phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 093302 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

S. W. Kim, B. Park, and Y. P. Lee, "Polarized laser emission from an anisotropic one-dimensional photonic crystal laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 161108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C.-L. Lin, H.-C. Chang, K.-C. Tien, and C.-C. Wu, "Influences of resonant wavelengths on performances of microcavity organic light-emitting devices," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 071111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P.-T. Lee, T.-W. Lu, J.-H. Fan, and F.-M. Tsai, "High quality factor microcavity lasers realized by circular photonic crystal with isotropic photonic band gap effect," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 151125 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

G. Alagappan, X. W. Sun, P. Shum, M. B. Yu, and M. T. Doan, "One-dimensional anisotropic photonic crystal with a tunable bandgap," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23, 159-167 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Jin, C. F. Li, X. Z. Dong, W. Q. Chen, and X. M. Duana, "Laser emission from dye-doped polymer film in opal photonic crystal cavity, " Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 241101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

2003 (1)

T. Shiga, H. Fujikawa, and Y. Taga, "Design of multiwavelength resonant cavities for white organic light-emitting diodes," J. Appl. Phys. 93, 19-22 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

J. Schmidtke, W. Stille, H. Finkelmann, and S. T. Kim, "Laser emission in a dye doped cholesteric polymer network," Adv. Mater. 14, 746-749 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

H. Finkelmann, S. T. Kim, F. A. Munoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, and B. Taheri, "Tunable mirrorless lasing in cholesteric liquid crystalline elastomers," Adv. Mat. 13, 1069-1072 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Grell, M. Oda, K. S. Whitehead, A. Asimakis, D. Neher, and D. D. C. Bradley, "A compact device for the efficient, electrically driven generation of highly circularly polarized light," Adv. Mater. 13, 557-580 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

K. Busch and S. John, "Liquid-crystal photonic-band-gap materials: the tunable electromagnetic vacuum," Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 967-970 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

Z. Y. Li, J. Wang, and B. Y. Gu, "Creation of partial band gaps in anisotropic photonic-band-gap structures," Phys. Rev. B 58, 3721-3729 (1998).
[CrossRef]

V. I. Kopp, B. Fan, H. K. M. Vithana, and A. Z. Genack, "Low-threshold lasing at the edge of a photonic stop band in cholesteric liquid crystals," Opt. Lett. 23, 1707-1709 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

J. D. Joannopoulos, P. R. Villeneuve, and S. Fan, "Photonic crystals: putting a new twist on light," Nature 386, 143-149 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Foresi, P. R. Villeneuve, J. Ferrera, E. R. Thoen, G. Steinmeyer, S. Fan, J. D. Joannopoulos, L. C. Kimerling, I. H. Smith, and E. P. Ippen, "Photonic-bandgap microcavities in optical waveguides," Nature 390, 143-145 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (3)

V. Cimrova, M. Remmers, D. Neher, and G. Wegner, "Polarized light emission from LEDs prepared by the Langmuir-Blodgett technique," Adv. Mater. 8, 146-149 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Bendickson, J. P. Dowling, and M. Scalora, "Analytic expressions for the electromagnetic mode density in finite, one-dimensional, photonic band-gap structures," Phys. Rev. E 53, 4107 - 4121 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Jordan, L. J. Rothberg, A. Dodabalapur, and R. E. Slusher, "Efficiency-enhancement of microcavity organic light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1997-1999 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

P. Dyreklev, M. Berggren, O. Inganas, M. R. Andersson, O. Wennerstrom, T. Hjertberg, "Polarized electroluminescence from an oriented substituted polythiophene in a light emitting diode," Adv. Mater. 7, 43-45 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Broer, J. Lub, and G. N. Mol, "Wide-band reflective polarizers from cholesteric polymer networks with a pitch gradient," Nature 378, 467-469 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

A. Dodabalapur, L. J. Rothberg, and T. Miller, "Color variation with electroluminescent organic semiconductors in multimode resonant cavities," Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 2308-2310 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Dowling, M. Scalora, M. J. Bloemer, and C. M. Bowden, "The photonic band edge laser: a new approach to gain enhancement," J. Appl. Phys. 75, 1896-1899 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (2)

T. Nakayama, Y. Itoh, and A. Kakuta, "Organic photo- and electroluminescent devices with double mirrors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 594-595 (1993).
[CrossRef]

I. H. H. Zabel and D. Stroud, "Photonic band structures of optically anisotropic periodic arrays," Phys. Rev. B 48, 5004-5012 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

G. Björk, "Modification of spontaneous emission rate in planar dielectric microcavity structures," Phys. Rev. A 44, 669-681 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987 (2)

S. John, "Strong localization of photons in certain disordered dielectric superlattices," Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2486-2489 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Yablonovitch, "Inhibited spontaneous emission in solid-state physics and electronics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2059-2062 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alagappan, G.

Andersson, M. R.

P. Dyreklev, M. Berggren, O. Inganas, M. R. Andersson, O. Wennerstrom, T. Hjertberg, "Polarized electroluminescence from an oriented substituted polythiophene in a light emitting diode," Adv. Mater. 7, 43-45 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Asimakis, A.

M. Grell, M. Oda, K. S. Whitehead, A. Asimakis, D. Neher, and D. D. C. Bradley, "A compact device for the efficient, electrically driven generation of highly circularly polarized light," Adv. Mater. 13, 557-580 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Atwater, H.

Baehr-Jones, T.

Bendickson, J. M.

J. M. Bendickson, J. P. Dowling, and M. Scalora, "Analytic expressions for the electromagnetic mode density in finite, one-dimensional, photonic band-gap structures," Phys. Rev. E 53, 4107 - 4121 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Berggren, M.

P. Dyreklev, M. Berggren, O. Inganas, M. R. Andersson, O. Wennerstrom, T. Hjertberg, "Polarized electroluminescence from an oriented substituted polythiophene in a light emitting diode," Adv. Mater. 7, 43-45 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Björk, G.

G. Björk, "Modification of spontaneous emission rate in planar dielectric microcavity structures," Phys. Rev. A 44, 669-681 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bloemer, M. J.

J. P. Dowling, M. Scalora, M. J. Bloemer, and C. M. Bowden, "The photonic band edge laser: a new approach to gain enhancement," J. Appl. Phys. 75, 1896-1899 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bowden, C. M.

J. P. Dowling, M. Scalora, M. J. Bloemer, and C. M. Bowden, "The photonic band edge laser: a new approach to gain enhancement," J. Appl. Phys. 75, 1896-1899 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bradley, D. D. C.

M. Grell, M. Oda, K. S. Whitehead, A. Asimakis, D. Neher, and D. D. C. Bradley, "A compact device for the efficient, electrically driven generation of highly circularly polarized light," Adv. Mater. 13, 557-580 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Broer, D. J.

D. J. Broer, J. Lub, and G. N. Mol, "Wide-band reflective polarizers from cholesteric polymer networks with a pitch gradient," Nature 378, 467-469 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Busch, K.

K. Busch and S. John, "Liquid-crystal photonic-band-gap materials: the tunable electromagnetic vacuum," Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 967-970 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chang, H.-C.

C.-L. Lin, H.-C. Chang, K.-C. Tien, and C.-C. Wu, "Influences of resonant wavelengths on performances of microcavity organic light-emitting devices," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 071111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, W. Q.

F. Jin, C. F. Li, X. Z. Dong, W. Q. Chen, and X. M. Duana, "Laser emission from dye-doped polymer film in opal photonic crystal cavity, " Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 241101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cimrova, V.

V. Cimrova, M. Remmers, D. Neher, and G. Wegner, "Polarized light emission from LEDs prepared by the Langmuir-Blodgett technique," Adv. Mater. 8, 146-149 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Doan, M. T.

Dodabalapur, A.

R. H. Jordan, L. J. Rothberg, A. Dodabalapur, and R. E. Slusher, "Efficiency-enhancement of microcavity organic light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1997-1999 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Dodabalapur, L. J. Rothberg, and T. Miller, "Color variation with electroluminescent organic semiconductors in multimode resonant cavities," Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 2308-2310 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Dong, X. Z.

F. Jin, C. F. Li, X. Z. Dong, W. Q. Chen, and X. M. Duana, "Laser emission from dye-doped polymer film in opal photonic crystal cavity, " Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 241101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dowling, J. P.

J. M. Bendickson, J. P. Dowling, and M. Scalora, "Analytic expressions for the electromagnetic mode density in finite, one-dimensional, photonic band-gap structures," Phys. Rev. E 53, 4107 - 4121 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Dowling, M. Scalora, M. J. Bloemer, and C. M. Bowden, "The photonic band edge laser: a new approach to gain enhancement," J. Appl. Phys. 75, 1896-1899 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Duana, X. M.

F. Jin, C. F. Li, X. Z. Dong, W. Q. Chen, and X. M. Duana, "Laser emission from dye-doped polymer film in opal photonic crystal cavity, " Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 241101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dyreklev, P.

P. Dyreklev, M. Berggren, O. Inganas, M. R. Andersson, O. Wennerstrom, T. Hjertberg, "Polarized electroluminescence from an oriented substituted polythiophene in a light emitting diode," Adv. Mater. 7, 43-45 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Fan, B.

Fan, J.-H.

P.-T. Lee, T.-W. Lu, J.-H. Fan, and F.-M. Tsai, "High quality factor microcavity lasers realized by circular photonic crystal with isotropic photonic band gap effect," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 151125 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fan, S.

J. S. Foresi, P. R. Villeneuve, J. Ferrera, E. R. Thoen, G. Steinmeyer, S. Fan, J. D. Joannopoulos, L. C. Kimerling, I. H. Smith, and E. P. Ippen, "Photonic-bandgap microcavities in optical waveguides," Nature 390, 143-145 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Joannopoulos, P. R. Villeneuve, and S. Fan, "Photonic crystals: putting a new twist on light," Nature 386, 143-149 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ferrera, J.

J. S. Foresi, P. R. Villeneuve, J. Ferrera, E. R. Thoen, G. Steinmeyer, S. Fan, J. D. Joannopoulos, L. C. Kimerling, I. H. Smith, and E. P. Ippen, "Photonic-bandgap microcavities in optical waveguides," Nature 390, 143-145 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Finkelmann, H.

J. Schmidtke, W. Stille, H. Finkelmann, and S. T. Kim, "Laser emission in a dye doped cholesteric polymer network," Adv. Mater. 14, 746-749 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. Finkelmann, S. T. Kim, F. A. Munoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, and B. Taheri, "Tunable mirrorless lasing in cholesteric liquid crystalline elastomers," Adv. Mat. 13, 1069-1072 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Foresi, J. S.

J. S. Foresi, P. R. Villeneuve, J. Ferrera, E. R. Thoen, G. Steinmeyer, S. Fan, J. D. Joannopoulos, L. C. Kimerling, I. H. Smith, and E. P. Ippen, "Photonic-bandgap microcavities in optical waveguides," Nature 390, 143-145 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fujikawa, H.

T. Shiga, H. Fujikawa, and Y. Taga, "Design of multiwavelength resonant cavities for white organic light-emitting diodes," J. Appl. Phys. 93, 19-22 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Genack, A. Z.

Grell, M.

M. Grell, M. Oda, K. S. Whitehead, A. Asimakis, D. Neher, and D. D. C. Bradley, "A compact device for the efficient, electrically driven generation of highly circularly polarized light," Adv. Mater. 13, 557-580 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gu, B. Y.

Z. Y. Li, J. Wang, and B. Y. Gu, "Creation of partial band gaps in anisotropic photonic-band-gap structures," Phys. Rev. B 58, 3721-3729 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hagen, R.

Han, M. Y.

B. Park, M. Y. Han, and S. S. Oh, "Solution processable ionic p-i-n phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 093302 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hjertberg, T.

P. Dyreklev, M. Berggren, O. Inganas, M. R. Andersson, O. Wennerstrom, T. Hjertberg, "Polarized electroluminescence from an oriented substituted polythiophene in a light emitting diode," Adv. Mater. 7, 43-45 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Inganas, O.

P. Dyreklev, M. Berggren, O. Inganas, M. R. Andersson, O. Wennerstrom, T. Hjertberg, "Polarized electroluminescence from an oriented substituted polythiophene in a light emitting diode," Adv. Mater. 7, 43-45 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ippen, E. P.

J. S. Foresi, P. R. Villeneuve, J. Ferrera, E. R. Thoen, G. Steinmeyer, S. Fan, J. D. Joannopoulos, L. C. Kimerling, I. H. Smith, and E. P. Ippen, "Photonic-bandgap microcavities in optical waveguides," Nature 390, 143-145 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Itoh, Y.

T. Nakayama, Y. Itoh, and A. Kakuta, "Organic photo- and electroluminescent devices with double mirrors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 594-595 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Jin, F.

F. Jin, C. F. Li, X. Z. Dong, W. Q. Chen, and X. M. Duana, "Laser emission from dye-doped polymer film in opal photonic crystal cavity, " Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 241101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Joannopoulos, J. D.

J. D. Joannopoulos, P. R. Villeneuve, and S. Fan, "Photonic crystals: putting a new twist on light," Nature 386, 143-149 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Foresi, P. R. Villeneuve, J. Ferrera, E. R. Thoen, G. Steinmeyer, S. Fan, J. D. Joannopoulos, L. C. Kimerling, I. H. Smith, and E. P. Ippen, "Photonic-bandgap microcavities in optical waveguides," Nature 390, 143-145 (1997).
[CrossRef]

John, S.

K. Busch and S. John, "Liquid-crystal photonic-band-gap materials: the tunable electromagnetic vacuum," Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 967-970 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. John, "Strong localization of photons in certain disordered dielectric superlattices," Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2486-2489 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jordan, R. H.

R. H. Jordan, L. J. Rothberg, A. Dodabalapur, and R. E. Slusher, "Efficiency-enhancement of microcavity organic light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1997-1999 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kakuta, A.

T. Nakayama, Y. Itoh, and A. Kakuta, "Organic photo- and electroluminescent devices with double mirrors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 594-595 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S. T.

J. Schmidtke, W. Stille, H. Finkelmann, and S. T. Kim, "Laser emission in a dye doped cholesteric polymer network," Adv. Mater. 14, 746-749 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. Finkelmann, S. T. Kim, F. A. Munoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, and B. Taheri, "Tunable mirrorless lasing in cholesteric liquid crystalline elastomers," Adv. Mat. 13, 1069-1072 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S. W.

S. W. Kim, B. Park, and Y. P. Lee, "Polarized laser emission from an anisotropic one-dimensional photonic crystal laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 161108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kimerling, L. C.

J. S. Foresi, P. R. Villeneuve, J. Ferrera, E. R. Thoen, G. Steinmeyer, S. Fan, J. D. Joannopoulos, L. C. Kimerling, I. H. Smith, and E. P. Ippen, "Photonic-bandgap microcavities in optical waveguides," Nature 390, 143-145 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kolodrubetz, M.

Kopp, V. I.

Lee, P.-T.

P.-T. Lee, T.-W. Lu, J.-H. Fan, and F.-M. Tsai, "High quality factor microcavity lasers realized by circular photonic crystal with isotropic photonic band gap effect," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 151125 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y. P.

S. W. Kim, B. Park, and Y. P. Lee, "Polarized laser emission from an anisotropic one-dimensional photonic crystal laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 161108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Li, C. F.

F. Jin, C. F. Li, X. Z. Dong, W. Q. Chen, and X. M. Duana, "Laser emission from dye-doped polymer film in opal photonic crystal cavity, " Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 241101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Li, Z. Y.

Z. Y. Li, J. Wang, and B. Y. Gu, "Creation of partial band gaps in anisotropic photonic-band-gap structures," Phys. Rev. B 58, 3721-3729 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C.-L.

C.-L. Lin, H.-C. Chang, K.-C. Tien, and C.-C. Wu, "Influences of resonant wavelengths on performances of microcavity organic light-emitting devices," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 071111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liu, X.

D. X. Zhu, H. Y. Zhen, H. Ye, and X. Liu, "Highly polarized white-light emission from a single copolymer based on fluorene," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 163309 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lu, T.-W.

P.-T. Lee, T.-W. Lu, J.-H. Fan, and F.-M. Tsai, "High quality factor microcavity lasers realized by circular photonic crystal with isotropic photonic band gap effect," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 151125 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lub, J.

D. J. Broer, J. Lub, and G. N. Mol, "Wide-band reflective polarizers from cholesteric polymer networks with a pitch gradient," Nature 378, 467-469 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Maune, B.

Miller, T.

A. Dodabalapur, L. J. Rothberg, and T. Miller, "Color variation with electroluminescent organic semiconductors in multimode resonant cavities," Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 2308-2310 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Mol, G. N.

D. J. Broer, J. Lub, and G. N. Mol, "Wide-band reflective polarizers from cholesteric polymer networks with a pitch gradient," Nature 378, 467-469 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Munoz, F. A.

H. Finkelmann, S. T. Kim, F. A. Munoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, and B. Taheri, "Tunable mirrorless lasing in cholesteric liquid crystalline elastomers," Adv. Mat. 13, 1069-1072 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nakayama, T.

T. Nakayama, Y. Itoh, and A. Kakuta, "Organic photo- and electroluminescent devices with double mirrors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 594-595 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Neher, D.

M. Grell, M. Oda, K. S. Whitehead, A. Asimakis, D. Neher, and D. D. C. Bradley, "A compact device for the efficient, electrically driven generation of highly circularly polarized light," Adv. Mater. 13, 557-580 (2001).
[CrossRef]

V. Cimrova, M. Remmers, D. Neher, and G. Wegner, "Polarized light emission from LEDs prepared by the Langmuir-Blodgett technique," Adv. Mater. 8, 146-149 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Oda, M.

M. Grell, M. Oda, K. S. Whitehead, A. Asimakis, D. Neher, and D. D. C. Bradley, "A compact device for the efficient, electrically driven generation of highly circularly polarized light," Adv. Mater. 13, 557-580 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Oh, S. S.

B. Park, M. Y. Han, and S. S. Oh, "Solution processable ionic p-i-n phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 093302 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Palffy-Muhoray, P.

H. Finkelmann, S. T. Kim, F. A. Munoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, and B. Taheri, "Tunable mirrorless lasing in cholesteric liquid crystalline elastomers," Adv. Mat. 13, 1069-1072 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Park, B.

B. Park, M. Y. Han, and S. S. Oh, "Solution processable ionic p-i-n phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 093302 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Kim, B. Park, and Y. P. Lee, "Polarized laser emission from an anisotropic one-dimensional photonic crystal laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 161108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Qiu, Y.

Remmers, M.

V. Cimrova, M. Remmers, D. Neher, and G. Wegner, "Polarized light emission from LEDs prepared by the Langmuir-Blodgett technique," Adv. Mater. 8, 146-149 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Rothberg, L. J.

R. H. Jordan, L. J. Rothberg, A. Dodabalapur, and R. E. Slusher, "Efficiency-enhancement of microcavity organic light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1997-1999 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Dodabalapur, L. J. Rothberg, and T. Miller, "Color variation with electroluminescent organic semiconductors in multimode resonant cavities," Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 2308-2310 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Scalora, M.

J. M. Bendickson, J. P. Dowling, and M. Scalora, "Analytic expressions for the electromagnetic mode density in finite, one-dimensional, photonic band-gap structures," Phys. Rev. E 53, 4107 - 4121 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Dowling, M. Scalora, M. J. Bloemer, and C. M. Bowden, "The photonic band edge laser: a new approach to gain enhancement," J. Appl. Phys. 75, 1896-1899 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Scherer, A.

Schmidtke, J.

J. Schmidtke, W. Stille, H. Finkelmann, and S. T. Kim, "Laser emission in a dye doped cholesteric polymer network," Adv. Mater. 14, 746-749 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Shiga, T.

T. Shiga, H. Fujikawa, and Y. Taga, "Design of multiwavelength resonant cavities for white organic light-emitting diodes," J. Appl. Phys. 93, 19-22 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Shum, P.

Slusher, R. E.

R. H. Jordan, L. J. Rothberg, A. Dodabalapur, and R. E. Slusher, "Efficiency-enhancement of microcavity organic light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1997-1999 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Smith, I. H.

J. S. Foresi, P. R. Villeneuve, J. Ferrera, E. R. Thoen, G. Steinmeyer, S. Fan, J. D. Joannopoulos, L. C. Kimerling, I. H. Smith, and E. P. Ippen, "Photonic-bandgap microcavities in optical waveguides," Nature 390, 143-145 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Steinmeyer, G.

J. S. Foresi, P. R. Villeneuve, J. Ferrera, E. R. Thoen, G. Steinmeyer, S. Fan, J. D. Joannopoulos, L. C. Kimerling, I. H. Smith, and E. P. Ippen, "Photonic-bandgap microcavities in optical waveguides," Nature 390, 143-145 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Stille, W.

J. Schmidtke, W. Stille, H. Finkelmann, and S. T. Kim, "Laser emission in a dye doped cholesteric polymer network," Adv. Mater. 14, 746-749 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Stroud, D.

I. H. H. Zabel and D. Stroud, "Photonic band structures of optically anisotropic periodic arrays," Phys. Rev. B 48, 5004-5012 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Sun, X. W.

Taga, Y.

T. Shiga, H. Fujikawa, and Y. Taga, "Design of multiwavelength resonant cavities for white organic light-emitting diodes," J. Appl. Phys. 93, 19-22 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Taheri, B.

H. Finkelmann, S. T. Kim, F. A. Munoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, and B. Taheri, "Tunable mirrorless lasing in cholesteric liquid crystalline elastomers," Adv. Mat. 13, 1069-1072 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Thoen, E. R.

J. S. Foresi, P. R. Villeneuve, J. Ferrera, E. R. Thoen, G. Steinmeyer, S. Fan, J. D. Joannopoulos, L. C. Kimerling, I. H. Smith, and E. P. Ippen, "Photonic-bandgap microcavities in optical waveguides," Nature 390, 143-145 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tien, K.-C.

C.-L. Lin, H.-C. Chang, K.-C. Tien, and C.-C. Wu, "Influences of resonant wavelengths on performances of microcavity organic light-emitting devices," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 071111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, F.-M.

P.-T. Lee, T.-W. Lu, J.-H. Fan, and F.-M. Tsai, "High quality factor microcavity lasers realized by circular photonic crystal with isotropic photonic band gap effect," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 151125 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Villeneuve, P. R.

J. S. Foresi, P. R. Villeneuve, J. Ferrera, E. R. Thoen, G. Steinmeyer, S. Fan, J. D. Joannopoulos, L. C. Kimerling, I. H. Smith, and E. P. Ippen, "Photonic-bandgap microcavities in optical waveguides," Nature 390, 143-145 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Joannopoulos, P. R. Villeneuve, and S. Fan, "Photonic crystals: putting a new twist on light," Nature 386, 143-149 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Vithana, H. K. M.

Wang, J.

Z. Y. Li, J. Wang, and B. Y. Gu, "Creation of partial band gaps in anisotropic photonic-band-gap structures," Phys. Rev. B 58, 3721-3729 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wegner, G.

V. Cimrova, M. Remmers, D. Neher, and G. Wegner, "Polarized light emission from LEDs prepared by the Langmuir-Blodgett technique," Adv. Mater. 8, 146-149 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wennerstrom, O.

P. Dyreklev, M. Berggren, O. Inganas, M. R. Andersson, O. Wennerstrom, T. Hjertberg, "Polarized electroluminescence from an oriented substituted polythiophene in a light emitting diode," Adv. Mater. 7, 43-45 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Whitehead, K. S.

M. Grell, M. Oda, K. S. Whitehead, A. Asimakis, D. Neher, and D. D. C. Bradley, "A compact device for the efficient, electrically driven generation of highly circularly polarized light," Adv. Mater. 13, 557-580 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Witzens, J.

Wu, C.-C.

C.-L. Lin, H.-C. Chang, K.-C. Tien, and C.-C. Wu, "Influences of resonant wavelengths on performances of microcavity organic light-emitting devices," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 071111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yablonovitch, E.

E. Yablonovitch, "Inhibited spontaneous emission in solid-state physics and electronics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2059-2062 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ye, H.

D. X. Zhu, H. Y. Zhen, H. Ye, and X. Liu, "Highly polarized white-light emission from a single copolymer based on fluorene," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 163309 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yu, M. B.

Zabel, I. H. H.

I. H. H. Zabel and D. Stroud, "Photonic band structures of optically anisotropic periodic arrays," Phys. Rev. B 48, 5004-5012 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Zhen, H. Y.

D. X. Zhu, H. Y. Zhen, H. Ye, and X. Liu, "Highly polarized white-light emission from a single copolymer based on fluorene," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 163309 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, D. X.

D. X. Zhu, H. Y. Zhen, H. Ye, and X. Liu, "Highly polarized white-light emission from a single copolymer based on fluorene," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 163309 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mat. (1)

H. Finkelmann, S. T. Kim, F. A. Munoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, and B. Taheri, "Tunable mirrorless lasing in cholesteric liquid crystalline elastomers," Adv. Mat. 13, 1069-1072 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (4)

J. Schmidtke, W. Stille, H. Finkelmann, and S. T. Kim, "Laser emission in a dye doped cholesteric polymer network," Adv. Mater. 14, 746-749 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. Dyreklev, M. Berggren, O. Inganas, M. R. Andersson, O. Wennerstrom, T. Hjertberg, "Polarized electroluminescence from an oriented substituted polythiophene in a light emitting diode," Adv. Mater. 7, 43-45 (1995).
[CrossRef]

V. Cimrova, M. Remmers, D. Neher, and G. Wegner, "Polarized light emission from LEDs prepared by the Langmuir-Blodgett technique," Adv. Mater. 8, 146-149 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Grell, M. Oda, K. S. Whitehead, A. Asimakis, D. Neher, and D. D. C. Bradley, "A compact device for the efficient, electrically driven generation of highly circularly polarized light," Adv. Mater. 13, 557-580 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (9)

D. X. Zhu, H. Y. Zhen, H. Ye, and X. Liu, "Highly polarized white-light emission from a single copolymer based on fluorene," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 163309 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Nakayama, Y. Itoh, and A. Kakuta, "Organic photo- and electroluminescent devices with double mirrors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 594-595 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. Dodabalapur, L. J. Rothberg, and T. Miller, "Color variation with electroluminescent organic semiconductors in multimode resonant cavities," Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 2308-2310 (1994).
[CrossRef]

F. Jin, C. F. Li, X. Z. Dong, W. Q. Chen, and X. M. Duana, "Laser emission from dye-doped polymer film in opal photonic crystal cavity, " Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 241101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Kim, B. Park, and Y. P. Lee, "Polarized laser emission from an anisotropic one-dimensional photonic crystal laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 161108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Park, M. Y. Han, and S. S. Oh, "Solution processable ionic p-i-n phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 093302 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Jordan, L. J. Rothberg, A. Dodabalapur, and R. E. Slusher, "Efficiency-enhancement of microcavity organic light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1997-1999 (1996).
[CrossRef]

C.-L. Lin, H.-C. Chang, K.-C. Tien, and C.-C. Wu, "Influences of resonant wavelengths on performances of microcavity organic light-emitting devices," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 071111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P.-T. Lee, T.-W. Lu, J.-H. Fan, and F.-M. Tsai, "High quality factor microcavity lasers realized by circular photonic crystal with isotropic photonic band gap effect," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 151125 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

J. P. Dowling, M. Scalora, M. J. Bloemer, and C. M. Bowden, "The photonic band edge laser: a new approach to gain enhancement," J. Appl. Phys. 75, 1896-1899 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T. Shiga, H. Fujikawa, and Y. Taga, "Design of multiwavelength resonant cavities for white organic light-emitting diodes," J. Appl. Phys. 93, 19-22 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Nature (3)

D. J. Broer, J. Lub, and G. N. Mol, "Wide-band reflective polarizers from cholesteric polymer networks with a pitch gradient," Nature 378, 467-469 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Joannopoulos, P. R. Villeneuve, and S. Fan, "Photonic crystals: putting a new twist on light," Nature 386, 143-149 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Foresi, P. R. Villeneuve, J. Ferrera, E. R. Thoen, G. Steinmeyer, S. Fan, J. D. Joannopoulos, L. C. Kimerling, I. H. Smith, and E. P. Ippen, "Photonic-bandgap microcavities in optical waveguides," Nature 390, 143-145 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

G. Björk, "Modification of spontaneous emission rate in planar dielectric microcavity structures," Phys. Rev. A 44, 669-681 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. B (2)

I. H. H. Zabel and D. Stroud, "Photonic band structures of optically anisotropic periodic arrays," Phys. Rev. B 48, 5004-5012 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Z. Y. Li, J. Wang, and B. Y. Gu, "Creation of partial band gaps in anisotropic photonic-band-gap structures," Phys. Rev. B 58, 3721-3729 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E (1)

J. M. Bendickson, J. P. Dowling, and M. Scalora, "Analytic expressions for the electromagnetic mode density in finite, one-dimensional, photonic band-gap structures," Phys. Rev. E 53, 4107 - 4121 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

E. Yablonovitch, "Inhibited spontaneous emission in solid-state physics and electronics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2059-2062 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Busch and S. John, "Liquid-crystal photonic-band-gap materials: the tunable electromagnetic vacuum," Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 967-970 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. John, "Strong localization of photons in certain disordered dielectric superlattices," Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2486-2489 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) SEM image of the cross-section of the structure and (b) polarized microphotographs under crossed polarizers at four angles of sample rotation of the studied 1-D PC film substrate. (c) Polarized transmittance spectra for the incident lights polarized linearly along the x (ordinary) and y (extraordinary) axes.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Current density-voltage and luminance-voltage characteristics and (b) current efficiency-voltage and power efficiency-voltage characteristics of the anisotropic micro-cavity OLED sample. (c) Normalized electroluminescence spectra of the micro-cavity sample (red solid curve) and the reference (black dotted curve) OLEDs at an operating voltage of 13 V.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) The dependencies of reflection (upper panel) and EL emission spectra (lower panel) on polarization along the o (red solid curves) and e (blue solid curves) axes for the fabricated OLED sample. The dotted curves show the total spectra measured without any polarizer. The detection angle is fixed at normal incidence (0°). (b) The dependence of calculated DOM spectra (solid curve) and simulated transmission spectra (dotted curve) on polarization along the o (red curves) and e (blue curves) axes.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

The relative efficiency characteristics with respect to the peak efficiency for polarization along the o (red curves) and e (blue curves) modes of EL emission. Solid curves: current efficiency, Dotted curves: power efficiency.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Photograph of the micro-cavity OLED sample (5 × 4.5 mm2) in operation on a flexible and anisotropic 1-D PC film substrate at 10 V.

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