Abstract

We report two-photon photocurrent in a GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum well laser at 1.55μm. Using 1ps pulses, a purely quadratic photocurrent is observed. We measure the device efficiency, sensitivity, as well as the two-photon absorption coefficient. The results show that the device has potential for signal processing, autocorrelation and possibly two-photon source applications at sub-Watt power levels.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. F. Liu, K. M. Yoo, and R. R. Alfano, "Ultrafast laser pulse transmission and imaging through biological tissues," Appl. Opt. 32, 554-558 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. P. Xi, Y. Andegeko, L. R. Weisel, V. V. Lozovoy, and M. Dantus, "Greater signal, increased depth, and less photobleaching in two-photon microscopy with 10 fs pulses," Opt. Commun. 281, 1841-1849 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  3. R. Huber, A. Brodschelm, F. Tauser, and A. Leitenstorfer, "Generation and field-resolved detection of femtosecond electromagnetic pulses tunable up to 41 THz," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 3191-3193 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  4. S. T. Cundiff and J. Ye, "Colloquium: Femtosecond optical frequency combs," Rev. Mod. Phys. 75, 325-342 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. K. Ranka, A. L. Gaeta, A. Baltuska, M. S. Pshenichnikov, and D. A. Wiersma, "Autocorrelation measurement of 6-fs pulses based on the two-photon-induced photocurrent in a GaAsP photodiode," Opt. Lett. 22, 1344-1346 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. Radic, D. J. Moss, and B. J. Eggleton, "Nonlinear Optics in Communications: From Crippling Impairment to Ultrafast Tools," in Optical Fiber Telecommunications V: Components and Sub-systems, I. P. Kaminow, T. Li, and A. E. Willner, ed., (Academic Press, Oxford, UK, 2008), Chap. 20.
    [CrossRef]
  7. P. J. Maguire, L. P. Barry, T. Krug, W. H. Guo, J. O’Dowd, M. Lynch, A. L. Bradley, J. F. Donegan and H. Folliot, "Optical signal processing via two-photon absorption in a semiconductor microcavity for the next generation of high-speed optical communications network," J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 2683-2692 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  8. C. Dorrer, "High-speed measurements for optical telecommunication systems," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 843-858 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  9. S. Wielandy, M. Fishteyn, and B. Zhu, "Optical performance monitoring using nonlinear detection," J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 784-793 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  10. H. K. Tsang, R. S. Grant, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, J. B. D. Soole, E. Colas, H. P. Leblanc, N. C. Andreadakis, M. S. Kims and W. Sibbett, "GaAs/GaAlAs multiquantum well waveguides for all-optical switching at 1.55 μm," Electron. Lett. 27, 1993-1995 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  11. Z. Zheng, A. M. Weiner, J. H. Marsh, and M. M. Karkhanehchi, "Ultrafast optical thresholding based on two-photon absorption GaAs waveguide photodetectors," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 493-495 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  12. R. Salem, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, G. F. Geraghty, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, "Signal regeneration using low-power four-wave mixing on silicon chip," Nat. Photonics 2, 35-38 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  13. Y. Takagi, T. Kobayashi, K. Yoshihara, and S. Imamura, "Multiple-shot and single-shot sutocorrelator based on 2-photon conductivity in semiconductors," Opt. Lett. 17, 658-660 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. F. R. Laughton, J. H. Marsh, and A. H. Kean, "Very sensitive two-photon absorption GaAs/AlGaAs waveguide detector for an autocorrelator," Electron. Lett. 28, 1663-1665 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  15. F. R. Laughton, J. H. Marsh, D. A. Barrow, and E. L. Portnoi, "The two-photon absorption semiconductor waveguide autocorrelator," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 838-845 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  16. H. K. Tsang, L. Y. Chan, J. B. D. Soole, H. P. LeBlanc, M. A. Koza, and R. Bhat, "High sensitivity autocorrelation using two-photon absorption in InGaAsP waveguides," Electron. Lett. 31, 1773-1775 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  17. H. Schneider, T. Maier, H. C. Liu, and M. Walther, "Two-photon photocurrent autocorrelation using intersubband transitions at nearly-resonant excitation," Opt. Express 16, 1523-1528 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. F. Chatenoud, K. Dzurko, M. Dion, D. J. Moss, R. Barber, and D. Landheer, "GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum well lasers for monolithic integration with optical modulators," Can. J. Phys. 69, 491-496 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  19. D. Moss, F. Chatenoud, S. Charbonneau, A. Delage, D. Landheer, and R. Barber, "Laser compatible waveguide modulators," Can. J. Phys. 69, 497-507 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  20. D. J. Moss, D. Landheer, D. Halliday, S. Charbonneau, R. Barber, F. Chatenoud and D. Conn, "High speed photodetection in a reverse biased GaAs/AlGaAs GRINSCH SQW laser structure," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 609-611 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  21. D. Moss, D. Landheer, A. Delage, F. Chatenoud, and M. Dion, "Laser compatible waveguide electroabsorption modulator with high contrast and low operating voltage in GaAs/AlGaAs," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 645-647 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  22. A. M. Fox, D. A. B. Miller, G. Livescu, J. E. Cunningham and W. Y. Jan, "Quantum-well carrier sweep out - relation to electroabsorption and exciton saturation," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 2281-2295 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  23. T. H. Wood, J. Z. Pastalan, C. A. Burrus, Jr., B. C. Johnson, B. I. Miller, J. L. deMiguel, U. Koren and M. G. Young, "Electric-field screening by photogenerated holes in multiple quantum wells - A new mechanism for absorption saturation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 1081-1083 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  24. D. J. Moss, T. Ido, and H. Sano, "Calculation of photogenerated carrier escape times in GaAs/AlGaAs quantum wells," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1015-1026 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  25. D. P. Halliday, D. Moss, S. Charbonneau, G. Aers, F. Chatenoud, and D. Landheer, "Time resolved photo luminescence studies in a reverse biased QW laser structure," Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 2497-2499 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  26. T. Ido, H. Sano, S. Tanaka, D. J. Moss, and H. Inoue, "Performance of strained InGaAs/InAlAs multiple-quantum-well electroabsorption modulators," J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 2324 -2331 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  27. T. Ido, H. Sano, D. J. Moss, S. Tanaka and A. Takai, "Strained InGaAs/InAlAs MQW electroabsorption modulators with large bandwidth and low driving voltage," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 1207-1209 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  28. D. J. Moss, T. Ido, and H. Sano, "Photogenerated carrier sweep out times in strained InxGa1-xAs/InyAs1-yAs quantum well waveguide modulators at λ=1.55 μm," Electron. Lett. 30, 405-406 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  29. D. J. Moss, M. Aoki, and H. Sano, "Comparison of photoconductive response times of InGaAs/InAlAs and InGaAs/InGaAsP MQW waveguide modulators," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 33,328-330 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  30. J. S. Aitchison, D. C. Hutchings, J. U. Kang, G. I. Stegeman, and A. Villeneuve, "The nonlinear optical properties of AlGaAs at the half band gap," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 341-348 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  31. A. Villeneuve, C. C. Yang, G. I. Stegeman, C. N. Ironside, G. Scelsi, and R. M. Osgood, "Nonlinear absorption in a GaAs waveguide just above half the band gap," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1172-1175 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  32. H. M. van Driel, "Semiconductor optics - On the path to entanglement," Nat. Photonics 2, 212-213 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  33. A. Larsson, P. A. Andrekson, S. T. Eng and A. Yariv, "Tunable superlattice p-i-n photodetectors: characteristics, theory, and applications," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 787-801 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  34. N. Holonyak, R. M. Kolbas, R. D. Dupuis and P. D. Dapkus, "Quantum-well heterostructure lasers," IEEE. J. Quantum Electron. 16, 170-186 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  35. A. Yariv and P. Yeh, Photonics: optical electronics in modern communications, (Oxford University Press, New York, 2006).
  36. D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. H. Wood and C. A. Burrus, "Band-edge elecroabsorption in quantum well structures: the quantum confined stark effect," Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 2173-2176 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  37. M. N. Islam, C. E. Soccolich, R. E. Slusher, A. F. J. Levi, W. S. Hobson and M. G. Young, "Nonlinear spectroscopy near half-gap in bulk and quantum well GaAs/AlGaAs waveguides," J. Appl. Phys. 71,1927-1935 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  38. A. D. Lad, P. P. Kiran, D. More, G. R. Kumar, and S. Mahamuni, "Two-photon absorption in ZnSe and ZnSe/ZnS core/shell quantum structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 043126 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  39. H.-S. Chen, S.-L. Liu, and C. C. Yang, "Enhancement of multi-photon processes with carrier injection in a GaAs/AlGaAs quantum well laser structure," Opt. Commun. 235, 163-167 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  40. A. Shimizu, T. Ogawa and H. Sakaki, "Two-photon absorption spectra of quasi-low-dimensional exciton systems," Phys. Rev. B 45, 11339-11341 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  41. J. B. Khurgin, "Nonlinear response of the semiconductor quantum-confined structures near and below the middle of the bandgap," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 624-631 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  42. H. Folliot, M. Lynch, A. L. Bradley, T. Krug, L. A. Dunbar, J. Hegarty, and J. F. Donegan and L. P. Barry, "Two-photon-induced photoconductivity enhancement in semiconductor microcavities: a theoretical investigation," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 2396-2402 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  43. F. R. Laughton, J. H. Marsh and J. S. Roberts, "Intuitive model to include the effect of free-carrier absorption in calculating the two-photon absorption coefficient," Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 166-168 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  44. A. Villeneuve, C. C. Yang, G. I. Stegeman, C.-H. Lin, and H.-H. Lin, "Nonlinear refractive-index and two photon-absorption near half the band gap in AlGaAs," Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 2465-2467 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  45. C. C. Yang, A. Villeneuve, G. I. Stegeman, C.-H. Lin, and H.-H. Lin, "Anisotropic Two-Photon Transitions in GaAs/AlGaAs Multiple Quantum Well Waveguides," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 2934-2939 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  46. D. T. Reid, W. Sibbett, J. M. Dudley, L. P. Barry, B. Thomsen, and J. D. Harvey, "Commercial semiconductor devices for two photon absorption autocorrelation of ultrashort light pulses," Opt. Photonics News 9, 8142-8144 (1998).
  47. T. K. Liang, H. K. Tsang, I. E. Day, J. Drake, A. P. Knights, and M. Asghari, "Silicon waveguide two-photon absorption detector at 1.5 μm wavelength for autocorrelation measurements," Appl. Phys. Lett 81, 1323-1325 (2002).
    [CrossRef]

2008

H. M. van Driel, "Semiconductor optics - On the path to entanglement," Nat. Photonics 2, 212-213 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. D. Lad, P. P. Kiran, D. More, G. R. Kumar, and S. Mahamuni, "Two-photon absorption in ZnSe and ZnSe/ZnS core/shell quantum structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 043126 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Xi, Y. Andegeko, L. R. Weisel, V. V. Lozovoy, and M. Dantus, "Greater signal, increased depth, and less photobleaching in two-photon microscopy with 10 fs pulses," Opt. Commun. 281, 1841-1849 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Salem, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, G. F. Geraghty, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, "Signal regeneration using low-power four-wave mixing on silicon chip," Nat. Photonics 2, 35-38 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Schneider, T. Maier, H. C. Liu, and M. Walther, "Two-photon photocurrent autocorrelation using intersubband transitions at nearly-resonant excitation," Opt. Express 16, 1523-1528 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

2004

S. Wielandy, M. Fishteyn, and B. Zhu, "Optical performance monitoring using nonlinear detection," J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 784-793 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H.-S. Chen, S.-L. Liu, and C. C. Yang, "Enhancement of multi-photon processes with carrier injection in a GaAs/AlGaAs quantum well laser structure," Opt. Commun. 235, 163-167 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

S. T. Cundiff and J. Ye, "Colloquium: Femtosecond optical frequency combs," Rev. Mod. Phys. 75, 325-342 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

H. Folliot, M. Lynch, A. L. Bradley, T. Krug, L. A. Dunbar, J. Hegarty, and J. F. Donegan and L. P. Barry, "Two-photon-induced photoconductivity enhancement in semiconductor microcavities: a theoretical investigation," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 2396-2402 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. K. Liang, H. K. Tsang, I. E. Day, J. Drake, A. P. Knights, and M. Asghari, "Silicon waveguide two-photon absorption detector at 1.5 μm wavelength for autocorrelation measurements," Appl. Phys. Lett 81, 1323-1325 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000

R. Huber, A. Brodschelm, F. Tauser, and A. Leitenstorfer, "Generation and field-resolved detection of femtosecond electromagnetic pulses tunable up to 41 THz," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 3191-3193 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998

D. T. Reid, W. Sibbett, J. M. Dudley, L. P. Barry, B. Thomsen, and J. D. Harvey, "Commercial semiconductor devices for two photon absorption autocorrelation of ultrashort light pulses," Opt. Photonics News 9, 8142-8144 (1998).

1997

J. K. Ranka, A. L. Gaeta, A. Baltuska, M. S. Pshenichnikov, and D. A. Wiersma, "Autocorrelation measurement of 6-fs pulses based on the two-photon-induced photocurrent in a GaAsP photodiode," Opt. Lett. 22, 1344-1346 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Z. Zheng, A. M. Weiner, J. H. Marsh, and M. M. Karkhanehchi, "Ultrafast optical thresholding based on two-photon absorption GaAs waveguide photodetectors," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 493-495 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Aitchison, D. C. Hutchings, J. U. Kang, G. I. Stegeman, and A. Villeneuve, "The nonlinear optical properties of AlGaAs at the half band gap," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 341-348 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

T. Ido, H. Sano, S. Tanaka, D. J. Moss, and H. Inoue, "Performance of strained InGaAs/InAlAs multiple-quantum-well electroabsorption modulators," J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 2324 -2331 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

H. K. Tsang, L. Y. Chan, J. B. D. Soole, H. P. LeBlanc, M. A. Koza, and R. Bhat, "High sensitivity autocorrelation using two-photon absorption in InGaAsP waveguides," Electron. Lett. 31, 1773-1775 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

F. R. Laughton, J. H. Marsh, D. A. Barrow, and E. L. Portnoi, "The two-photon absorption semiconductor waveguide autocorrelator," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 838-845 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T. Ido, H. Sano, D. J. Moss, S. Tanaka and A. Takai, "Strained InGaAs/InAlAs MQW electroabsorption modulators with large bandwidth and low driving voltage," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 1207-1209 (1994).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Moss, T. Ido, and H. Sano, "Photogenerated carrier sweep out times in strained InxGa1-xAs/InyAs1-yAs quantum well waveguide modulators at λ=1.55 μm," Electron. Lett. 30, 405-406 (1994).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Moss, M. Aoki, and H. Sano, "Comparison of photoconductive response times of InGaAs/InAlAs and InGaAs/InGaAsP MQW waveguide modulators," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 33,328-330 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. Villeneuve, C. C. Yang, G. I. Stegeman, C. N. Ironside, G. Scelsi, and R. M. Osgood, "Nonlinear absorption in a GaAs waveguide just above half the band gap," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1172-1175 (1994).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Moss, T. Ido, and H. Sano, "Calculation of photogenerated carrier escape times in GaAs/AlGaAs quantum wells," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1015-1026 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Khurgin, "Nonlinear response of the semiconductor quantum-confined structures near and below the middle of the bandgap," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 624-631 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

F. Liu, K. M. Yoo, and R. R. Alfano, "Ultrafast laser pulse transmission and imaging through biological tissues," Appl. Opt. 32, 554-558 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Villeneuve, C. C. Yang, G. I. Stegeman, C.-H. Lin, and H.-H. Lin, "Nonlinear refractive-index and two photon-absorption near half the band gap in AlGaAs," Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 2465-2467 (1993).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Yang, A. Villeneuve, G. I. Stegeman, C.-H. Lin, and H.-H. Lin, "Anisotropic Two-Photon Transitions in GaAs/AlGaAs Multiple Quantum Well Waveguides," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 2934-2939 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992

F. R. Laughton, J. H. Marsh and J. S. Roberts, "Intuitive model to include the effect of free-carrier absorption in calculating the two-photon absorption coefficient," Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 166-168 (1992).
[CrossRef]

F. R. Laughton, J. H. Marsh, and A. H. Kean, "Very sensitive two-photon absorption GaAs/AlGaAs waveguide detector for an autocorrelator," Electron. Lett. 28, 1663-1665 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. Shimizu, T. Ogawa and H. Sakaki, "Two-photon absorption spectra of quasi-low-dimensional exciton systems," Phys. Rev. B 45, 11339-11341 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. N. Islam, C. E. Soccolich, R. E. Slusher, A. F. J. Levi, W. S. Hobson and M. G. Young, "Nonlinear spectroscopy near half-gap in bulk and quantum well GaAs/AlGaAs waveguides," J. Appl. Phys. 71,1927-1935 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. P. Halliday, D. Moss, S. Charbonneau, G. Aers, F. Chatenoud, and D. Landheer, "Time resolved photo luminescence studies in a reverse biased QW laser structure," Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 2497-2499 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Moss, D. Landheer, D. Halliday, S. Charbonneau, R. Barber, F. Chatenoud and D. Conn, "High speed photodetection in a reverse biased GaAs/AlGaAs GRINSCH SQW laser structure," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 609-611 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Y. Takagi, T. Kobayashi, K. Yoshihara, and S. Imamura, "Multiple-shot and single-shot sutocorrelator based on 2-photon conductivity in semiconductors," Opt. Lett. 17, 658-660 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991

D. Moss, D. Landheer, A. Delage, F. Chatenoud, and M. Dion, "Laser compatible waveguide electroabsorption modulator with high contrast and low operating voltage in GaAs/AlGaAs," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 645-647 (1991).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Fox, D. A. B. Miller, G. Livescu, J. E. Cunningham and W. Y. Jan, "Quantum-well carrier sweep out - relation to electroabsorption and exciton saturation," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 2281-2295 (1991).
[CrossRef]

F. Chatenoud, K. Dzurko, M. Dion, D. J. Moss, R. Barber, and D. Landheer, "GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum well lasers for monolithic integration with optical modulators," Can. J. Phys. 69, 491-496 (1991).
[CrossRef]

D. Moss, F. Chatenoud, S. Charbonneau, A. Delage, D. Landheer, and R. Barber, "Laser compatible waveguide modulators," Can. J. Phys. 69, 497-507 (1991).
[CrossRef]

H. K. Tsang, R. S. Grant, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, J. B. D. Soole, E. Colas, H. P. Leblanc, N. C. Andreadakis, M. S. Kims and W. Sibbett, "GaAs/GaAlAs multiquantum well waveguides for all-optical switching at 1.55 μm," Electron. Lett. 27, 1993-1995 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990

T. H. Wood, J. Z. Pastalan, C. A. Burrus, Jr., B. C. Johnson, B. I. Miller, J. L. deMiguel, U. Koren and M. G. Young, "Electric-field screening by photogenerated holes in multiple quantum wells - A new mechanism for absorption saturation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 1081-1083 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1988

A. Larsson, P. A. Andrekson, S. T. Eng and A. Yariv, "Tunable superlattice p-i-n photodetectors: characteristics, theory, and applications," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 787-801 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1984

D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. H. Wood and C. A. Burrus, "Band-edge elecroabsorption in quantum well structures: the quantum confined stark effect," Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 2173-2176 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1980

N. Holonyak, R. M. Kolbas, R. D. Dupuis and P. D. Dapkus, "Quantum-well heterostructure lasers," IEEE. J. Quantum Electron. 16, 170-186 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Aers, G.

D. P. Halliday, D. Moss, S. Charbonneau, G. Aers, F. Chatenoud, and D. Landheer, "Time resolved photo luminescence studies in a reverse biased QW laser structure," Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 2497-2499 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Aitchison, J. S.

J. S. Aitchison, D. C. Hutchings, J. U. Kang, G. I. Stegeman, and A. Villeneuve, "The nonlinear optical properties of AlGaAs at the half band gap," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 341-348 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Alfano, R. R.

Andegeko, Y.

P. Xi, Y. Andegeko, L. R. Weisel, V. V. Lozovoy, and M. Dantus, "Greater signal, increased depth, and less photobleaching in two-photon microscopy with 10 fs pulses," Opt. Commun. 281, 1841-1849 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Andreadakis, N. C.

H. K. Tsang, R. S. Grant, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, J. B. D. Soole, E. Colas, H. P. Leblanc, N. C. Andreadakis, M. S. Kims and W. Sibbett, "GaAs/GaAlAs multiquantum well waveguides for all-optical switching at 1.55 μm," Electron. Lett. 27, 1993-1995 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Andrekson, P. A.

A. Larsson, P. A. Andrekson, S. T. Eng and A. Yariv, "Tunable superlattice p-i-n photodetectors: characteristics, theory, and applications," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 787-801 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Aoki, M.

D. J. Moss, M. Aoki, and H. Sano, "Comparison of photoconductive response times of InGaAs/InAlAs and InGaAs/InGaAsP MQW waveguide modulators," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 33,328-330 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Asghari, M.

T. K. Liang, H. K. Tsang, I. E. Day, J. Drake, A. P. Knights, and M. Asghari, "Silicon waveguide two-photon absorption detector at 1.5 μm wavelength for autocorrelation measurements," Appl. Phys. Lett 81, 1323-1325 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Baltuska, A.

Barber, R.

D. J. Moss, D. Landheer, D. Halliday, S. Charbonneau, R. Barber, F. Chatenoud and D. Conn, "High speed photodetection in a reverse biased GaAs/AlGaAs GRINSCH SQW laser structure," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 609-611 (1992).
[CrossRef]

F. Chatenoud, K. Dzurko, M. Dion, D. J. Moss, R. Barber, and D. Landheer, "GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum well lasers for monolithic integration with optical modulators," Can. J. Phys. 69, 491-496 (1991).
[CrossRef]

D. Moss, F. Chatenoud, S. Charbonneau, A. Delage, D. Landheer, and R. Barber, "Laser compatible waveguide modulators," Can. J. Phys. 69, 497-507 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Barrow, D. A.

F. R. Laughton, J. H. Marsh, D. A. Barrow, and E. L. Portnoi, "The two-photon absorption semiconductor waveguide autocorrelator," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 838-845 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Barry, L. P.

Bhat, R.

H. K. Tsang, L. Y. Chan, J. B. D. Soole, H. P. LeBlanc, M. A. Koza, and R. Bhat, "High sensitivity autocorrelation using two-photon absorption in InGaAsP waveguides," Electron. Lett. 31, 1773-1775 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bradley, A. L.

Brodschelm, A.

R. Huber, A. Brodschelm, F. Tauser, and A. Leitenstorfer, "Generation and field-resolved detection of femtosecond electromagnetic pulses tunable up to 41 THz," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 3191-3193 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Burrus, C. A.

T. H. Wood, J. Z. Pastalan, C. A. Burrus, Jr., B. C. Johnson, B. I. Miller, J. L. deMiguel, U. Koren and M. G. Young, "Electric-field screening by photogenerated holes in multiple quantum wells - A new mechanism for absorption saturation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 1081-1083 (1990).
[CrossRef]

D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. H. Wood and C. A. Burrus, "Band-edge elecroabsorption in quantum well structures: the quantum confined stark effect," Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 2173-2176 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Chan, L. Y.

H. K. Tsang, L. Y. Chan, J. B. D. Soole, H. P. LeBlanc, M. A. Koza, and R. Bhat, "High sensitivity autocorrelation using two-photon absorption in InGaAsP waveguides," Electron. Lett. 31, 1773-1775 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Charbonneau, S.

D. J. Moss, D. Landheer, D. Halliday, S. Charbonneau, R. Barber, F. Chatenoud and D. Conn, "High speed photodetection in a reverse biased GaAs/AlGaAs GRINSCH SQW laser structure," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 609-611 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. P. Halliday, D. Moss, S. Charbonneau, G. Aers, F. Chatenoud, and D. Landheer, "Time resolved photo luminescence studies in a reverse biased QW laser structure," Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 2497-2499 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. Moss, F. Chatenoud, S. Charbonneau, A. Delage, D. Landheer, and R. Barber, "Laser compatible waveguide modulators," Can. J. Phys. 69, 497-507 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Chatenoud, F.

D. P. Halliday, D. Moss, S. Charbonneau, G. Aers, F. Chatenoud, and D. Landheer, "Time resolved photo luminescence studies in a reverse biased QW laser structure," Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 2497-2499 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Moss, D. Landheer, D. Halliday, S. Charbonneau, R. Barber, F. Chatenoud and D. Conn, "High speed photodetection in a reverse biased GaAs/AlGaAs GRINSCH SQW laser structure," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 609-611 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. Moss, D. Landheer, A. Delage, F. Chatenoud, and M. Dion, "Laser compatible waveguide electroabsorption modulator with high contrast and low operating voltage in GaAs/AlGaAs," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 645-647 (1991).
[CrossRef]

D. Moss, F. Chatenoud, S. Charbonneau, A. Delage, D. Landheer, and R. Barber, "Laser compatible waveguide modulators," Can. J. Phys. 69, 497-507 (1991).
[CrossRef]

F. Chatenoud, K. Dzurko, M. Dion, D. J. Moss, R. Barber, and D. Landheer, "GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum well lasers for monolithic integration with optical modulators," Can. J. Phys. 69, 491-496 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Chemla, D. S.

D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. H. Wood and C. A. Burrus, "Band-edge elecroabsorption in quantum well structures: the quantum confined stark effect," Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 2173-2176 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H.-S.

H.-S. Chen, S.-L. Liu, and C. C. Yang, "Enhancement of multi-photon processes with carrier injection in a GaAs/AlGaAs quantum well laser structure," Opt. Commun. 235, 163-167 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Colas, E.

H. K. Tsang, R. S. Grant, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, J. B. D. Soole, E. Colas, H. P. Leblanc, N. C. Andreadakis, M. S. Kims and W. Sibbett, "GaAs/GaAlAs multiquantum well waveguides for all-optical switching at 1.55 μm," Electron. Lett. 27, 1993-1995 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Conn, D.

D. J. Moss, D. Landheer, D. Halliday, S. Charbonneau, R. Barber, F. Chatenoud and D. Conn, "High speed photodetection in a reverse biased GaAs/AlGaAs GRINSCH SQW laser structure," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 609-611 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Cundiff, S. T.

S. T. Cundiff and J. Ye, "Colloquium: Femtosecond optical frequency combs," Rev. Mod. Phys. 75, 325-342 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cunningham, J. E.

A. M. Fox, D. A. B. Miller, G. Livescu, J. E. Cunningham and W. Y. Jan, "Quantum-well carrier sweep out - relation to electroabsorption and exciton saturation," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 2281-2295 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Damen, T. C.

D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. H. Wood and C. A. Burrus, "Band-edge elecroabsorption in quantum well structures: the quantum confined stark effect," Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 2173-2176 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Dantus, M.

P. Xi, Y. Andegeko, L. R. Weisel, V. V. Lozovoy, and M. Dantus, "Greater signal, increased depth, and less photobleaching in two-photon microscopy with 10 fs pulses," Opt. Commun. 281, 1841-1849 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dapkus, P. D.

N. Holonyak, R. M. Kolbas, R. D. Dupuis and P. D. Dapkus, "Quantum-well heterostructure lasers," IEEE. J. Quantum Electron. 16, 170-186 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Day, I. E.

T. K. Liang, H. K. Tsang, I. E. Day, J. Drake, A. P. Knights, and M. Asghari, "Silicon waveguide two-photon absorption detector at 1.5 μm wavelength for autocorrelation measurements," Appl. Phys. Lett 81, 1323-1325 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Delage, A.

D. Moss, F. Chatenoud, S. Charbonneau, A. Delage, D. Landheer, and R. Barber, "Laser compatible waveguide modulators," Can. J. Phys. 69, 497-507 (1991).
[CrossRef]

D. Moss, D. Landheer, A. Delage, F. Chatenoud, and M. Dion, "Laser compatible waveguide electroabsorption modulator with high contrast and low operating voltage in GaAs/AlGaAs," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 645-647 (1991).
[CrossRef]

deMiguel, J. L.

T. H. Wood, J. Z. Pastalan, C. A. Burrus, Jr., B. C. Johnson, B. I. Miller, J. L. deMiguel, U. Koren and M. G. Young, "Electric-field screening by photogenerated holes in multiple quantum wells - A new mechanism for absorption saturation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 1081-1083 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Dion, M.

D. Moss, D. Landheer, A. Delage, F. Chatenoud, and M. Dion, "Laser compatible waveguide electroabsorption modulator with high contrast and low operating voltage in GaAs/AlGaAs," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 645-647 (1991).
[CrossRef]

F. Chatenoud, K. Dzurko, M. Dion, D. J. Moss, R. Barber, and D. Landheer, "GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum well lasers for monolithic integration with optical modulators," Can. J. Phys. 69, 491-496 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Donegan, J. F.

Dorrer, C.

C. Dorrer, "High-speed measurements for optical telecommunication systems," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 843-858 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Drake, J.

T. K. Liang, H. K. Tsang, I. E. Day, J. Drake, A. P. Knights, and M. Asghari, "Silicon waveguide two-photon absorption detector at 1.5 μm wavelength for autocorrelation measurements," Appl. Phys. Lett 81, 1323-1325 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Dudley, J. M.

D. T. Reid, W. Sibbett, J. M. Dudley, L. P. Barry, B. Thomsen, and J. D. Harvey, "Commercial semiconductor devices for two photon absorption autocorrelation of ultrashort light pulses," Opt. Photonics News 9, 8142-8144 (1998).

Dunbar, L. A.

Dupuis, R. D.

N. Holonyak, R. M. Kolbas, R. D. Dupuis and P. D. Dapkus, "Quantum-well heterostructure lasers," IEEE. J. Quantum Electron. 16, 170-186 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Dzurko, K.

F. Chatenoud, K. Dzurko, M. Dion, D. J. Moss, R. Barber, and D. Landheer, "GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum well lasers for monolithic integration with optical modulators," Can. J. Phys. 69, 491-496 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Eng, S. T.

A. Larsson, P. A. Andrekson, S. T. Eng and A. Yariv, "Tunable superlattice p-i-n photodetectors: characteristics, theory, and applications," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 787-801 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Fishteyn, M.

Folliot, H.

Foster, M. A.

R. Salem, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, G. F. Geraghty, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, "Signal regeneration using low-power four-wave mixing on silicon chip," Nat. Photonics 2, 35-38 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fox, A. M.

A. M. Fox, D. A. B. Miller, G. Livescu, J. E. Cunningham and W. Y. Jan, "Quantum-well carrier sweep out - relation to electroabsorption and exciton saturation," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 2281-2295 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Gaeta, A. L.

R. Salem, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, G. F. Geraghty, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, "Signal regeneration using low-power four-wave mixing on silicon chip," Nat. Photonics 2, 35-38 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Ranka, A. L. Gaeta, A. Baltuska, M. S. Pshenichnikov, and D. A. Wiersma, "Autocorrelation measurement of 6-fs pulses based on the two-photon-induced photocurrent in a GaAsP photodiode," Opt. Lett. 22, 1344-1346 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Geraghty, G. F.

R. Salem, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, G. F. Geraghty, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, "Signal regeneration using low-power four-wave mixing on silicon chip," Nat. Photonics 2, 35-38 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gossard, A. C.

D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. H. Wood and C. A. Burrus, "Band-edge elecroabsorption in quantum well structures: the quantum confined stark effect," Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 2173-2176 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Grant, R. S.

H. K. Tsang, R. S. Grant, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, J. B. D. Soole, E. Colas, H. P. Leblanc, N. C. Andreadakis, M. S. Kims and W. Sibbett, "GaAs/GaAlAs multiquantum well waveguides for all-optical switching at 1.55 μm," Electron. Lett. 27, 1993-1995 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Guo, W. H.

Halliday, D.

D. J. Moss, D. Landheer, D. Halliday, S. Charbonneau, R. Barber, F. Chatenoud and D. Conn, "High speed photodetection in a reverse biased GaAs/AlGaAs GRINSCH SQW laser structure," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 609-611 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Halliday, D. P.

D. P. Halliday, D. Moss, S. Charbonneau, G. Aers, F. Chatenoud, and D. Landheer, "Time resolved photo luminescence studies in a reverse biased QW laser structure," Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 2497-2499 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Harvey, J. D.

D. T. Reid, W. Sibbett, J. M. Dudley, L. P. Barry, B. Thomsen, and J. D. Harvey, "Commercial semiconductor devices for two photon absorption autocorrelation of ultrashort light pulses," Opt. Photonics News 9, 8142-8144 (1998).

Hegarty, J.

Hobson, W. S.

M. N. Islam, C. E. Soccolich, R. E. Slusher, A. F. J. Levi, W. S. Hobson and M. G. Young, "Nonlinear spectroscopy near half-gap in bulk and quantum well GaAs/AlGaAs waveguides," J. Appl. Phys. 71,1927-1935 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Holonyak, N.

N. Holonyak, R. M. Kolbas, R. D. Dupuis and P. D. Dapkus, "Quantum-well heterostructure lasers," IEEE. J. Quantum Electron. 16, 170-186 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Huber, R.

R. Huber, A. Brodschelm, F. Tauser, and A. Leitenstorfer, "Generation and field-resolved detection of femtosecond electromagnetic pulses tunable up to 41 THz," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 3191-3193 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hutchings, D. C.

J. S. Aitchison, D. C. Hutchings, J. U. Kang, G. I. Stegeman, and A. Villeneuve, "The nonlinear optical properties of AlGaAs at the half band gap," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 341-348 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ido, T.

T. Ido, H. Sano, S. Tanaka, D. J. Moss, and H. Inoue, "Performance of strained InGaAs/InAlAs multiple-quantum-well electroabsorption modulators," J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 2324 -2331 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Moss, T. Ido, and H. Sano, "Calculation of photogenerated carrier escape times in GaAs/AlGaAs quantum wells," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1015-1026 (1994).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Moss, T. Ido, and H. Sano, "Photogenerated carrier sweep out times in strained InxGa1-xAs/InyAs1-yAs quantum well waveguide modulators at λ=1.55 μm," Electron. Lett. 30, 405-406 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T. Ido, H. Sano, D. J. Moss, S. Tanaka and A. Takai, "Strained InGaAs/InAlAs MQW electroabsorption modulators with large bandwidth and low driving voltage," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 1207-1209 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Imamura, S.

Inoue, H.

T. Ido, H. Sano, S. Tanaka, D. J. Moss, and H. Inoue, "Performance of strained InGaAs/InAlAs multiple-quantum-well electroabsorption modulators," J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 2324 -2331 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ironside, C. N.

A. Villeneuve, C. C. Yang, G. I. Stegeman, C. N. Ironside, G. Scelsi, and R. M. Osgood, "Nonlinear absorption in a GaAs waveguide just above half the band gap," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1172-1175 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Islam, M. N.

M. N. Islam, C. E. Soccolich, R. E. Slusher, A. F. J. Levi, W. S. Hobson and M. G. Young, "Nonlinear spectroscopy near half-gap in bulk and quantum well GaAs/AlGaAs waveguides," J. Appl. Phys. 71,1927-1935 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Jan, W. Y.

A. M. Fox, D. A. B. Miller, G. Livescu, J. E. Cunningham and W. Y. Jan, "Quantum-well carrier sweep out - relation to electroabsorption and exciton saturation," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 2281-2295 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, B. C.

T. H. Wood, J. Z. Pastalan, C. A. Burrus, Jr., B. C. Johnson, B. I. Miller, J. L. deMiguel, U. Koren and M. G. Young, "Electric-field screening by photogenerated holes in multiple quantum wells - A new mechanism for absorption saturation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 1081-1083 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Kang, J. U.

J. S. Aitchison, D. C. Hutchings, J. U. Kang, G. I. Stegeman, and A. Villeneuve, "The nonlinear optical properties of AlGaAs at the half band gap," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 341-348 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Karkhanehchi, M. M.

Z. Zheng, A. M. Weiner, J. H. Marsh, and M. M. Karkhanehchi, "Ultrafast optical thresholding based on two-photon absorption GaAs waveguide photodetectors," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 493-495 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kean, A. H.

F. R. Laughton, J. H. Marsh, and A. H. Kean, "Very sensitive two-photon absorption GaAs/AlGaAs waveguide detector for an autocorrelator," Electron. Lett. 28, 1663-1665 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Khurgin, J. B.

Kims, M. S.

H. K. Tsang, R. S. Grant, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, J. B. D. Soole, E. Colas, H. P. Leblanc, N. C. Andreadakis, M. S. Kims and W. Sibbett, "GaAs/GaAlAs multiquantum well waveguides for all-optical switching at 1.55 μm," Electron. Lett. 27, 1993-1995 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Kiran, P. P.

A. D. Lad, P. P. Kiran, D. More, G. R. Kumar, and S. Mahamuni, "Two-photon absorption in ZnSe and ZnSe/ZnS core/shell quantum structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 043126 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Knights, A. P.

T. K. Liang, H. K. Tsang, I. E. Day, J. Drake, A. P. Knights, and M. Asghari, "Silicon waveguide two-photon absorption detector at 1.5 μm wavelength for autocorrelation measurements," Appl. Phys. Lett 81, 1323-1325 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kobayashi, T.

Kolbas, R. M.

N. Holonyak, R. M. Kolbas, R. D. Dupuis and P. D. Dapkus, "Quantum-well heterostructure lasers," IEEE. J. Quantum Electron. 16, 170-186 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Koren, U.

T. H. Wood, J. Z. Pastalan, C. A. Burrus, Jr., B. C. Johnson, B. I. Miller, J. L. deMiguel, U. Koren and M. G. Young, "Electric-field screening by photogenerated holes in multiple quantum wells - A new mechanism for absorption saturation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 1081-1083 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Koza, M. A.

H. K. Tsang, L. Y. Chan, J. B. D. Soole, H. P. LeBlanc, M. A. Koza, and R. Bhat, "High sensitivity autocorrelation using two-photon absorption in InGaAsP waveguides," Electron. Lett. 31, 1773-1775 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Krug, T.

Kumar, G. R.

A. D. Lad, P. P. Kiran, D. More, G. R. Kumar, and S. Mahamuni, "Two-photon absorption in ZnSe and ZnSe/ZnS core/shell quantum structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 043126 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lad, A. D.

A. D. Lad, P. P. Kiran, D. More, G. R. Kumar, and S. Mahamuni, "Two-photon absorption in ZnSe and ZnSe/ZnS core/shell quantum structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 043126 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Landheer, D.

D. J. Moss, D. Landheer, D. Halliday, S. Charbonneau, R. Barber, F. Chatenoud and D. Conn, "High speed photodetection in a reverse biased GaAs/AlGaAs GRINSCH SQW laser structure," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 609-611 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. P. Halliday, D. Moss, S. Charbonneau, G. Aers, F. Chatenoud, and D. Landheer, "Time resolved photo luminescence studies in a reverse biased QW laser structure," Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 2497-2499 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. Moss, D. Landheer, A. Delage, F. Chatenoud, and M. Dion, "Laser compatible waveguide electroabsorption modulator with high contrast and low operating voltage in GaAs/AlGaAs," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 645-647 (1991).
[CrossRef]

F. Chatenoud, K. Dzurko, M. Dion, D. J. Moss, R. Barber, and D. Landheer, "GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum well lasers for monolithic integration with optical modulators," Can. J. Phys. 69, 491-496 (1991).
[CrossRef]

D. Moss, F. Chatenoud, S. Charbonneau, A. Delage, D. Landheer, and R. Barber, "Laser compatible waveguide modulators," Can. J. Phys. 69, 497-507 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Larsson, A.

A. Larsson, P. A. Andrekson, S. T. Eng and A. Yariv, "Tunable superlattice p-i-n photodetectors: characteristics, theory, and applications," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 787-801 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Laughton, F. R.

F. R. Laughton, J. H. Marsh, D. A. Barrow, and E. L. Portnoi, "The two-photon absorption semiconductor waveguide autocorrelator," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 838-845 (1994).
[CrossRef]

F. R. Laughton, J. H. Marsh, and A. H. Kean, "Very sensitive two-photon absorption GaAs/AlGaAs waveguide detector for an autocorrelator," Electron. Lett. 28, 1663-1665 (1992).
[CrossRef]

F. R. Laughton, J. H. Marsh and J. S. Roberts, "Intuitive model to include the effect of free-carrier absorption in calculating the two-photon absorption coefficient," Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 166-168 (1992).
[CrossRef]

LeBlanc, H. P.

H. K. Tsang, L. Y. Chan, J. B. D. Soole, H. P. LeBlanc, M. A. Koza, and R. Bhat, "High sensitivity autocorrelation using two-photon absorption in InGaAsP waveguides," Electron. Lett. 31, 1773-1775 (1995).
[CrossRef]

H. K. Tsang, R. S. Grant, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, J. B. D. Soole, E. Colas, H. P. Leblanc, N. C. Andreadakis, M. S. Kims and W. Sibbett, "GaAs/GaAlAs multiquantum well waveguides for all-optical switching at 1.55 μm," Electron. Lett. 27, 1993-1995 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Leitenstorfer, A.

R. Huber, A. Brodschelm, F. Tauser, and A. Leitenstorfer, "Generation and field-resolved detection of femtosecond electromagnetic pulses tunable up to 41 THz," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 3191-3193 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Levi, A. F. J.

M. N. Islam, C. E. Soccolich, R. E. Slusher, A. F. J. Levi, W. S. Hobson and M. G. Young, "Nonlinear spectroscopy near half-gap in bulk and quantum well GaAs/AlGaAs waveguides," J. Appl. Phys. 71,1927-1935 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Liang, T. K.

T. K. Liang, H. K. Tsang, I. E. Day, J. Drake, A. P. Knights, and M. Asghari, "Silicon waveguide two-photon absorption detector at 1.5 μm wavelength for autocorrelation measurements," Appl. Phys. Lett 81, 1323-1325 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C.-H.

A. Villeneuve, C. C. Yang, G. I. Stegeman, C.-H. Lin, and H.-H. Lin, "Nonlinear refractive-index and two photon-absorption near half the band gap in AlGaAs," Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 2465-2467 (1993).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Yang, A. Villeneuve, G. I. Stegeman, C.-H. Lin, and H.-H. Lin, "Anisotropic Two-Photon Transitions in GaAs/AlGaAs Multiple Quantum Well Waveguides," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 2934-2939 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Lin, H.-H.

C. C. Yang, A. Villeneuve, G. I. Stegeman, C.-H. Lin, and H.-H. Lin, "Anisotropic Two-Photon Transitions in GaAs/AlGaAs Multiple Quantum Well Waveguides," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 2934-2939 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. Villeneuve, C. C. Yang, G. I. Stegeman, C.-H. Lin, and H.-H. Lin, "Nonlinear refractive-index and two photon-absorption near half the band gap in AlGaAs," Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 2465-2467 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Lipson, M.

R. Salem, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, G. F. Geraghty, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, "Signal regeneration using low-power four-wave mixing on silicon chip," Nat. Photonics 2, 35-38 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Liu, F.

Liu, H. C.

Liu, S.-L.

H.-S. Chen, S.-L. Liu, and C. C. Yang, "Enhancement of multi-photon processes with carrier injection in a GaAs/AlGaAs quantum well laser structure," Opt. Commun. 235, 163-167 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Livescu, G.

A. M. Fox, D. A. B. Miller, G. Livescu, J. E. Cunningham and W. Y. Jan, "Quantum-well carrier sweep out - relation to electroabsorption and exciton saturation," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 2281-2295 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Lozovoy, V. V.

P. Xi, Y. Andegeko, L. R. Weisel, V. V. Lozovoy, and M. Dantus, "Greater signal, increased depth, and less photobleaching in two-photon microscopy with 10 fs pulses," Opt. Commun. 281, 1841-1849 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lynch, M.

Maguire, P. J.

Mahamuni, S.

A. D. Lad, P. P. Kiran, D. More, G. R. Kumar, and S. Mahamuni, "Two-photon absorption in ZnSe and ZnSe/ZnS core/shell quantum structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 043126 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Maier, T.

Marsh, J. H.

Z. Zheng, A. M. Weiner, J. H. Marsh, and M. M. Karkhanehchi, "Ultrafast optical thresholding based on two-photon absorption GaAs waveguide photodetectors," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 493-495 (1997).
[CrossRef]

F. R. Laughton, J. H. Marsh, D. A. Barrow, and E. L. Portnoi, "The two-photon absorption semiconductor waveguide autocorrelator," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 838-845 (1994).
[CrossRef]

F. R. Laughton, J. H. Marsh, and A. H. Kean, "Very sensitive two-photon absorption GaAs/AlGaAs waveguide detector for an autocorrelator," Electron. Lett. 28, 1663-1665 (1992).
[CrossRef]

F. R. Laughton, J. H. Marsh and J. S. Roberts, "Intuitive model to include the effect of free-carrier absorption in calculating the two-photon absorption coefficient," Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 166-168 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Miller, B. I.

T. H. Wood, J. Z. Pastalan, C. A. Burrus, Jr., B. C. Johnson, B. I. Miller, J. L. deMiguel, U. Koren and M. G. Young, "Electric-field screening by photogenerated holes in multiple quantum wells - A new mechanism for absorption saturation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 1081-1083 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Miller, D. A. B.

A. M. Fox, D. A. B. Miller, G. Livescu, J. E. Cunningham and W. Y. Jan, "Quantum-well carrier sweep out - relation to electroabsorption and exciton saturation," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 2281-2295 (1991).
[CrossRef]

D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. H. Wood and C. A. Burrus, "Band-edge elecroabsorption in quantum well structures: the quantum confined stark effect," Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 2173-2176 (1984).
[CrossRef]

More, D.

A. D. Lad, P. P. Kiran, D. More, G. R. Kumar, and S. Mahamuni, "Two-photon absorption in ZnSe and ZnSe/ZnS core/shell quantum structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 043126 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Moss, D.

D. P. Halliday, D. Moss, S. Charbonneau, G. Aers, F. Chatenoud, and D. Landheer, "Time resolved photo luminescence studies in a reverse biased QW laser structure," Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 2497-2499 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. Moss, D. Landheer, A. Delage, F. Chatenoud, and M. Dion, "Laser compatible waveguide electroabsorption modulator with high contrast and low operating voltage in GaAs/AlGaAs," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 645-647 (1991).
[CrossRef]

D. Moss, F. Chatenoud, S. Charbonneau, A. Delage, D. Landheer, and R. Barber, "Laser compatible waveguide modulators," Can. J. Phys. 69, 497-507 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Moss, D. J.

T. Ido, H. Sano, S. Tanaka, D. J. Moss, and H. Inoue, "Performance of strained InGaAs/InAlAs multiple-quantum-well electroabsorption modulators," J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 2324 -2331 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Moss, T. Ido, and H. Sano, "Calculation of photogenerated carrier escape times in GaAs/AlGaAs quantum wells," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1015-1026 (1994).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Moss, T. Ido, and H. Sano, "Photogenerated carrier sweep out times in strained InxGa1-xAs/InyAs1-yAs quantum well waveguide modulators at λ=1.55 μm," Electron. Lett. 30, 405-406 (1994).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Moss, M. Aoki, and H. Sano, "Comparison of photoconductive response times of InGaAs/InAlAs and InGaAs/InGaAsP MQW waveguide modulators," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 33,328-330 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T. Ido, H. Sano, D. J. Moss, S. Tanaka and A. Takai, "Strained InGaAs/InAlAs MQW electroabsorption modulators with large bandwidth and low driving voltage," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 1207-1209 (1994).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Moss, D. Landheer, D. Halliday, S. Charbonneau, R. Barber, F. Chatenoud and D. Conn, "High speed photodetection in a reverse biased GaAs/AlGaAs GRINSCH SQW laser structure," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 609-611 (1992).
[CrossRef]

F. Chatenoud, K. Dzurko, M. Dion, D. J. Moss, R. Barber, and D. Landheer, "GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum well lasers for monolithic integration with optical modulators," Can. J. Phys. 69, 491-496 (1991).
[CrossRef]

O’Dowd, J.

Ogawa, T.

A. Shimizu, T. Ogawa and H. Sakaki, "Two-photon absorption spectra of quasi-low-dimensional exciton systems," Phys. Rev. B 45, 11339-11341 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Osgood, R. M.

A. Villeneuve, C. C. Yang, G. I. Stegeman, C. N. Ironside, G. Scelsi, and R. M. Osgood, "Nonlinear absorption in a GaAs waveguide just above half the band gap," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1172-1175 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Pastalan, J. Z.

T. H. Wood, J. Z. Pastalan, C. A. Burrus, Jr., B. C. Johnson, B. I. Miller, J. L. deMiguel, U. Koren and M. G. Young, "Electric-field screening by photogenerated holes in multiple quantum wells - A new mechanism for absorption saturation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 1081-1083 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Penty, R. V.

H. K. Tsang, R. S. Grant, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, J. B. D. Soole, E. Colas, H. P. Leblanc, N. C. Andreadakis, M. S. Kims and W. Sibbett, "GaAs/GaAlAs multiquantum well waveguides for all-optical switching at 1.55 μm," Electron. Lett. 27, 1993-1995 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Portnoi, E. L.

F. R. Laughton, J. H. Marsh, D. A. Barrow, and E. L. Portnoi, "The two-photon absorption semiconductor waveguide autocorrelator," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 838-845 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Pshenichnikov, M. S.

Ranka, J. K.

Reid, D. T.

D. T. Reid, W. Sibbett, J. M. Dudley, L. P. Barry, B. Thomsen, and J. D. Harvey, "Commercial semiconductor devices for two photon absorption autocorrelation of ultrashort light pulses," Opt. Photonics News 9, 8142-8144 (1998).

Roberts, J. S.

F. R. Laughton, J. H. Marsh and J. S. Roberts, "Intuitive model to include the effect of free-carrier absorption in calculating the two-photon absorption coefficient," Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 166-168 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Sakaki, H.

A. Shimizu, T. Ogawa and H. Sakaki, "Two-photon absorption spectra of quasi-low-dimensional exciton systems," Phys. Rev. B 45, 11339-11341 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Salem, R.

R. Salem, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, G. F. Geraghty, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, "Signal regeneration using low-power four-wave mixing on silicon chip," Nat. Photonics 2, 35-38 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sano, H.

T. Ido, H. Sano, S. Tanaka, D. J. Moss, and H. Inoue, "Performance of strained InGaAs/InAlAs multiple-quantum-well electroabsorption modulators," J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 2324 -2331 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Moss, T. Ido, and H. Sano, "Calculation of photogenerated carrier escape times in GaAs/AlGaAs quantum wells," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1015-1026 (1994).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Moss, T. Ido, and H. Sano, "Photogenerated carrier sweep out times in strained InxGa1-xAs/InyAs1-yAs quantum well waveguide modulators at λ=1.55 μm," Electron. Lett. 30, 405-406 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T. Ido, H. Sano, D. J. Moss, S. Tanaka and A. Takai, "Strained InGaAs/InAlAs MQW electroabsorption modulators with large bandwidth and low driving voltage," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 1207-1209 (1994).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Moss, M. Aoki, and H. Sano, "Comparison of photoconductive response times of InGaAs/InAlAs and InGaAs/InGaAsP MQW waveguide modulators," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 33,328-330 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Scelsi, G.

A. Villeneuve, C. C. Yang, G. I. Stegeman, C. N. Ironside, G. Scelsi, and R. M. Osgood, "Nonlinear absorption in a GaAs waveguide just above half the band gap," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1172-1175 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Schneider, H.

Shimizu, A.

A. Shimizu, T. Ogawa and H. Sakaki, "Two-photon absorption spectra of quasi-low-dimensional exciton systems," Phys. Rev. B 45, 11339-11341 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Sibbett, W.

D. T. Reid, W. Sibbett, J. M. Dudley, L. P. Barry, B. Thomsen, and J. D. Harvey, "Commercial semiconductor devices for two photon absorption autocorrelation of ultrashort light pulses," Opt. Photonics News 9, 8142-8144 (1998).

H. K. Tsang, R. S. Grant, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, J. B. D. Soole, E. Colas, H. P. Leblanc, N. C. Andreadakis, M. S. Kims and W. Sibbett, "GaAs/GaAlAs multiquantum well waveguides for all-optical switching at 1.55 μm," Electron. Lett. 27, 1993-1995 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Slusher, R. E.

M. N. Islam, C. E. Soccolich, R. E. Slusher, A. F. J. Levi, W. S. Hobson and M. G. Young, "Nonlinear spectroscopy near half-gap in bulk and quantum well GaAs/AlGaAs waveguides," J. Appl. Phys. 71,1927-1935 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Soccolich, C. E.

M. N. Islam, C. E. Soccolich, R. E. Slusher, A. F. J. Levi, W. S. Hobson and M. G. Young, "Nonlinear spectroscopy near half-gap in bulk and quantum well GaAs/AlGaAs waveguides," J. Appl. Phys. 71,1927-1935 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Soole, J. B. D.

H. K. Tsang, L. Y. Chan, J. B. D. Soole, H. P. LeBlanc, M. A. Koza, and R. Bhat, "High sensitivity autocorrelation using two-photon absorption in InGaAsP waveguides," Electron. Lett. 31, 1773-1775 (1995).
[CrossRef]

H. K. Tsang, R. S. Grant, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, J. B. D. Soole, E. Colas, H. P. Leblanc, N. C. Andreadakis, M. S. Kims and W. Sibbett, "GaAs/GaAlAs multiquantum well waveguides for all-optical switching at 1.55 μm," Electron. Lett. 27, 1993-1995 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Stegeman, G. I.

J. S. Aitchison, D. C. Hutchings, J. U. Kang, G. I. Stegeman, and A. Villeneuve, "The nonlinear optical properties of AlGaAs at the half band gap," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 341-348 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Villeneuve, C. C. Yang, G. I. Stegeman, C. N. Ironside, G. Scelsi, and R. M. Osgood, "Nonlinear absorption in a GaAs waveguide just above half the band gap," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1172-1175 (1994).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Yang, A. Villeneuve, G. I. Stegeman, C.-H. Lin, and H.-H. Lin, "Anisotropic Two-Photon Transitions in GaAs/AlGaAs Multiple Quantum Well Waveguides," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 2934-2939 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. Villeneuve, C. C. Yang, G. I. Stegeman, C.-H. Lin, and H.-H. Lin, "Nonlinear refractive-index and two photon-absorption near half the band gap in AlGaAs," Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 2465-2467 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Takagi, Y.

Takai, A.

T. Ido, H. Sano, D. J. Moss, S. Tanaka and A. Takai, "Strained InGaAs/InAlAs MQW electroabsorption modulators with large bandwidth and low driving voltage," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 1207-1209 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, S.

T. Ido, H. Sano, S. Tanaka, D. J. Moss, and H. Inoue, "Performance of strained InGaAs/InAlAs multiple-quantum-well electroabsorption modulators," J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 2324 -2331 (1996).
[CrossRef]

T. Ido, H. Sano, D. J. Moss, S. Tanaka and A. Takai, "Strained InGaAs/InAlAs MQW electroabsorption modulators with large bandwidth and low driving voltage," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 1207-1209 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Tauser, F.

R. Huber, A. Brodschelm, F. Tauser, and A. Leitenstorfer, "Generation and field-resolved detection of femtosecond electromagnetic pulses tunable up to 41 THz," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 3191-3193 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Thomsen, B.

D. T. Reid, W. Sibbett, J. M. Dudley, L. P. Barry, B. Thomsen, and J. D. Harvey, "Commercial semiconductor devices for two photon absorption autocorrelation of ultrashort light pulses," Opt. Photonics News 9, 8142-8144 (1998).

Tsang, H. K.

T. K. Liang, H. K. Tsang, I. E. Day, J. Drake, A. P. Knights, and M. Asghari, "Silicon waveguide two-photon absorption detector at 1.5 μm wavelength for autocorrelation measurements," Appl. Phys. Lett 81, 1323-1325 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. K. Tsang, L. Y. Chan, J. B. D. Soole, H. P. LeBlanc, M. A. Koza, and R. Bhat, "High sensitivity autocorrelation using two-photon absorption in InGaAsP waveguides," Electron. Lett. 31, 1773-1775 (1995).
[CrossRef]

H. K. Tsang, R. S. Grant, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, J. B. D. Soole, E. Colas, H. P. Leblanc, N. C. Andreadakis, M. S. Kims and W. Sibbett, "GaAs/GaAlAs multiquantum well waveguides for all-optical switching at 1.55 μm," Electron. Lett. 27, 1993-1995 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Turner, A. C.

R. Salem, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, G. F. Geraghty, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, "Signal regeneration using low-power four-wave mixing on silicon chip," Nat. Photonics 2, 35-38 (2008).
[CrossRef]

van Driel, H. M.

H. M. van Driel, "Semiconductor optics - On the path to entanglement," Nat. Photonics 2, 212-213 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Villeneuve, A.

J. S. Aitchison, D. C. Hutchings, J. U. Kang, G. I. Stegeman, and A. Villeneuve, "The nonlinear optical properties of AlGaAs at the half band gap," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 341-348 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Villeneuve, C. C. Yang, G. I. Stegeman, C. N. Ironside, G. Scelsi, and R. M. Osgood, "Nonlinear absorption in a GaAs waveguide just above half the band gap," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1172-1175 (1994).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Yang, A. Villeneuve, G. I. Stegeman, C.-H. Lin, and H.-H. Lin, "Anisotropic Two-Photon Transitions in GaAs/AlGaAs Multiple Quantum Well Waveguides," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 2934-2939 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. Villeneuve, C. C. Yang, G. I. Stegeman, C.-H. Lin, and H.-H. Lin, "Nonlinear refractive-index and two photon-absorption near half the band gap in AlGaAs," Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 2465-2467 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Walther, M.

Weiner, A. M.

Z. Zheng, A. M. Weiner, J. H. Marsh, and M. M. Karkhanehchi, "Ultrafast optical thresholding based on two-photon absorption GaAs waveguide photodetectors," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 493-495 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Weisel, L. R.

P. Xi, Y. Andegeko, L. R. Weisel, V. V. Lozovoy, and M. Dantus, "Greater signal, increased depth, and less photobleaching in two-photon microscopy with 10 fs pulses," Opt. Commun. 281, 1841-1849 (2008).
[CrossRef]

White, I. H.

H. K. Tsang, R. S. Grant, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, J. B. D. Soole, E. Colas, H. P. Leblanc, N. C. Andreadakis, M. S. Kims and W. Sibbett, "GaAs/GaAlAs multiquantum well waveguides for all-optical switching at 1.55 μm," Electron. Lett. 27, 1993-1995 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Wiegmann, W.

D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. H. Wood and C. A. Burrus, "Band-edge elecroabsorption in quantum well structures: the quantum confined stark effect," Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 2173-2176 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Wielandy, S.

Wiersma, D. A.

Wood, T. H.

T. H. Wood, J. Z. Pastalan, C. A. Burrus, Jr., B. C. Johnson, B. I. Miller, J. L. deMiguel, U. Koren and M. G. Young, "Electric-field screening by photogenerated holes in multiple quantum wells - A new mechanism for absorption saturation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 1081-1083 (1990).
[CrossRef]

D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. H. Wood and C. A. Burrus, "Band-edge elecroabsorption in quantum well structures: the quantum confined stark effect," Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 2173-2176 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Xi, P.

P. Xi, Y. Andegeko, L. R. Weisel, V. V. Lozovoy, and M. Dantus, "Greater signal, increased depth, and less photobleaching in two-photon microscopy with 10 fs pulses," Opt. Commun. 281, 1841-1849 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yang, C. C.

H.-S. Chen, S.-L. Liu, and C. C. Yang, "Enhancement of multi-photon processes with carrier injection in a GaAs/AlGaAs quantum well laser structure," Opt. Commun. 235, 163-167 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Villeneuve, C. C. Yang, G. I. Stegeman, C. N. Ironside, G. Scelsi, and R. M. Osgood, "Nonlinear absorption in a GaAs waveguide just above half the band gap," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1172-1175 (1994).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Yang, A. Villeneuve, G. I. Stegeman, C.-H. Lin, and H.-H. Lin, "Anisotropic Two-Photon Transitions in GaAs/AlGaAs Multiple Quantum Well Waveguides," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 2934-2939 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. Villeneuve, C. C. Yang, G. I. Stegeman, C.-H. Lin, and H.-H. Lin, "Nonlinear refractive-index and two photon-absorption near half the band gap in AlGaAs," Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 2465-2467 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Yariv, A.

A. Larsson, P. A. Andrekson, S. T. Eng and A. Yariv, "Tunable superlattice p-i-n photodetectors: characteristics, theory, and applications," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 787-801 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Ye, J.

S. T. Cundiff and J. Ye, "Colloquium: Femtosecond optical frequency combs," Rev. Mod. Phys. 75, 325-342 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yoo, K. M.

Yoshihara, K.

Young, M. G.

M. N. Islam, C. E. Soccolich, R. E. Slusher, A. F. J. Levi, W. S. Hobson and M. G. Young, "Nonlinear spectroscopy near half-gap in bulk and quantum well GaAs/AlGaAs waveguides," J. Appl. Phys. 71,1927-1935 (1992).
[CrossRef]

T. H. Wood, J. Z. Pastalan, C. A. Burrus, Jr., B. C. Johnson, B. I. Miller, J. L. deMiguel, U. Koren and M. G. Young, "Electric-field screening by photogenerated holes in multiple quantum wells - A new mechanism for absorption saturation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 1081-1083 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, Z.

Z. Zheng, A. M. Weiner, J. H. Marsh, and M. M. Karkhanehchi, "Ultrafast optical thresholding based on two-photon absorption GaAs waveguide photodetectors," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 493-495 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, B.

J. Lightwave Technol.

T. Ido, H. Sano, S. Tanaka, D. J. Moss, and H. Inoue, "Performance of strained InGaAs/InAlAs multiple-quantum-well electroabsorption modulators," J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 2324 -2331 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett

T. K. Liang, H. K. Tsang, I. E. Day, J. Drake, A. P. Knights, and M. Asghari, "Silicon waveguide two-photon absorption detector at 1.5 μm wavelength for autocorrelation measurements," Appl. Phys. Lett 81, 1323-1325 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

D. P. Halliday, D. Moss, S. Charbonneau, G. Aers, F. Chatenoud, and D. Landheer, "Time resolved photo luminescence studies in a reverse biased QW laser structure," Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 2497-2499 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. D. Lad, P. P. Kiran, D. More, G. R. Kumar, and S. Mahamuni, "Two-photon absorption in ZnSe and ZnSe/ZnS core/shell quantum structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 043126 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. R. Laughton, J. H. Marsh and J. S. Roberts, "Intuitive model to include the effect of free-carrier absorption in calculating the two-photon absorption coefficient," Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 166-168 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. Villeneuve, C. C. Yang, G. I. Stegeman, C.-H. Lin, and H.-H. Lin, "Nonlinear refractive-index and two photon-absorption near half the band gap in AlGaAs," Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 2465-2467 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. Huber, A. Brodschelm, F. Tauser, and A. Leitenstorfer, "Generation and field-resolved detection of femtosecond electromagnetic pulses tunable up to 41 THz," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 3191-3193 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. H. Wood, J. Z. Pastalan, C. A. Burrus, Jr., B. C. Johnson, B. I. Miller, J. L. deMiguel, U. Koren and M. G. Young, "Electric-field screening by photogenerated holes in multiple quantum wells - A new mechanism for absorption saturation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 1081-1083 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Can. J. Phys.

F. Chatenoud, K. Dzurko, M. Dion, D. J. Moss, R. Barber, and D. Landheer, "GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum well lasers for monolithic integration with optical modulators," Can. J. Phys. 69, 491-496 (1991).
[CrossRef]

D. Moss, F. Chatenoud, S. Charbonneau, A. Delage, D. Landheer, and R. Barber, "Laser compatible waveguide modulators," Can. J. Phys. 69, 497-507 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

H. K. Tsang, L. Y. Chan, J. B. D. Soole, H. P. LeBlanc, M. A. Koza, and R. Bhat, "High sensitivity autocorrelation using two-photon absorption in InGaAsP waveguides," Electron. Lett. 31, 1773-1775 (1995).
[CrossRef]

H. K. Tsang, R. S. Grant, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, J. B. D. Soole, E. Colas, H. P. Leblanc, N. C. Andreadakis, M. S. Kims and W. Sibbett, "GaAs/GaAlAs multiquantum well waveguides for all-optical switching at 1.55 μm," Electron. Lett. 27, 1993-1995 (1991).
[CrossRef]

F. R. Laughton, J. H. Marsh, and A. H. Kean, "Very sensitive two-photon absorption GaAs/AlGaAs waveguide detector for an autocorrelator," Electron. Lett. 28, 1663-1665 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Moss, T. Ido, and H. Sano, "Photogenerated carrier sweep out times in strained InxGa1-xAs/InyAs1-yAs quantum well waveguide modulators at λ=1.55 μm," Electron. Lett. 30, 405-406 (1994).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

J. S. Aitchison, D. C. Hutchings, J. U. Kang, G. I. Stegeman, and A. Villeneuve, "The nonlinear optical properties of AlGaAs at the half band gap," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 341-348 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Villeneuve, C. C. Yang, G. I. Stegeman, C. N. Ironside, G. Scelsi, and R. M. Osgood, "Nonlinear absorption in a GaAs waveguide just above half the band gap," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1172-1175 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. Larsson, P. A. Andrekson, S. T. Eng and A. Yariv, "Tunable superlattice p-i-n photodetectors: characteristics, theory, and applications," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 787-801 (1988).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Yang, A. Villeneuve, G. I. Stegeman, C.-H. Lin, and H.-H. Lin, "Anisotropic Two-Photon Transitions in GaAs/AlGaAs Multiple Quantum Well Waveguides," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 2934-2939 (1993).
[CrossRef]

F. R. Laughton, J. H. Marsh, D. A. Barrow, and E. L. Portnoi, "The two-photon absorption semiconductor waveguide autocorrelator," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 838-845 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Fox, D. A. B. Miller, G. Livescu, J. E. Cunningham and W. Y. Jan, "Quantum-well carrier sweep out - relation to electroabsorption and exciton saturation," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 2281-2295 (1991).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Moss, T. Ido, and H. Sano, "Calculation of photogenerated carrier escape times in GaAs/AlGaAs quantum wells," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1015-1026 (1994).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

C. Dorrer, "High-speed measurements for optical telecommunication systems," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 843-858 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

Z. Zheng, A. M. Weiner, J. H. Marsh, and M. M. Karkhanehchi, "Ultrafast optical thresholding based on two-photon absorption GaAs waveguide photodetectors," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 493-495 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Moss, D. Landheer, D. Halliday, S. Charbonneau, R. Barber, F. Chatenoud and D. Conn, "High speed photodetection in a reverse biased GaAs/AlGaAs GRINSCH SQW laser structure," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 609-611 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. Moss, D. Landheer, A. Delage, F. Chatenoud, and M. Dion, "Laser compatible waveguide electroabsorption modulator with high contrast and low operating voltage in GaAs/AlGaAs," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 645-647 (1991).
[CrossRef]

T. Ido, H. Sano, D. J. Moss, S. Tanaka and A. Takai, "Strained InGaAs/InAlAs MQW electroabsorption modulators with large bandwidth and low driving voltage," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 1207-1209 (1994).
[CrossRef]

IEEE. J. Quantum Electron.

N. Holonyak, R. M. Kolbas, R. D. Dupuis and P. D. Dapkus, "Quantum-well heterostructure lasers," IEEE. J. Quantum Electron. 16, 170-186 (1980).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

M. N. Islam, C. E. Soccolich, R. E. Slusher, A. F. J. Levi, W. S. Hobson and M. G. Young, "Nonlinear spectroscopy near half-gap in bulk and quantum well GaAs/AlGaAs waveguides," J. Appl. Phys. 71,1927-1935 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

D. J. Moss, M. Aoki, and H. Sano, "Comparison of photoconductive response times of InGaAs/InAlAs and InGaAs/InGaAsP MQW waveguide modulators," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 33,328-330 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics

H. M. van Driel, "Semiconductor optics - On the path to entanglement," Nat. Photonics 2, 212-213 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Salem, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, G. F. Geraghty, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, "Signal regeneration using low-power four-wave mixing on silicon chip," Nat. Photonics 2, 35-38 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

P. Xi, Y. Andegeko, L. R. Weisel, V. V. Lozovoy, and M. Dantus, "Greater signal, increased depth, and less photobleaching in two-photon microscopy with 10 fs pulses," Opt. Commun. 281, 1841-1849 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H.-S. Chen, S.-L. Liu, and C. C. Yang, "Enhancement of multi-photon processes with carrier injection in a GaAs/AlGaAs quantum well laser structure," Opt. Commun. 235, 163-167 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Opt. Photonics News

D. T. Reid, W. Sibbett, J. M. Dudley, L. P. Barry, B. Thomsen, and J. D. Harvey, "Commercial semiconductor devices for two photon absorption autocorrelation of ultrashort light pulses," Opt. Photonics News 9, 8142-8144 (1998).

Phys. Rev. B

A. Shimizu, T. Ogawa and H. Sakaki, "Two-photon absorption spectra of quasi-low-dimensional exciton systems," Phys. Rev. B 45, 11339-11341 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. H. Wood and C. A. Burrus, "Band-edge elecroabsorption in quantum well structures: the quantum confined stark effect," Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 2173-2176 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Mod. Phys.

S. T. Cundiff and J. Ye, "Colloquium: Femtosecond optical frequency combs," Rev. Mod. Phys. 75, 325-342 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Other

S. Radic, D. J. Moss, and B. J. Eggleton, "Nonlinear Optics in Communications: From Crippling Impairment to Ultrafast Tools," in Optical Fiber Telecommunications V: Components and Sub-systems, I. P. Kaminow, T. Li, and A. E. Willner, ed., (Academic Press, Oxford, UK, 2008), Chap. 20.
[CrossRef]

A. Yariv and P. Yeh, Photonics: optical electronics in modern communications, (Oxford University Press, New York, 2006).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Doping and alloy profile and of the AlGaAs multilayer structure. Beryllium is used for p-type doping above the quantum wells, and Si is used for n-type doping below. The GaAs substrate is n-doped at 1026 cm-3. Inset: Zoom of undoped quantum well region.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Scanning electron microscopy pictures of device before (left) and after (right) metallization.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Light-Current and Voltage-Current curves for the device operated as a laser under forward bias.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(left) Linear bandgap measurement and (right) bias-dependant Stark shift.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Average photocurrent as a function of the input power in the waveguide. A log-log plot determines that the relation is purely quadratic, and hence that the photocurrent is a result of TPA .

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Bias dependence of TPA photocurrent.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

External MQW device efficiency.

Equations (21)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

1 2 E g < hf < E g .
dI dz = αI β I 2 ,
dI dz = αI β I 2 δ I 3 ,
δ = σβ A ( t ) dt 2 hf [ 1 exp ( 1 ) ] .
I = α I 0 exp ( αz ) α + β I 0 ( 1 exp ( αz ) ) ,
d I TPA dz = β I 2 ,
I TPA = I 0 ( 1 exp ( αz ) F ) α β ln ( F ) ,
F = 1 + β α I 0 ( 1 exp ( αz ) ) .
I SPA = α SPA β ln ( F ) .
I abs = I SPA = I 0 α SPA α ( 1 exp ( αz ) ) .
α SPA β I o 1 βz .
N eh = η E abs hf d N eh dt = η P abs hf
J = η e P abs hf ,
J = η e P SPA hf + η e P TPA 2 hf .
η ext = Jhf e P 0 .
A eff = P I = [ E ( x , y ) 2 dxdy ] 2 E ( x , y ) 4 dxdy ,
P abs = A eff ( I SPA + I TPA ) .
J = η e 2 hf [ P 0 ( 1 exp ( αz ) F ) + A eff ( α SPA α SC ) β ln ( F ) ] .
J = η e 2 hf βz A eff P 0 2 ,
S = P peak · P avg ,
S J = J P peak . P avg ,

Metrics