Abstract

We present a theoretical study of the performance of distributed Raman amplifiers with higher order pumping schemes, focusing in particular on double Rayleigh scattering (DRS) noise. Results show an unexpected significant DRS noise reduction for pumping order higher than third, allowing for an overall performance improvement of carefully designed distributed amplifiers, ensuring a large optical signal-to-noise ratio improvement together with reduced DRS-induced penalties.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. M. Scheiders, S. Vorbeck, R. Leppla, E. Lach, M. Schmidt, S. B. Papernyi, and K. Sanapi, "Field transmission of 8x170 Gb/s over high-loss SSMF link using third-order distributed Raman amplification," J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 175-182 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  2. V. Karpov, S. B. Papernyi, V. Ivanov, W. Clements, T. Araki, and Y. Koyano, "Cascaded pump delivery for remotely pumped erbium doped fiber amplifiers," in Proceedings of SubopticConference, 2004, p. We 8.8.
  3. S. Faralli and F. Di Pasquale, "Impact of double Rayleigh scattering noise in distributed higher order Raman pumping schemes," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 804-806 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. Nissov, K. Rottwitt, H. D. Kidorf, and M. X. Ma, "Rayleigh crosstalk in long cascades of distributed unsaturated Raman amplifiers," Electron. Lett. 35, 997-998 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. Papernyi, V. Ivanov, Y. Koyano, and H. Yamamoto, "Sixth-order cascaded Raman amplification," in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, 2008 OSA Technical Digest, (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper OthF4.
  6. G. Bolognini, S. Sugliani, and F. Di Pasquale, "Double Rayleigh scattering noise in Raman amplifiers using pump time-division multiplexing schemes," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., IEEE Press 16, 1286-1288 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  7. P. Kim, J. Park, H. Yoon, J. Park, and N. Park, "In situ design method for multichannel gain of a distributed Raman amplifier with multiwave OTDR," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1683-1685 (2002).
    [CrossRef]

2006

2004

G. Bolognini, S. Sugliani, and F. Di Pasquale, "Double Rayleigh scattering noise in Raman amplifiers using pump time-division multiplexing schemes," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., IEEE Press 16, 1286-1288 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

S. Faralli and F. Di Pasquale, "Impact of double Rayleigh scattering noise in distributed higher order Raman pumping schemes," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 804-806 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

P. Kim, J. Park, H. Yoon, J. Park, and N. Park, "In situ design method for multichannel gain of a distributed Raman amplifier with multiwave OTDR," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1683-1685 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1999

M. Nissov, K. Rottwitt, H. D. Kidorf, and M. X. Ma, "Rayleigh crosstalk in long cascades of distributed unsaturated Raman amplifiers," Electron. Lett. 35, 997-998 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bolognini, G.

G. Bolognini, S. Sugliani, and F. Di Pasquale, "Double Rayleigh scattering noise in Raman amplifiers using pump time-division multiplexing schemes," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., IEEE Press 16, 1286-1288 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Di Pasquale, F.

G. Bolognini, S. Sugliani, and F. Di Pasquale, "Double Rayleigh scattering noise in Raman amplifiers using pump time-division multiplexing schemes," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., IEEE Press 16, 1286-1288 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Faralli and F. Di Pasquale, "Impact of double Rayleigh scattering noise in distributed higher order Raman pumping schemes," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 804-806 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Faralli, S.

S. Faralli and F. Di Pasquale, "Impact of double Rayleigh scattering noise in distributed higher order Raman pumping schemes," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 804-806 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kidorf, H. D.

M. Nissov, K. Rottwitt, H. D. Kidorf, and M. X. Ma, "Rayleigh crosstalk in long cascades of distributed unsaturated Raman amplifiers," Electron. Lett. 35, 997-998 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kim, P.

P. Kim, J. Park, H. Yoon, J. Park, and N. Park, "In situ design method for multichannel gain of a distributed Raman amplifier with multiwave OTDR," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1683-1685 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lach, E.

Leppla, R.

Ma, M. X.

M. Nissov, K. Rottwitt, H. D. Kidorf, and M. X. Ma, "Rayleigh crosstalk in long cascades of distributed unsaturated Raman amplifiers," Electron. Lett. 35, 997-998 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nissov, M.

M. Nissov, K. Rottwitt, H. D. Kidorf, and M. X. Ma, "Rayleigh crosstalk in long cascades of distributed unsaturated Raman amplifiers," Electron. Lett. 35, 997-998 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Papernyi, S. B.

Park, J.

P. Kim, J. Park, H. Yoon, J. Park, and N. Park, "In situ design method for multichannel gain of a distributed Raman amplifier with multiwave OTDR," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1683-1685 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. Kim, J. Park, H. Yoon, J. Park, and N. Park, "In situ design method for multichannel gain of a distributed Raman amplifier with multiwave OTDR," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1683-1685 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Park, N.

P. Kim, J. Park, H. Yoon, J. Park, and N. Park, "In situ design method for multichannel gain of a distributed Raman amplifier with multiwave OTDR," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1683-1685 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rottwitt, K.

M. Nissov, K. Rottwitt, H. D. Kidorf, and M. X. Ma, "Rayleigh crosstalk in long cascades of distributed unsaturated Raman amplifiers," Electron. Lett. 35, 997-998 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sanapi, K.

Scheiders, M.

Schmidt, M.

Sugliani, S.

G. Bolognini, S. Sugliani, and F. Di Pasquale, "Double Rayleigh scattering noise in Raman amplifiers using pump time-division multiplexing schemes," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., IEEE Press 16, 1286-1288 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Vorbeck, S.

Yoon, H.

P. Kim, J. Park, H. Yoon, J. Park, and N. Park, "In situ design method for multichannel gain of a distributed Raman amplifier with multiwave OTDR," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1683-1685 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

M. Nissov, K. Rottwitt, H. D. Kidorf, and M. X. Ma, "Rayleigh crosstalk in long cascades of distributed unsaturated Raman amplifiers," Electron. Lett. 35, 997-998 (1999).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

S. Faralli and F. Di Pasquale, "Impact of double Rayleigh scattering noise in distributed higher order Raman pumping schemes," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 804-806 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Kim, J. Park, H. Yoon, J. Park, and N. Park, "In situ design method for multichannel gain of a distributed Raman amplifier with multiwave OTDR," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1683-1685 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., IEEE Press

G. Bolognini, S. Sugliani, and F. Di Pasquale, "Double Rayleigh scattering noise in Raman amplifiers using pump time-division multiplexing schemes," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., IEEE Press 16, 1286-1288 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

Other

V. Karpov, S. B. Papernyi, V. Ivanov, W. Clements, T. Araki, and Y. Koyano, "Cascaded pump delivery for remotely pumped erbium doped fiber amplifiers," in Proceedings of SubopticConference, 2004, p. We 8.8.

S. Papernyi, V. Ivanov, Y. Koyano, and H. Yamamoto, "Sixth-order cascaded Raman amplification," in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, 2008 OSA Technical Digest, (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper OthF4.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(Left) Examples of simplified gain profiles versus fiber length. (Right) Signal to DRS ratio, normalized to fully distributed value, versus normalized coordinate of breakpoint between initial lossy section and final gain section.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(Left) Scheme of simulated counter-propagating Raman amplification with increasing pumping orders. (Right) Power evolution for the 1450 nm pump under different pumping orders.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Scheme of signal power evolution at 1550.1 nm under different higher-order schemes.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

OSXR vs pumping order calculated with full numerical and semi-analytical method.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Fiber parameters and pump conditions for the highest-order pump employed under different pumping order schemes

Equations (7)

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d P S _ i , p _ i ± ( z ) dz = α S _ i , p _ i P S _ i , p _ i ± ( z ) ± γ i P S _ i , p _ i ± ± j i C ij P S _ i , p _ i i ± · [ P p _ j + + P p _ j + P S _ j + + P S _ j _ ]
d P DRS _ i + ( z ) dz = α S _ i P DRS _ i + + j C j P ¯ P _ j · P DRS _ j + + γ i P ¯ SRS _ i
C ij = g ij A eff for λ i > λ j , C ij = λ j λ i g ij A eff for λ i < λ j
P DRS = P S · γ 2 0 L 0 z [ G ( z ) G ( ς ) ] 2 dςdz
G ( z ) = { exp [ α z ] z [ 0 , L 1 ] exp [ g ( z L ) ] z [ L 1 , L ] ,
P DRS P S = γ 2 L 2 2 [ ( G 1 2 + 2 ln G 1 1 ) x 2 + G 1 2 ( 1 G 1 2 ) 2 x ( 1 x ) + ( G 1 2 2 ln G 1 1 ) ( 1 x ) 2 2 ( ln G 1 ) 2 ]
OSXR OSXR D = 2 ( ln G 1 ) 2 G 1 2 + 2 ln G 1 1 = 2 ( α L ) 2 e 2 α L + 2 α L 1 α L

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