Abstract

The generation of attosecond-duration light pulses using the high-order harmonic generation process is a rapidly evolving area of research. In this work, we combine experimental measurements with careful numerical analysis, to demonstrate that even relatively long-duration, 15 fs, carrier-envelope-phase (CEP) unstabilized near-infrared (NIR) pulses can generate isolated attosecond extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) pulses by the dynamically-changing phase matching conditions in a hollow-core waveguide geometry. The measurements are made using the laser-assisted photoelectric effect to cross-correlate the EUV pulse with the NIR pulse. A FROG CRAB analysis of the resulting traces (photoelectron signal versus photoelectron energy and EUV-NIR delay) is performed using a generalized projections (GP) algorithm, adapted for a wide-angle photoelectron detection geometry and non-CEP stabilized driving laser pulses. In addition, we performed direct FROG CRAB simulations under the same conditions. Such direct simulations allow more freedom to explore the effect of specific pulse parameters on FROG CRAB traces than is possible using the automated GP retrieval algorithm. Our analysis shows that an isolated pulse with duration of ≈ 200 attoseconds can result from CEP unstabilized, high intensity ≈ 15 fs multi-cycle driving pulses coupled into a hollow-core waveguide filled with low-pressure Argon gas. These are significantly longer driving pulses than used in other experimental implementations of isolated attosecond pulses.

©2009 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
OSA Recommended Articles
Mapping the spectral phase of isolated attosecond pulses by extreme-ultraviolet emission spectrum

Candong Liu, Zhinan Zeng, Ruxin Li, Zhizhan Xu, and Mauro Nisoli
Opt. Express 23(8) 9858-9869 (2015)

Shaped multi-cycle two-color laser field for generating an intense isolated XUV pulse toward 100 attoseconds

Qingbin Zhang, Lixin He, Pengfei Lan, and Peixiang Lu
Opt. Express 22(11) 13213-13233 (2014)

Efficient isolated attosecond emission in a pre-excited medium using noncarrier-envelope phase-stabilized nanoplasmonic fields

Jianghua Luo, Yang Li, Zhe Wang, Qingbin Zhang, Pengfei Lan, and Peixiang Lu
J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 30(9) 2469-2475 (2013)

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. I. Thomann, E. Gregonis, X. Liu, R. Trebino, A. Sandhu, M. Murnane, and H. Kapteyn, “Temporal characterization of attosecond waveforms in the sub-optical cycle regime,” Phys. Rev. A,  78, 011806(R) (2008).
    [Crossref]
  2. K. Kulander, K. Schafer, and J. Krause, “ Dynamics of short-pulse excitation, ion- ization, and harmonic conversion,” in Super-Intense Laser-Atom Physics, B. Pi- raux, A. L’Huillier, and K. Rzazewski, Eds., vol. 316. Han-sur-Lesse, Belgium: Plenum, 1993, pp. 95–110.
  3. M. Lewenstein, Ph. Balcou, M. Yu. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, “Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 49, 2117–2132 (1994).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. P. B. Corkum, “Plasma Perspective on Strong-Field Multiphoton Ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1994–1997 (1993).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. J. Gagnon, E. Goulielmakis, and V. S. Yakovlev, “The accurate FROG characterization of attosecond pulses from streaking measurements,” Appl. Phys. B 92, 25–32 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  6. Y. Mairesse, A. de Bohan, L. J. Frasinski, H. Merdji, L. C. Dinu, P. Monchicourt, P. Breger, M. Kovačev, R. Tsïeb, B. Carrsé, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and P. Salières, “Attosecond Synchronization of High-Harmonic Soft X-Rays,” Science 302, 1540–1543 (2003).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. R. López-Martens, K. Varjsú, P. Johnsson, J. Mauritsson, Y. Mairesse, P. Salières, M. B. Gaarde, K. J. Schafer, A. Persson, S. Svanberg, C.-Göran Wahlström, and A. L’Huillier, “Amplitude and Phase Control of Attosecond Light Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 033001 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated Single-Cycle Attosecond Pulses,” Science 314, 442–446 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  9. Gy. Farkas and Cs. Tòth, “Proposal for attosecond light pulse generation using laser induced multiple-harmonic conversion processes in rare gases,” Phys. Lett. A 168447 – 450 (1992).
    [Crossref]
  10. S. E. Hands, J. J Macklin, and T. W. Haensch, “Atomic scale temporal structure inherent to high-order harmonic generation,” Opt. Commun. 100, 487–490 (1993).
    [Crossref]
  11. Z. Chang, “Single attosecond pulse and xuv supercontinuum in the high-order harmonic plateau,” Phys. Rev. A 70, 043802 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  12. P. B. Corkum, N. H. Burnett, and M. Y. Ivanov, “Subfemtosecond pulses,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1870 – 1872 (1994).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gul-likson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-Cycle Nonlinear Optics,” Science 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. A. Rundquist, C. Durfee, Z. Chang, C. Herne, S. Backus, M. Murnane, and H. Kapteyn, “Phase-matched generation of coherent soft x-rays,” Science 280, 1412–1214 (1998).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, G. Tempea, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, P. B. Corkum, and F. Krausz, “X-ray Pulses Approaching the Attosecond Frontier,” Science 291, 1923–1927 (2001).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. Y. Mairesse and F. Qusérsé,“Frequency-resolved optical gating for complete reconstruction of attosecond bursts,” Phys. Rev. A 71, 011401 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  17. F. Quere, Y. Mairesse, and J. Itatani, “Temporal characterization of attosecond XUV fields,” J. Mod. Opt. 52, 339–360 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  18. P. Kruit and F. H. Read, “Magnetic field paralleliser for 2πelectron-spectrometer and electron-image magnifier,” J. Phys. E - Scientific Instruments,  16, 313–324 (1983).
    [Crossref]
  19. M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414, 509–513 (2001).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  20. M. B. Gaarde and K. J. Schafer, “Generating single attosecond pulses via spatial filtering,” Opt. Lett. 31, 3188–3190 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  21. H. Mashiko, S. Gilbertson, C. Li, E. Moon, and Z. Chang, “Optimizing the photon flux of double optical gated high-order harmonic spectra,” Phys. Rev. A 77, 063423 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  22. H. Merdji, T. Auguste, W. Boutu, J.-Pascal Caumes, B. Carrsé, T. Pfeifer, A. Jullien, D. M. Neumark, and S. R. Leone, “Isolated attosecond pulses using a detuned second-harmonic field,” Opt. Lett. 32, 3134–1336 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  23. T. Pfeifer, A. Jullien, M. J. Abel, P. M. Nagel, L. Gallmann, D. M. Neumark, and S. R. Leone, “Generating coherent broadband continuum soft-x-ray radiation by attosecond ionization gating,” Opt. Express,  15, 17120–17128 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  24. W. Cao, P. Lu, P. Lan, X. Wang, and G. Yang, “Single-attosecond pulse generation with an intense multicycle driving pulse,” Phys. Rev. A 74, 063821 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  25. I. P. Christov, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, “Quasi-phase matching of high-harmonics and attosecond pulses in modulated waveguides” Opt. Express,  7, 362–367 (2000).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  26. U. Becker and D. Shirley, VUV And Soft X-Ray Photoionization, (Plenum Press New York1996).
    [Crossref]
  27. M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, O. Svelto, R. Szipöcs, K. Ferencz, Ch. Spielmann, S. Sartania, and F. Krausz, “Compression of high-energy laser pulses below 5 fs,” Opt. Express,  22, 522–524 (1997).
  28. A. Suda, M. Hatayama, K. Nagasaka, and K. Midorikawa, “Generation of sub-10-fs, 5-mJ-optical pulses using a hollow fiber with a pressure gradient,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 111116 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  29. R. Trebino, Frequency-Resolved Optical Gating: The Measurement of Ultrashort Laser Pulses, (Kluwer Academic Publishers, Boston2002).
    [Crossref]
  30. R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbgel, and D. J. Kane, “Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequencyresolved optical gating,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 3277 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  31. D. J. Kane, “Principal components generalized projections: a review,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25, 120 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  32. C. A. Haworth, L. E. Chipperfield, J. S. Robinson, P. L. Knight, J. P. Marangos, and J. W. G. Tisch, “Half-cycle cutoffs in harmonic spectra and robust carrier-envelope phase retrieval,” Nature Phys. 3, 52–57 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  33. I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “High-Harmonic Generation of Attosecond Pulses in the “Single-Cycle” Regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1251–1254 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  34. M. B. Gaarde, J. L. Tate, and K. J. Schafer, “Macroscopic aspects of attosecond pulse generation,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 41, 132001 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  35. V. V. Strelkov, E. Msével, and E. Constant, “Generation of isolated attosecond pulses by spatial shaping of a femtosecond laser beam,” New J. Phys. 10, 083040 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  36. C. Winterfeldt, C. Spielmann, and G. Gerber, “Colloquium: Optimal control of high-harmonic generation,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 80, 117–140 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  37. T. Sekikawa, A. Kosuge, T. Kanai, and S. Watanabe, “Nonlinear optics in the extreme ultraviolet,” Nature 432, 605–608 (2004).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  38. Y. Nabekawa, H. Hasegawa, E. J. Takahashi, and K. Midorikawa, “Production of Doubly Charged Helium Ions by Two-Photon Absorption of an Intense Sub-10-fs Soft X-Ray Pulse at 42 eV Photon Energy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 043001 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  39. J. M. Schins, P. Breger, P. Agostini, R. C. Constantinescu, H. G. Muller, G. Grillon, A. Antonetti, and A. Mysy-rowicz, “Observation of Laser-Assisted Auger Decay in Argon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 2180–2183 (1994).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  40. T. E. Glover, R. W. Schoenlein, A. H Chin, and C. V. Shank, “Observation of laser assisted photoelectric effect and femtosecond high order harmonic radiation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 2468–2471 (1996).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  41. P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Augsé, Ph. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a Train of Attosecond Pulses from High Harmonic Generation,” Science 292, 1689–1692 (200).
    [Crossref]
  42. J. Itatani, F. Qusérsé, G. L. Yudin, M.Yu. Ivanov, F. Krausz, and P. B. Corkum, “Attosecond Streak Camera,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173903 (2002).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  43. E. Cormier, I. A. Walmsley, E. M. Kosik, A. S. Wyatt, L. Corner, and L. F. DiMauro, “Self-Referencing, Spectrally, or Spatially Encoded Spectral Interferometry for the Complete Characterization of Attosecond Electromagnetic Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 033905 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  44. K. Varjsú, Y. Mairesse, B. Carrsé, M. B. Gaarde, P. Johnsson, S. Kazamias, R. López-Martens, J. Mauritsson, K. J. Schafer, PH. Balcou, A. L’huillier, and P. Salières, “Frequency chirp of harmonic and attosecond pulses,” J. Mod. Opt. 52, 379 – 394 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  45. N. L. Wagner, E. A. Gibson, T. Popmintchev, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Self-Compression of Ultrashort Pulses through Ionization-Induced Spatiotemporal Reshaping,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 173902 (2004).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  46. C. Altucci, V. Tosa, and R. Velotta, “Beyond the single-atom response in isolated attosecond-pulse generation,” Phys. Rev. A 75, 061401(R) (2007).
    [Crossref]
  47. A. Baltus̆ka, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hsänsch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature 421, 611 (2003).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  48. M. Nisoli, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, C. Vozzi, M. Pascolini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, and G. Ton-dello, “Effects of Carrier-Envelope Phase Differences of Few-Optical-Cycle Light Pulses in Single-Shot High-Order-Harmonic Spectra,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 213905 (2003).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  49. G. Sansone, C. Vozzi, S. Stagira, and M. Nisoli, “Nonadiabatic quantum path analysis of high-order harmonic generation: Role of the carrier-envelope phase on short and long paths,” Phys. Rev. A 70, 013411 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  50. S. Backus, R. Bartels, S. Thompson, R. Dollinger, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, “High-efficiency, single-stage 7-kHz high-average-power ultrafast laser system,” Opt. Lett. 26465 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  51. Z. Chang, A. Rundquist, H. Wang, I. Christov, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, “Temporal phase control of soft-x-ray harmonic emission,” Phys. Rev. A 58, 30(R) (1998).
    [Crossref]
  52. E. A. Gibson, A. Paul, N. Wagner, R. Tobey, D. Gaudiosi, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, A. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Coherent Soft X-ray Generation in the Water Window with QuasiPhase Matching,” Science 302, 95 (2003).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  53. A. Sandhu, E. Gagnon, A. Paul, I. Thomann, A. Lytle, T. Keep, M. Murnane, H. Kapteyn, and I. Christov, “Generation of sub-optical-cycle, carrier-envelope-phase-insensitive, extreme-uv pulses via nonlinear stabilization in a waveguide,” Phys. Rev. A 74, 61803 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  54. M. Geissler, G. Tempea, A. Scrinzi, M. Schnrer, F. Krausz, and T. Brabec, “Light Propagation in Field-Ionizing Media: Extreme Nonlinear Optics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2930–2933 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  55. C. Spielmann, C. Kan, N. Burnett, T. Brabec, M. Geissler, A. Scrinzi, M. Schnurer, and F. Krausz, “Near-keV coherent X-ray generation with sub-10-fs lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 249–265 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  56. P. Tzallas, E. Skantzakis, C. Kalpouzos, E. P. Benis, G. D. Tsakiris, and D. Charalambidis, “Generation of intense continuum extreme-ultraviolet radiation by many-cycle laser fields,” Nature Physics 3, 846–850 (2007).
    [Crossref]

2008 (8)

I. Thomann, E. Gregonis, X. Liu, R. Trebino, A. Sandhu, M. Murnane, and H. Kapteyn, “Temporal characterization of attosecond waveforms in the sub-optical cycle regime,” Phys. Rev. A,  78, 011806(R) (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Gagnon, E. Goulielmakis, and V. S. Yakovlev, “The accurate FROG characterization of attosecond pulses from streaking measurements,” Appl. Phys. B 92, 25–32 (2008).
[Crossref]

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gul-likson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-Cycle Nonlinear Optics,” Science 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. J. Kane, “Principal components generalized projections: a review,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25, 120 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. B. Gaarde, J. L. Tate, and K. J. Schafer, “Macroscopic aspects of attosecond pulse generation,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 41, 132001 (2008).
[Crossref]

V. V. Strelkov, E. Msével, and E. Constant, “Generation of isolated attosecond pulses by spatial shaping of a femtosecond laser beam,” New J. Phys. 10, 083040 (2008).
[Crossref]

C. Winterfeldt, C. Spielmann, and G. Gerber, “Colloquium: Optimal control of high-harmonic generation,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 80, 117–140 (2008).
[Crossref]

H. Mashiko, S. Gilbertson, C. Li, E. Moon, and Z. Chang, “Optimizing the photon flux of double optical gated high-order harmonic spectra,” Phys. Rev. A 77, 063423 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (5)

P. Tzallas, E. Skantzakis, C. Kalpouzos, E. P. Benis, G. D. Tsakiris, and D. Charalambidis, “Generation of intense continuum extreme-ultraviolet radiation by many-cycle laser fields,” Nature Physics 3, 846–850 (2007).
[Crossref]

H. Merdji, T. Auguste, W. Boutu, J.-Pascal Caumes, B. Carrsé, T. Pfeifer, A. Jullien, D. M. Neumark, and S. R. Leone, “Isolated attosecond pulses using a detuned second-harmonic field,” Opt. Lett. 32, 3134–1336 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Pfeifer, A. Jullien, M. J. Abel, P. M. Nagel, L. Gallmann, D. M. Neumark, and S. R. Leone, “Generating coherent broadband continuum soft-x-ray radiation by attosecond ionization gating,” Opt. Express,  15, 17120–17128 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. A. Haworth, L. E. Chipperfield, J. S. Robinson, P. L. Knight, J. P. Marangos, and J. W. G. Tisch, “Half-cycle cutoffs in harmonic spectra and robust carrier-envelope phase retrieval,” Nature Phys. 3, 52–57 (2007).
[Crossref]

C. Altucci, V. Tosa, and R. Velotta, “Beyond the single-atom response in isolated attosecond-pulse generation,” Phys. Rev. A 75, 061401(R) (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (4)

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated Single-Cycle Attosecond Pulses,” Science 314, 442–446 (2006).
[Crossref]

M. B. Gaarde and K. J. Schafer, “Generating single attosecond pulses via spatial filtering,” Opt. Lett. 31, 3188–3190 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Sandhu, E. Gagnon, A. Paul, I. Thomann, A. Lytle, T. Keep, M. Murnane, H. Kapteyn, and I. Christov, “Generation of sub-optical-cycle, carrier-envelope-phase-insensitive, extreme-uv pulses via nonlinear stabilization in a waveguide,” Phys. Rev. A 74, 61803 (2006).
[Crossref]

W. Cao, P. Lu, P. Lan, X. Wang, and G. Yang, “Single-attosecond pulse generation with an intense multicycle driving pulse,” Phys. Rev. A 74, 063821 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (7)

R. López-Martens, K. Varjsú, P. Johnsson, J. Mauritsson, Y. Mairesse, P. Salières, M. B. Gaarde, K. J. Schafer, A. Persson, S. Svanberg, C.-Göran Wahlström, and A. L’Huillier, “Amplitude and Phase Control of Attosecond Light Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 033001 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Mairesse and F. Qusérsé,“Frequency-resolved optical gating for complete reconstruction of attosecond bursts,” Phys. Rev. A 71, 011401 (2005).
[Crossref]

F. Quere, Y. Mairesse, and J. Itatani, “Temporal characterization of attosecond XUV fields,” J. Mod. Opt. 52, 339–360 (2005).
[Crossref]

E. Cormier, I. A. Walmsley, E. M. Kosik, A. S. Wyatt, L. Corner, and L. F. DiMauro, “Self-Referencing, Spectrally, or Spatially Encoded Spectral Interferometry for the Complete Characterization of Attosecond Electromagnetic Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 033905 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Varjsú, Y. Mairesse, B. Carrsé, M. B. Gaarde, P. Johnsson, S. Kazamias, R. López-Martens, J. Mauritsson, K. J. Schafer, PH. Balcou, A. L’huillier, and P. Salières, “Frequency chirp of harmonic and attosecond pulses,” J. Mod. Opt. 52, 379 – 394 (2005).
[Crossref]

Y. Nabekawa, H. Hasegawa, E. J. Takahashi, and K. Midorikawa, “Production of Doubly Charged Helium Ions by Two-Photon Absorption of an Intense Sub-10-fs Soft X-Ray Pulse at 42 eV Photon Energy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 043001 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Suda, M. Hatayama, K. Nagasaka, and K. Midorikawa, “Generation of sub-10-fs, 5-mJ-optical pulses using a hollow fiber with a pressure gradient,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 111116 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (4)

T. Sekikawa, A. Kosuge, T. Kanai, and S. Watanabe, “Nonlinear optics in the extreme ultraviolet,” Nature 432, 605–608 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. L. Wagner, E. A. Gibson, T. Popmintchev, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Self-Compression of Ultrashort Pulses through Ionization-Induced Spatiotemporal Reshaping,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 173902 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Chang, “Single attosecond pulse and xuv supercontinuum in the high-order harmonic plateau,” Phys. Rev. A 70, 043802 (2004).
[Crossref]

G. Sansone, C. Vozzi, S. Stagira, and M. Nisoli, “Nonadiabatic quantum path analysis of high-order harmonic generation: Role of the carrier-envelope phase on short and long paths,” Phys. Rev. A 70, 013411 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (4)

E. A. Gibson, A. Paul, N. Wagner, R. Tobey, D. Gaudiosi, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, A. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Coherent Soft X-ray Generation in the Water Window with QuasiPhase Matching,” Science 302, 95 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Mairesse, A. de Bohan, L. J. Frasinski, H. Merdji, L. C. Dinu, P. Monchicourt, P. Breger, M. Kovačev, R. Tsïeb, B. Carrsé, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and P. Salières, “Attosecond Synchronization of High-Harmonic Soft X-Rays,” Science 302, 1540–1543 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Baltus̆ka, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hsänsch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature 421, 611 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Nisoli, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, C. Vozzi, M. Pascolini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, and G. Ton-dello, “Effects of Carrier-Envelope Phase Differences of Few-Optical-Cycle Light Pulses in Single-Shot High-Order-Harmonic Spectra,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 213905 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

J. Itatani, F. Qusérsé, G. L. Yudin, M.Yu. Ivanov, F. Krausz, and P. B. Corkum, “Attosecond Streak Camera,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173903 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (3)

M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, G. Tempea, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, P. B. Corkum, and F. Krausz, “X-ray Pulses Approaching the Attosecond Frontier,” Science 291, 1923–1927 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414, 509–513 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Backus, R. Bartels, S. Thompson, R. Dollinger, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, “High-efficiency, single-stage 7-kHz high-average-power ultrafast laser system,” Opt. Lett. 26465 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

1999 (1)

M. Geissler, G. Tempea, A. Scrinzi, M. Schnrer, F. Krausz, and T. Brabec, “Light Propagation in Field-Ionizing Media: Extreme Nonlinear Optics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2930–2933 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (3)

C. Spielmann, C. Kan, N. Burnett, T. Brabec, M. Geissler, A. Scrinzi, M. Schnurer, and F. Krausz, “Near-keV coherent X-ray generation with sub-10-fs lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 249–265 (1998).
[Crossref]

Z. Chang, A. Rundquist, H. Wang, I. Christov, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, “Temporal phase control of soft-x-ray harmonic emission,” Phys. Rev. A 58, 30(R) (1998).
[Crossref]

A. Rundquist, C. Durfee, Z. Chang, C. Herne, S. Backus, M. Murnane, and H. Kapteyn, “Phase-matched generation of coherent soft x-rays,” Science 280, 1412–1214 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1997 (3)

M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, O. Svelto, R. Szipöcs, K. Ferencz, Ch. Spielmann, S. Sartania, and F. Krausz, “Compression of high-energy laser pulses below 5 fs,” Opt. Express,  22, 522–524 (1997).

R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbgel, and D. J. Kane, “Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequencyresolved optical gating,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 3277 (1997).
[Crossref]

I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “High-Harmonic Generation of Attosecond Pulses in the “Single-Cycle” Regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1251–1254 (1997).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

T. E. Glover, R. W. Schoenlein, A. H Chin, and C. V. Shank, “Observation of laser assisted photoelectric effect and femtosecond high order harmonic radiation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 2468–2471 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1994 (3)

J. M. Schins, P. Breger, P. Agostini, R. C. Constantinescu, H. G. Muller, G. Grillon, A. Antonetti, and A. Mysy-rowicz, “Observation of Laser-Assisted Auger Decay in Argon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 2180–2183 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Lewenstein, Ph. Balcou, M. Yu. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, “Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 49, 2117–2132 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. B. Corkum, N. H. Burnett, and M. Y. Ivanov, “Subfemtosecond pulses,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1870 – 1872 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1993 (2)

P. B. Corkum, “Plasma Perspective on Strong-Field Multiphoton Ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1994–1997 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. E. Hands, J. J Macklin, and T. W. Haensch, “Atomic scale temporal structure inherent to high-order harmonic generation,” Opt. Commun. 100, 487–490 (1993).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

Gy. Farkas and Cs. Tòth, “Proposal for attosecond light pulse generation using laser induced multiple-harmonic conversion processes in rare gases,” Phys. Lett. A 168447 – 450 (1992).
[Crossref]

1983 (1)

P. Kruit and F. H. Read, “Magnetic field paralleliser for 2πelectron-spectrometer and electron-image magnifier,” J. Phys. E - Scientific Instruments,  16, 313–324 (1983).
[Crossref]

Abel, M. J.

Agostini, P.

Y. Mairesse, A. de Bohan, L. J. Frasinski, H. Merdji, L. C. Dinu, P. Monchicourt, P. Breger, M. Kovačev, R. Tsïeb, B. Carrsé, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and P. Salières, “Attosecond Synchronization of High-Harmonic Soft X-Rays,” Science 302, 1540–1543 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Augsé, Ph. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a Train of Attosecond Pulses from High Harmonic Generation,” Science 292, 1689–1692 (200).
[Crossref]

J. M. Schins, P. Breger, P. Agostini, R. C. Constantinescu, H. G. Muller, G. Grillon, A. Antonetti, and A. Mysy-rowicz, “Observation of Laser-Assisted Auger Decay in Argon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 2180–2183 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Altucci, C.

C. Altucci, V. Tosa, and R. Velotta, “Beyond the single-atom response in isolated attosecond-pulse generation,” Phys. Rev. A 75, 061401(R) (2007).
[Crossref]

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated Single-Cycle Attosecond Pulses,” Science 314, 442–446 (2006).
[Crossref]

Antonetti, A.

J. M. Schins, P. Breger, P. Agostini, R. C. Constantinescu, H. G. Muller, G. Grillon, A. Antonetti, and A. Mysy-rowicz, “Observation of Laser-Assisted Auger Decay in Argon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 2180–2183 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aquila, A.

E. A. Gibson, A. Paul, N. Wagner, R. Tobey, D. Gaudiosi, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, A. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Coherent Soft X-ray Generation in the Water Window with QuasiPhase Matching,” Science 302, 95 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aquila, A. L.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gul-likson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-Cycle Nonlinear Optics,” Science 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Attwood, D. T.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gul-likson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-Cycle Nonlinear Optics,” Science 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. A. Gibson, A. Paul, N. Wagner, R. Tobey, D. Gaudiosi, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, A. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Coherent Soft X-ray Generation in the Water Window with QuasiPhase Matching,” Science 302, 95 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Augsé, F.

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Augsé, Ph. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a Train of Attosecond Pulses from High Harmonic Generation,” Science 292, 1689–1692 (200).
[Crossref]

Auguste, T.

Avaldi, L.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated Single-Cycle Attosecond Pulses,” Science 314, 442–446 (2006).
[Crossref]

Backus, S.

E. A. Gibson, A. Paul, N. Wagner, R. Tobey, D. Gaudiosi, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, A. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Coherent Soft X-ray Generation in the Water Window with QuasiPhase Matching,” Science 302, 95 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Backus, R. Bartels, S. Thompson, R. Dollinger, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, “High-efficiency, single-stage 7-kHz high-average-power ultrafast laser system,” Opt. Lett. 26465 (2001).
[Crossref]

A. Rundquist, C. Durfee, Z. Chang, C. Herne, S. Backus, M. Murnane, and H. Kapteyn, “Phase-matched generation of coherent soft x-rays,” Science 280, 1412–1214 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Balcou, PH.

K. Varjsú, Y. Mairesse, B. Carrsé, M. B. Gaarde, P. Johnsson, S. Kazamias, R. López-Martens, J. Mauritsson, K. J. Schafer, PH. Balcou, A. L’huillier, and P. Salières, “Frequency chirp of harmonic and attosecond pulses,” J. Mod. Opt. 52, 379 – 394 (2005).
[Crossref]

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Augsé, Ph. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a Train of Attosecond Pulses from High Harmonic Generation,” Science 292, 1689–1692 (200).
[Crossref]

M. Lewenstein, Ph. Balcou, M. Yu. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, “Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 49, 2117–2132 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baltus?ka, A.

A. Baltus̆ka, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hsänsch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature 421, 611 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bartels, R.

Becker, U.

U. Becker and D. Shirley, VUV And Soft X-Ray Photoionization, (Plenum Press New York1996).
[Crossref]

Benedetti, E.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated Single-Cycle Attosecond Pulses,” Science 314, 442–446 (2006).
[Crossref]

Benis, E. P.

P. Tzallas, E. Skantzakis, C. Kalpouzos, E. P. Benis, G. D. Tsakiris, and D. Charalambidis, “Generation of intense continuum extreme-ultraviolet radiation by many-cycle laser fields,” Nature Physics 3, 846–850 (2007).
[Crossref]

Bohan, A. de

Y. Mairesse, A. de Bohan, L. J. Frasinski, H. Merdji, L. C. Dinu, P. Monchicourt, P. Breger, M. Kovačev, R. Tsïeb, B. Carrsé, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and P. Salières, “Attosecond Synchronization of High-Harmonic Soft X-Rays,” Science 302, 1540–1543 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boutu, W.

Brabec, T.

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414, 509–513 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Geissler, G. Tempea, A. Scrinzi, M. Schnrer, F. Krausz, and T. Brabec, “Light Propagation in Field-Ionizing Media: Extreme Nonlinear Optics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2930–2933 (1999).
[Crossref]

C. Spielmann, C. Kan, N. Burnett, T. Brabec, M. Geissler, A. Scrinzi, M. Schnurer, and F. Krausz, “Near-keV coherent X-ray generation with sub-10-fs lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 249–265 (1998).
[Crossref]

Breger, P.

Y. Mairesse, A. de Bohan, L. J. Frasinski, H. Merdji, L. C. Dinu, P. Monchicourt, P. Breger, M. Kovačev, R. Tsïeb, B. Carrsé, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and P. Salières, “Attosecond Synchronization of High-Harmonic Soft X-Rays,” Science 302, 1540–1543 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Augsé, Ph. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a Train of Attosecond Pulses from High Harmonic Generation,” Science 292, 1689–1692 (200).
[Crossref]

J. M. Schins, P. Breger, P. Agostini, R. C. Constantinescu, H. G. Muller, G. Grillon, A. Antonetti, and A. Mysy-rowicz, “Observation of Laser-Assisted Auger Decay in Argon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 2180–2183 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Burnett, N.

C. Spielmann, C. Kan, N. Burnett, T. Brabec, M. Geissler, A. Scrinzi, M. Schnurer, and F. Krausz, “Near-keV coherent X-ray generation with sub-10-fs lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 249–265 (1998).
[Crossref]

Burnett, N. H.

Calegari, F.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated Single-Cycle Attosecond Pulses,” Science 314, 442–446 (2006).
[Crossref]

Cao, W.

W. Cao, P. Lu, P. Lan, X. Wang, and G. Yang, “Single-attosecond pulse generation with an intense multicycle driving pulse,” Phys. Rev. A 74, 063821 (2006).
[Crossref]

Carrsé, B.

H. Merdji, T. Auguste, W. Boutu, J.-Pascal Caumes, B. Carrsé, T. Pfeifer, A. Jullien, D. M. Neumark, and S. R. Leone, “Isolated attosecond pulses using a detuned second-harmonic field,” Opt. Lett. 32, 3134–1336 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Varjsú, Y. Mairesse, B. Carrsé, M. B. Gaarde, P. Johnsson, S. Kazamias, R. López-Martens, J. Mauritsson, K. J. Schafer, PH. Balcou, A. L’huillier, and P. Salières, “Frequency chirp of harmonic and attosecond pulses,” J. Mod. Opt. 52, 379 – 394 (2005).
[Crossref]

Y. Mairesse, A. de Bohan, L. J. Frasinski, H. Merdji, L. C. Dinu, P. Monchicourt, P. Breger, M. Kovačev, R. Tsïeb, B. Carrsé, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and P. Salières, “Attosecond Synchronization of High-Harmonic Soft X-Rays,” Science 302, 1540–1543 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Caumes, J.-Pascal

Chang, Z.

H. Mashiko, S. Gilbertson, C. Li, E. Moon, and Z. Chang, “Optimizing the photon flux of double optical gated high-order harmonic spectra,” Phys. Rev. A 77, 063423 (2008).
[Crossref]

Z. Chang, “Single attosecond pulse and xuv supercontinuum in the high-order harmonic plateau,” Phys. Rev. A 70, 043802 (2004).
[Crossref]

Z. Chang, A. Rundquist, H. Wang, I. Christov, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, “Temporal phase control of soft-x-ray harmonic emission,” Phys. Rev. A 58, 30(R) (1998).
[Crossref]

A. Rundquist, C. Durfee, Z. Chang, C. Herne, S. Backus, M. Murnane, and H. Kapteyn, “Phase-matched generation of coherent soft x-rays,” Science 280, 1412–1214 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Charalambidis, D.

P. Tzallas, E. Skantzakis, C. Kalpouzos, E. P. Benis, G. D. Tsakiris, and D. Charalambidis, “Generation of intense continuum extreme-ultraviolet radiation by many-cycle laser fields,” Nature Physics 3, 846–850 (2007).
[Crossref]

Chin, A. H

T. E. Glover, R. W. Schoenlein, A. H Chin, and C. V. Shank, “Observation of laser assisted photoelectric effect and femtosecond high order harmonic radiation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 2468–2471 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chipperfield, L. E.

C. A. Haworth, L. E. Chipperfield, J. S. Robinson, P. L. Knight, J. P. Marangos, and J. W. G. Tisch, “Half-cycle cutoffs in harmonic spectra and robust carrier-envelope phase retrieval,” Nature Phys. 3, 52–57 (2007).
[Crossref]

Christov, I.

A. Sandhu, E. Gagnon, A. Paul, I. Thomann, A. Lytle, T. Keep, M. Murnane, H. Kapteyn, and I. Christov, “Generation of sub-optical-cycle, carrier-envelope-phase-insensitive, extreme-uv pulses via nonlinear stabilization in a waveguide,” Phys. Rev. A 74, 61803 (2006).
[Crossref]

Z. Chang, A. Rundquist, H. Wang, I. Christov, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, “Temporal phase control of soft-x-ray harmonic emission,” Phys. Rev. A 58, 30(R) (1998).
[Crossref]

Christov, I. P.

N. L. Wagner, E. A. Gibson, T. Popmintchev, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Self-Compression of Ultrashort Pulses through Ionization-Induced Spatiotemporal Reshaping,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 173902 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. A. Gibson, A. Paul, N. Wagner, R. Tobey, D. Gaudiosi, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, A. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Coherent Soft X-ray Generation in the Water Window with QuasiPhase Matching,” Science 302, 95 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. P. Christov, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, “Quasi-phase matching of high-harmonics and attosecond pulses in modulated waveguides” Opt. Express,  7, 362–367 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “High-Harmonic Generation of Attosecond Pulses in the “Single-Cycle” Regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1251–1254 (1997).
[Crossref]

Constant, E.

V. V. Strelkov, E. Msével, and E. Constant, “Generation of isolated attosecond pulses by spatial shaping of a femtosecond laser beam,” New J. Phys. 10, 083040 (2008).
[Crossref]

Constantinescu, R. C.

J. M. Schins, P. Breger, P. Agostini, R. C. Constantinescu, H. G. Muller, G. Grillon, A. Antonetti, and A. Mysy-rowicz, “Observation of Laser-Assisted Auger Decay in Argon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 2180–2183 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Corkum, P.

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414, 509–513 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Corkum, P. B.

J. Itatani, F. Qusérsé, G. L. Yudin, M.Yu. Ivanov, F. Krausz, and P. B. Corkum, “Attosecond Streak Camera,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173903 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, G. Tempea, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, P. B. Corkum, and F. Krausz, “X-ray Pulses Approaching the Attosecond Frontier,” Science 291, 1923–1927 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. B. Corkum, N. H. Burnett, and M. Y. Ivanov, “Subfemtosecond pulses,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1870 – 1872 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Lewenstein, Ph. Balcou, M. Yu. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, “Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 49, 2117–2132 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. B. Corkum, “Plasma Perspective on Strong-Field Multiphoton Ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1994–1997 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cormier, E.

E. Cormier, I. A. Walmsley, E. M. Kosik, A. S. Wyatt, L. Corner, and L. F. DiMauro, “Self-Referencing, Spectrally, or Spatially Encoded Spectral Interferometry for the Complete Characterization of Attosecond Electromagnetic Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 033905 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Corner, L.

E. Cormier, I. A. Walmsley, E. M. Kosik, A. S. Wyatt, L. Corner, and L. F. DiMauro, “Self-Referencing, Spectrally, or Spatially Encoded Spectral Interferometry for the Complete Characterization of Attosecond Electromagnetic Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 033905 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

DeLong, K. W.

R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbgel, and D. J. Kane, “Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequencyresolved optical gating,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 3277 (1997).
[Crossref]

DiMauro, L. F.

E. Cormier, I. A. Walmsley, E. M. Kosik, A. S. Wyatt, L. Corner, and L. F. DiMauro, “Self-Referencing, Spectrally, or Spatially Encoded Spectral Interferometry for the Complete Characterization of Attosecond Electromagnetic Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 033905 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dinu, L. C.

Y. Mairesse, A. de Bohan, L. J. Frasinski, H. Merdji, L. C. Dinu, P. Monchicourt, P. Breger, M. Kovačev, R. Tsïeb, B. Carrsé, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and P. Salières, “Attosecond Synchronization of High-Harmonic Soft X-Rays,” Science 302, 1540–1543 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dollinger, R.

Drescher, M.

M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, G. Tempea, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, P. B. Corkum, and F. Krausz, “X-ray Pulses Approaching the Attosecond Frontier,” Science 291, 1923–1927 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414, 509–513 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Durfee, C.

A. Rundquist, C. Durfee, Z. Chang, C. Herne, S. Backus, M. Murnane, and H. Kapteyn, “Phase-matched generation of coherent soft x-rays,” Science 280, 1412–1214 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Farkas, Gy.

Gy. Farkas and Cs. Tòth, “Proposal for attosecond light pulse generation using laser induced multiple-harmonic conversion processes in rare gases,” Phys. Lett. A 168447 – 450 (1992).
[Crossref]

Ferencz, K.

M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, O. Svelto, R. Szipöcs, K. Ferencz, Ch. Spielmann, S. Sartania, and F. Krausz, “Compression of high-energy laser pulses below 5 fs,” Opt. Express,  22, 522–524 (1997).

Fittinghoff, D. N.

R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbgel, and D. J. Kane, “Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequencyresolved optical gating,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 3277 (1997).
[Crossref]

Flammini, R.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated Single-Cycle Attosecond Pulses,” Science 314, 442–446 (2006).
[Crossref]

Frasinski, L. J.

Y. Mairesse, A. de Bohan, L. J. Frasinski, H. Merdji, L. C. Dinu, P. Monchicourt, P. Breger, M. Kovačev, R. Tsïeb, B. Carrsé, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and P. Salières, “Attosecond Synchronization of High-Harmonic Soft X-Rays,” Science 302, 1540–1543 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gaarde, M. B.

M. B. Gaarde, J. L. Tate, and K. J. Schafer, “Macroscopic aspects of attosecond pulse generation,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 41, 132001 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. B. Gaarde and K. J. Schafer, “Generating single attosecond pulses via spatial filtering,” Opt. Lett. 31, 3188–3190 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. López-Martens, K. Varjsú, P. Johnsson, J. Mauritsson, Y. Mairesse, P. Salières, M. B. Gaarde, K. J. Schafer, A. Persson, S. Svanberg, C.-Göran Wahlström, and A. L’Huillier, “Amplitude and Phase Control of Attosecond Light Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 033001 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Varjsú, Y. Mairesse, B. Carrsé, M. B. Gaarde, P. Johnsson, S. Kazamias, R. López-Martens, J. Mauritsson, K. J. Schafer, PH. Balcou, A. L’huillier, and P. Salières, “Frequency chirp of harmonic and attosecond pulses,” J. Mod. Opt. 52, 379 – 394 (2005).
[Crossref]

Gagnon, E.

A. Sandhu, E. Gagnon, A. Paul, I. Thomann, A. Lytle, T. Keep, M. Murnane, H. Kapteyn, and I. Christov, “Generation of sub-optical-cycle, carrier-envelope-phase-insensitive, extreme-uv pulses via nonlinear stabilization in a waveguide,” Phys. Rev. A 74, 61803 (2006).
[Crossref]

Gagnon, J.

J. Gagnon, E. Goulielmakis, and V. S. Yakovlev, “The accurate FROG characterization of attosecond pulses from streaking measurements,” Appl. Phys. B 92, 25–32 (2008).
[Crossref]

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gul-likson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-Cycle Nonlinear Optics,” Science 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gallmann, L.

Gaudiosi, D.

E. A. Gibson, A. Paul, N. Wagner, R. Tobey, D. Gaudiosi, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, A. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Coherent Soft X-ray Generation in the Water Window with QuasiPhase Matching,” Science 302, 95 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Geissler, M.

M. Geissler, G. Tempea, A. Scrinzi, M. Schnrer, F. Krausz, and T. Brabec, “Light Propagation in Field-Ionizing Media: Extreme Nonlinear Optics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2930–2933 (1999).
[Crossref]

C. Spielmann, C. Kan, N. Burnett, T. Brabec, M. Geissler, A. Scrinzi, M. Schnurer, and F. Krausz, “Near-keV coherent X-ray generation with sub-10-fs lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 249–265 (1998).
[Crossref]

Gerber, G.

C. Winterfeldt, C. Spielmann, and G. Gerber, “Colloquium: Optimal control of high-harmonic generation,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 80, 117–140 (2008).
[Crossref]

Gibson, E. A.

N. L. Wagner, E. A. Gibson, T. Popmintchev, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Self-Compression of Ultrashort Pulses through Ionization-Induced Spatiotemporal Reshaping,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 173902 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. A. Gibson, A. Paul, N. Wagner, R. Tobey, D. Gaudiosi, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, A. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Coherent Soft X-ray Generation in the Water Window with QuasiPhase Matching,” Science 302, 95 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gilbertson, S.

H. Mashiko, S. Gilbertson, C. Li, E. Moon, and Z. Chang, “Optimizing the photon flux of double optical gated high-order harmonic spectra,” Phys. Rev. A 77, 063423 (2008).
[Crossref]

Glover, T. E.

T. E. Glover, R. W. Schoenlein, A. H Chin, and C. V. Shank, “Observation of laser assisted photoelectric effect and femtosecond high order harmonic radiation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 2468–2471 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gohle, Ch.

A. Baltus̆ka, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hsänsch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature 421, 611 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Goulielmakis, E.

J. Gagnon, E. Goulielmakis, and V. S. Yakovlev, “The accurate FROG characterization of attosecond pulses from streaking measurements,” Appl. Phys. B 92, 25–32 (2008).
[Crossref]

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gul-likson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-Cycle Nonlinear Optics,” Science 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Baltus̆ka, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hsänsch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature 421, 611 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gregonis, E.

I. Thomann, E. Gregonis, X. Liu, R. Trebino, A. Sandhu, M. Murnane, and H. Kapteyn, “Temporal characterization of attosecond waveforms in the sub-optical cycle regime,” Phys. Rev. A,  78, 011806(R) (2008).
[Crossref]

Grillon, G.

J. M. Schins, P. Breger, P. Agostini, R. C. Constantinescu, H. G. Muller, G. Grillon, A. Antonetti, and A. Mysy-rowicz, “Observation of Laser-Assisted Auger Decay in Argon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 2180–2183 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gullikson, E. M.

E. A. Gibson, A. Paul, N. Wagner, R. Tobey, D. Gaudiosi, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, A. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Coherent Soft X-ray Generation in the Water Window with QuasiPhase Matching,” Science 302, 95 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gul-likson, E. M.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gul-likson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-Cycle Nonlinear Optics,” Science 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Haensch, T. W.

S. E. Hands, J. J Macklin, and T. W. Haensch, “Atomic scale temporal structure inherent to high-order harmonic generation,” Opt. Commun. 100, 487–490 (1993).
[Crossref]

Hands, S. E.

S. E. Hands, J. J Macklin, and T. W. Haensch, “Atomic scale temporal structure inherent to high-order harmonic generation,” Opt. Commun. 100, 487–490 (1993).
[Crossref]

Hasegawa, H.

Y. Nabekawa, H. Hasegawa, E. J. Takahashi, and K. Midorikawa, “Production of Doubly Charged Helium Ions by Two-Photon Absorption of an Intense Sub-10-fs Soft X-Ray Pulse at 42 eV Photon Energy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 043001 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hatayama, M.

A. Suda, M. Hatayama, K. Nagasaka, and K. Midorikawa, “Generation of sub-10-fs, 5-mJ-optical pulses using a hollow fiber with a pressure gradient,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 111116 (2005).
[Crossref]

Haworth, C. A.

C. A. Haworth, L. E. Chipperfield, J. S. Robinson, P. L. Knight, J. P. Marangos, and J. W. G. Tisch, “Half-cycle cutoffs in harmonic spectra and robust carrier-envelope phase retrieval,” Nature Phys. 3, 52–57 (2007).
[Crossref]

Heinzmann, U.

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414, 509–513 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hentschel, M.

A. Baltus̆ka, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hsänsch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature 421, 611 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, G. Tempea, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, P. B. Corkum, and F. Krausz, “X-ray Pulses Approaching the Attosecond Frontier,” Science 291, 1923–1927 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414, 509–513 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Herne, C.

A. Rundquist, C. Durfee, Z. Chang, C. Herne, S. Backus, M. Murnane, and H. Kapteyn, “Phase-matched generation of coherent soft x-rays,” Science 280, 1412–1214 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hofstetter, M.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gul-likson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-Cycle Nonlinear Optics,” Science 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Holzwarth, R.

A. Baltus̆ka, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hsänsch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature 421, 611 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hsänsch, T. W.

A. Baltus̆ka, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hsänsch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature 421, 611 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Itatani, J.

F. Quere, Y. Mairesse, and J. Itatani, “Temporal characterization of attosecond XUV fields,” J. Mod. Opt. 52, 339–360 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. Itatani, F. Qusérsé, G. L. Yudin, M.Yu. Ivanov, F. Krausz, and P. B. Corkum, “Attosecond Streak Camera,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173903 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ivanov, M. Y.

Ivanov, M.Yu.

J. Itatani, F. Qusérsé, G. L. Yudin, M.Yu. Ivanov, F. Krausz, and P. B. Corkum, “Attosecond Streak Camera,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173903 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Johnsson, P.

R. López-Martens, K. Varjsú, P. Johnsson, J. Mauritsson, Y. Mairesse, P. Salières, M. B. Gaarde, K. J. Schafer, A. Persson, S. Svanberg, C.-Göran Wahlström, and A. L’Huillier, “Amplitude and Phase Control of Attosecond Light Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 033001 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Varjsú, Y. Mairesse, B. Carrsé, M. B. Gaarde, P. Johnsson, S. Kazamias, R. López-Martens, J. Mauritsson, K. J. Schafer, PH. Balcou, A. L’huillier, and P. Salières, “Frequency chirp of harmonic and attosecond pulses,” J. Mod. Opt. 52, 379 – 394 (2005).
[Crossref]

Jullien, A.

Kalpouzos, C.

P. Tzallas, E. Skantzakis, C. Kalpouzos, E. P. Benis, G. D. Tsakiris, and D. Charalambidis, “Generation of intense continuum extreme-ultraviolet radiation by many-cycle laser fields,” Nature Physics 3, 846–850 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kan, C.

C. Spielmann, C. Kan, N. Burnett, T. Brabec, M. Geissler, A. Scrinzi, M. Schnurer, and F. Krausz, “Near-keV coherent X-ray generation with sub-10-fs lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 249–265 (1998).
[Crossref]

Kanai, T.

T. Sekikawa, A. Kosuge, T. Kanai, and S. Watanabe, “Nonlinear optics in the extreme ultraviolet,” Nature 432, 605–608 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kane, D. J.

D. J. Kane, “Principal components generalized projections: a review,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25, 120 (2008).
[Crossref]

R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbgel, and D. J. Kane, “Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequencyresolved optical gating,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 3277 (1997).
[Crossref]

Kapteyn, H.

I. Thomann, E. Gregonis, X. Liu, R. Trebino, A. Sandhu, M. Murnane, and H. Kapteyn, “Temporal characterization of attosecond waveforms in the sub-optical cycle regime,” Phys. Rev. A,  78, 011806(R) (2008).
[Crossref]

A. Sandhu, E. Gagnon, A. Paul, I. Thomann, A. Lytle, T. Keep, M. Murnane, H. Kapteyn, and I. Christov, “Generation of sub-optical-cycle, carrier-envelope-phase-insensitive, extreme-uv pulses via nonlinear stabilization in a waveguide,” Phys. Rev. A 74, 61803 (2006).
[Crossref]

A. Rundquist, C. Durfee, Z. Chang, C. Herne, S. Backus, M. Murnane, and H. Kapteyn, “Phase-matched generation of coherent soft x-rays,” Science 280, 1412–1214 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kapteyn, H. C.

N. L. Wagner, E. A. Gibson, T. Popmintchev, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Self-Compression of Ultrashort Pulses through Ionization-Induced Spatiotemporal Reshaping,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 173902 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. A. Gibson, A. Paul, N. Wagner, R. Tobey, D. Gaudiosi, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, A. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Coherent Soft X-ray Generation in the Water Window with QuasiPhase Matching,” Science 302, 95 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Backus, R. Bartels, S. Thompson, R. Dollinger, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, “High-efficiency, single-stage 7-kHz high-average-power ultrafast laser system,” Opt. Lett. 26465 (2001).
[Crossref]

I. P. Christov, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, “Quasi-phase matching of high-harmonics and attosecond pulses in modulated waveguides” Opt. Express,  7, 362–367 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Chang, A. Rundquist, H. Wang, I. Christov, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, “Temporal phase control of soft-x-ray harmonic emission,” Phys. Rev. A 58, 30(R) (1998).
[Crossref]

I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “High-Harmonic Generation of Attosecond Pulses in the “Single-Cycle” Regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1251–1254 (1997).
[Crossref]

Kazamias, S.

K. Varjsú, Y. Mairesse, B. Carrsé, M. B. Gaarde, P. Johnsson, S. Kazamias, R. López-Martens, J. Mauritsson, K. J. Schafer, PH. Balcou, A. L’huillier, and P. Salières, “Frequency chirp of harmonic and attosecond pulses,” J. Mod. Opt. 52, 379 – 394 (2005).
[Crossref]

Keep, T.

A. Sandhu, E. Gagnon, A. Paul, I. Thomann, A. Lytle, T. Keep, M. Murnane, H. Kapteyn, and I. Christov, “Generation of sub-optical-cycle, carrier-envelope-phase-insensitive, extreme-uv pulses via nonlinear stabilization in a waveguide,” Phys. Rev. A 74, 61803 (2006).
[Crossref]

Kienberger, R.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gul-likson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-Cycle Nonlinear Optics,” Science 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414, 509–513 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, G. Tempea, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, P. B. Corkum, and F. Krausz, “X-ray Pulses Approaching the Attosecond Frontier,” Science 291, 1923–1927 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kleineberg, U.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gul-likson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-Cycle Nonlinear Optics,” Science 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Knight, P. L.

C. A. Haworth, L. E. Chipperfield, J. S. Robinson, P. L. Knight, J. P. Marangos, and J. W. G. Tisch, “Half-cycle cutoffs in harmonic spectra and robust carrier-envelope phase retrieval,” Nature Phys. 3, 52–57 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kosik, E. M.

E. Cormier, I. A. Walmsley, E. M. Kosik, A. S. Wyatt, L. Corner, and L. F. DiMauro, “Self-Referencing, Spectrally, or Spatially Encoded Spectral Interferometry for the Complete Characterization of Attosecond Electromagnetic Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 033905 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kosuge, A.

T. Sekikawa, A. Kosuge, T. Kanai, and S. Watanabe, “Nonlinear optics in the extreme ultraviolet,” Nature 432, 605–608 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kovacev, M.

Y. Mairesse, A. de Bohan, L. J. Frasinski, H. Merdji, L. C. Dinu, P. Monchicourt, P. Breger, M. Kovačev, R. Tsïeb, B. Carrsé, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and P. Salières, “Attosecond Synchronization of High-Harmonic Soft X-Rays,” Science 302, 1540–1543 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Krause, J.

K. Kulander, K. Schafer, and J. Krause, “ Dynamics of short-pulse excitation, ion- ization, and harmonic conversion,” in Super-Intense Laser-Atom Physics, B. Pi- raux, A. L’Huillier, and K. Rzazewski, Eds., vol. 316. Han-sur-Lesse, Belgium: Plenum, 1993, pp. 95–110.

Krausz, F.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gul-likson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-Cycle Nonlinear Optics,” Science 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Baltus̆ka, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hsänsch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature 421, 611 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Itatani, F. Qusérsé, G. L. Yudin, M.Yu. Ivanov, F. Krausz, and P. B. Corkum, “Attosecond Streak Camera,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173903 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, G. Tempea, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, P. B. Corkum, and F. Krausz, “X-ray Pulses Approaching the Attosecond Frontier,” Science 291, 1923–1927 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414, 509–513 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Geissler, G. Tempea, A. Scrinzi, M. Schnrer, F. Krausz, and T. Brabec, “Light Propagation in Field-Ionizing Media: Extreme Nonlinear Optics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2930–2933 (1999).
[Crossref]

C. Spielmann, C. Kan, N. Burnett, T. Brabec, M. Geissler, A. Scrinzi, M. Schnurer, and F. Krausz, “Near-keV coherent X-ray generation with sub-10-fs lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 249–265 (1998).
[Crossref]

M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, O. Svelto, R. Szipöcs, K. Ferencz, Ch. Spielmann, S. Sartania, and F. Krausz, “Compression of high-energy laser pulses below 5 fs,” Opt. Express,  22, 522–524 (1997).

Kruit, P.

P. Kruit and F. H. Read, “Magnetic field paralleliser for 2πelectron-spectrometer and electron-image magnifier,” J. Phys. E - Scientific Instruments,  16, 313–324 (1983).
[Crossref]

Krumbgel, M. A.

R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbgel, and D. J. Kane, “Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequencyresolved optical gating,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 3277 (1997).
[Crossref]

Kulander, K.

K. Kulander, K. Schafer, and J. Krause, “ Dynamics of short-pulse excitation, ion- ization, and harmonic conversion,” in Super-Intense Laser-Atom Physics, B. Pi- raux, A. L’Huillier, and K. Rzazewski, Eds., vol. 316. Han-sur-Lesse, Belgium: Plenum, 1993, pp. 95–110.

L’huillier, A.

K. Varjsú, Y. Mairesse, B. Carrsé, M. B. Gaarde, P. Johnsson, S. Kazamias, R. López-Martens, J. Mauritsson, K. J. Schafer, PH. Balcou, A. L’huillier, and P. Salières, “Frequency chirp of harmonic and attosecond pulses,” J. Mod. Opt. 52, 379 – 394 (2005).
[Crossref]

R. López-Martens, K. Varjsú, P. Johnsson, J. Mauritsson, Y. Mairesse, P. Salières, M. B. Gaarde, K. J. Schafer, A. Persson, S. Svanberg, C.-Göran Wahlström, and A. L’Huillier, “Amplitude and Phase Control of Attosecond Light Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 033001 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Lewenstein, Ph. Balcou, M. Yu. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, “Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 49, 2117–2132 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lan, P.

W. Cao, P. Lu, P. Lan, X. Wang, and G. Yang, “Single-attosecond pulse generation with an intense multicycle driving pulse,” Phys. Rev. A 74, 063821 (2006).
[Crossref]

Leone, S. R.

Lewenstein, M.

M. Lewenstein, Ph. Balcou, M. Yu. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, “Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 49, 2117–2132 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, C.

H. Mashiko, S. Gilbertson, C. Li, E. Moon, and Z. Chang, “Optimizing the photon flux of double optical gated high-order harmonic spectra,” Phys. Rev. A 77, 063423 (2008).
[Crossref]

Liu, X.

I. Thomann, E. Gregonis, X. Liu, R. Trebino, A. Sandhu, M. Murnane, and H. Kapteyn, “Temporal characterization of attosecond waveforms in the sub-optical cycle regime,” Phys. Rev. A,  78, 011806(R) (2008).
[Crossref]

López-Martens, R.

R. López-Martens, K. Varjsú, P. Johnsson, J. Mauritsson, Y. Mairesse, P. Salières, M. B. Gaarde, K. J. Schafer, A. Persson, S. Svanberg, C.-Göran Wahlström, and A. L’Huillier, “Amplitude and Phase Control of Attosecond Light Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 033001 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Varjsú, Y. Mairesse, B. Carrsé, M. B. Gaarde, P. Johnsson, S. Kazamias, R. López-Martens, J. Mauritsson, K. J. Schafer, PH. Balcou, A. L’huillier, and P. Salières, “Frequency chirp of harmonic and attosecond pulses,” J. Mod. Opt. 52, 379 – 394 (2005).
[Crossref]

Lu, P.

W. Cao, P. Lu, P. Lan, X. Wang, and G. Yang, “Single-attosecond pulse generation with an intense multicycle driving pulse,” Phys. Rev. A 74, 063821 (2006).
[Crossref]

Lytle, A.

A. Sandhu, E. Gagnon, A. Paul, I. Thomann, A. Lytle, T. Keep, M. Murnane, H. Kapteyn, and I. Christov, “Generation of sub-optical-cycle, carrier-envelope-phase-insensitive, extreme-uv pulses via nonlinear stabilization in a waveguide,” Phys. Rev. A 74, 61803 (2006).
[Crossref]

Macklin, J. J

S. E. Hands, J. J Macklin, and T. W. Haensch, “Atomic scale temporal structure inherent to high-order harmonic generation,” Opt. Commun. 100, 487–490 (1993).
[Crossref]

Mairesse, Y.

R. López-Martens, K. Varjsú, P. Johnsson, J. Mauritsson, Y. Mairesse, P. Salières, M. B. Gaarde, K. J. Schafer, A. Persson, S. Svanberg, C.-Göran Wahlström, and A. L’Huillier, “Amplitude and Phase Control of Attosecond Light Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 033001 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Mairesse and F. Qusérsé,“Frequency-resolved optical gating for complete reconstruction of attosecond bursts,” Phys. Rev. A 71, 011401 (2005).
[Crossref]

F. Quere, Y. Mairesse, and J. Itatani, “Temporal characterization of attosecond XUV fields,” J. Mod. Opt. 52, 339–360 (2005).
[Crossref]

K. Varjsú, Y. Mairesse, B. Carrsé, M. B. Gaarde, P. Johnsson, S. Kazamias, R. López-Martens, J. Mauritsson, K. J. Schafer, PH. Balcou, A. L’huillier, and P. Salières, “Frequency chirp of harmonic and attosecond pulses,” J. Mod. Opt. 52, 379 – 394 (2005).
[Crossref]

Y. Mairesse, A. de Bohan, L. J. Frasinski, H. Merdji, L. C. Dinu, P. Monchicourt, P. Breger, M. Kovačev, R. Tsïeb, B. Carrsé, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and P. Salières, “Attosecond Synchronization of High-Harmonic Soft X-Rays,” Science 302, 1540–1543 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Marangos, J. P.

C. A. Haworth, L. E. Chipperfield, J. S. Robinson, P. L. Knight, J. P. Marangos, and J. W. G. Tisch, “Half-cycle cutoffs in harmonic spectra and robust carrier-envelope phase retrieval,” Nature Phys. 3, 52–57 (2007).
[Crossref]

Mashiko, H.

H. Mashiko, S. Gilbertson, C. Li, E. Moon, and Z. Chang, “Optimizing the photon flux of double optical gated high-order harmonic spectra,” Phys. Rev. A 77, 063423 (2008).
[Crossref]

Mauritsson, J.

K. Varjsú, Y. Mairesse, B. Carrsé, M. B. Gaarde, P. Johnsson, S. Kazamias, R. López-Martens, J. Mauritsson, K. J. Schafer, PH. Balcou, A. L’huillier, and P. Salières, “Frequency chirp of harmonic and attosecond pulses,” J. Mod. Opt. 52, 379 – 394 (2005).
[Crossref]

R. López-Martens, K. Varjsú, P. Johnsson, J. Mauritsson, Y. Mairesse, P. Salières, M. B. Gaarde, K. J. Schafer, A. Persson, S. Svanberg, C.-Göran Wahlström, and A. L’Huillier, “Amplitude and Phase Control of Attosecond Light Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 033001 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Merdji, H.

H. Merdji, T. Auguste, W. Boutu, J.-Pascal Caumes, B. Carrsé, T. Pfeifer, A. Jullien, D. M. Neumark, and S. R. Leone, “Isolated attosecond pulses using a detuned second-harmonic field,” Opt. Lett. 32, 3134–1336 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Mairesse, A. de Bohan, L. J. Frasinski, H. Merdji, L. C. Dinu, P. Monchicourt, P. Breger, M. Kovačev, R. Tsïeb, B. Carrsé, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and P. Salières, “Attosecond Synchronization of High-Harmonic Soft X-Rays,” Science 302, 1540–1543 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Midorikawa, K.

Y. Nabekawa, H. Hasegawa, E. J. Takahashi, and K. Midorikawa, “Production of Doubly Charged Helium Ions by Two-Photon Absorption of an Intense Sub-10-fs Soft X-Ray Pulse at 42 eV Photon Energy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 043001 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Suda, M. Hatayama, K. Nagasaka, and K. Midorikawa, “Generation of sub-10-fs, 5-mJ-optical pulses using a hollow fiber with a pressure gradient,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 111116 (2005).
[Crossref]

Milosevic, N.

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414, 509–513 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Monchicourt, P.

Y. Mairesse, A. de Bohan, L. J. Frasinski, H. Merdji, L. C. Dinu, P. Monchicourt, P. Breger, M. Kovačev, R. Tsïeb, B. Carrsé, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and P. Salières, “Attosecond Synchronization of High-Harmonic Soft X-Rays,” Science 302, 1540–1543 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Moon, E.

H. Mashiko, S. Gilbertson, C. Li, E. Moon, and Z. Chang, “Optimizing the photon flux of double optical gated high-order harmonic spectra,” Phys. Rev. A 77, 063423 (2008).
[Crossref]

Msével, E.

V. V. Strelkov, E. Msével, and E. Constant, “Generation of isolated attosecond pulses by spatial shaping of a femtosecond laser beam,” New J. Phys. 10, 083040 (2008).
[Crossref]

Muller, H. G.

Y. Mairesse, A. de Bohan, L. J. Frasinski, H. Merdji, L. C. Dinu, P. Monchicourt, P. Breger, M. Kovačev, R. Tsïeb, B. Carrsé, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and P. Salières, “Attosecond Synchronization of High-Harmonic Soft X-Rays,” Science 302, 1540–1543 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Augsé, Ph. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a Train of Attosecond Pulses from High Harmonic Generation,” Science 292, 1689–1692 (200).
[Crossref]

J. M. Schins, P. Breger, P. Agostini, R. C. Constantinescu, H. G. Muller, G. Grillon, A. Antonetti, and A. Mysy-rowicz, “Observation of Laser-Assisted Auger Decay in Argon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 2180–2183 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mullot, G.

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Augsé, Ph. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a Train of Attosecond Pulses from High Harmonic Generation,” Science 292, 1689–1692 (200).
[Crossref]

Murnane, M.

I. Thomann, E. Gregonis, X. Liu, R. Trebino, A. Sandhu, M. Murnane, and H. Kapteyn, “Temporal characterization of attosecond waveforms in the sub-optical cycle regime,” Phys. Rev. A,  78, 011806(R) (2008).
[Crossref]

A. Sandhu, E. Gagnon, A. Paul, I. Thomann, A. Lytle, T. Keep, M. Murnane, H. Kapteyn, and I. Christov, “Generation of sub-optical-cycle, carrier-envelope-phase-insensitive, extreme-uv pulses via nonlinear stabilization in a waveguide,” Phys. Rev. A 74, 61803 (2006).
[Crossref]

A. Rundquist, C. Durfee, Z. Chang, C. Herne, S. Backus, M. Murnane, and H. Kapteyn, “Phase-matched generation of coherent soft x-rays,” Science 280, 1412–1214 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Murnane, M. M.

N. L. Wagner, E. A. Gibson, T. Popmintchev, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Self-Compression of Ultrashort Pulses through Ionization-Induced Spatiotemporal Reshaping,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 173902 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. A. Gibson, A. Paul, N. Wagner, R. Tobey, D. Gaudiosi, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, A. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Coherent Soft X-ray Generation in the Water Window with QuasiPhase Matching,” Science 302, 95 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Backus, R. Bartels, S. Thompson, R. Dollinger, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, “High-efficiency, single-stage 7-kHz high-average-power ultrafast laser system,” Opt. Lett. 26465 (2001).
[Crossref]

I. P. Christov, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, “Quasi-phase matching of high-harmonics and attosecond pulses in modulated waveguides” Opt. Express,  7, 362–367 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Chang, A. Rundquist, H. Wang, I. Christov, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, “Temporal phase control of soft-x-ray harmonic emission,” Phys. Rev. A 58, 30(R) (1998).
[Crossref]

I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “High-Harmonic Generation of Attosecond Pulses in the “Single-Cycle” Regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1251–1254 (1997).
[Crossref]

Mysy-rowicz, A.

J. M. Schins, P. Breger, P. Agostini, R. C. Constantinescu, H. G. Muller, G. Grillon, A. Antonetti, and A. Mysy-rowicz, “Observation of Laser-Assisted Auger Decay in Argon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 2180–2183 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nabekawa, Y.

Y. Nabekawa, H. Hasegawa, E. J. Takahashi, and K. Midorikawa, “Production of Doubly Charged Helium Ions by Two-Photon Absorption of an Intense Sub-10-fs Soft X-Ray Pulse at 42 eV Photon Energy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 043001 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nagasaka, K.

A. Suda, M. Hatayama, K. Nagasaka, and K. Midorikawa, “Generation of sub-10-fs, 5-mJ-optical pulses using a hollow fiber with a pressure gradient,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 111116 (2005).
[Crossref]

Nagel, P. M.

Neumark, D. M.

Nisoli, M.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated Single-Cycle Attosecond Pulses,” Science 314, 442–446 (2006).
[Crossref]

G. Sansone, C. Vozzi, S. Stagira, and M. Nisoli, “Nonadiabatic quantum path analysis of high-order harmonic generation: Role of the carrier-envelope phase on short and long paths,” Phys. Rev. A 70, 013411 (2004).
[Crossref]

M. Nisoli, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, C. Vozzi, M. Pascolini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, and G. Ton-dello, “Effects of Carrier-Envelope Phase Differences of Few-Optical-Cycle Light Pulses in Single-Shot High-Order-Harmonic Spectra,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 213905 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, O. Svelto, R. Szipöcs, K. Ferencz, Ch. Spielmann, S. Sartania, and F. Krausz, “Compression of high-energy laser pulses below 5 fs,” Opt. Express,  22, 522–524 (1997).

Pascolini, M.

M. Nisoli, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, C. Vozzi, M. Pascolini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, and G. Ton-dello, “Effects of Carrier-Envelope Phase Differences of Few-Optical-Cycle Light Pulses in Single-Shot High-Order-Harmonic Spectra,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 213905 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Paul, A.

A. Sandhu, E. Gagnon, A. Paul, I. Thomann, A. Lytle, T. Keep, M. Murnane, H. Kapteyn, and I. Christov, “Generation of sub-optical-cycle, carrier-envelope-phase-insensitive, extreme-uv pulses via nonlinear stabilization in a waveguide,” Phys. Rev. A 74, 61803 (2006).
[Crossref]

E. A. Gibson, A. Paul, N. Wagner, R. Tobey, D. Gaudiosi, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, A. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Coherent Soft X-ray Generation in the Water Window with QuasiPhase Matching,” Science 302, 95 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Paul, P. M.

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Augsé, Ph. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a Train of Attosecond Pulses from High Harmonic Generation,” Science 292, 1689–1692 (200).
[Crossref]

Persson, A.

R. López-Martens, K. Varjsú, P. Johnsson, J. Mauritsson, Y. Mairesse, P. Salières, M. B. Gaarde, K. J. Schafer, A. Persson, S. Svanberg, C.-Göran Wahlström, and A. L’Huillier, “Amplitude and Phase Control of Attosecond Light Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 033001 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pfeifer, T.

Poletto, L.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated Single-Cycle Attosecond Pulses,” Science 314, 442–446 (2006).
[Crossref]

M. Nisoli, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, C. Vozzi, M. Pascolini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, and G. Ton-dello, “Effects of Carrier-Envelope Phase Differences of Few-Optical-Cycle Light Pulses in Single-Shot High-Order-Harmonic Spectra,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 213905 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Popmintchev, T.

N. L. Wagner, E. A. Gibson, T. Popmintchev, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Self-Compression of Ultrashort Pulses through Ionization-Induced Spatiotemporal Reshaping,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 173902 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Quere, F.

F. Quere, Y. Mairesse, and J. Itatani, “Temporal characterization of attosecond XUV fields,” J. Mod. Opt. 52, 339–360 (2005).
[Crossref]

Qusérsé, F.

Y. Mairesse and F. Qusérsé,“Frequency-resolved optical gating for complete reconstruction of attosecond bursts,” Phys. Rev. A 71, 011401 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. Itatani, F. Qusérsé, G. L. Yudin, M.Yu. Ivanov, F. Krausz, and P. B. Corkum, “Attosecond Streak Camera,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173903 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Read, F. H.

P. Kruit and F. H. Read, “Magnetic field paralleliser for 2πelectron-spectrometer and electron-image magnifier,” J. Phys. E - Scientific Instruments,  16, 313–324 (1983).
[Crossref]

Reider, G. A.

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414, 509–513 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, G. Tempea, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, P. B. Corkum, and F. Krausz, “X-ray Pulses Approaching the Attosecond Frontier,” Science 291, 1923–1927 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Robinson, J. S.

C. A. Haworth, L. E. Chipperfield, J. S. Robinson, P. L. Knight, J. P. Marangos, and J. W. G. Tisch, “Half-cycle cutoffs in harmonic spectra and robust carrier-envelope phase retrieval,” Nature Phys. 3, 52–57 (2007).
[Crossref]

Rundquist, A.

Z. Chang, A. Rundquist, H. Wang, I. Christov, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, “Temporal phase control of soft-x-ray harmonic emission,” Phys. Rev. A 58, 30(R) (1998).
[Crossref]

A. Rundquist, C. Durfee, Z. Chang, C. Herne, S. Backus, M. Murnane, and H. Kapteyn, “Phase-matched generation of coherent soft x-rays,” Science 280, 1412–1214 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Salières, P.

R. López-Martens, K. Varjsú, P. Johnsson, J. Mauritsson, Y. Mairesse, P. Salières, M. B. Gaarde, K. J. Schafer, A. Persson, S. Svanberg, C.-Göran Wahlström, and A. L’Huillier, “Amplitude and Phase Control of Attosecond Light Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 033001 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Varjsú, Y. Mairesse, B. Carrsé, M. B. Gaarde, P. Johnsson, S. Kazamias, R. López-Martens, J. Mauritsson, K. J. Schafer, PH. Balcou, A. L’huillier, and P. Salières, “Frequency chirp of harmonic and attosecond pulses,” J. Mod. Opt. 52, 379 – 394 (2005).
[Crossref]

Y. Mairesse, A. de Bohan, L. J. Frasinski, H. Merdji, L. C. Dinu, P. Monchicourt, P. Breger, M. Kovačev, R. Tsïeb, B. Carrsé, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and P. Salières, “Attosecond Synchronization of High-Harmonic Soft X-Rays,” Science 302, 1540–1543 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sandhu, A.

I. Thomann, E. Gregonis, X. Liu, R. Trebino, A. Sandhu, M. Murnane, and H. Kapteyn, “Temporal characterization of attosecond waveforms in the sub-optical cycle regime,” Phys. Rev. A,  78, 011806(R) (2008).
[Crossref]

A. Sandhu, E. Gagnon, A. Paul, I. Thomann, A. Lytle, T. Keep, M. Murnane, H. Kapteyn, and I. Christov, “Generation of sub-optical-cycle, carrier-envelope-phase-insensitive, extreme-uv pulses via nonlinear stabilization in a waveguide,” Phys. Rev. A 74, 61803 (2006).
[Crossref]

Sansone, G.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated Single-Cycle Attosecond Pulses,” Science 314, 442–446 (2006).
[Crossref]

G. Sansone, C. Vozzi, S. Stagira, and M. Nisoli, “Nonadiabatic quantum path analysis of high-order harmonic generation: Role of the carrier-envelope phase on short and long paths,” Phys. Rev. A 70, 013411 (2004).
[Crossref]

M. Nisoli, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, C. Vozzi, M. Pascolini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, and G. Ton-dello, “Effects of Carrier-Envelope Phase Differences of Few-Optical-Cycle Light Pulses in Single-Shot High-Order-Harmonic Spectra,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 213905 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sartania, S.

M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, O. Svelto, R. Szipöcs, K. Ferencz, Ch. Spielmann, S. Sartania, and F. Krausz, “Compression of high-energy laser pulses below 5 fs,” Opt. Express,  22, 522–524 (1997).

Schafer, K.

K. Kulander, K. Schafer, and J. Krause, “ Dynamics of short-pulse excitation, ion- ization, and harmonic conversion,” in Super-Intense Laser-Atom Physics, B. Pi- raux, A. L’Huillier, and K. Rzazewski, Eds., vol. 316. Han-sur-Lesse, Belgium: Plenum, 1993, pp. 95–110.

Schafer, K. J.

M. B. Gaarde, J. L. Tate, and K. J. Schafer, “Macroscopic aspects of attosecond pulse generation,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 41, 132001 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. B. Gaarde and K. J. Schafer, “Generating single attosecond pulses via spatial filtering,” Opt. Lett. 31, 3188–3190 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. López-Martens, K. Varjsú, P. Johnsson, J. Mauritsson, Y. Mairesse, P. Salières, M. B. Gaarde, K. J. Schafer, A. Persson, S. Svanberg, C.-Göran Wahlström, and A. L’Huillier, “Amplitude and Phase Control of Attosecond Light Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 033001 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Varjsú, Y. Mairesse, B. Carrsé, M. B. Gaarde, P. Johnsson, S. Kazamias, R. López-Martens, J. Mauritsson, K. J. Schafer, PH. Balcou, A. L’huillier, and P. Salières, “Frequency chirp of harmonic and attosecond pulses,” J. Mod. Opt. 52, 379 – 394 (2005).
[Crossref]

Schins, J. M.

J. M. Schins, P. Breger, P. Agostini, R. C. Constantinescu, H. G. Muller, G. Grillon, A. Antonetti, and A. Mysy-rowicz, “Observation of Laser-Assisted Auger Decay in Argon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 2180–2183 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schnrer, M.

M. Geissler, G. Tempea, A. Scrinzi, M. Schnrer, F. Krausz, and T. Brabec, “Light Propagation in Field-Ionizing Media: Extreme Nonlinear Optics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2930–2933 (1999).
[Crossref]

Schnurer, M.

C. Spielmann, C. Kan, N. Burnett, T. Brabec, M. Geissler, A. Scrinzi, M. Schnurer, and F. Krausz, “Near-keV coherent X-ray generation with sub-10-fs lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 249–265 (1998).
[Crossref]

Schoenlein, R. W.

T. E. Glover, R. W. Schoenlein, A. H Chin, and C. V. Shank, “Observation of laser assisted photoelectric effect and femtosecond high order harmonic radiation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 2468–2471 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schultze, M.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gul-likson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-Cycle Nonlinear Optics,” Science 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Scrinzi, A.

A. Baltus̆ka, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hsänsch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature 421, 611 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Geissler, G. Tempea, A. Scrinzi, M. Schnrer, F. Krausz, and T. Brabec, “Light Propagation in Field-Ionizing Media: Extreme Nonlinear Optics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2930–2933 (1999).
[Crossref]

C. Spielmann, C. Kan, N. Burnett, T. Brabec, M. Geissler, A. Scrinzi, M. Schnurer, and F. Krausz, “Near-keV coherent X-ray generation with sub-10-fs lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 249–265 (1998).
[Crossref]

Sekikawa, T.

T. Sekikawa, A. Kosuge, T. Kanai, and S. Watanabe, “Nonlinear optics in the extreme ultraviolet,” Nature 432, 605–608 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shank, C. V.

T. E. Glover, R. W. Schoenlein, A. H Chin, and C. V. Shank, “Observation of laser assisted photoelectric effect and femtosecond high order harmonic radiation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 2468–2471 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shirley, D.

U. Becker and D. Shirley, VUV And Soft X-Ray Photoionization, (Plenum Press New York1996).
[Crossref]

Silvestri, S. De

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated Single-Cycle Attosecond Pulses,” Science 314, 442–446 (2006).
[Crossref]

M. Nisoli, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, C. Vozzi, M. Pascolini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, and G. Ton-dello, “Effects of Carrier-Envelope Phase Differences of Few-Optical-Cycle Light Pulses in Single-Shot High-Order-Harmonic Spectra,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 213905 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, O. Svelto, R. Szipöcs, K. Ferencz, Ch. Spielmann, S. Sartania, and F. Krausz, “Compression of high-energy laser pulses below 5 fs,” Opt. Express,  22, 522–524 (1997).

Skantzakis, E.

P. Tzallas, E. Skantzakis, C. Kalpouzos, E. P. Benis, G. D. Tsakiris, and D. Charalambidis, “Generation of intense continuum extreme-ultraviolet radiation by many-cycle laser fields,” Nature Physics 3, 846–850 (2007).
[Crossref]

Spielmann, C.

C. Winterfeldt, C. Spielmann, and G. Gerber, “Colloquium: Optimal control of high-harmonic generation,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 80, 117–140 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, G. Tempea, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, P. B. Corkum, and F. Krausz, “X-ray Pulses Approaching the Attosecond Frontier,” Science 291, 1923–1927 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Spielmann, C. Kan, N. Burnett, T. Brabec, M. Geissler, A. Scrinzi, M. Schnurer, and F. Krausz, “Near-keV coherent X-ray generation with sub-10-fs lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 249–265 (1998).
[Crossref]

Spielmann, Ch.

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414, 509–513 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, O. Svelto, R. Szipöcs, K. Ferencz, Ch. Spielmann, S. Sartania, and F. Krausz, “Compression of high-energy laser pulses below 5 fs,” Opt. Express,  22, 522–524 (1997).

Stagira, S.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated Single-Cycle Attosecond Pulses,” Science 314, 442–446 (2006).
[Crossref]

G. Sansone, C. Vozzi, S. Stagira, and M. Nisoli, “Nonadiabatic quantum path analysis of high-order harmonic generation: Role of the carrier-envelope phase on short and long paths,” Phys. Rev. A 70, 013411 (2004).
[Crossref]

M. Nisoli, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, C. Vozzi, M. Pascolini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, and G. Ton-dello, “Effects of Carrier-Envelope Phase Differences of Few-Optical-Cycle Light Pulses in Single-Shot High-Order-Harmonic Spectra,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 213905 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Strelkov, V. V.

V. V. Strelkov, E. Msével, and E. Constant, “Generation of isolated attosecond pulses by spatial shaping of a femtosecond laser beam,” New J. Phys. 10, 083040 (2008).
[Crossref]

Suda, A.

A. Suda, M. Hatayama, K. Nagasaka, and K. Midorikawa, “Generation of sub-10-fs, 5-mJ-optical pulses using a hollow fiber with a pressure gradient,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 111116 (2005).
[Crossref]

Svanberg, S.

R. López-Martens, K. Varjsú, P. Johnsson, J. Mauritsson, Y. Mairesse, P. Salières, M. B. Gaarde, K. J. Schafer, A. Persson, S. Svanberg, C.-Göran Wahlström, and A. L’Huillier, “Amplitude and Phase Control of Attosecond Light Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 033001 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Svelto, O.

M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, O. Svelto, R. Szipöcs, K. Ferencz, Ch. Spielmann, S. Sartania, and F. Krausz, “Compression of high-energy laser pulses below 5 fs,” Opt. Express,  22, 522–524 (1997).

Sweetser, J. N.

R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbgel, and D. J. Kane, “Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequencyresolved optical gating,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 3277 (1997).
[Crossref]

Szipöcs, R.

M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, O. Svelto, R. Szipöcs, K. Ferencz, Ch. Spielmann, S. Sartania, and F. Krausz, “Compression of high-energy laser pulses below 5 fs,” Opt. Express,  22, 522–524 (1997).

Takahashi, E. J.

Y. Nabekawa, H. Hasegawa, E. J. Takahashi, and K. Midorikawa, “Production of Doubly Charged Helium Ions by Two-Photon Absorption of an Intense Sub-10-fs Soft X-Ray Pulse at 42 eV Photon Energy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 043001 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tate, J. L.

M. B. Gaarde, J. L. Tate, and K. J. Schafer, “Macroscopic aspects of attosecond pulse generation,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 41, 132001 (2008).
[Crossref]

Tempea, G.

M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, G. Tempea, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, P. B. Corkum, and F. Krausz, “X-ray Pulses Approaching the Attosecond Frontier,” Science 291, 1923–1927 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Geissler, G. Tempea, A. Scrinzi, M. Schnrer, F. Krausz, and T. Brabec, “Light Propagation in Field-Ionizing Media: Extreme Nonlinear Optics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2930–2933 (1999).
[Crossref]

Thomann, I.

I. Thomann, E. Gregonis, X. Liu, R. Trebino, A. Sandhu, M. Murnane, and H. Kapteyn, “Temporal characterization of attosecond waveforms in the sub-optical cycle regime,” Phys. Rev. A,  78, 011806(R) (2008).
[Crossref]

A. Sandhu, E. Gagnon, A. Paul, I. Thomann, A. Lytle, T. Keep, M. Murnane, H. Kapteyn, and I. Christov, “Generation of sub-optical-cycle, carrier-envelope-phase-insensitive, extreme-uv pulses via nonlinear stabilization in a waveguide,” Phys. Rev. A 74, 61803 (2006).
[Crossref]

Thompson, S.

Tisch, J. W. G.

C. A. Haworth, L. E. Chipperfield, J. S. Robinson, P. L. Knight, J. P. Marangos, and J. W. G. Tisch, “Half-cycle cutoffs in harmonic spectra and robust carrier-envelope phase retrieval,” Nature Phys. 3, 52–57 (2007).
[Crossref]

Tobey, R.

E. A. Gibson, A. Paul, N. Wagner, R. Tobey, D. Gaudiosi, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, A. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Coherent Soft X-ray Generation in the Water Window with QuasiPhase Matching,” Science 302, 95 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Toma, E. S.

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Augsé, Ph. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a Train of Attosecond Pulses from High Harmonic Generation,” Science 292, 1689–1692 (200).
[Crossref]

Ton-dello, G.

M. Nisoli, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, C. Vozzi, M. Pascolini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, and G. Ton-dello, “Effects of Carrier-Envelope Phase Differences of Few-Optical-Cycle Light Pulses in Single-Shot High-Order-Harmonic Spectra,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 213905 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tosa, V.

C. Altucci, V. Tosa, and R. Velotta, “Beyond the single-atom response in isolated attosecond-pulse generation,” Phys. Rev. A 75, 061401(R) (2007).
[Crossref]

Tòth, Cs.

Gy. Farkas and Cs. Tòth, “Proposal for attosecond light pulse generation using laser induced multiple-harmonic conversion processes in rare gases,” Phys. Lett. A 168447 – 450 (1992).
[Crossref]

Trebino, R.

I. Thomann, E. Gregonis, X. Liu, R. Trebino, A. Sandhu, M. Murnane, and H. Kapteyn, “Temporal characterization of attosecond waveforms in the sub-optical cycle regime,” Phys. Rev. A,  78, 011806(R) (2008).
[Crossref]

R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbgel, and D. J. Kane, “Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequencyresolved optical gating,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 3277 (1997).
[Crossref]

R. Trebino, Frequency-Resolved Optical Gating: The Measurement of Ultrashort Laser Pulses, (Kluwer Academic Publishers, Boston2002).
[Crossref]

Tsakiris, G. D.

P. Tzallas, E. Skantzakis, C. Kalpouzos, E. P. Benis, G. D. Tsakiris, and D. Charalambidis, “Generation of intense continuum extreme-ultraviolet radiation by many-cycle laser fields,” Nature Physics 3, 846–850 (2007).
[Crossref]

Tsïeb, R.

Y. Mairesse, A. de Bohan, L. J. Frasinski, H. Merdji, L. C. Dinu, P. Monchicourt, P. Breger, M. Kovačev, R. Tsïeb, B. Carrsé, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and P. Salières, “Attosecond Synchronization of High-Harmonic Soft X-Rays,” Science 302, 1540–1543 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tzallas, P.

P. Tzallas, E. Skantzakis, C. Kalpouzos, E. P. Benis, G. D. Tsakiris, and D. Charalambidis, “Generation of intense continuum extreme-ultraviolet radiation by many-cycle laser fields,” Nature Physics 3, 846–850 (2007).
[Crossref]

Udem, Th.

A. Baltus̆ka, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hsänsch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature 421, 611 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Uiberacker, M.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gul-likson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-Cycle Nonlinear Optics,” Science 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Baltus̆ka, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hsänsch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature 421, 611 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Varjsú, K.

K. Varjsú, Y. Mairesse, B. Carrsé, M. B. Gaarde, P. Johnsson, S. Kazamias, R. López-Martens, J. Mauritsson, K. J. Schafer, PH. Balcou, A. L’huillier, and P. Salières, “Frequency chirp of harmonic and attosecond pulses,” J. Mod. Opt. 52, 379 – 394 (2005).
[Crossref]

R. López-Martens, K. Varjsú, P. Johnsson, J. Mauritsson, Y. Mairesse, P. Salières, M. B. Gaarde, K. J. Schafer, A. Persson, S. Svanberg, C.-Göran Wahlström, and A. L’Huillier, “Amplitude and Phase Control of Attosecond Light Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 033001 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Velotta, R.

C. Altucci, V. Tosa, and R. Velotta, “Beyond the single-atom response in isolated attosecond-pulse generation,” Phys. Rev. A 75, 061401(R) (2007).
[Crossref]

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated Single-Cycle Attosecond Pulses,” Science 314, 442–446 (2006).
[Crossref]

Villoresi, P.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated Single-Cycle Attosecond Pulses,” Science 314, 442–446 (2006).
[Crossref]

M. Nisoli, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, C. Vozzi, M. Pascolini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, and G. Ton-dello, “Effects of Carrier-Envelope Phase Differences of Few-Optical-Cycle Light Pulses in Single-Shot High-Order-Harmonic Spectra,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 213905 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vozzi, C.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated Single-Cycle Attosecond Pulses,” Science 314, 442–446 (2006).
[Crossref]

G. Sansone, C. Vozzi, S. Stagira, and M. Nisoli, “Nonadiabatic quantum path analysis of high-order harmonic generation: Role of the carrier-envelope phase on short and long paths,” Phys. Rev. A 70, 013411 (2004).
[Crossref]

M. Nisoli, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, C. Vozzi, M. Pascolini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, and G. Ton-dello, “Effects of Carrier-Envelope Phase Differences of Few-Optical-Cycle Light Pulses in Single-Shot High-Order-Harmonic Spectra,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 213905 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wagner, N.

E. A. Gibson, A. Paul, N. Wagner, R. Tobey, D. Gaudiosi, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, A. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Coherent Soft X-ray Generation in the Water Window with QuasiPhase Matching,” Science 302, 95 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wagner, N. L.

N. L. Wagner, E. A. Gibson, T. Popmintchev, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Self-Compression of Ultrashort Pulses through Ionization-Induced Spatiotemporal Reshaping,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 173902 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wahlström, C.-Göran

R. López-Martens, K. Varjsú, P. Johnsson, J. Mauritsson, Y. Mairesse, P. Salières, M. B. Gaarde, K. J. Schafer, A. Persson, S. Svanberg, C.-Göran Wahlström, and A. L’Huillier, “Amplitude and Phase Control of Attosecond Light Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 033001 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Walmsley, I. A.

E. Cormier, I. A. Walmsley, E. M. Kosik, A. S. Wyatt, L. Corner, and L. F. DiMauro, “Self-Referencing, Spectrally, or Spatially Encoded Spectral Interferometry for the Complete Characterization of Attosecond Electromagnetic Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 033905 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, H.

Z. Chang, A. Rundquist, H. Wang, I. Christov, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, “Temporal phase control of soft-x-ray harmonic emission,” Phys. Rev. A 58, 30(R) (1998).
[Crossref]

Wang, X.

W. Cao, P. Lu, P. Lan, X. Wang, and G. Yang, “Single-attosecond pulse generation with an intense multicycle driving pulse,” Phys. Rev. A 74, 063821 (2006).
[Crossref]

Watanabe, S.

T. Sekikawa, A. Kosuge, T. Kanai, and S. Watanabe, “Nonlinear optics in the extreme ultraviolet,” Nature 432, 605–608 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Winterfeldt, C.

C. Winterfeldt, C. Spielmann, and G. Gerber, “Colloquium: Optimal control of high-harmonic generation,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 80, 117–140 (2008).
[Crossref]

Wyatt, A. S.

E. Cormier, I. A. Walmsley, E. M. Kosik, A. S. Wyatt, L. Corner, and L. F. DiMauro, “Self-Referencing, Spectrally, or Spatially Encoded Spectral Interferometry for the Complete Characterization of Attosecond Electromagnetic Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 033905 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yakovlev, V. S.

J. Gagnon, E. Goulielmakis, and V. S. Yakovlev, “The accurate FROG characterization of attosecond pulses from streaking measurements,” Appl. Phys. B 92, 25–32 (2008).
[Crossref]

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gul-likson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-Cycle Nonlinear Optics,” Science 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Baltus̆ka, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hsänsch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature 421, 611 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, G.

W. Cao, P. Lu, P. Lan, X. Wang, and G. Yang, “Single-attosecond pulse generation with an intense multicycle driving pulse,” Phys. Rev. A 74, 063821 (2006).
[Crossref]

Yu. Ivanov, M.

M. Lewenstein, Ph. Balcou, M. Yu. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, “Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 49, 2117–2132 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yudin, G. L.

J. Itatani, F. Qusérsé, G. L. Yudin, M.Yu. Ivanov, F. Krausz, and P. B. Corkum, “Attosecond Streak Camera,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173903 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

J. Gagnon, E. Goulielmakis, and V. S. Yakovlev, “The accurate FROG characterization of attosecond pulses from streaking measurements,” Appl. Phys. B 92, 25–32 (2008).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

A. Suda, M. Hatayama, K. Nagasaka, and K. Midorikawa, “Generation of sub-10-fs, 5-mJ-optical pulses using a hollow fiber with a pressure gradient,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 111116 (2005).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

C. Spielmann, C. Kan, N. Burnett, T. Brabec, M. Geissler, A. Scrinzi, M. Schnurer, and F. Krausz, “Near-keV coherent X-ray generation with sub-10-fs lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 249–265 (1998).
[Crossref]

J. Mod. Opt. (2)

K. Varjsú, Y. Mairesse, B. Carrsé, M. B. Gaarde, P. Johnsson, S. Kazamias, R. López-Martens, J. Mauritsson, K. J. Schafer, PH. Balcou, A. L’huillier, and P. Salières, “Frequency chirp of harmonic and attosecond pulses,” J. Mod. Opt. 52, 379 – 394 (2005).
[Crossref]

F. Quere, Y. Mairesse, and J. Itatani, “Temporal characterization of attosecond XUV fields,” J. Mod. Opt. 52, 339–360 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

D. J. Kane, “Principal components generalized projections: a review,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25, 120 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. (1)

M. B. Gaarde, J. L. Tate, and K. J. Schafer, “Macroscopic aspects of attosecond pulse generation,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 41, 132001 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. E - Scientific Instruments (1)

P. Kruit and F. H. Read, “Magnetic field paralleliser for 2πelectron-spectrometer and electron-image magnifier,” J. Phys. E - Scientific Instruments,  16, 313–324 (1983).
[Crossref]

Nature (3)

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414, 509–513 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Sekikawa, A. Kosuge, T. Kanai, and S. Watanabe, “Nonlinear optics in the extreme ultraviolet,” Nature 432, 605–608 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Baltus̆ka, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hsänsch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature 421, 611 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nature Phys. (1)

C. A. Haworth, L. E. Chipperfield, J. S. Robinson, P. L. Knight, J. P. Marangos, and J. W. G. Tisch, “Half-cycle cutoffs in harmonic spectra and robust carrier-envelope phase retrieval,” Nature Phys. 3, 52–57 (2007).
[Crossref]

Nature Physics (1)

P. Tzallas, E. Skantzakis, C. Kalpouzos, E. P. Benis, G. D. Tsakiris, and D. Charalambidis, “Generation of intense continuum extreme-ultraviolet radiation by many-cycle laser fields,” Nature Physics 3, 846–850 (2007).
[Crossref]

New J. Phys. (1)

V. V. Strelkov, E. Msével, and E. Constant, “Generation of isolated attosecond pulses by spatial shaping of a femtosecond laser beam,” New J. Phys. 10, 083040 (2008).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (1)

S. E. Hands, J. J Macklin, and T. W. Haensch, “Atomic scale temporal structure inherent to high-order harmonic generation,” Opt. Commun. 100, 487–490 (1993).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Phys. Lett. A (1)

Gy. Farkas and Cs. Tòth, “Proposal for attosecond light pulse generation using laser induced multiple-harmonic conversion processes in rare gases,” Phys. Lett. A 168447 – 450 (1992).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. A (10)

Y. Mairesse and F. Qusérsé,“Frequency-resolved optical gating for complete reconstruction of attosecond bursts,” Phys. Rev. A 71, 011401 (2005).
[Crossref]

Z. Chang, “Single attosecond pulse and xuv supercontinuum in the high-order harmonic plateau,” Phys. Rev. A 70, 043802 (2004).
[Crossref]

I. Thomann, E. Gregonis, X. Liu, R. Trebino, A. Sandhu, M. Murnane, and H. Kapteyn, “Temporal characterization of attosecond waveforms in the sub-optical cycle regime,” Phys. Rev. A,  78, 011806(R) (2008).
[Crossref]

M. Lewenstein, Ph. Balcou, M. Yu. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, “Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 49, 2117–2132 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Sandhu, E. Gagnon, A. Paul, I. Thomann, A. Lytle, T. Keep, M. Murnane, H. Kapteyn, and I. Christov, “Generation of sub-optical-cycle, carrier-envelope-phase-insensitive, extreme-uv pulses via nonlinear stabilization in a waveguide,” Phys. Rev. A 74, 61803 (2006).
[Crossref]

G. Sansone, C. Vozzi, S. Stagira, and M. Nisoli, “Nonadiabatic quantum path analysis of high-order harmonic generation: Role of the carrier-envelope phase on short and long paths,” Phys. Rev. A 70, 013411 (2004).
[Crossref]

H. Mashiko, S. Gilbertson, C. Li, E. Moon, and Z. Chang, “Optimizing the photon flux of double optical gated high-order harmonic spectra,” Phys. Rev. A 77, 063423 (2008).
[Crossref]

W. Cao, P. Lu, P. Lan, X. Wang, and G. Yang, “Single-attosecond pulse generation with an intense multicycle driving pulse,” Phys. Rev. A 74, 063821 (2006).
[Crossref]

Z. Chang, A. Rundquist, H. Wang, I. Christov, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, “Temporal phase control of soft-x-ray harmonic emission,” Phys. Rev. A 58, 30(R) (1998).
[Crossref]

C. Altucci, V. Tosa, and R. Velotta, “Beyond the single-atom response in isolated attosecond-pulse generation,” Phys. Rev. A 75, 061401(R) (2007).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (11)

M. Nisoli, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, C. Vozzi, M. Pascolini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, and G. Ton-dello, “Effects of Carrier-Envelope Phase Differences of Few-Optical-Cycle Light Pulses in Single-Shot High-Order-Harmonic Spectra,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 213905 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. L. Wagner, E. A. Gibson, T. Popmintchev, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Self-Compression of Ultrashort Pulses through Ionization-Induced Spatiotemporal Reshaping,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 173902 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Geissler, G. Tempea, A. Scrinzi, M. Schnrer, F. Krausz, and T. Brabec, “Light Propagation in Field-Ionizing Media: Extreme Nonlinear Optics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2930–2933 (1999).
[Crossref]

P. B. Corkum, “Plasma Perspective on Strong-Field Multiphoton Ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1994–1997 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. López-Martens, K. Varjsú, P. Johnsson, J. Mauritsson, Y. Mairesse, P. Salières, M. B. Gaarde, K. J. Schafer, A. Persson, S. Svanberg, C.-Göran Wahlström, and A. L’Huillier, “Amplitude and Phase Control of Attosecond Light Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 033001 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “High-Harmonic Generation of Attosecond Pulses in the “Single-Cycle” Regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1251–1254 (1997).
[Crossref]

J. Itatani, F. Qusérsé, G. L. Yudin, M.Yu. Ivanov, F. Krausz, and P. B. Corkum, “Attosecond Streak Camera,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173903 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Cormier, I. A. Walmsley, E. M. Kosik, A. S. Wyatt, L. Corner, and L. F. DiMauro, “Self-Referencing, Spectrally, or Spatially Encoded Spectral Interferometry for the Complete Characterization of Attosecond Electromagnetic Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 033905 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Nabekawa, H. Hasegawa, E. J. Takahashi, and K. Midorikawa, “Production of Doubly Charged Helium Ions by Two-Photon Absorption of an Intense Sub-10-fs Soft X-Ray Pulse at 42 eV Photon Energy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 043001 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. M. Schins, P. Breger, P. Agostini, R. C. Constantinescu, H. G. Muller, G. Grillon, A. Antonetti, and A. Mysy-rowicz, “Observation of Laser-Assisted Auger Decay in Argon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 2180–2183 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. E. Glover, R. W. Schoenlein, A. H Chin, and C. V. Shank, “Observation of laser assisted photoelectric effect and femtosecond high order harmonic radiation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 2468–2471 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rev. Mod. Phys. (1)

C. Winterfeldt, C. Spielmann, and G. Gerber, “Colloquium: Optimal control of high-harmonic generation,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 80, 117–140 (2008).
[Crossref]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbgel, and D. J. Kane, “Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequencyresolved optical gating,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 3277 (1997).
[Crossref]

Science (7)

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Augsé, Ph. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a Train of Attosecond Pulses from High Harmonic Generation,” Science 292, 1689–1692 (200).
[Crossref]

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated Single-Cycle Attosecond Pulses,” Science 314, 442–446 (2006).
[Crossref]

Y. Mairesse, A. de Bohan, L. J. Frasinski, H. Merdji, L. C. Dinu, P. Monchicourt, P. Breger, M. Kovačev, R. Tsïeb, B. Carrsé, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and P. Salières, “Attosecond Synchronization of High-Harmonic Soft X-Rays,” Science 302, 1540–1543 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gul-likson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-Cycle Nonlinear Optics,” Science 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Rundquist, C. Durfee, Z. Chang, C. Herne, S. Backus, M. Murnane, and H. Kapteyn, “Phase-matched generation of coherent soft x-rays,” Science 280, 1412–1214 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, G. Tempea, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, P. B. Corkum, and F. Krausz, “X-ray Pulses Approaching the Attosecond Frontier,” Science 291, 1923–1927 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. A. Gibson, A. Paul, N. Wagner, R. Tobey, D. Gaudiosi, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, A. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Coherent Soft X-ray Generation in the Water Window with QuasiPhase Matching,” Science 302, 95 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (3)

U. Becker and D. Shirley, VUV And Soft X-Ray Photoionization, (Plenum Press New York1996).
[Crossref]

K. Kulander, K. Schafer, and J. Krause, “ Dynamics of short-pulse excitation, ion- ization, and harmonic conversion,” in Super-Intense Laser-Atom Physics, B. Pi- raux, A. L’Huillier, and K. Rzazewski, Eds., vol. 316. Han-sur-Lesse, Belgium: Plenum, 1993, pp. 95–110.

R. Trebino, Frequency-Resolved Optical Gating: The Measurement of Ultrashort Laser Pulses, (Kluwer Academic Publishers, Boston2002).
[Crossref]

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (13)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Experimental setup for EUV pulse generation and temporal characterization via photoelectron energy resolved two-color cross-correlation using a NIR pulse.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

EUV spectrum recorded with an x-ray spectrometer (black), and corresponding photoelectron spectrum upshifted by the ionization potential without the fundamental light present (red). The difference in spectral shape is due to EUV mirror reflectivity (which is low at the lower photon energies).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Basic schematic of GP algorithm.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Schematic of GP algorithm adapted to wide-angle photoelectron detection geometry and non-CEP stabilized driving laser pulses.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Retrieval of a partial FROG CRAB trace. Experimentally, a small range (0 – 6 fs) of delay steps were taken with high temporal resolution. In order to retrieve the EUV pulse, the data are embedded into a larger array with zeros, with “unstreaked” spectra (recorded without the fundamental light present) attached at large delays.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

(a) Zoom-in on the experimental photoelectron energy resolved two-color cross-correlation shown in Fig. 5. (b) FROG CRAB trace retrieved using the GP algorithm. The gate function was thoroughly optimized by running the algorithm multiple times to find the gate parameters which overall minimize the G error. The optimized gate uses a 15 fs fundamental Gaussian pulse with Up = 0.3eV and a linear chirp of Γ2 = 0.0178 fs 2. (c) Reconstructed EUV electric field envelope and temporal phase. (d) Reconstructed EUV intensity yielding a FWHM pulse duration of 210 attoseconds.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Simulations for (a) averaged CEP, (b) CEP = 0, (c) CEP = π, (d) retrieved EUV field envelope and phase, (e) intensity of 200 attoseconds FWHM pulse duration

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

(a) Experimental data of complete FROG CRAB trace (b) Simulations of experimental data shown in (a), used to extract NIR fundamental pulse parameters

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Simulations of chirped attosecond pulse trains. Top row center: experimental data for comparison. Γ2: femtochirp parameter in 1/fs 2. τe : envelope of the simulated EUV pulse trains (see insets). First row: τe = 1 fs corresponds to an isolated attosecond pulse with two, 10-3 intensity side bursts. τe = 1.5 fs: two, 5% intensity side bursts. All simulated traces with τe > 1.5 fs show significantly more spectral modulation than the experimental data. Simulated traces have been convoluted with the experimental photoelectron spectrometer resolution function.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Simulations of FROG CRAB traces for different number of EUV bursts. Left column: CEP stabilized traces; middle column: CEP unstabilized traces obtained by averaging over CEP 0 and π; right column: EUV intensity of input pulses

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

Comparison of (a) experimental data, (b) GP algorithm, and (c) direct simulations of FROG CRAB traces using optimized EUV pulse parameters.

Fig. 12.
Fig. 12.

(a) EUV cutoff harmonic as a function of time, determined from instantaneous intensity. (b) phase mismatch [14, 52] for the 25 th harmonic versus time for straight fiber (red), effect of employing a QPM fiber for same pulse parameters (blue). Horizontal dashed lines: region of experimentally generated EUV spectrum. Vertical dashed lines: guides to the eye highlighting the half-cycles in which efficient EUV generation is possible: Earlier, the instantaneous intensity is too low to generate the experimental spectrum (lower harmonics are absorbed in the generating Argon gas, and not reflected by EUV mirror). Later, large phase mismatch prevents coherent build-up of EUV radiation.

Fig. 13.
Fig. 13.

Conditions for dynamic phase matching. Phase-matching-criterion for the time window in which the 21 st –29 th harmonics are first generated as a function of the laser peak intensity and gas pressure for (a) CEP = π/2 (b) CEP = 0. Warmer colors represent better phase matching. The corresponding temporal overlap of the laser pulse at the end of the medium (red) over the pulse at the beginning of the medium (blue) is shown in (c) and (d).

Equations (20)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

S ( ω , τ ) = + E ( t ) g ( t τ ) exp ( i ω t ) d t 2
a v ( τ ) = i + d p ( t ) · E xray ( t τ ) exp ( i [ I p t t + p 2 ( t ) 2 d t ] ) d t
a v ( τ ) = i + exp ( i Φ ( t ) ) d p ( t ) · E xray ( t τ ) exp ( i ( I p + W ) t ) d t
Φ ( t ) = t + ( v · A ( t ) + A 2 ( t ) 2 ) d t
g ( t ) = exp ( i Φ ( t ) )
Φ ( t ) = Φ 1 ( t ) + Φ 2 ( t ) + Φ 3 ( t )
Φ 1 ( t ) = t + U p ( t ) d t
Φ 2 ( t ) = 8 W U p ( t ) ω L cos ( θ ) cos ( ω L t ϕ CE )
Φ 3 ( t ) = U p ( t ) 2 ω L sin ( 2 ω L t 2 ϕ CE )
U p ( t ) = E 2 4 ω L 2 exp ( 4 ln 2 ( t / τ ) 2 )
E sig ( t , τ ) = E xray ( t τ ) exp ( i Φ ( t ) )
G err = 1 N 2 i , j = 1 N A sig 2 ( ω i , τ j ) μ E sig ( ω i , τ j ) 2 2
Z err = i , j = 1 N E sig ( t i , τ j ) E sig ( t i , τ j ) 2
E sig ( ω , τ ) 2 = 1 2 ( E sig , 0 ( ω , τ ) 2 + E sig , π ( ω , τ ) 2 )
E sig , CALC ( ω , τ ) = θ ( E sig , 0 θ ( ω , τ ) 2 · prob ( θ ) + E sig , π θ ( ω , τ ) 2 · prob ( θ ) )
prob ( θ ) = sin ( θ ) · σ ( θ ) / θ sin ( θ ) · σ ( θ )
Z err = θ Z err ( θ ) · prob ( θ )
E xray ( t ) ave = θ E xray ( t , θ ) · prob ( θ )
Δ k ( t ) = q · k laser ( t ) k q
k laser ( t ) 2 π / λ + 2 π N ( 1 η ( t ) ) δ ( λ ) λ N η ( t ) r e λ u n m 2 λ 4 π a 2

Metrics