Abstract

We present human retinal blood flow investigation for diabetic patients using Doppler Fourier domain optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT). The scanning pattern consisted of two concentric circles around the optic nerve head. The blood flow in one patient with diabetes and no retinpathy and another patient with treated proliferative diabetic retinopathy were measured. The patient without retinopathy showed a total blood flow value at the lower level of the normal range. The flow distribution between superior and inferior retina was balanced. The patient with diabetic retinopathy had a flow value lower than the normal people. Our study shows that Doppler FD-OCT can be used to evaluate the total retinal blood flow in patients with retinal diseases.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. S. Fujioka, K. Karashima, N. Nishikawa, and Y. Saito, "Correlation between higher blood flow velocity in the central retinal vein than in the central retinal artery and severity of nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy," Jpn. J. Ophthalmol. 50, 312-317 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. M. Lorenzi, G. T. Feke, E. Cagliero, L. Pitler, D. A. Schaumberg, F. Berisha, D. M. Nathan, and J. W. McMeel, "Retinal haemodynamics in individuals with well-controlled type 1 diabetes," Diabetologia 51, 361-364 (2008).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. Y. Wang, B. A. Bower, J. A. Izatt, O. Tan, and D. Huang, "Retinal blood flow measurement by circumpapillary Fourier domain Doppler optical coherence," J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 064003 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  27. B. A. Bower, M. Zhao, R. J. Zawadzki, and J. A. Izatt, "Real-time spectral domain Doppler optical coherence tomography and investigation of human retinal vessel autoregulation," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 041214 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [PubMed]
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  32. K. S. West, R. Klein, J. Rodriguez, B. Munoz, T. A. Broman, R. Sanchez, and R. Snyder, "Diabetes and diabetic retinopathy in a Mexican-American population," Diabetes Care 24, 1204-1209 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  33. J. Flammer, S. Orgul, V. P. Costa, N. Orzalesi, G. K. Krieqlstein, L. M. Serra, J. P. Renard, and E. Stefansson, "The impact of ocular blood flow in glaucoma," Prog Retin. Eye Res. 21, 359-393 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  34. J. Flammer, "The vascular concept of glaucoma," Surv. Ophthalmol. 38, S3-S6 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  35. J. Kerr, P. Nelson, and C. O’Brien. "A comparison of ocular blood flow in untreated primary open-angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 126, 42-51 (1998).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (4)

C. J. Pournaras, E. Rungger-Brändle, C. E. Riva, S. H. Hardarson, and E. Stefansson, "Regulation of retinal blood flow in health and disease," Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 27, 284-330 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Lorenzi, G. T. Feke, E. Cagliero, L. Pitler, D. A. Schaumberg, F. Berisha, D. M. Nathan, and J. W. McMeel, "Retinal haemodynamics in individuals with well-controlled type 1 diabetes," Diabetologia 51, 361-364 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Makita, T. Fabritius, and Y. Yasuno, "Quantitative retinal-blood flow measurement with three dimensional vessel geometry determination using ultrahigh-resolution Doppler optical coherence angiography," Opt. Lett. 33, 836-838 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Wang, B. A. Bower, J. A. Izatt, O. Tan, and D. Huang, "Retinal blood flow measurement by circumpapillary Fourier domain Doppler optical coherence," J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 064003 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (5)

B. A. Bower, M. Zhao, R. J. Zawadzki, and J. A. Izatt, "Real-time spectral domain Doppler optical coherence tomography and investigation of human retinal vessel autoregulation," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 041214 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Michaely, A. H. Bachmann, M. L. Villiger, C. Blatter, T. Lasser and R. A. Leitgeb, "Vectorial reconstruction of retinal blood flow in three dimensions measured with high resolution resonant Doppler Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed Opt. 12, 041213 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Wehbe, M. Ruggeri, S. Jiao, G. Gregori, C. A. Puliafito, and W. Zhao, "Automatic retinal blood flow calculation using spectral domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 15, 15193-15206 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Wang, B. A. Bower, J. A. Izatt, O. Tan, and D. Huang, "In vivo total retinal blood flow measurement by Fourier domain Doppler optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 041215 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. W. C. Klaver, C. W. R. Wolfs, R. J. Vingerling, and T. V. P. de Jong, "Age-specific prevalence and causes of blindness and visual impairment in an older population," Arch. Ophthalmol. 116, 653-658 (2007).

2006 (1)

S. Fujioka, K. Karashima, N. Nishikawa, and Y. Saito, "Correlation between higher blood flow velocity in the central retinal vein than in the central retinal artery and severity of nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy," Jpn. J. Ophthalmol. 50, 312-317 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

2003 (3)

B. R. White, M. C. Pierce, N. Nassif, B. Cense, B. Park, G. Tearney, B. Bouma, T. Chen, and J. de Boer, "In vivo dynamic human retinal blood flow imaging using ultra-high-speed spectral domain optical Doppler tomography," Opt. Express. 11, 3490-3497 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Yazdanfar, A. M. Rollins, and J. A. Izatt, "In vivo imaging of human retinal flow dynamics by color Doppler optical coherence tomography," Arch. Ophthalmol. 121, 235-239 (2003).
[PubMed]

V. X. D. Yang, M. Gordon, E. S. Yue, S. Lo, B. Qi, J. Pekar, A. Mok, B. Wilson, and I. Vitkin, "High speed, wide velocity dynamic range Doppler optical coherence tomography (Part II): Imaging in vivo cardiac dynamic of Xenopus Laevis," Opt. Express. 11, 1650-1658 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

J. Flammer, S. Orgul, V. P. Costa, N. Orzalesi, G. K. Krieqlstein, L. M. Serra, J. P. Renard, and E. Stefansson, "The impact of ocular blood flow in glaucoma," Prog Retin. Eye Res. 21, 359-393 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q1. Jr. P. S. Garcia, P. T. Garcia, and R. B. Rosen, "Retinal blood flow in the normal human eye using the canon laser blood flowmeter," Ophthalmic Res. 34, 295-299 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

K. S. West, R. Klein, J. Rodriguez, B. Munoz, T. A. Broman, R. Sanchez, and R. Snyder, "Diabetes and diabetic retinopathy in a Mexican-American population," Diabetes Care 24, 1204-1209 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (3)

1998 (1)

J. Kerr, P. Nelson, and C. O’Brien. "A comparison of ocular blood flow in untreated primary open-angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 126, 42-51 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

1996 (2)

M. R. Hee, C. R. Baumal, C. A. Puliafito, J. S. Duker, E. Reichel, J. R. Wilkins, J. G. Coker, J. S. Schuman, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography of age-related macular degeneration and choroidal neovascularization," Ophthalmology 103, 1260-1270 (1996).
[PubMed]

D. Guven, H. Ozdemir, and B. Hasanreisoglu, "Hemodynamic alterations in diabetic retinopathy," Ophthalmology 103, 1245-1249 (1996).
[PubMed]

1995 (6)

A. Mendivil, V. Cuartero, and M. P. Mendivil, "Ocular blood flow velocities in patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy and healthy volunteers: a prospective study," Br. J. Ophthalmol. l 79, 413-416 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Hee, C. A. Puliafito, C. Wong, J. S. Duker, E. Reichel, J. S. Schuman, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography of macular holes," Ophthalmology 102, 748-756 (1995).
[PubMed]

C. A. Puliafito, M. R. Hee, C. P. Lin, E. Reichel, J. S. Schuman, J. S. Duker, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Imaging of macular diseases with optical coherence tomography," Ophthalmology 102, 217-229 (1995).
[PubMed]

J. S. Shuman, M. R. Hee, C. A. Puliafito, C. Wong, T. Pedut-Kloizman, C. P. Lin, E. Hertzmark, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Quantification of nerve fiber layer thickness in normal and glaucomatous eyes using optical coherence tomography," Arch. Ophthalmol. 113, 586-596 (1995).

J. S. Shuman, M. R. Hee, A. V. Arya, T. Pedut-Kloizman, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujomoto, and E. A. Swanson, "Optical coherence tomography: a new tool for glaucoma diagnosis," Curr. Opin. Ophthalmol. 6, 89-95 (1995).
[CrossRef]

X. J. Wang, T. E. Milner, and J. S. Nelson, "Characterization of fluid flow velocity by optical Doppler tomography," Opt. Lett. 20, 1337-1339 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

J. Flammer, "The vascular concept of glaucoma," Surv. Ophthalmol. 38, S3-S6 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

D. Huang, D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1985 (1)

C. E. Riva, J. E. Grunwald, S. H. Sinclair, and B. L. Petrig, "Blood velocity and volumetric flow rate in human retinal vessels," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 26, 1124-1132 (1985).
[PubMed]

Arya, A. V.

J. S. Shuman, M. R. Hee, A. V. Arya, T. Pedut-Kloizman, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujomoto, and E. A. Swanson, "Optical coherence tomography: a new tool for glaucoma diagnosis," Curr. Opin. Ophthalmol. 6, 89-95 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bachmann, A. H.

R. Michaely, A. H. Bachmann, M. L. Villiger, C. Blatter, T. Lasser and R. A. Leitgeb, "Vectorial reconstruction of retinal blood flow in three dimensions measured with high resolution resonant Doppler Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed Opt. 12, 041213 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bajraszewski, T.

Barton, J. K.

Baumal, C. R.

M. R. Hee, C. R. Baumal, C. A. Puliafito, J. S. Duker, E. Reichel, J. R. Wilkins, J. G. Coker, J. S. Schuman, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography of age-related macular degeneration and choroidal neovascularization," Ophthalmology 103, 1260-1270 (1996).
[PubMed]

Berisha, F.

M. Lorenzi, G. T. Feke, E. Cagliero, L. Pitler, D. A. Schaumberg, F. Berisha, D. M. Nathan, and J. W. McMeel, "Retinal haemodynamics in individuals with well-controlled type 1 diabetes," Diabetologia 51, 361-364 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Leitgeb, L. Schmetterer, C. K. Hitzenberger, A. F. Fercher, F. Berisha, M. Wojtkowski, and T. Bajraszewski, "Real-time measurement of in vitro flow by Fourier-domain color Doppler optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 29, 171-173 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Blatter, C.

R. Michaely, A. H. Bachmann, M. L. Villiger, C. Blatter, T. Lasser and R. A. Leitgeb, "Vectorial reconstruction of retinal blood flow in three dimensions measured with high resolution resonant Doppler Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed Opt. 12, 041213 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bouma, B.

B. R. White, M. C. Pierce, N. Nassif, B. Cense, B. Park, G. Tearney, B. Bouma, T. Chen, and J. de Boer, "In vivo dynamic human retinal blood flow imaging using ultra-high-speed spectral domain optical Doppler tomography," Opt. Express. 11, 3490-3497 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bower, B. A.

Y. Wang, B. A. Bower, J. A. Izatt, O. Tan, and D. Huang, "Retinal blood flow measurement by circumpapillary Fourier domain Doppler optical coherence," J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 064003 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. A. Bower, M. Zhao, R. J. Zawadzki, and J. A. Izatt, "Real-time spectral domain Doppler optical coherence tomography and investigation of human retinal vessel autoregulation," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 041214 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Wang, B. A. Bower, J. A. Izatt, O. Tan, and D. Huang, "In vivo total retinal blood flow measurement by Fourier domain Doppler optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 041215 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Broman, T. A.

K. S. West, R. Klein, J. Rodriguez, B. Munoz, T. A. Broman, R. Sanchez, and R. Snyder, "Diabetes and diabetic retinopathy in a Mexican-American population," Diabetes Care 24, 1204-1209 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Butt, Z.

J. R. MacKinnon, G. McKillop, C. O'Brien, K. Swa, Z. Butt, and P. Nelson, "Colour Doppler imaging of the ocular circulation in diabetic retinopathy," Acta Ophthalmol. Scand. 78, 386-389 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cagliero, E.

M. Lorenzi, G. T. Feke, E. Cagliero, L. Pitler, D. A. Schaumberg, F. Berisha, D. M. Nathan, and J. W. McMeel, "Retinal haemodynamics in individuals with well-controlled type 1 diabetes," Diabetologia 51, 361-364 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cense, B.

B. R. White, M. C. Pierce, N. Nassif, B. Cense, B. Park, G. Tearney, B. Bouma, T. Chen, and J. de Boer, "In vivo dynamic human retinal blood flow imaging using ultra-high-speed spectral domain optical Doppler tomography," Opt. Express. 11, 3490-3497 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, W.

D. Huang, D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, T.

B. R. White, M. C. Pierce, N. Nassif, B. Cense, B. Park, G. Tearney, B. Bouma, T. Chen, and J. de Boer, "In vivo dynamic human retinal blood flow imaging using ultra-high-speed spectral domain optical Doppler tomography," Opt. Express. 11, 3490-3497 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Z.

Coker, J. G.

M. R. Hee, C. R. Baumal, C. A. Puliafito, J. S. Duker, E. Reichel, J. R. Wilkins, J. G. Coker, J. S. Schuman, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography of age-related macular degeneration and choroidal neovascularization," Ophthalmology 103, 1260-1270 (1996).
[PubMed]

Costa, V. P.

J. Flammer, S. Orgul, V. P. Costa, N. Orzalesi, G. K. Krieqlstein, L. M. Serra, J. P. Renard, and E. Stefansson, "The impact of ocular blood flow in glaucoma," Prog Retin. Eye Res. 21, 359-393 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cuartero, V.

A. Mendivil, V. Cuartero, and M. P. Mendivil, "Ocular blood flow velocities in patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy and healthy volunteers: a prospective study," Br. J. Ophthalmol. l 79, 413-416 (1995).
[CrossRef]

de Boer, J.

B. R. White, M. C. Pierce, N. Nassif, B. Cense, B. Park, G. Tearney, B. Bouma, T. Chen, and J. de Boer, "In vivo dynamic human retinal blood flow imaging using ultra-high-speed spectral domain optical Doppler tomography," Opt. Express. 11, 3490-3497 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Boer, J. F.

de Jong, T. V. P.

C. W. C. Klaver, C. W. R. Wolfs, R. J. Vingerling, and T. V. P. de Jong, "Age-specific prevalence and causes of blindness and visual impairment in an older population," Arch. Ophthalmol. 116, 653-658 (2007).

Duker, J. S.

M. R. Hee, C. R. Baumal, C. A. Puliafito, J. S. Duker, E. Reichel, J. R. Wilkins, J. G. Coker, J. S. Schuman, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography of age-related macular degeneration and choroidal neovascularization," Ophthalmology 103, 1260-1270 (1996).
[PubMed]

C. A. Puliafito, M. R. Hee, C. P. Lin, E. Reichel, J. S. Schuman, J. S. Duker, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Imaging of macular diseases with optical coherence tomography," Ophthalmology 102, 217-229 (1995).
[PubMed]

M. R. Hee, C. A. Puliafito, C. Wong, J. S. Duker, E. Reichel, J. S. Schuman, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography of macular holes," Ophthalmology 102, 748-756 (1995).
[PubMed]

Fabritius, T.

Feke, G. T.

M. Lorenzi, G. T. Feke, E. Cagliero, L. Pitler, D. A. Schaumberg, F. Berisha, D. M. Nathan, and J. W. McMeel, "Retinal haemodynamics in individuals with well-controlled type 1 diabetes," Diabetologia 51, 361-364 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fercher, A. F.

Flammer, J.

J. Flammer, S. Orgul, V. P. Costa, N. Orzalesi, G. K. Krieqlstein, L. M. Serra, J. P. Renard, and E. Stefansson, "The impact of ocular blood flow in glaucoma," Prog Retin. Eye Res. 21, 359-393 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Flammer, "The vascular concept of glaucoma," Surv. Ophthalmol. 38, S3-S6 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

M. R. Hee, C. R. Baumal, C. A. Puliafito, J. S. Duker, E. Reichel, J. R. Wilkins, J. G. Coker, J. S. Schuman, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography of age-related macular degeneration and choroidal neovascularization," Ophthalmology 103, 1260-1270 (1996).
[PubMed]

C. A. Puliafito, M. R. Hee, C. P. Lin, E. Reichel, J. S. Schuman, J. S. Duker, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Imaging of macular diseases with optical coherence tomography," Ophthalmology 102, 217-229 (1995).
[PubMed]

M. R. Hee, C. A. Puliafito, C. Wong, J. S. Duker, E. Reichel, J. S. Schuman, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography of macular holes," Ophthalmology 102, 748-756 (1995).
[PubMed]

J. S. Shuman, M. R. Hee, C. A. Puliafito, C. Wong, T. Pedut-Kloizman, C. P. Lin, E. Hertzmark, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Quantification of nerve fiber layer thickness in normal and glaucomatous eyes using optical coherence tomography," Arch. Ophthalmol. 113, 586-596 (1995).

D. Huang, D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujioka, S.

S. Fujioka, K. Karashima, N. Nishikawa, and Y. Saito, "Correlation between higher blood flow velocity in the central retinal vein than in the central retinal artery and severity of nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy," Jpn. J. Ophthalmol. 50, 312-317 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujomoto, J. G.

J. S. Shuman, M. R. Hee, A. V. Arya, T. Pedut-Kloizman, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujomoto, and E. A. Swanson, "Optical coherence tomography: a new tool for glaucoma diagnosis," Curr. Opin. Ophthalmol. 6, 89-95 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Gil-Flamer, J.

Y. Wang, A. Lu, J. Gil-Flamer, O. Tan, D. Huang, "Measurement of total blood flow in the normal human retina using Doppler Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," Br. J. Ophthalmol. (in press).
[PubMed]

Gordon, M.

V. X. D. Yang, M. Gordon, E. S. Yue, S. Lo, B. Qi, J. Pekar, A. Mok, B. Wilson, and I. Vitkin, "High speed, wide velocity dynamic range Doppler optical coherence tomography (Part II): Imaging in vivo cardiac dynamic of Xenopus Laevis," Opt. Express. 11, 1650-1658 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gregori, G.

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grunwald, J. E.

C. E. Riva, J. E. Grunwald, S. H. Sinclair, and B. L. Petrig, "Blood velocity and volumetric flow rate in human retinal vessels," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 26, 1124-1132 (1985).
[PubMed]

Guven, D.

D. Guven, H. Ozdemir, and B. Hasanreisoglu, "Hemodynamic alterations in diabetic retinopathy," Ophthalmology 103, 1245-1249 (1996).
[PubMed]

Hardarson, S. H.

C. J. Pournaras, E. Rungger-Brändle, C. E. Riva, S. H. Hardarson, and E. Stefansson, "Regulation of retinal blood flow in health and disease," Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 27, 284-330 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hasanreisoglu, B.

D. Guven, H. Ozdemir, and B. Hasanreisoglu, "Hemodynamic alterations in diabetic retinopathy," Ophthalmology 103, 1245-1249 (1996).
[PubMed]

Hee, M. R.

M. R. Hee, C. R. Baumal, C. A. Puliafito, J. S. Duker, E. Reichel, J. R. Wilkins, J. G. Coker, J. S. Schuman, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography of age-related macular degeneration and choroidal neovascularization," Ophthalmology 103, 1260-1270 (1996).
[PubMed]

J. S. Shuman, M. R. Hee, C. A. Puliafito, C. Wong, T. Pedut-Kloizman, C. P. Lin, E. Hertzmark, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Quantification of nerve fiber layer thickness in normal and glaucomatous eyes using optical coherence tomography," Arch. Ophthalmol. 113, 586-596 (1995).

C. A. Puliafito, M. R. Hee, C. P. Lin, E. Reichel, J. S. Schuman, J. S. Duker, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Imaging of macular diseases with optical coherence tomography," Ophthalmology 102, 217-229 (1995).
[PubMed]

M. R. Hee, C. A. Puliafito, C. Wong, J. S. Duker, E. Reichel, J. S. Schuman, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography of macular holes," Ophthalmology 102, 748-756 (1995).
[PubMed]

J. S. Shuman, M. R. Hee, A. V. Arya, T. Pedut-Kloizman, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujomoto, and E. A. Swanson, "Optical coherence tomography: a new tool for glaucoma diagnosis," Curr. Opin. Ophthalmol. 6, 89-95 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. Huang, D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hertzmark, E.

J. S. Shuman, M. R. Hee, C. A. Puliafito, C. Wong, T. Pedut-Kloizman, C. P. Lin, E. Hertzmark, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Quantification of nerve fiber layer thickness in normal and glaucomatous eyes using optical coherence tomography," Arch. Ophthalmol. 113, 586-596 (1995).

Hitzenberger, C. K.

Huang, D.

Y. Wang, B. A. Bower, J. A. Izatt, O. Tan, and D. Huang, "Retinal blood flow measurement by circumpapillary Fourier domain Doppler optical coherence," J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 064003 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Wang, B. A. Bower, J. A. Izatt, O. Tan, and D. Huang, "In vivo total retinal blood flow measurement by Fourier domain Doppler optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 041215 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Wang, A. Lu, J. Gil-Flamer, O. Tan, D. Huang, "Measurement of total blood flow in the normal human retina using Doppler Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," Br. J. Ophthalmol. (in press).
[PubMed]

Izatt, J. A.

Y. Wang, B. A. Bower, J. A. Izatt, O. Tan, and D. Huang, "Retinal blood flow measurement by circumpapillary Fourier domain Doppler optical coherence," J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 064003 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. A. Bower, M. Zhao, R. J. Zawadzki, and J. A. Izatt, "Real-time spectral domain Doppler optical coherence tomography and investigation of human retinal vessel autoregulation," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 041214 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Wang, B. A. Bower, J. A. Izatt, O. Tan, and D. Huang, "In vivo total retinal blood flow measurement by Fourier domain Doppler optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 041215 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Yazdanfar, A. M. Rollins, and J. A. Izatt, "In vivo imaging of human retinal flow dynamics by color Doppler optical coherence tomography," Arch. Ophthalmol. 121, 235-239 (2003).
[PubMed]

S. Yazdanfar, A. M. Rollins, and J. A. Izatt. "Imaging and velocity of the human retinal circulation with color Doppler optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 25, 1448-1450 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Izatt, M. D. Kulkarni, S. Yazdanfar, J. K. Barton, and A. J. Welch. "In vivo bidirectional color Doppler flow imaging of picoliter blood volumes using optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 22, 1439-1441 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Shuman, M. R. Hee, C. A. Puliafito, C. Wong, T. Pedut-Kloizman, C. P. Lin, E. Hertzmark, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Quantification of nerve fiber layer thickness in normal and glaucomatous eyes using optical coherence tomography," Arch. Ophthalmol. 113, 586-596 (1995).

C. A. Puliafito, M. R. Hee, C. P. Lin, E. Reichel, J. S. Schuman, J. S. Duker, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Imaging of macular diseases with optical coherence tomography," Ophthalmology 102, 217-229 (1995).
[PubMed]

Jiao, S.

Karashima, K.

S. Fujioka, K. Karashima, N. Nishikawa, and Y. Saito, "Correlation between higher blood flow velocity in the central retinal vein than in the central retinal artery and severity of nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy," Jpn. J. Ophthalmol. 50, 312-317 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kerr, J.

J. Kerr, P. Nelson, and C. O’Brien. "A comparison of ocular blood flow in untreated primary open-angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 126, 42-51 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Klaver, C. W. C.

C. W. C. Klaver, C. W. R. Wolfs, R. J. Vingerling, and T. V. P. de Jong, "Age-specific prevalence and causes of blindness and visual impairment in an older population," Arch. Ophthalmol. 116, 653-658 (2007).

Klein, R.

K. S. West, R. Klein, J. Rodriguez, B. Munoz, T. A. Broman, R. Sanchez, and R. Snyder, "Diabetes and diabetic retinopathy in a Mexican-American population," Diabetes Care 24, 1204-1209 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krieqlstein, G. K.

J. Flammer, S. Orgul, V. P. Costa, N. Orzalesi, G. K. Krieqlstein, L. M. Serra, J. P. Renard, and E. Stefansson, "The impact of ocular blood flow in glaucoma," Prog Retin. Eye Res. 21, 359-393 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kulkarni, M. D.

Lasser, T.

R. Michaely, A. H. Bachmann, M. L. Villiger, C. Blatter, T. Lasser and R. A. Leitgeb, "Vectorial reconstruction of retinal blood flow in three dimensions measured with high resolution resonant Doppler Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed Opt. 12, 041213 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leitgeb, R. A.

R. Michaely, A. H. Bachmann, M. L. Villiger, C. Blatter, T. Lasser and R. A. Leitgeb, "Vectorial reconstruction of retinal blood flow in three dimensions measured with high resolution resonant Doppler Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed Opt. 12, 041213 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Leitgeb, L. Schmetterer, C. K. Hitzenberger, A. F. Fercher, F. Berisha, M. Wojtkowski, and T. Bajraszewski, "Real-time measurement of in vitro flow by Fourier-domain color Doppler optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 29, 171-173 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, C. P.

J. S. Shuman, M. R. Hee, C. A. Puliafito, C. Wong, T. Pedut-Kloizman, C. P. Lin, E. Hertzmark, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Quantification of nerve fiber layer thickness in normal and glaucomatous eyes using optical coherence tomography," Arch. Ophthalmol. 113, 586-596 (1995).

C. A. Puliafito, M. R. Hee, C. P. Lin, E. Reichel, J. S. Schuman, J. S. Duker, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Imaging of macular diseases with optical coherence tomography," Ophthalmology 102, 217-229 (1995).
[PubMed]

D. Huang, D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lo, S.

V. X. D. Yang, M. Gordon, E. S. Yue, S. Lo, B. Qi, J. Pekar, A. Mok, B. Wilson, and I. Vitkin, "High speed, wide velocity dynamic range Doppler optical coherence tomography (Part II): Imaging in vivo cardiac dynamic of Xenopus Laevis," Opt. Express. 11, 1650-1658 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lorenzi, M.

M. Lorenzi, G. T. Feke, E. Cagliero, L. Pitler, D. A. Schaumberg, F. Berisha, D. M. Nathan, and J. W. McMeel, "Retinal haemodynamics in individuals with well-controlled type 1 diabetes," Diabetologia 51, 361-364 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lu, A.

Y. Wang, A. Lu, J. Gil-Flamer, O. Tan, D. Huang, "Measurement of total blood flow in the normal human retina using Doppler Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," Br. J. Ophthalmol. (in press).
[PubMed]

MacKinnon, J. R.

J. R. MacKinnon, G. McKillop, C. O'Brien, K. Swa, Z. Butt, and P. Nelson, "Colour Doppler imaging of the ocular circulation in diabetic retinopathy," Acta Ophthalmol. Scand. 78, 386-389 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Makita, S.

McKillop, G.

J. R. MacKinnon, G. McKillop, C. O'Brien, K. Swa, Z. Butt, and P. Nelson, "Colour Doppler imaging of the ocular circulation in diabetic retinopathy," Acta Ophthalmol. Scand. 78, 386-389 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McMeel, J. W.

M. Lorenzi, G. T. Feke, E. Cagliero, L. Pitler, D. A. Schaumberg, F. Berisha, D. M. Nathan, and J. W. McMeel, "Retinal haemodynamics in individuals with well-controlled type 1 diabetes," Diabetologia 51, 361-364 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mendivil, A.

A. Mendivil, V. Cuartero, and M. P. Mendivil, "Ocular blood flow velocities in patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy and healthy volunteers: a prospective study," Br. J. Ophthalmol. l 79, 413-416 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Mendivil, M. P.

A. Mendivil, V. Cuartero, and M. P. Mendivil, "Ocular blood flow velocities in patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy and healthy volunteers: a prospective study," Br. J. Ophthalmol. l 79, 413-416 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Michaely, R.

R. Michaely, A. H. Bachmann, M. L. Villiger, C. Blatter, T. Lasser and R. A. Leitgeb, "Vectorial reconstruction of retinal blood flow in three dimensions measured with high resolution resonant Doppler Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed Opt. 12, 041213 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Milner, T. E.

Mok, A.

V. X. D. Yang, M. Gordon, E. S. Yue, S. Lo, B. Qi, J. Pekar, A. Mok, B. Wilson, and I. Vitkin, "High speed, wide velocity dynamic range Doppler optical coherence tomography (Part II): Imaging in vivo cardiac dynamic of Xenopus Laevis," Opt. Express. 11, 1650-1658 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Munoz, B.

K. S. West, R. Klein, J. Rodriguez, B. Munoz, T. A. Broman, R. Sanchez, and R. Snyder, "Diabetes and diabetic retinopathy in a Mexican-American population," Diabetes Care 24, 1204-1209 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nassif, N.

B. R. White, M. C. Pierce, N. Nassif, B. Cense, B. Park, G. Tearney, B. Bouma, T. Chen, and J. de Boer, "In vivo dynamic human retinal blood flow imaging using ultra-high-speed spectral domain optical Doppler tomography," Opt. Express. 11, 3490-3497 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nathan, D. M.

M. Lorenzi, G. T. Feke, E. Cagliero, L. Pitler, D. A. Schaumberg, F. Berisha, D. M. Nathan, and J. W. McMeel, "Retinal haemodynamics in individuals with well-controlled type 1 diabetes," Diabetologia 51, 361-364 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nelson, J. S.

Nelson, P.

J. R. MacKinnon, G. McKillop, C. O'Brien, K. Swa, Z. Butt, and P. Nelson, "Colour Doppler imaging of the ocular circulation in diabetic retinopathy," Acta Ophthalmol. Scand. 78, 386-389 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Kerr, P. Nelson, and C. O’Brien. "A comparison of ocular blood flow in untreated primary open-angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 126, 42-51 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nishikawa, N.

S. Fujioka, K. Karashima, N. Nishikawa, and Y. Saito, "Correlation between higher blood flow velocity in the central retinal vein than in the central retinal artery and severity of nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy," Jpn. J. Ophthalmol. 50, 312-317 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O’Brien, C.

J. Kerr, P. Nelson, and C. O’Brien. "A comparison of ocular blood flow in untreated primary open-angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 126, 42-51 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O'Brien, C.

J. R. MacKinnon, G. McKillop, C. O'Brien, K. Swa, Z. Butt, and P. Nelson, "Colour Doppler imaging of the ocular circulation in diabetic retinopathy," Acta Ophthalmol. Scand. 78, 386-389 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Orgul, S.

J. Flammer, S. Orgul, V. P. Costa, N. Orzalesi, G. K. Krieqlstein, L. M. Serra, J. P. Renard, and E. Stefansson, "The impact of ocular blood flow in glaucoma," Prog Retin. Eye Res. 21, 359-393 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Orzalesi, N.

J. Flammer, S. Orgul, V. P. Costa, N. Orzalesi, G. K. Krieqlstein, L. M. Serra, J. P. Renard, and E. Stefansson, "The impact of ocular blood flow in glaucoma," Prog Retin. Eye Res. 21, 359-393 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ozdemir, H.

D. Guven, H. Ozdemir, and B. Hasanreisoglu, "Hemodynamic alterations in diabetic retinopathy," Ophthalmology 103, 1245-1249 (1996).
[PubMed]

Park, B.

B. R. White, M. C. Pierce, N. Nassif, B. Cense, B. Park, G. Tearney, B. Bouma, T. Chen, and J. de Boer, "In vivo dynamic human retinal blood flow imaging using ultra-high-speed spectral domain optical Doppler tomography," Opt. Express. 11, 3490-3497 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pedut-Kloizman, T.

J. S. Shuman, M. R. Hee, A. V. Arya, T. Pedut-Kloizman, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujomoto, and E. A. Swanson, "Optical coherence tomography: a new tool for glaucoma diagnosis," Curr. Opin. Ophthalmol. 6, 89-95 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Shuman, M. R. Hee, C. A. Puliafito, C. Wong, T. Pedut-Kloizman, C. P. Lin, E. Hertzmark, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Quantification of nerve fiber layer thickness in normal and glaucomatous eyes using optical coherence tomography," Arch. Ophthalmol. 113, 586-596 (1995).

Pekar, J.

V. X. D. Yang, M. Gordon, E. S. Yue, S. Lo, B. Qi, J. Pekar, A. Mok, B. Wilson, and I. Vitkin, "High speed, wide velocity dynamic range Doppler optical coherence tomography (Part II): Imaging in vivo cardiac dynamic of Xenopus Laevis," Opt. Express. 11, 1650-1658 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Petrig, B. L.

C. E. Riva, J. E. Grunwald, S. H. Sinclair, and B. L. Petrig, "Blood velocity and volumetric flow rate in human retinal vessels," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 26, 1124-1132 (1985).
[PubMed]

Pierce, M. C.

B. R. White, M. C. Pierce, N. Nassif, B. Cense, B. Park, G. Tearney, B. Bouma, T. Chen, and J. de Boer, "In vivo dynamic human retinal blood flow imaging using ultra-high-speed spectral domain optical Doppler tomography," Opt. Express. 11, 3490-3497 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pitler, L.

M. Lorenzi, G. T. Feke, E. Cagliero, L. Pitler, D. A. Schaumberg, F. Berisha, D. M. Nathan, and J. W. McMeel, "Retinal haemodynamics in individuals with well-controlled type 1 diabetes," Diabetologia 51, 361-364 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pournaras, C. J.

C. J. Pournaras, E. Rungger-Brändle, C. E. Riva, S. H. Hardarson, and E. Stefansson, "Regulation of retinal blood flow in health and disease," Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 27, 284-330 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Puliafito, C. A.

H. Wehbe, M. Ruggeri, S. Jiao, G. Gregori, C. A. Puliafito, and W. Zhao, "Automatic retinal blood flow calculation using spectral domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 15, 15193-15206 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. R. Hee, C. R. Baumal, C. A. Puliafito, J. S. Duker, E. Reichel, J. R. Wilkins, J. G. Coker, J. S. Schuman, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography of age-related macular degeneration and choroidal neovascularization," Ophthalmology 103, 1260-1270 (1996).
[PubMed]

J. S. Shuman, M. R. Hee, C. A. Puliafito, C. Wong, T. Pedut-Kloizman, C. P. Lin, E. Hertzmark, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Quantification of nerve fiber layer thickness in normal and glaucomatous eyes using optical coherence tomography," Arch. Ophthalmol. 113, 586-596 (1995).

C. A. Puliafito, M. R. Hee, C. P. Lin, E. Reichel, J. S. Schuman, J. S. Duker, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Imaging of macular diseases with optical coherence tomography," Ophthalmology 102, 217-229 (1995).
[PubMed]

M. R. Hee, C. A. Puliafito, C. Wong, J. S. Duker, E. Reichel, J. S. Schuman, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography of macular holes," Ophthalmology 102, 748-756 (1995).
[PubMed]

J. S. Shuman, M. R. Hee, A. V. Arya, T. Pedut-Kloizman, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujomoto, and E. A. Swanson, "Optical coherence tomography: a new tool for glaucoma diagnosis," Curr. Opin. Ophthalmol. 6, 89-95 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. Huang, D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Qi, B.

V. X. D. Yang, M. Gordon, E. S. Yue, S. Lo, B. Qi, J. Pekar, A. Mok, B. Wilson, and I. Vitkin, "High speed, wide velocity dynamic range Doppler optical coherence tomography (Part II): Imaging in vivo cardiac dynamic of Xenopus Laevis," Opt. Express. 11, 1650-1658 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reichel, E.

M. R. Hee, C. R. Baumal, C. A. Puliafito, J. S. Duker, E. Reichel, J. R. Wilkins, J. G. Coker, J. S. Schuman, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography of age-related macular degeneration and choroidal neovascularization," Ophthalmology 103, 1260-1270 (1996).
[PubMed]

C. A. Puliafito, M. R. Hee, C. P. Lin, E. Reichel, J. S. Schuman, J. S. Duker, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Imaging of macular diseases with optical coherence tomography," Ophthalmology 102, 217-229 (1995).
[PubMed]

M. R. Hee, C. A. Puliafito, C. Wong, J. S. Duker, E. Reichel, J. S. Schuman, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography of macular holes," Ophthalmology 102, 748-756 (1995).
[PubMed]

Renard, J. P.

J. Flammer, S. Orgul, V. P. Costa, N. Orzalesi, G. K. Krieqlstein, L. M. Serra, J. P. Renard, and E. Stefansson, "The impact of ocular blood flow in glaucoma," Prog Retin. Eye Res. 21, 359-393 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Riva, C. E.

C. J. Pournaras, E. Rungger-Brändle, C. E. Riva, S. H. Hardarson, and E. Stefansson, "Regulation of retinal blood flow in health and disease," Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 27, 284-330 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. E. Riva, J. E. Grunwald, S. H. Sinclair, and B. L. Petrig, "Blood velocity and volumetric flow rate in human retinal vessels," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 26, 1124-1132 (1985).
[PubMed]

Rodriguez, J.

K. S. West, R. Klein, J. Rodriguez, B. Munoz, T. A. Broman, R. Sanchez, and R. Snyder, "Diabetes and diabetic retinopathy in a Mexican-American population," Diabetes Care 24, 1204-1209 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rollins, A. M.

S. Yazdanfar, A. M. Rollins, and J. A. Izatt, "In vivo imaging of human retinal flow dynamics by color Doppler optical coherence tomography," Arch. Ophthalmol. 121, 235-239 (2003).
[PubMed]

S. Yazdanfar, A. M. Rollins, and J. A. Izatt. "Imaging and velocity of the human retinal circulation with color Doppler optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 25, 1448-1450 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ruggeri, M.

Rungger-Brändle, E.

C. J. Pournaras, E. Rungger-Brändle, C. E. Riva, S. H. Hardarson, and E. Stefansson, "Regulation of retinal blood flow in health and disease," Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 27, 284-330 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Saito, Y.

S. Fujioka, K. Karashima, N. Nishikawa, and Y. Saito, "Correlation between higher blood flow velocity in the central retinal vein than in the central retinal artery and severity of nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy," Jpn. J. Ophthalmol. 50, 312-317 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sanchez, R.

K. S. West, R. Klein, J. Rodriguez, B. Munoz, T. A. Broman, R. Sanchez, and R. Snyder, "Diabetes and diabetic retinopathy in a Mexican-American population," Diabetes Care 24, 1204-1209 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Saxer, C.

Schaumberg, D. A.

M. Lorenzi, G. T. Feke, E. Cagliero, L. Pitler, D. A. Schaumberg, F. Berisha, D. M. Nathan, and J. W. McMeel, "Retinal haemodynamics in individuals with well-controlled type 1 diabetes," Diabetologia 51, 361-364 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Schmetterer, L.

Schuman, J. S.

M. R. Hee, C. R. Baumal, C. A. Puliafito, J. S. Duker, E. Reichel, J. R. Wilkins, J. G. Coker, J. S. Schuman, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography of age-related macular degeneration and choroidal neovascularization," Ophthalmology 103, 1260-1270 (1996).
[PubMed]

M. R. Hee, C. A. Puliafito, C. Wong, J. S. Duker, E. Reichel, J. S. Schuman, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography of macular holes," Ophthalmology 102, 748-756 (1995).
[PubMed]

C. A. Puliafito, M. R. Hee, C. P. Lin, E. Reichel, J. S. Schuman, J. S. Duker, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Imaging of macular diseases with optical coherence tomography," Ophthalmology 102, 217-229 (1995).
[PubMed]

D. Huang, D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Serra, L. M.

J. Flammer, S. Orgul, V. P. Costa, N. Orzalesi, G. K. Krieqlstein, L. M. Serra, J. P. Renard, and E. Stefansson, "The impact of ocular blood flow in glaucoma," Prog Retin. Eye Res. 21, 359-393 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shen, Q.

Shuman, J. S.

J. S. Shuman, M. R. Hee, A. V. Arya, T. Pedut-Kloizman, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujomoto, and E. A. Swanson, "Optical coherence tomography: a new tool for glaucoma diagnosis," Curr. Opin. Ophthalmol. 6, 89-95 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Shuman, M. R. Hee, C. A. Puliafito, C. Wong, T. Pedut-Kloizman, C. P. Lin, E. Hertzmark, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Quantification of nerve fiber layer thickness in normal and glaucomatous eyes using optical coherence tomography," Arch. Ophthalmol. 113, 586-596 (1995).

Sinclair, S. H.

C. E. Riva, J. E. Grunwald, S. H. Sinclair, and B. L. Petrig, "Blood velocity and volumetric flow rate in human retinal vessels," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 26, 1124-1132 (1985).
[PubMed]

Snyder, R.

K. S. West, R. Klein, J. Rodriguez, B. Munoz, T. A. Broman, R. Sanchez, and R. Snyder, "Diabetes and diabetic retinopathy in a Mexican-American population," Diabetes Care 24, 1204-1209 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stefansson, E.

C. J. Pournaras, E. Rungger-Brändle, C. E. Riva, S. H. Hardarson, and E. Stefansson, "Regulation of retinal blood flow in health and disease," Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 27, 284-330 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Flammer, S. Orgul, V. P. Costa, N. Orzalesi, G. K. Krieqlstein, L. M. Serra, J. P. Renard, and E. Stefansson, "The impact of ocular blood flow in glaucoma," Prog Retin. Eye Res. 21, 359-393 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swa, K.

J. R. MacKinnon, G. McKillop, C. O'Brien, K. Swa, Z. Butt, and P. Nelson, "Colour Doppler imaging of the ocular circulation in diabetic retinopathy," Acta Ophthalmol. Scand. 78, 386-389 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swanson, E. A.

M. R. Hee, C. R. Baumal, C. A. Puliafito, J. S. Duker, E. Reichel, J. R. Wilkins, J. G. Coker, J. S. Schuman, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography of age-related macular degeneration and choroidal neovascularization," Ophthalmology 103, 1260-1270 (1996).
[PubMed]

C. A. Puliafito, M. R. Hee, C. P. Lin, E. Reichel, J. S. Schuman, J. S. Duker, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Imaging of macular diseases with optical coherence tomography," Ophthalmology 102, 217-229 (1995).
[PubMed]

M. R. Hee, C. A. Puliafito, C. Wong, J. S. Duker, E. Reichel, J. S. Schuman, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography of macular holes," Ophthalmology 102, 748-756 (1995).
[PubMed]

J. S. Shuman, M. R. Hee, C. A. Puliafito, C. Wong, T. Pedut-Kloizman, C. P. Lin, E. Hertzmark, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Quantification of nerve fiber layer thickness in normal and glaucomatous eyes using optical coherence tomography," Arch. Ophthalmol. 113, 586-596 (1995).

J. S. Shuman, M. R. Hee, A. V. Arya, T. Pedut-Kloizman, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujomoto, and E. A. Swanson, "Optical coherence tomography: a new tool for glaucoma diagnosis," Curr. Opin. Ophthalmol. 6, 89-95 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. Huang, D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tan, O.

Y. Wang, B. A. Bower, J. A. Izatt, O. Tan, and D. Huang, "Retinal blood flow measurement by circumpapillary Fourier domain Doppler optical coherence," J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 064003 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Wang, B. A. Bower, J. A. Izatt, O. Tan, and D. Huang, "In vivo total retinal blood flow measurement by Fourier domain Doppler optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 041215 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Wang, A. Lu, J. Gil-Flamer, O. Tan, D. Huang, "Measurement of total blood flow in the normal human retina using Doppler Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," Br. J. Ophthalmol. (in press).
[PubMed]

Tearney, G.

B. R. White, M. C. Pierce, N. Nassif, B. Cense, B. Park, G. Tearney, B. Bouma, T. Chen, and J. de Boer, "In vivo dynamic human retinal blood flow imaging using ultra-high-speed spectral domain optical Doppler tomography," Opt. Express. 11, 3490-3497 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Villiger, M. L.

R. Michaely, A. H. Bachmann, M. L. Villiger, C. Blatter, T. Lasser and R. A. Leitgeb, "Vectorial reconstruction of retinal blood flow in three dimensions measured with high resolution resonant Doppler Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed Opt. 12, 041213 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vingerling, R. J.

C. W. C. Klaver, C. W. R. Wolfs, R. J. Vingerling, and T. V. P. de Jong, "Age-specific prevalence and causes of blindness and visual impairment in an older population," Arch. Ophthalmol. 116, 653-658 (2007).

Vitkin, I.

V. X. D. Yang, M. Gordon, E. S. Yue, S. Lo, B. Qi, J. Pekar, A. Mok, B. Wilson, and I. Vitkin, "High speed, wide velocity dynamic range Doppler optical coherence tomography (Part II): Imaging in vivo cardiac dynamic of Xenopus Laevis," Opt. Express. 11, 1650-1658 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, X. J.

Wang, Y.

Y. Wang, B. A. Bower, J. A. Izatt, O. Tan, and D. Huang, "Retinal blood flow measurement by circumpapillary Fourier domain Doppler optical coherence," J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 064003 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Wang, B. A. Bower, J. A. Izatt, O. Tan, and D. Huang, "In vivo total retinal blood flow measurement by Fourier domain Doppler optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 041215 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Wang, A. Lu, J. Gil-Flamer, O. Tan, D. Huang, "Measurement of total blood flow in the normal human retina using Doppler Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," Br. J. Ophthalmol. (in press).
[PubMed]

Wehbe, H.

Welch, A. J.

West, K. S.

K. S. West, R. Klein, J. Rodriguez, B. Munoz, T. A. Broman, R. Sanchez, and R. Snyder, "Diabetes and diabetic retinopathy in a Mexican-American population," Diabetes Care 24, 1204-1209 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

White, B. R.

B. R. White, M. C. Pierce, N. Nassif, B. Cense, B. Park, G. Tearney, B. Bouma, T. Chen, and J. de Boer, "In vivo dynamic human retinal blood flow imaging using ultra-high-speed spectral domain optical Doppler tomography," Opt. Express. 11, 3490-3497 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wilkins, J. R.

M. R. Hee, C. R. Baumal, C. A. Puliafito, J. S. Duker, E. Reichel, J. R. Wilkins, J. G. Coker, J. S. Schuman, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography of age-related macular degeneration and choroidal neovascularization," Ophthalmology 103, 1260-1270 (1996).
[PubMed]

Wilson, B.

V. X. D. Yang, M. Gordon, E. S. Yue, S. Lo, B. Qi, J. Pekar, A. Mok, B. Wilson, and I. Vitkin, "High speed, wide velocity dynamic range Doppler optical coherence tomography (Part II): Imaging in vivo cardiac dynamic of Xenopus Laevis," Opt. Express. 11, 1650-1658 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wojtkowski, M.

Wolfs, C. W. R.

C. W. C. Klaver, C. W. R. Wolfs, R. J. Vingerling, and T. V. P. de Jong, "Age-specific prevalence and causes of blindness and visual impairment in an older population," Arch. Ophthalmol. 116, 653-658 (2007).

Wong, C.

J. S. Shuman, M. R. Hee, C. A. Puliafito, C. Wong, T. Pedut-Kloizman, C. P. Lin, E. Hertzmark, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Quantification of nerve fiber layer thickness in normal and glaucomatous eyes using optical coherence tomography," Arch. Ophthalmol. 113, 586-596 (1995).

M. R. Hee, C. A. Puliafito, C. Wong, J. S. Duker, E. Reichel, J. S. Schuman, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography of macular holes," Ophthalmology 102, 748-756 (1995).
[PubMed]

Xiang, S.

Yang, V. X. D.

V. X. D. Yang, M. Gordon, E. S. Yue, S. Lo, B. Qi, J. Pekar, A. Mok, B. Wilson, and I. Vitkin, "High speed, wide velocity dynamic range Doppler optical coherence tomography (Part II): Imaging in vivo cardiac dynamic of Xenopus Laevis," Opt. Express. 11, 1650-1658 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yasuno, Y.

Yazdanfar, S.

Yue, E. S.

V. X. D. Yang, M. Gordon, E. S. Yue, S. Lo, B. Qi, J. Pekar, A. Mok, B. Wilson, and I. Vitkin, "High speed, wide velocity dynamic range Doppler optical coherence tomography (Part II): Imaging in vivo cardiac dynamic of Xenopus Laevis," Opt. Express. 11, 1650-1658 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zawadzki, R. J.

B. A. Bower, M. Zhao, R. J. Zawadzki, and J. A. Izatt, "Real-time spectral domain Doppler optical coherence tomography and investigation of human retinal vessel autoregulation," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 041214 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhao, M.

B. A. Bower, M. Zhao, R. J. Zawadzki, and J. A. Izatt, "Real-time spectral domain Doppler optical coherence tomography and investigation of human retinal vessel autoregulation," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 041214 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhao, W.

Zhao, Y.

Acta Ophthalmol. Scand. (1)

J. R. MacKinnon, G. McKillop, C. O'Brien, K. Swa, Z. Butt, and P. Nelson, "Colour Doppler imaging of the ocular circulation in diabetic retinopathy," Acta Ophthalmol. Scand. 78, 386-389 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Am. J. Ophthalmol. (1)

J. Kerr, P. Nelson, and C. O’Brien. "A comparison of ocular blood flow in untreated primary open-angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 126, 42-51 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arch. Ophthalmol. (3)

C. W. C. Klaver, C. W. R. Wolfs, R. J. Vingerling, and T. V. P. de Jong, "Age-specific prevalence and causes of blindness and visual impairment in an older population," Arch. Ophthalmol. 116, 653-658 (2007).

J. S. Shuman, M. R. Hee, C. A. Puliafito, C. Wong, T. Pedut-Kloizman, C. P. Lin, E. Hertzmark, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Quantification of nerve fiber layer thickness in normal and glaucomatous eyes using optical coherence tomography," Arch. Ophthalmol. 113, 586-596 (1995).

S. Yazdanfar, A. M. Rollins, and J. A. Izatt, "In vivo imaging of human retinal flow dynamics by color Doppler optical coherence tomography," Arch. Ophthalmol. 121, 235-239 (2003).
[PubMed]

Br. J. Ophthalmol. (1)

Y. Wang, A. Lu, J. Gil-Flamer, O. Tan, D. Huang, "Measurement of total blood flow in the normal human retina using Doppler Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," Br. J. Ophthalmol. (in press).
[PubMed]

Br. J. Ophthalmol. l (1)

A. Mendivil, V. Cuartero, and M. P. Mendivil, "Ocular blood flow velocities in patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy and healthy volunteers: a prospective study," Br. J. Ophthalmol. l 79, 413-416 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Curr. Opin. Ophthalmol. (1)

J. S. Shuman, M. R. Hee, A. V. Arya, T. Pedut-Kloizman, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujomoto, and E. A. Swanson, "Optical coherence tomography: a new tool for glaucoma diagnosis," Curr. Opin. Ophthalmol. 6, 89-95 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Diabetes Care (1)

K. S. West, R. Klein, J. Rodriguez, B. Munoz, T. A. Broman, R. Sanchez, and R. Snyder, "Diabetes and diabetic retinopathy in a Mexican-American population," Diabetes Care 24, 1204-1209 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Diabetologia (1)

M. Lorenzi, G. T. Feke, E. Cagliero, L. Pitler, D. A. Schaumberg, F. Berisha, D. M. Nathan, and J. W. McMeel, "Retinal haemodynamics in individuals with well-controlled type 1 diabetes," Diabetologia 51, 361-364 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (1)

C. E. Riva, J. E. Grunwald, S. H. Sinclair, and B. L. Petrig, "Blood velocity and volumetric flow rate in human retinal vessels," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 26, 1124-1132 (1985).
[PubMed]

J. Biomed Opt. (1)

R. Michaely, A. H. Bachmann, M. L. Villiger, C. Blatter, T. Lasser and R. A. Leitgeb, "Vectorial reconstruction of retinal blood flow in three dimensions measured with high resolution resonant Doppler Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed Opt. 12, 041213 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (3)

Y. Wang, B. A. Bower, J. A. Izatt, O. Tan, and D. Huang, "In vivo total retinal blood flow measurement by Fourier domain Doppler optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 041215 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Wang, B. A. Bower, J. A. Izatt, O. Tan, and D. Huang, "Retinal blood flow measurement by circumpapillary Fourier domain Doppler optical coherence," J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 064003 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. A. Bower, M. Zhao, R. J. Zawadzki, and J. A. Izatt, "Real-time spectral domain Doppler optical coherence tomography and investigation of human retinal vessel autoregulation," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 041214 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jpn. J. Ophthalmol. (1)

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Three-dimensional diagram of DCSP method: OCT beam scans circularly across the retina. Two scanning radii r1 and r2 are shown in this diagram. P1 and P2 are the vessel positions on the two scanning cones.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Fundus images of the patients: (a) diabetic patient without retinopathy; (b) PDR patient. Branch retinal veins are labeled.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Doppler (View 1) and (b) intensity image (View 2) of the diabetic patient. Retinal branch veins are labeled as 1 to 6.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Doppler (View 3) and (b) intensity image (View 4) of the PDR patient. Retinal branch veins are labeled as 1 to 7.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Relationship between vessel diameter and blood flow for the two patients: #1: diabetic patient; #2: PDR patient

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Flow pulsatility from the two patients: #1: diabetic patient without retinopathy; #2: patient with PDR.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Fundus image of the patient with PDR. Averaged flow velocities for retinal branch veins are labeled (unit, mm/s).

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

OCT test result. (a) Three-dimensional OCT image (View 5); (b) retinal macular thickness map.

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Tables (3)

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Table 1. Total Retinal Blood Flow of Diabetic Subjects

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Table 2. Regional Blood Flow in Diabetic Patients

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Table 3. Average Flow Velocity in Branch Veins (unit: mm/s)

Equations (1)

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Δ f = Δ φ ( z ) 2 π T = 1 2 π T tan 1 [ Im ( j = 1 N f j ( z ) · f j + 1 * ( z ) ) Re ( j = 1 N f j ( z ) · f j + 1 * ( z ) ) ]

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