Abstract

A novel in-fiber structure for power-referenced refractometry with the capability to measure surrounding refractive index (SRI) as low as 1.33 is proposed and demonstrated. A short optical fiber stub containing a weakly tilted Bragg grating is spliced to another fiber with a large lateral offset. The reflection from this structure occurs in two well-defined wavelength bands, the Bragg reflected core mode and the cladding modes. The cladding modes reflect different amounts of power as the SRI changes, while the core-mode reflection from the same weakly tilted FBG remains unaffected by the SRI. The power reflected in the core mode band can be used as a reliable reference to cancel out any possible power fluctuations. The proposed refractometer with improved sensitivity for low SRI measurement together with the tip-reflection sensing feature, is a good candidate for sensing in chemical and biological applications.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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2008 (4)

2007 (6)

2006 (3)

Q. Wang and G. Farrell, "All-fiber multimode-interference-based refractometer sensor: proposal and design," Opt. Lett. 31, 317-319 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. C. P. Huy, G. Laffont, Y. Frignac, V. Dewynter-Marty, P. Ferdinand, P. Roy, J. M. Blondy, D. Pagnoux, W. Blanc, and B. Dussardier, "Fibre Bragg grating photowriting in microstructured optical fibres for refractive index measurement," Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 992-997 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. C. P. Huy, G. Laffont, V. Dewynter, P. Ferdinand, L. Labonté, D. Pagnoux, P. Roy, W. Blanc, and B. Dussardier, "Tilted Fiber Bragg Grating photowritten in microstructured optical fiber for improved refractive index measurement," Opt. Express 14, 10360-10370 (2006).

2005 (5)

W. Liang, Y. Y. Huang, Y. Xu, R. K. Lee, and A. Yariv, "Highly sensitive fiber Bragg grating refractive index sensors," App. Phys. Lett. 86, 151122 (2005).
[CrossRef]

X. F. Chen, K. M. Zhou, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, "Optical chemsensor based on etched tilted Bragg grating structures in multimode fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 664-666 (2005).

A. N. Chryssis, S. M. Lee, S. B. Lee, S. S. Saini, and M. Dagenais, "High sensitivity evanescent field fiber Bragg grating sensor," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1253-1255 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Iadicicco, A. Cusano, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, and M. Giordano, "Thinned fiber Bragg gratings as refractive index sensors," IEEE Sens. J. 5, 1288-1295 (2005).
[CrossRef]

I. D. Villar, I. R. Matias, and F. J. Arregui, "Enhancement of sensitivity in long-period fiber gratings with deposition of low-refractive index materials," Opt. Lett. 30, 2363-2365 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

G. Laffont and P. Ferdinand, "Tilted short-period fibre-Bragg-grating-induced coupling to cladding modes for accurate refractometry," Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 765-770 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

Albert, J.

Allsop, T.

Arregui, F. J.

Auguste, J.

Bang, O.

Barrios, C. A.

Bennion, I.

T. Allsop, R. Neal, S. Rehman, D. J. Webb, D. Mapps, and I. Bennion, "Generation of infrared surface plasmon resonances with high refractive index sensitivity utilizing tilted fiber Bragg gratings," Appl. Opt. 46, 5456-5460 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. F. Chen, K. M. Zhou, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, "Optical chemsensor based on etched tilted Bragg grating structures in multimode fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 664-666 (2005).

Blanc, W.

M. C. P. Huy, G. Laffont, V. Dewynter, P. Ferdinand, P. Roy, J. Auguste, D. Pagnoux, W. Blanc, and B. Dussardier, "Three-hole microstructured optical fiber for efficient fiber Bragg grating refractometer," Opt. Lett. 32, 2390-2392 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. C. P. Huy, G. Laffont, Y. Frignac, V. Dewynter-Marty, P. Ferdinand, P. Roy, J. M. Blondy, D. Pagnoux, W. Blanc, and B. Dussardier, "Fibre Bragg grating photowriting in microstructured optical fibres for refractive index measurement," Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 992-997 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. C. P. Huy, G. Laffont, V. Dewynter, P. Ferdinand, L. Labonté, D. Pagnoux, P. Roy, W. Blanc, and B. Dussardier, "Tilted Fiber Bragg Grating photowritten in microstructured optical fiber for improved refractive index measurement," Opt. Express 14, 10360-10370 (2006).

Blondy, J. M.

M. C. P. Huy, G. Laffont, Y. Frignac, V. Dewynter-Marty, P. Ferdinand, P. Roy, J. M. Blondy, D. Pagnoux, W. Blanc, and B. Dussardier, "Fibre Bragg grating photowriting in microstructured optical fibres for refractive index measurement," Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 992-997 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Brambilla, G.

Bucholtz, F.

Campopiano, S.

A. Iadicicco, A. Cusano, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, and M. Giordano, "Thinned fiber Bragg gratings as refractive index sensors," IEEE Sens. J. 5, 1288-1295 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Casquel, R.

Chan, C. F.

Chen, C.

Chen, X. F.

X. F. Chen, K. M. Zhou, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, "Optical chemsensor based on etched tilted Bragg grating structures in multimode fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 664-666 (2005).

Chryssis, A. N.

A. N. Chryssis, S. M. Lee, S. B. Lee, S. S. Saini, and M. Dagenais, "High sensitivity evanescent field fiber Bragg grating sensor," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1253-1255 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cusano, A.

A. Iadicicco, A. Cusano, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, and M. Giordano, "Thinned fiber Bragg gratings as refractive index sensors," IEEE Sens. J. 5, 1288-1295 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cutolo, A.

A. Iadicicco, A. Cusano, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, and M. Giordano, "Thinned fiber Bragg gratings as refractive index sensors," IEEE Sens. J. 5, 1288-1295 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dagenais, M.

A. N. Chryssis, S. M. Lee, S. B. Lee, S. S. Saini, and M. Dagenais, "High sensitivity evanescent field fiber Bragg grating sensor," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1253-1255 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dewynter, V.

M. C. P. Huy, G. Laffont, V. Dewynter, P. Ferdinand, P. Roy, J. Auguste, D. Pagnoux, W. Blanc, and B. Dussardier, "Three-hole microstructured optical fiber for efficient fiber Bragg grating refractometer," Opt. Lett. 32, 2390-2392 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. C. P. Huy, G. Laffont, V. Dewynter, P. Ferdinand, L. Labonté, D. Pagnoux, P. Roy, W. Blanc, and B. Dussardier, "Tilted Fiber Bragg Grating photowritten in microstructured optical fiber for improved refractive index measurement," Opt. Express 14, 10360-10370 (2006).

Dewynter-Marty, V.

M. C. P. Huy, G. Laffont, Y. Frignac, V. Dewynter-Marty, P. Ferdinand, P. Roy, J. M. Blondy, D. Pagnoux, W. Blanc, and B. Dussardier, "Fibre Bragg grating photowriting in microstructured optical fibres for refractive index measurement," Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 992-997 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ðonlagic´, D.

Dussardier, B.

M. C. P. Huy, G. Laffont, V. Dewynter, P. Ferdinand, P. Roy, J. Auguste, D. Pagnoux, W. Blanc, and B. Dussardier, "Three-hole microstructured optical fiber for efficient fiber Bragg grating refractometer," Opt. Lett. 32, 2390-2392 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. C. P. Huy, G. Laffont, Y. Frignac, V. Dewynter-Marty, P. Ferdinand, P. Roy, J. M. Blondy, D. Pagnoux, W. Blanc, and B. Dussardier, "Fibre Bragg grating photowriting in microstructured optical fibres for refractive index measurement," Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 992-997 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. C. P. Huy, G. Laffont, V. Dewynter, P. Ferdinand, L. Labonté, D. Pagnoux, P. Roy, W. Blanc, and B. Dussardier, "Tilted Fiber Bragg Grating photowritten in microstructured optical fiber for improved refractive index measurement," Opt. Express 14, 10360-10370 (2006).

Farrell, G.

Ferdinand, P.

M. C. P. Huy, G. Laffont, V. Dewynter, P. Ferdinand, P. Roy, J. Auguste, D. Pagnoux, W. Blanc, and B. Dussardier, "Three-hole microstructured optical fiber for efficient fiber Bragg grating refractometer," Opt. Lett. 32, 2390-2392 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. C. P. Huy, G. Laffont, Y. Frignac, V. Dewynter-Marty, P. Ferdinand, P. Roy, J. M. Blondy, D. Pagnoux, W. Blanc, and B. Dussardier, "Fibre Bragg grating photowriting in microstructured optical fibres for refractive index measurement," Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 992-997 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. C. P. Huy, G. Laffont, V. Dewynter, P. Ferdinand, L. Labonté, D. Pagnoux, P. Roy, W. Blanc, and B. Dussardier, "Tilted Fiber Bragg Grating photowritten in microstructured optical fiber for improved refractive index measurement," Opt. Express 14, 10360-10370 (2006).

G. Laffont and P. Ferdinand, "Tilted short-period fibre-Bragg-grating-induced coupling to cladding modes for accurate refractometry," Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 765-770 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Finazzi, V.

Frignac, Y.

M. C. P. Huy, G. Laffont, Y. Frignac, V. Dewynter-Marty, P. Ferdinand, P. Roy, J. M. Blondy, D. Pagnoux, W. Blanc, and B. Dussardier, "Fibre Bragg grating photowriting in microstructured optical fibres for refractive index measurement," Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 992-997 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Giordano, M.

A. Iadicicco, A. Cusano, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, and M. Giordano, "Thinned fiber Bragg gratings as refractive index sensors," IEEE Sens. J. 5, 1288-1295 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Griol, A.

Guo, T.

T. Guo, C. Chen, A. Laronche, and J. Albert, "Power-referenced and temperature-calibrated optical fiber refractometer," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 635-637 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Guo, A. Ivanov, C. Chen, and J. Albert, "Temperature-independent tilted fiber grating vibration sensor based on cladding-core recoupling," Opt. Lett. 33, 1004-1007 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gylfason, K. B.

Holgado, M.

Huang, Y. Y.

W. Liang, Y. Y. Huang, Y. Xu, R. K. Lee, and A. Yariv, "Highly sensitive fiber Bragg grating refractive index sensors," App. Phys. Lett. 86, 151122 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Huy, M. C. P.

M. C. P. Huy, G. Laffont, V. Dewynter, P. Ferdinand, P. Roy, J. Auguste, D. Pagnoux, W. Blanc, and B. Dussardier, "Three-hole microstructured optical fiber for efficient fiber Bragg grating refractometer," Opt. Lett. 32, 2390-2392 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. C. P. Huy, G. Laffont, Y. Frignac, V. Dewynter-Marty, P. Ferdinand, P. Roy, J. M. Blondy, D. Pagnoux, W. Blanc, and B. Dussardier, "Fibre Bragg grating photowriting in microstructured optical fibres for refractive index measurement," Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 992-997 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. C. P. Huy, G. Laffont, V. Dewynter, P. Ferdinand, L. Labonté, D. Pagnoux, P. Roy, W. Blanc, and B. Dussardier, "Tilted Fiber Bragg Grating photowritten in microstructured optical fiber for improved refractive index measurement," Opt. Express 14, 10360-10370 (2006).

Iadicicco, A.

A. Iadicicco, A. Cusano, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, and M. Giordano, "Thinned fiber Bragg gratings as refractive index sensors," IEEE Sens. J. 5, 1288-1295 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ivanov, A.

Jafari, A.

Kersey, A. D.

Kežmah, M.

Labonté, L.

M. C. P. Huy, G. Laffont, V. Dewynter, P. Ferdinand, L. Labonté, D. Pagnoux, P. Roy, W. Blanc, and B. Dussardier, "Tilted Fiber Bragg Grating photowritten in microstructured optical fiber for improved refractive index measurement," Opt. Express 14, 10360-10370 (2006).

Laffont, G.

M. C. P. Huy, G. Laffont, V. Dewynter, P. Ferdinand, P. Roy, J. Auguste, D. Pagnoux, W. Blanc, and B. Dussardier, "Three-hole microstructured optical fiber for efficient fiber Bragg grating refractometer," Opt. Lett. 32, 2390-2392 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. C. P. Huy, G. Laffont, Y. Frignac, V. Dewynter-Marty, P. Ferdinand, P. Roy, J. M. Blondy, D. Pagnoux, W. Blanc, and B. Dussardier, "Fibre Bragg grating photowriting in microstructured optical fibres for refractive index measurement," Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 992-997 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. C. P. Huy, G. Laffont, V. Dewynter, P. Ferdinand, L. Labonté, D. Pagnoux, P. Roy, W. Blanc, and B. Dussardier, "Tilted Fiber Bragg Grating photowritten in microstructured optical fiber for improved refractive index measurement," Opt. Express 14, 10360-10370 (2006).

G. Laffont and P. Ferdinand, "Tilted short-period fibre-Bragg-grating-induced coupling to cladding modes for accurate refractometry," Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 765-770 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Laronche, A.

T. Guo, C. Chen, A. Laronche, and J. Albert, "Power-referenced and temperature-calibrated optical fiber refractometer," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 635-637 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. F. Chan, C. Chen, A. Jafari, A. Laronche, D. J. Thomson, and J. Albert, "Optical fiber refractometer using narrowband cladding-mode resonance shifts," Appl. Opt. 46, 1142-1149 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, R. K.

W. Liang, Y. Y. Huang, Y. Xu, R. K. Lee, and A. Yariv, "Highly sensitive fiber Bragg grating refractive index sensors," App. Phys. Lett. 86, 151122 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. B.

A. N. Chryssis, S. M. Lee, S. B. Lee, S. S. Saini, and M. Dagenais, "High sensitivity evanescent field fiber Bragg grating sensor," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1253-1255 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. M.

A. N. Chryssis, S. M. Lee, S. B. Lee, S. S. Saini, and M. Dagenais, "High sensitivity evanescent field fiber Bragg grating sensor," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1253-1255 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Liang, W.

W. Liang, Y. Y. Huang, Y. Xu, R. K. Lee, and A. Yariv, "Highly sensitive fiber Bragg grating refractive index sensors," App. Phys. Lett. 86, 151122 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mapps, D.

Matias, I. R.

Neal, R.

Pagnoux, D.

M. C. P. Huy, G. Laffont, V. Dewynter, P. Ferdinand, P. Roy, J. Auguste, D. Pagnoux, W. Blanc, and B. Dussardier, "Three-hole microstructured optical fiber for efficient fiber Bragg grating refractometer," Opt. Lett. 32, 2390-2392 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. C. P. Huy, G. Laffont, Y. Frignac, V. Dewynter-Marty, P. Ferdinand, P. Roy, J. M. Blondy, D. Pagnoux, W. Blanc, and B. Dussardier, "Fibre Bragg grating photowriting in microstructured optical fibres for refractive index measurement," Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 992-997 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. C. P. Huy, G. Laffont, V. Dewynter, P. Ferdinand, L. Labonté, D. Pagnoux, P. Roy, W. Blanc, and B. Dussardier, "Tilted Fiber Bragg Grating photowritten in microstructured optical fiber for improved refractive index measurement," Opt. Express 14, 10360-10370 (2006).

Patrick, H. J.

Pruneri, V.

Rehman, S.

Rindorf, L.

Roy, P.

M. C. P. Huy, G. Laffont, V. Dewynter, P. Ferdinand, P. Roy, J. Auguste, D. Pagnoux, W. Blanc, and B. Dussardier, "Three-hole microstructured optical fiber for efficient fiber Bragg grating refractometer," Opt. Lett. 32, 2390-2392 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. C. P. Huy, G. Laffont, Y. Frignac, V. Dewynter-Marty, P. Ferdinand, P. Roy, J. M. Blondy, D. Pagnoux, W. Blanc, and B. Dussardier, "Fibre Bragg grating photowriting in microstructured optical fibres for refractive index measurement," Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 992-997 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. C. P. Huy, G. Laffont, V. Dewynter, P. Ferdinand, L. Labonté, D. Pagnoux, P. Roy, W. Blanc, and B. Dussardier, "Tilted Fiber Bragg Grating photowritten in microstructured optical fiber for improved refractive index measurement," Opt. Express 14, 10360-10370 (2006).

Saini, S. S.

A. N. Chryssis, S. M. Lee, S. B. Lee, S. S. Saini, and M. Dagenais, "High sensitivity evanescent field fiber Bragg grating sensor," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1253-1255 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sánchez, B.

Shevchenko, Y. Y.

Sohlström, H.

Thomson, D. J.

Villar, I. D.

Wang, Q.

Webb, D. J.

Xu, F.

Xu, Y.

W. Liang, Y. Y. Huang, Y. Xu, R. K. Lee, and A. Yariv, "Highly sensitive fiber Bragg grating refractive index sensors," App. Phys. Lett. 86, 151122 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yariv, A.

W. Liang, Y. Y. Huang, Y. Xu, R. K. Lee, and A. Yariv, "Highly sensitive fiber Bragg grating refractive index sensors," App. Phys. Lett. 86, 151122 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, L.

X. F. Chen, K. M. Zhou, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, "Optical chemsensor based on etched tilted Bragg grating structures in multimode fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 664-666 (2005).

Zhou, K. M.

X. F. Chen, K. M. Zhou, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, "Optical chemsensor based on etched tilted Bragg grating structures in multimode fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 664-666 (2005).

App. Phys. Lett. (1)

W. Liang, Y. Y. Huang, Y. Xu, R. K. Lee, and A. Yariv, "Highly sensitive fiber Bragg grating refractive index sensors," App. Phys. Lett. 86, 151122 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (3)

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (3)

X. F. Chen, K. M. Zhou, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, "Optical chemsensor based on etched tilted Bragg grating structures in multimode fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 664-666 (2005).

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[CrossRef]

T. Guo, C. Chen, A. Laronche, and J. Albert, "Power-referenced and temperature-calibrated optical fiber refractometer," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 635-637 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Sens. J. (1)

A. Iadicicco, A. Cusano, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, and M. Giordano, "Thinned fiber Bragg gratings as refractive index sensors," IEEE Sens. J. 5, 1288-1295 (2005).
[CrossRef]

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Meas. Sci. Technol. (2)

M. C. P. Huy, G. Laffont, Y. Frignac, V. Dewynter-Marty, P. Ferdinand, P. Roy, J. M. Blondy, D. Pagnoux, W. Blanc, and B. Dussardier, "Fibre Bragg grating photowriting in microstructured optical fibres for refractive index measurement," Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 992-997 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Laffont and P. Ferdinand, "Tilted short-period fibre-Bragg-grating-induced coupling to cladding modes for accurate refractometry," Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 765-770 (2001).
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F. Xu, V. Pruneri, V. Finazzi, and G. Brambilla, "An embedded optical nanowire loop resonator refractometric sensor," Opt. Express 16, 1062-1067 (2008).
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M. C. P. Huy, G. Laffont, V. Dewynter, P. Ferdinand, L. Labonté, D. Pagnoux, P. Roy, W. Blanc, and B. Dussardier, "Tilted Fiber Bragg Grating photowritten in microstructured optical fiber for improved refractive index measurement," Opt. Express 14, 10360-10370 (2006).

Opt. Lett. (7)

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic diagram of over-offset TFBG refractometer

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Photographs of the over-offset splicing process (a) 19.5 μm pre-offset before splicing and (b) 7.8 μm core-core misalignment after splicing

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Reflection spectra of TFBG (6°) before and after misaligned splicing, where the slight offset and strong offset correspond to the core-core misalignment of 1.6 μm and 7.8 μm, respectively, after splicing.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Spectral response of TFBG versus SRI.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

TFBG reflection power versus SRI, with separate power detection for the core-guided Bragg reflected mode (PB) and the recoupled cladding modes (PC).

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Normalized power output for SRI measurement with an improved sensitivity in lower SRI.

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