Abstract

We present a secure network communication system that operated with decoy-state quantum cryptography in a real-world application scenario. The full key exchange and application protocols were performed in real time among three nodes, in which two adjacent nodes were connected by approximate 20 km of commercial telecom optical fiber. The generated quantum keys were immediately employed and demonstrated for communication applications, including unbreakable real-time voice telephone between any two of the three communication nodes, or a broadcast from one node to the other two nodes by using one-time pad encryption.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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2007

C.-Z. Peng, J. Zhang, D. Yang, W.-B. Gao, H.-X. Ma, H. Yin, H.-P. Zeng, T. Yang, X.-B. Wang, and J.-W. Pan, "Experimental long-distance decoy-state quantum key distribution dased on polarization encoding," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 010505 (2007).
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D. Rosenberg, J. W. Harrington, P. R. Rice, P. A. Hiskett, C. G. Peterson, R. J. Hughes, A. E. Lita, S. W. Nam, and J. E. Nordholt, "Long-distance decoy-state quantum key distribution in optical fiber," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 010503 (2007).
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H. Takesue, S. W. Nam, Q. Zhang, R. H. Hadfield, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, and Y. Yamamoto, "Quantum key distribution over a 40-dB channel loss using superconducting single-photon detectors," Nat. Photonics 1, 343-348 (2007).
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H. Inamori, N. Ltkenhaus, and D. Mayers, "Unconditional security of practical quantum key distribution," Eur. Phys. J. D 41, 599-627 (2007).
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2006

Y. Zhao, B. Qi, X.-F. Ma, H.-K. Lo, and L. Qian, "Experimental quantum key distribution with decoy states," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 070502 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T.-Y. Chen, J. Zhang, J.-C. Boileau, X.-M. Jin, B. Yang, Q. Zhang, T. Yang, R. Laflamme, and J. W. Pan, "Experimental quantum communication without a shared reference frame," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 150504 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Honjo, K. Inoue, A. Sahara, E. Yamazaki, and H. Takahashi, "Quantum key distribution experiment through a PLC matrix switch," Opt. Commun. 263, 120-123 (2006).
[CrossRef]

X. Tang, L.-J. Ma, A. Mink, A. Nakassis, H. Xu, B. Hershman, J. Bienfang, D. Su, R. F. Boisvert, C. Clark, and C. Williams, "Demonstration of an active quantum key distribution network," Proc. SPIE 6305, 630506 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Thew, S. Tanzilli, L. Krainer, S. C. Zeller, and A. A. Rochas, "Low jitter up-conversion detectors for telecom wavelength GHz QKD", I. Rech, S. Cova, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, New J. Phys. 8,32 (2006).

E. Diamanti, H. Takesue, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, and Y. Yamamoto, "100 km differential phase shift quantum key distribution experiment with low jitter up-conversion detectors", Opt. Express 14,13073 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

H.-K. Lo, H. F. Chau, and M. Ardehali, "Efficient Quantum Key Distribution Scheme and a Proof of Its Unconditional Security", J. Cryptology 18,133 (2005)).
[CrossRef]

X.-B. Wang, "Decoy-state protocol for quantum cryptography with four different intensities of coherent light," Phys. Rev. A 72,012322 (2005).
[CrossRef]

X.-F. Ma, B. Qi, Y. Zhao, and H.-K. Lo, "Practical decoy state for quantum key distribution," Phys. Rev. A 72,012326 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H.-K. Lo, X.-F. Ma, and K. Chen, "Decoy state quantum key distribution," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 230504 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X.-B. Wang, "Beating the photon-number-splitting attack in practical quantum cryptography," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 230503 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C.-Z. Peng, T. Yang, X.-H. Bao, J. Zhang, X.-M. Jin, F.-Y. Feng, B. Yang, J. Yang, J. Yin, Q. Zhang, N. Li, B.-L. Tian, and J.-W. Pan, "Experimental free-space distribution of entangled photon pairs over 13 km: towards satellite-based global quantum communication," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 150501 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

D. Gottesman, H.-K. Lo, N. Lutkenhaus, and J. Preskill, "Security of quantum key distribution with imperfect devices," Quant. Inf. Comput. 5, 325-360 (2004).

C. Gobby, Z. L. Yuan, and A. J. Shields, "Quantum key distribution over 122 km of standard telecom fiber," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3762-3764 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Nakassis, J. C. Bienfang, and C. J. Williams, "Expeditious reconciliation for practical quantum key distribution," Proc. SPIE 5436,28-35 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

F. Grosshans, G. V. Assche, J. Wenger, R. Brouri, N. J. Cerf, and P. Grangier, "Quantum key distribution using Gaussian-modulated coherent states," Nature 421, 238-241 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Y. Hwang, "Quantum key distribution with high loss: toward global secure communication," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 057901 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

T. Nishioka, H. Ishizuka, T. Hasegawa, and J. Abe, "‘Circular type’ quantum key distribution," Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 576-578 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. Elliott, "Building the quantum network," New J. Phys. 4,46 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000

G. Brassard, N. Lutkenhaus, T. Mor and B. C. Sanders, "Limitations on Practical Quantum Cryptography," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 1330 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997

A. Muller, T. Herzog, B. Huttner, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, "‘Plug and play’ systems for quantum cryptography," Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 793-795 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. D. Townsend, "Quantum cryptography on multi-user optical fibre networks," Nature 385, 47-49 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995

S. J. D. Phoenix, S. M. Barnett, P. D. Townsend, and K. J. Blow, "Multi-user quantum cryptography on optical networks," J. Mod. Opt. 72, 1155-1163 (1995).
[CrossRef]

B. Huttner, N. Imoto, N. Gisin, and T. Mor, "Quantum cryptography with coherent states," Phys. Rev. A 51, 1863 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994

P. D. Townsend, S.J.D. Phonenix, K. J. Blow, and S. M. Barnett, "Quantum cryptography for multi-user passive optical networks," Electron. Lett. 30, 1875-1877 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1926

G. S. Vernam, "Cipher printing telegraph system for secret wire and radio telegraph communications", J. Am. Inst. Electr. Eng. XLV,109-115 (1926).

Abe, J.

T. Nishioka, H. Ishizuka, T. Hasegawa, and J. Abe, "‘Circular type’ quantum key distribution," Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 576-578 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ardehali, M.

H.-K. Lo, H. F. Chau, and M. Ardehali, "Efficient Quantum Key Distribution Scheme and a Proof of Its Unconditional Security", J. Cryptology 18,133 (2005)).
[CrossRef]

Assche, G. V.

F. Grosshans, G. V. Assche, J. Wenger, R. Brouri, N. J. Cerf, and P. Grangier, "Quantum key distribution using Gaussian-modulated coherent states," Nature 421, 238-241 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bao, X.-H.

C.-Z. Peng, T. Yang, X.-H. Bao, J. Zhang, X.-M. Jin, F.-Y. Feng, B. Yang, J. Yang, J. Yin, Q. Zhang, N. Li, B.-L. Tian, and J.-W. Pan, "Experimental free-space distribution of entangled photon pairs over 13 km: towards satellite-based global quantum communication," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 150501 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barnett, S. M.

S. J. D. Phoenix, S. M. Barnett, P. D. Townsend, and K. J. Blow, "Multi-user quantum cryptography on optical networks," J. Mod. Opt. 72, 1155-1163 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. D. Townsend, S.J.D. Phonenix, K. J. Blow, and S. M. Barnett, "Quantum cryptography for multi-user passive optical networks," Electron. Lett. 30, 1875-1877 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bienfang, J.

X. Tang, L.-J. Ma, A. Mink, A. Nakassis, H. Xu, B. Hershman, J. Bienfang, D. Su, R. F. Boisvert, C. Clark, and C. Williams, "Demonstration of an active quantum key distribution network," Proc. SPIE 6305, 630506 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bienfang, J. C.

A. Nakassis, J. C. Bienfang, and C. J. Williams, "Expeditious reconciliation for practical quantum key distribution," Proc. SPIE 5436,28-35 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Blow, K. J.

S. J. D. Phoenix, S. M. Barnett, P. D. Townsend, and K. J. Blow, "Multi-user quantum cryptography on optical networks," J. Mod. Opt. 72, 1155-1163 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. D. Townsend, S.J.D. Phonenix, K. J. Blow, and S. M. Barnett, "Quantum cryptography for multi-user passive optical networks," Electron. Lett. 30, 1875-1877 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Boileau, J.-C.

T.-Y. Chen, J. Zhang, J.-C. Boileau, X.-M. Jin, B. Yang, Q. Zhang, T. Yang, R. Laflamme, and J. W. Pan, "Experimental quantum communication without a shared reference frame," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 150504 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boisvert, R. F.

X. Tang, L.-J. Ma, A. Mink, A. Nakassis, H. Xu, B. Hershman, J. Bienfang, D. Su, R. F. Boisvert, C. Clark, and C. Williams, "Demonstration of an active quantum key distribution network," Proc. SPIE 6305, 630506 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Brassard, G.

G. Brassard, N. Lutkenhaus, T. Mor and B. C. Sanders, "Limitations on Practical Quantum Cryptography," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 1330 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brouri, R.

F. Grosshans, G. V. Assche, J. Wenger, R. Brouri, N. J. Cerf, and P. Grangier, "Quantum key distribution using Gaussian-modulated coherent states," Nature 421, 238-241 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cerf, N. J.

F. Grosshans, G. V. Assche, J. Wenger, R. Brouri, N. J. Cerf, and P. Grangier, "Quantum key distribution using Gaussian-modulated coherent states," Nature 421, 238-241 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chau, H. F.

H.-K. Lo, H. F. Chau, and M. Ardehali, "Efficient Quantum Key Distribution Scheme and a Proof of Its Unconditional Security", J. Cryptology 18,133 (2005)).
[CrossRef]

Chen, K.

H.-K. Lo, X.-F. Ma, and K. Chen, "Decoy state quantum key distribution," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 230504 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, T.-Y.

T.-Y. Chen, J. Zhang, J.-C. Boileau, X.-M. Jin, B. Yang, Q. Zhang, T. Yang, R. Laflamme, and J. W. Pan, "Experimental quantum communication without a shared reference frame," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 150504 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Clark, C.

X. Tang, L.-J. Ma, A. Mink, A. Nakassis, H. Xu, B. Hershman, J. Bienfang, D. Su, R. F. Boisvert, C. Clark, and C. Williams, "Demonstration of an active quantum key distribution network," Proc. SPIE 6305, 630506 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Diamanti, E.

Dixon, A. R.

Z. L. Yuan, A. R. Dixon, J. F. Dynes, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, "Gigahertz quantum key distribution with InGaAs avalanche photodiodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92,201104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dynes, J. F.

Z. L. Yuan, A. R. Dixon, J. F. Dynes, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, "Gigahertz quantum key distribution with InGaAs avalanche photodiodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92,201104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Elliott, C.

C. Elliott, "Building the quantum network," New J. Phys. 4,46 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fejer, M. M.

Feng, F.-Y.

C.-Z. Peng, T. Yang, X.-H. Bao, J. Zhang, X.-M. Jin, F.-Y. Feng, B. Yang, J. Yang, J. Yin, Q. Zhang, N. Li, B.-L. Tian, and J.-W. Pan, "Experimental free-space distribution of entangled photon pairs over 13 km: towards satellite-based global quantum communication," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 150501 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Furst, M.

T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, M. Furst, R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Scheidl, J. Perdigues, Z. Sodnik, C. Kurtsiefer, J. G. Rarity, A. Zeilinger, and H. Weinfurter, "Experimental demonstration of free-space decoy-state quantum key distribution over 144 km," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 010504 (2007).
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C.-Z. Peng, J. Zhang, D. Yang, W.-B. Gao, H.-X. Ma, H. Yin, H.-P. Zeng, T. Yang, X.-B. Wang, and J.-W. Pan, "Experimental long-distance decoy-state quantum key distribution dased on polarization encoding," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 010505 (2007).
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A. Muller, T. Herzog, B. Huttner, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, "‘Plug and play’ systems for quantum cryptography," Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 793-795 (1997).
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C. Gobby, Z. L. Yuan, and A. J. Shields, "Quantum key distribution over 122 km of standard telecom fiber," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3762-3764 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gottesman, D.

D. Gottesman, H.-K. Lo, N. Lutkenhaus, and J. Preskill, "Security of quantum key distribution with imperfect devices," Quant. Inf. Comput. 5, 325-360 (2004).

Grangier, P.

F. Grosshans, G. V. Assche, J. Wenger, R. Brouri, N. J. Cerf, and P. Grangier, "Quantum key distribution using Gaussian-modulated coherent states," Nature 421, 238-241 (2003).
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F. Grosshans, G. V. Assche, J. Wenger, R. Brouri, N. J. Cerf, and P. Grangier, "Quantum key distribution using Gaussian-modulated coherent states," Nature 421, 238-241 (2003).
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H. Takesue, S. W. Nam, Q. Zhang, R. H. Hadfield, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, and Y. Yamamoto, "Quantum key distribution over a 40-dB channel loss using superconducting single-photon detectors," Nat. Photonics 1, 343-348 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Harrington, J. W.

D. Rosenberg, J. W. Harrington, P. R. Rice, P. A. Hiskett, C. G. Peterson, R. J. Hughes, A. E. Lita, S. W. Nam, and J. E. Nordholt, "Long-distance decoy-state quantum key distribution in optical fiber," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 010503 (2007).
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Hasegawa, T.

T. Nishioka, H. Ishizuka, T. Hasegawa, and J. Abe, "‘Circular type’ quantum key distribution," Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 576-578 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hershman, B.

X. Tang, L.-J. Ma, A. Mink, A. Nakassis, H. Xu, B. Hershman, J. Bienfang, D. Su, R. F. Boisvert, C. Clark, and C. Williams, "Demonstration of an active quantum key distribution network," Proc. SPIE 6305, 630506 (2006).
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Herzog, T.

A. Muller, T. Herzog, B. Huttner, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, "‘Plug and play’ systems for quantum cryptography," Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 793-795 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hiskett, P. A.

D. Rosenberg, J. W. Harrington, P. R. Rice, P. A. Hiskett, C. G. Peterson, R. J. Hughes, A. E. Lita, S. W. Nam, and J. E. Nordholt, "Long-distance decoy-state quantum key distribution in optical fiber," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 010503 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Honjo, T.

H. Takesue, S. W. Nam, Q. Zhang, R. H. Hadfield, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, and Y. Yamamoto, "Quantum key distribution over a 40-dB channel loss using superconducting single-photon detectors," Nat. Photonics 1, 343-348 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Honjo, K. Inoue, A. Sahara, E. Yamazaki, and H. Takahashi, "Quantum key distribution experiment through a PLC matrix switch," Opt. Commun. 263, 120-123 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hughes, R. J.

D. Rosenberg, J. W. Harrington, P. R. Rice, P. A. Hiskett, C. G. Peterson, R. J. Hughes, A. E. Lita, S. W. Nam, and J. E. Nordholt, "Long-distance decoy-state quantum key distribution in optical fiber," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 010503 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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A. Muller, T. Herzog, B. Huttner, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, "‘Plug and play’ systems for quantum cryptography," Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 793-795 (1997).
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B. Huttner, N. Imoto, N. Gisin, and T. Mor, "Quantum cryptography with coherent states," Phys. Rev. A 51, 1863 (1995).
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W. Y. Hwang, "Quantum key distribution with high loss: toward global secure communication," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 057901 (2003).
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B. Huttner, N. Imoto, N. Gisin, and T. Mor, "Quantum cryptography with coherent states," Phys. Rev. A 51, 1863 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Inamori, H.

H. Inamori, N. Ltkenhaus, and D. Mayers, "Unconditional security of practical quantum key distribution," Eur. Phys. J. D 41, 599-627 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Inoue, K.

T. Honjo, K. Inoue, A. Sahara, E. Yamazaki, and H. Takahashi, "Quantum key distribution experiment through a PLC matrix switch," Opt. Commun. 263, 120-123 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ishizuka, H.

T. Nishioka, H. Ishizuka, T. Hasegawa, and J. Abe, "‘Circular type’ quantum key distribution," Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 576-578 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Jin, X.-M.

T.-Y. Chen, J. Zhang, J.-C. Boileau, X.-M. Jin, B. Yang, Q. Zhang, T. Yang, R. Laflamme, and J. W. Pan, "Experimental quantum communication without a shared reference frame," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 150504 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C.-Z. Peng, T. Yang, X.-H. Bao, J. Zhang, X.-M. Jin, F.-Y. Feng, B. Yang, J. Yang, J. Yin, Q. Zhang, N. Li, B.-L. Tian, and J.-W. Pan, "Experimental free-space distribution of entangled photon pairs over 13 km: towards satellite-based global quantum communication," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 150501 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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T. Thew, S. Tanzilli, L. Krainer, S. C. Zeller, and A. A. Rochas, "Low jitter up-conversion detectors for telecom wavelength GHz QKD", I. Rech, S. Cova, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, New J. Phys. 8,32 (2006).

Kurtsiefer, C.

T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, M. Furst, R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Scheidl, J. Perdigues, Z. Sodnik, C. Kurtsiefer, J. G. Rarity, A. Zeilinger, and H. Weinfurter, "Experimental demonstration of free-space decoy-state quantum key distribution over 144 km," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 010504 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Laflamme, R.

T.-Y. Chen, J. Zhang, J.-C. Boileau, X.-M. Jin, B. Yang, Q. Zhang, T. Yang, R. Laflamme, and J. W. Pan, "Experimental quantum communication without a shared reference frame," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 150504 (2006).
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Langrock, C.

Li, N.

C.-Z. Peng, T. Yang, X.-H. Bao, J. Zhang, X.-M. Jin, F.-Y. Feng, B. Yang, J. Yang, J. Yin, Q. Zhang, N. Li, B.-L. Tian, and J.-W. Pan, "Experimental free-space distribution of entangled photon pairs over 13 km: towards satellite-based global quantum communication," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 150501 (2005).
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D. Rosenberg, J. W. Harrington, P. R. Rice, P. A. Hiskett, C. G. Peterson, R. J. Hughes, A. E. Lita, S. W. Nam, and J. E. Nordholt, "Long-distance decoy-state quantum key distribution in optical fiber," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 010503 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lo, H.-K.

Y. Zhao, B. Qi, X.-F. Ma, H.-K. Lo, and L. Qian, "Experimental quantum key distribution with decoy states," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 070502 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X.-F. Ma, B. Qi, Y. Zhao, and H.-K. Lo, "Practical decoy state for quantum key distribution," Phys. Rev. A 72,012326 (2005).
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H.-K. Lo, H. F. Chau, and M. Ardehali, "Efficient Quantum Key Distribution Scheme and a Proof of Its Unconditional Security", J. Cryptology 18,133 (2005)).
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H.-K. Lo, X.-F. Ma, and K. Chen, "Decoy state quantum key distribution," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 230504 (2005).
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D. Gottesman, H.-K. Lo, N. Lutkenhaus, and J. Preskill, "Security of quantum key distribution with imperfect devices," Quant. Inf. Comput. 5, 325-360 (2004).

Ltkenhaus, N.

H. Inamori, N. Ltkenhaus, and D. Mayers, "Unconditional security of practical quantum key distribution," Eur. Phys. J. D 41, 599-627 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lutkenhaus, N.

D. Gottesman, H.-K. Lo, N. Lutkenhaus, and J. Preskill, "Security of quantum key distribution with imperfect devices," Quant. Inf. Comput. 5, 325-360 (2004).

G. Brassard, N. Lutkenhaus, T. Mor and B. C. Sanders, "Limitations on Practical Quantum Cryptography," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 1330 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ma, H.-X.

C.-Z. Peng, J. Zhang, D. Yang, W.-B. Gao, H.-X. Ma, H. Yin, H.-P. Zeng, T. Yang, X.-B. Wang, and J.-W. Pan, "Experimental long-distance decoy-state quantum key distribution dased on polarization encoding," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 010505 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ma, L.-J.

X. Tang, L.-J. Ma, A. Mink, A. Nakassis, H. Xu, B. Hershman, J. Bienfang, D. Su, R. F. Boisvert, C. Clark, and C. Williams, "Demonstration of an active quantum key distribution network," Proc. SPIE 6305, 630506 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ma, X.-F.

Y. Zhao, B. Qi, X.-F. Ma, H.-K. Lo, and L. Qian, "Experimental quantum key distribution with decoy states," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 070502 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X.-F. Ma, B. Qi, Y. Zhao, and H.-K. Lo, "Practical decoy state for quantum key distribution," Phys. Rev. A 72,012326 (2005).
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H.-K. Lo, X.-F. Ma, and K. Chen, "Decoy state quantum key distribution," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 230504 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mayers, D.

H. Inamori, N. Ltkenhaus, and D. Mayers, "Unconditional security of practical quantum key distribution," Eur. Phys. J. D 41, 599-627 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mink, A.

X. Tang, L.-J. Ma, A. Mink, A. Nakassis, H. Xu, B. Hershman, J. Bienfang, D. Su, R. F. Boisvert, C. Clark, and C. Williams, "Demonstration of an active quantum key distribution network," Proc. SPIE 6305, 630506 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mor, T.

G. Brassard, N. Lutkenhaus, T. Mor and B. C. Sanders, "Limitations on Practical Quantum Cryptography," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 1330 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Huttner, N. Imoto, N. Gisin, and T. Mor, "Quantum cryptography with coherent states," Phys. Rev. A 51, 1863 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Muller, A.

A. Muller, T. Herzog, B. Huttner, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, "‘Plug and play’ systems for quantum cryptography," Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 793-795 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nakassis, A.

X. Tang, L.-J. Ma, A. Mink, A. Nakassis, H. Xu, B. Hershman, J. Bienfang, D. Su, R. F. Boisvert, C. Clark, and C. Williams, "Demonstration of an active quantum key distribution network," Proc. SPIE 6305, 630506 (2006).
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A. Nakassis, J. C. Bienfang, and C. J. Williams, "Expeditious reconciliation for practical quantum key distribution," Proc. SPIE 5436,28-35 (2004).
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Nam, S. W.

D. Rosenberg, J. W. Harrington, P. R. Rice, P. A. Hiskett, C. G. Peterson, R. J. Hughes, A. E. Lita, S. W. Nam, and J. E. Nordholt, "Long-distance decoy-state quantum key distribution in optical fiber," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 010503 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Takesue, S. W. Nam, Q. Zhang, R. H. Hadfield, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, and Y. Yamamoto, "Quantum key distribution over a 40-dB channel loss using superconducting single-photon detectors," Nat. Photonics 1, 343-348 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nishioka, T.

T. Nishioka, H. Ishizuka, T. Hasegawa, and J. Abe, "‘Circular type’ quantum key distribution," Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 576-578 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nordholt, J. E.

D. Rosenberg, J. W. Harrington, P. R. Rice, P. A. Hiskett, C. G. Peterson, R. J. Hughes, A. E. Lita, S. W. Nam, and J. E. Nordholt, "Long-distance decoy-state quantum key distribution in optical fiber," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 010503 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pan, J. W.

T.-Y. Chen, J. Zhang, J.-C. Boileau, X.-M. Jin, B. Yang, Q. Zhang, T. Yang, R. Laflamme, and J. W. Pan, "Experimental quantum communication without a shared reference frame," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 150504 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pan, J.-W.

C.-Z. Peng, J. Zhang, D. Yang, W.-B. Gao, H.-X. Ma, H. Yin, H.-P. Zeng, T. Yang, X.-B. Wang, and J.-W. Pan, "Experimental long-distance decoy-state quantum key distribution dased on polarization encoding," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 010505 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C.-Z. Peng, T. Yang, X.-H. Bao, J. Zhang, X.-M. Jin, F.-Y. Feng, B. Yang, J. Yang, J. Yin, Q. Zhang, N. Li, B.-L. Tian, and J.-W. Pan, "Experimental free-space distribution of entangled photon pairs over 13 km: towards satellite-based global quantum communication," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 150501 (2005).
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Peng, C.-Z.

C.-Z. Peng, J. Zhang, D. Yang, W.-B. Gao, H.-X. Ma, H. Yin, H.-P. Zeng, T. Yang, X.-B. Wang, and J.-W. Pan, "Experimental long-distance decoy-state quantum key distribution dased on polarization encoding," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 010505 (2007).
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C.-Z. Peng, T. Yang, X.-H. Bao, J. Zhang, X.-M. Jin, F.-Y. Feng, B. Yang, J. Yang, J. Yin, Q. Zhang, N. Li, B.-L. Tian, and J.-W. Pan, "Experimental free-space distribution of entangled photon pairs over 13 km: towards satellite-based global quantum communication," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 150501 (2005).
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Perdigues, J.

T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, M. Furst, R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Scheidl, J. Perdigues, Z. Sodnik, C. Kurtsiefer, J. G. Rarity, A. Zeilinger, and H. Weinfurter, "Experimental demonstration of free-space decoy-state quantum key distribution over 144 km," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 010504 (2007).
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Peterson, C. G.

D. Rosenberg, J. W. Harrington, P. R. Rice, P. A. Hiskett, C. G. Peterson, R. J. Hughes, A. E. Lita, S. W. Nam, and J. E. Nordholt, "Long-distance decoy-state quantum key distribution in optical fiber," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 010503 (2007).
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S. J. D. Phoenix, S. M. Barnett, P. D. Townsend, and K. J. Blow, "Multi-user quantum cryptography on optical networks," J. Mod. Opt. 72, 1155-1163 (1995).
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Preskill, J.

D. Gottesman, H.-K. Lo, N. Lutkenhaus, and J. Preskill, "Security of quantum key distribution with imperfect devices," Quant. Inf. Comput. 5, 325-360 (2004).

Qi, B.

Y. Zhao, B. Qi, X.-F. Ma, H.-K. Lo, and L. Qian, "Experimental quantum key distribution with decoy states," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 070502 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X.-F. Ma, B. Qi, Y. Zhao, and H.-K. Lo, "Practical decoy state for quantum key distribution," Phys. Rev. A 72,012326 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Qian, L.

Y. Zhao, B. Qi, X.-F. Ma, H.-K. Lo, and L. Qian, "Experimental quantum key distribution with decoy states," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 070502 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rarity, J. G.

T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, M. Furst, R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Scheidl, J. Perdigues, Z. Sodnik, C. Kurtsiefer, J. G. Rarity, A. Zeilinger, and H. Weinfurter, "Experimental demonstration of free-space decoy-state quantum key distribution over 144 km," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 010504 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rice, P. R.

D. Rosenberg, J. W. Harrington, P. R. Rice, P. A. Hiskett, C. G. Peterson, R. J. Hughes, A. E. Lita, S. W. Nam, and J. E. Nordholt, "Long-distance decoy-state quantum key distribution in optical fiber," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 010503 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rochas, A. A.

T. Thew, S. Tanzilli, L. Krainer, S. C. Zeller, and A. A. Rochas, "Low jitter up-conversion detectors for telecom wavelength GHz QKD", I. Rech, S. Cova, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, New J. Phys. 8,32 (2006).

Rosenberg, D.

D. Rosenberg, J. W. Harrington, P. R. Rice, P. A. Hiskett, C. G. Peterson, R. J. Hughes, A. E. Lita, S. W. Nam, and J. E. Nordholt, "Long-distance decoy-state quantum key distribution in optical fiber," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 010503 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sahara, A.

T. Honjo, K. Inoue, A. Sahara, E. Yamazaki, and H. Takahashi, "Quantum key distribution experiment through a PLC matrix switch," Opt. Commun. 263, 120-123 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sanders, B. C.

G. Brassard, N. Lutkenhaus, T. Mor and B. C. Sanders, "Limitations on Practical Quantum Cryptography," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 1330 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scheidl, T.

T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, M. Furst, R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Scheidl, J. Perdigues, Z. Sodnik, C. Kurtsiefer, J. G. Rarity, A. Zeilinger, and H. Weinfurter, "Experimental demonstration of free-space decoy-state quantum key distribution over 144 km," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 010504 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmitt-Manderbach, T.

T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, M. Furst, R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Scheidl, J. Perdigues, Z. Sodnik, C. Kurtsiefer, J. G. Rarity, A. Zeilinger, and H. Weinfurter, "Experimental demonstration of free-space decoy-state quantum key distribution over 144 km," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 010504 (2007).
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Sharpe, A. W.

Z. L. Yuan, A. R. Dixon, J. F. Dynes, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, "Gigahertz quantum key distribution with InGaAs avalanche photodiodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92,201104 (2008).
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Sharpe, A.W.

Z. L. Yuan, A.W. Sharpe, and A.J. Shields, "Unconditionally secure one-way quantum key distribution using decoy pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 011118 (2007).
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Shields, A. J.

Z. L. Yuan, A. R. Dixon, J. F. Dynes, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, "Gigahertz quantum key distribution with InGaAs avalanche photodiodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92,201104 (2008).
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C. Gobby, Z. L. Yuan, and A. J. Shields, "Quantum key distribution over 122 km of standard telecom fiber," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3762-3764 (2004).
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Shields, A.J.

Z. L. Yuan, A.W. Sharpe, and A.J. Shields, "Unconditionally secure one-way quantum key distribution using decoy pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 011118 (2007).
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Sodnik, Z.

T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, M. Furst, R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Scheidl, J. Perdigues, Z. Sodnik, C. Kurtsiefer, J. G. Rarity, A. Zeilinger, and H. Weinfurter, "Experimental demonstration of free-space decoy-state quantum key distribution over 144 km," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 010504 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Su, D.

X. Tang, L.-J. Ma, A. Mink, A. Nakassis, H. Xu, B. Hershman, J. Bienfang, D. Su, R. F. Boisvert, C. Clark, and C. Williams, "Demonstration of an active quantum key distribution network," Proc. SPIE 6305, 630506 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, H.

T. Honjo, K. Inoue, A. Sahara, E. Yamazaki, and H. Takahashi, "Quantum key distribution experiment through a PLC matrix switch," Opt. Commun. 263, 120-123 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Takesue, H.

H. Takesue, S. W. Nam, Q. Zhang, R. H. Hadfield, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, and Y. Yamamoto, "Quantum key distribution over a 40-dB channel loss using superconducting single-photon detectors," Nat. Photonics 1, 343-348 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. Diamanti, H. Takesue, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, and Y. Yamamoto, "100 km differential phase shift quantum key distribution experiment with low jitter up-conversion detectors", Opt. Express 14,13073 (2006).
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Tamaki, K.

H. Takesue, S. W. Nam, Q. Zhang, R. H. Hadfield, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, and Y. Yamamoto, "Quantum key distribution over a 40-dB channel loss using superconducting single-photon detectors," Nat. Photonics 1, 343-348 (2007).
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Tang, X.

X. Tang, L.-J. Ma, A. Mink, A. Nakassis, H. Xu, B. Hershman, J. Bienfang, D. Su, R. F. Boisvert, C. Clark, and C. Williams, "Demonstration of an active quantum key distribution network," Proc. SPIE 6305, 630506 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tanzilli, S.

T. Thew, S. Tanzilli, L. Krainer, S. C. Zeller, and A. A. Rochas, "Low jitter up-conversion detectors for telecom wavelength GHz QKD", I. Rech, S. Cova, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, New J. Phys. 8,32 (2006).

Thew, T.

T. Thew, S. Tanzilli, L. Krainer, S. C. Zeller, and A. A. Rochas, "Low jitter up-conversion detectors for telecom wavelength GHz QKD", I. Rech, S. Cova, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, New J. Phys. 8,32 (2006).

Tian, B.-L.

C.-Z. Peng, T. Yang, X.-H. Bao, J. Zhang, X.-M. Jin, F.-Y. Feng, B. Yang, J. Yang, J. Yin, Q. Zhang, N. Li, B.-L. Tian, and J.-W. Pan, "Experimental free-space distribution of entangled photon pairs over 13 km: towards satellite-based global quantum communication," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 150501 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tiefenbacher, F.

T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, M. Furst, R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Scheidl, J. Perdigues, Z. Sodnik, C. Kurtsiefer, J. G. Rarity, A. Zeilinger, and H. Weinfurter, "Experimental demonstration of free-space decoy-state quantum key distribution over 144 km," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 010504 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tittel, W.

A. Muller, T. Herzog, B. Huttner, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, "‘Plug and play’ systems for quantum cryptography," Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 793-795 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Townsend, P. D.

P. D. Townsend, "Quantum cryptography on multi-user optical fibre networks," Nature 385, 47-49 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. J. D. Phoenix, S. M. Barnett, P. D. Townsend, and K. J. Blow, "Multi-user quantum cryptography on optical networks," J. Mod. Opt. 72, 1155-1163 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. D. Townsend, S.J.D. Phonenix, K. J. Blow, and S. M. Barnett, "Quantum cryptography for multi-user passive optical networks," Electron. Lett. 30, 1875-1877 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ursin, R.

T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, M. Furst, R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Scheidl, J. Perdigues, Z. Sodnik, C. Kurtsiefer, J. G. Rarity, A. Zeilinger, and H. Weinfurter, "Experimental demonstration of free-space decoy-state quantum key distribution over 144 km," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 010504 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vernam, G. S.

G. S. Vernam, "Cipher printing telegraph system for secret wire and radio telegraph communications", J. Am. Inst. Electr. Eng. XLV,109-115 (1926).

Wang, X.-B.

C.-Z. Peng, J. Zhang, D. Yang, W.-B. Gao, H.-X. Ma, H. Yin, H.-P. Zeng, T. Yang, X.-B. Wang, and J.-W. Pan, "Experimental long-distance decoy-state quantum key distribution dased on polarization encoding," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 010505 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X.-B. Wang, "Decoy-state protocol for quantum cryptography with four different intensities of coherent light," Phys. Rev. A 72,012322 (2005).
[CrossRef]

X.-B. Wang, "Beating the photon-number-splitting attack in practical quantum cryptography," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 230503 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weier, H.

T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, M. Furst, R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Scheidl, J. Perdigues, Z. Sodnik, C. Kurtsiefer, J. G. Rarity, A. Zeilinger, and H. Weinfurter, "Experimental demonstration of free-space decoy-state quantum key distribution over 144 km," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 010504 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weinfurter, H.

T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, M. Furst, R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Scheidl, J. Perdigues, Z. Sodnik, C. Kurtsiefer, J. G. Rarity, A. Zeilinger, and H. Weinfurter, "Experimental demonstration of free-space decoy-state quantum key distribution over 144 km," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 010504 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wenger, J.

F. Grosshans, G. V. Assche, J. Wenger, R. Brouri, N. J. Cerf, and P. Grangier, "Quantum key distribution using Gaussian-modulated coherent states," Nature 421, 238-241 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Williams, C.

X. Tang, L.-J. Ma, A. Mink, A. Nakassis, H. Xu, B. Hershman, J. Bienfang, D. Su, R. F. Boisvert, C. Clark, and C. Williams, "Demonstration of an active quantum key distribution network," Proc. SPIE 6305, 630506 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Williams, C. J.

A. Nakassis, J. C. Bienfang, and C. J. Williams, "Expeditious reconciliation for practical quantum key distribution," Proc. SPIE 5436,28-35 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Xu, H.

X. Tang, L.-J. Ma, A. Mink, A. Nakassis, H. Xu, B. Hershman, J. Bienfang, D. Su, R. F. Boisvert, C. Clark, and C. Williams, "Demonstration of an active quantum key distribution network," Proc. SPIE 6305, 630506 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, Y.

H. Takesue, S. W. Nam, Q. Zhang, R. H. Hadfield, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, and Y. Yamamoto, "Quantum key distribution over a 40-dB channel loss using superconducting single-photon detectors," Nat. Photonics 1, 343-348 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. Diamanti, H. Takesue, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, and Y. Yamamoto, "100 km differential phase shift quantum key distribution experiment with low jitter up-conversion detectors", Opt. Express 14,13073 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yamazaki, E.

T. Honjo, K. Inoue, A. Sahara, E. Yamazaki, and H. Takahashi, "Quantum key distribution experiment through a PLC matrix switch," Opt. Commun. 263, 120-123 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yang, B.

T.-Y. Chen, J. Zhang, J.-C. Boileau, X.-M. Jin, B. Yang, Q. Zhang, T. Yang, R. Laflamme, and J. W. Pan, "Experimental quantum communication without a shared reference frame," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 150504 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C.-Z. Peng, T. Yang, X.-H. Bao, J. Zhang, X.-M. Jin, F.-Y. Feng, B. Yang, J. Yang, J. Yin, Q. Zhang, N. Li, B.-L. Tian, and J.-W. Pan, "Experimental free-space distribution of entangled photon pairs over 13 km: towards satellite-based global quantum communication," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 150501 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, D.

C.-Z. Peng, J. Zhang, D. Yang, W.-B. Gao, H.-X. Ma, H. Yin, H.-P. Zeng, T. Yang, X.-B. Wang, and J.-W. Pan, "Experimental long-distance decoy-state quantum key distribution dased on polarization encoding," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 010505 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, J.

C.-Z. Peng, T. Yang, X.-H. Bao, J. Zhang, X.-M. Jin, F.-Y. Feng, B. Yang, J. Yang, J. Yin, Q. Zhang, N. Li, B.-L. Tian, and J.-W. Pan, "Experimental free-space distribution of entangled photon pairs over 13 km: towards satellite-based global quantum communication," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 150501 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, T.

C.-Z. Peng, J. Zhang, D. Yang, W.-B. Gao, H.-X. Ma, H. Yin, H.-P. Zeng, T. Yang, X.-B. Wang, and J.-W. Pan, "Experimental long-distance decoy-state quantum key distribution dased on polarization encoding," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 010505 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T.-Y. Chen, J. Zhang, J.-C. Boileau, X.-M. Jin, B. Yang, Q. Zhang, T. Yang, R. Laflamme, and J. W. Pan, "Experimental quantum communication without a shared reference frame," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 150504 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C.-Z. Peng, T. Yang, X.-H. Bao, J. Zhang, X.-M. Jin, F.-Y. Feng, B. Yang, J. Yang, J. Yin, Q. Zhang, N. Li, B.-L. Tian, and J.-W. Pan, "Experimental free-space distribution of entangled photon pairs over 13 km: towards satellite-based global quantum communication," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 150501 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yin, H.

C.-Z. Peng, J. Zhang, D. Yang, W.-B. Gao, H.-X. Ma, H. Yin, H.-P. Zeng, T. Yang, X.-B. Wang, and J.-W. Pan, "Experimental long-distance decoy-state quantum key distribution dased on polarization encoding," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 010505 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yin, J.

C.-Z. Peng, T. Yang, X.-H. Bao, J. Zhang, X.-M. Jin, F.-Y. Feng, B. Yang, J. Yang, J. Yin, Q. Zhang, N. Li, B.-L. Tian, and J.-W. Pan, "Experimental free-space distribution of entangled photon pairs over 13 km: towards satellite-based global quantum communication," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 150501 (2005).
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Yuan, Z. L.

Z. L. Yuan, A. R. Dixon, J. F. Dynes, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, "Gigahertz quantum key distribution with InGaAs avalanche photodiodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92,201104 (2008).
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Z. L. Yuan, A.W. Sharpe, and A.J. Shields, "Unconditionally secure one-way quantum key distribution using decoy pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 011118 (2007).
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C. Gobby, Z. L. Yuan, and A. J. Shields, "Quantum key distribution over 122 km of standard telecom fiber," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3762-3764 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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A. Muller, T. Herzog, B. Huttner, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, "‘Plug and play’ systems for quantum cryptography," Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 793-795 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Zeilinger, A.

T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, M. Furst, R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Scheidl, J. Perdigues, Z. Sodnik, C. Kurtsiefer, J. G. Rarity, A. Zeilinger, and H. Weinfurter, "Experimental demonstration of free-space decoy-state quantum key distribution over 144 km," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 010504 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zeller, S. C.

T. Thew, S. Tanzilli, L. Krainer, S. C. Zeller, and A. A. Rochas, "Low jitter up-conversion detectors for telecom wavelength GHz QKD", I. Rech, S. Cova, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, New J. Phys. 8,32 (2006).

Zeng, H.-P.

C.-Z. Peng, J. Zhang, D. Yang, W.-B. Gao, H.-X. Ma, H. Yin, H.-P. Zeng, T. Yang, X.-B. Wang, and J.-W. Pan, "Experimental long-distance decoy-state quantum key distribution dased on polarization encoding," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 010505 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, J.

C.-Z. Peng, J. Zhang, D. Yang, W.-B. Gao, H.-X. Ma, H. Yin, H.-P. Zeng, T. Yang, X.-B. Wang, and J.-W. Pan, "Experimental long-distance decoy-state quantum key distribution dased on polarization encoding," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 010505 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T.-Y. Chen, J. Zhang, J.-C. Boileau, X.-M. Jin, B. Yang, Q. Zhang, T. Yang, R. Laflamme, and J. W. Pan, "Experimental quantum communication without a shared reference frame," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 150504 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C.-Z. Peng, T. Yang, X.-H. Bao, J. Zhang, X.-M. Jin, F.-Y. Feng, B. Yang, J. Yang, J. Yin, Q. Zhang, N. Li, B.-L. Tian, and J.-W. Pan, "Experimental free-space distribution of entangled photon pairs over 13 km: towards satellite-based global quantum communication," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 150501 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, Q.

H. Takesue, S. W. Nam, Q. Zhang, R. H. Hadfield, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, and Y. Yamamoto, "Quantum key distribution over a 40-dB channel loss using superconducting single-photon detectors," Nat. Photonics 1, 343-348 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T.-Y. Chen, J. Zhang, J.-C. Boileau, X.-M. Jin, B. Yang, Q. Zhang, T. Yang, R. Laflamme, and J. W. Pan, "Experimental quantum communication without a shared reference frame," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 150504 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C.-Z. Peng, T. Yang, X.-H. Bao, J. Zhang, X.-M. Jin, F.-Y. Feng, B. Yang, J. Yang, J. Yin, Q. Zhang, N. Li, B.-L. Tian, and J.-W. Pan, "Experimental free-space distribution of entangled photon pairs over 13 km: towards satellite-based global quantum communication," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 150501 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhao, Y.

Y. Zhao, B. Qi, X.-F. Ma, H.-K. Lo, and L. Qian, "Experimental quantum key distribution with decoy states," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 070502 (2006).
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X.-F. Ma, B. Qi, Y. Zhao, and H.-K. Lo, "Practical decoy state for quantum key distribution," Phys. Rev. A 72,012326 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

A. Muller, T. Herzog, B. Huttner, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, "‘Plug and play’ systems for quantum cryptography," Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 793-795 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. Gobby, Z. L. Yuan, and A. J. Shields, "Quantum key distribution over 122 km of standard telecom fiber," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3762-3764 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Z. L. Yuan, A.W. Sharpe, and A.J. Shields, "Unconditionally secure one-way quantum key distribution using decoy pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 011118 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Z. L. Yuan, A. R. Dixon, J. F. Dynes, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, "Gigahertz quantum key distribution with InGaAs avalanche photodiodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92,201104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

P. D. Townsend, S.J.D. Phonenix, K. J. Blow, and S. M. Barnett, "Quantum cryptography for multi-user passive optical networks," Electron. Lett. 30, 1875-1877 (1994).
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Eur. Phys. J. D

H. Inamori, N. Ltkenhaus, and D. Mayers, "Unconditional security of practical quantum key distribution," Eur. Phys. J. D 41, 599-627 (2007).
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G. S. Vernam, "Cipher printing telegraph system for secret wire and radio telegraph communications", J. Am. Inst. Electr. Eng. XLV,109-115 (1926).

J. Cryptology

H.-K. Lo, H. F. Chau, and M. Ardehali, "Efficient Quantum Key Distribution Scheme and a Proof of Its Unconditional Security", J. Cryptology 18,133 (2005)).
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J. Mod. Opt.

S. J. D. Phoenix, S. M. Barnett, P. D. Townsend, and K. J. Blow, "Multi-user quantum cryptography on optical networks," J. Mod. Opt. 72, 1155-1163 (1995).
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Nat. Photonics

H. Takesue, S. W. Nam, Q. Zhang, R. H. Hadfield, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, and Y. Yamamoto, "Quantum key distribution over a 40-dB channel loss using superconducting single-photon detectors," Nat. Photonics 1, 343-348 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nature

F. Grosshans, G. V. Assche, J. Wenger, R. Brouri, N. J. Cerf, and P. Grangier, "Quantum key distribution using Gaussian-modulated coherent states," Nature 421, 238-241 (2003).
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New J. Phys.

C. Elliott, "Building the quantum network," New J. Phys. 4,46 (2002).
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T. Thew, S. Tanzilli, L. Krainer, S. C. Zeller, and A. A. Rochas, "Low jitter up-conversion detectors for telecom wavelength GHz QKD", I. Rech, S. Cova, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, New J. Phys. 8,32 (2006).

Opt. Commun.

T. Honjo, K. Inoue, A. Sahara, E. Yamazaki, and H. Takahashi, "Quantum key distribution experiment through a PLC matrix switch," Opt. Commun. 263, 120-123 (2006).
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Opt. Express

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Phys. Rev. Lett.

C.-Z. Peng, J. Zhang, D. Yang, W.-B. Gao, H.-X. Ma, H. Yin, H.-P. Zeng, T. Yang, X.-B. Wang, and J.-W. Pan, "Experimental long-distance decoy-state quantum key distribution dased on polarization encoding," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 010505 (2007).
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T.-Y. Chen, J. Zhang, J.-C. Boileau, X.-M. Jin, B. Yang, Q. Zhang, T. Yang, R. Laflamme, and J. W. Pan, "Experimental quantum communication without a shared reference frame," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 150504 (2006).
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Proc. SPIE

A. Nakassis, J. C. Bienfang, and C. J. Williams, "Expeditious reconciliation for practical quantum key distribution," Proc. SPIE 5436,28-35 (2004).
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X. Tang, L.-J. Ma, A. Mink, A. Nakassis, H. Xu, B. Hershman, J. Bienfang, D. Su, R. F. Boisvert, C. Clark, and C. Williams, "Demonstration of an active quantum key distribution network," Proc. SPIE 6305, 630506 (2006).
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Figures (2)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Chained network architecture of our quantum cryptography network. Two sets of decoy-state QKD systems are installed for Binhu-USTC link and USTC-Xinglin link, respectively. The QKD systems have been updated in a large degree to match seamless integration with real-time audio communication by using one-time pad encryption, among the three nodes. The red dashed line indicates the fiber running out of the map.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Sketch of the experimental setup for one QKD-link. With a random choice of measurement basis controlled by the phase modulator at the MZ interferometer in Bob’s side, Bob has 1/2 probability to have correct basis choice. Both sides can then obtain sifted keys after comparison, which are used for further error correction, privacy amplification according to decoy state QKD mechanism. The classical communication channel is realized via a standard TCP/IP connection in our setup. Here, IM (PM): intensity (phase) modulator; BS: beam splitter; AT: controllable attenuator; SYN: synchronized signal; PC: polarization controller; PS: phase shifter; D: single-photon detector; PBS: polarizing beam splitter.

Tables (2)

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Table 1. Measured specification for QKD network system

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Table 2. Measured and derived specification for decoy state system

Equations (6)

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R q { Q μ f ( E μ ) H 2 ( E μ ) + Q 1 [ 1 H 2 ( e 1 ) ] } ,
Q 1 Q 1 L = μ 2 e μ μv v 2 ( Q v L e v Q μ e μ v 2 μ 2 Y 0 U μ 2 v 2 μ 2 ) ,
e 1 e 1 U = E μ Q μ Y 0 L e μ / 2 Q 1 L ,
Q v L = Q v ( 1 10 N v Q v ) ,
Y 0 L = Y 0 ( 1 10 N 0 Y 0 ) ,
Y 0 U = Y 0 ( 1 + 10 N 0 Y 0 ) ,

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